Figure 1. Investigators from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a retrospective multi-institutional cohort investigation that has been monitoring health outcomes of more than 20,000 long-term childhood cancer survivors for more than 15 years, estimated a cumulative incidence of 73.4% for at least one chronic health problem (grades 1–5) by age 40 years among the 10,397 adult participants (mean age, 26.6 years); more than 40% will experience a chronic condition that is severe, life-threatening, or fatal (grades 3–5). The risk of specific late effects in an individual is dependent upon the type and location of the cancer and therapeutic interventions undertaken to control the cancer.[2
] Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, et al.: Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med 355 (15): 1572-82, 2006. Copyright © 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.