Sorafenib Tosylate with or without Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients with Liver Cancer

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Basic Trial Information

PhaseTypeAgeTrial IDs
Phase IIITreatment18 and overRTOG 1112
NCI-2012-02057, NCT01730937

Trial Description


This randomized phase III trial studies sorafenib tosylate and stereotactic radiosurgery (stereotactic body radiation therapy) to see how well they work compared to sorafenib tosylate alone in treating patients with liver cancer. Sorafenib tosylate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Stereotactic radiosurgery, also known as stereotactic body radiation therapy, uses focused, high-dose radiation to help shrink tumors. It is not yet known whether giving sorafenib tosylate together with stereotactic radiosurgery is more effective than sorafenib tosylate alone in treating liver cancer.

Further Study Information


I. To determine if stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) (stereotactic radiosurgery) improves overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with sorafenib (sorafenib tosylate).


I. To determine the difference in time to progression (TTP) and progression-free survival (PFS) in HCC patients treated with sorafenib compared to SBRT followed by sorafenib.

II. To measure differences in toxicity in HCC patients treated with sorafenib versus SBRT followed by sorafenib.

III. To measure vascular thrombosis response post sorafenib versus SBRT followed by sorafenib.

IV. To measure differences in health related quality of life (QOL) and quality-adjusted survival in HCC patients treated with sorafenib compared to SBRT followed by sorafenib.

V. Collection of biospecimens for future correlative studies to investigate differences in potential biomarkers in patients treated with sorafenib versus SBRT followed by sorafenib.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

ARM I: Patients receive sorafenib tosylate orally (PO) twice daily (BID) on days 1-28. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 5 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM II: Patients undergo stereotactic radiosurgery every 24-72 hours for a total of 5 fractions over 5 to 15 days. Within 1-5 days post-stereotactic radiosurgery, patients receive sorafenib tosylate as in Arm I. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 5 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months.

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Unsuitable for or refractory to transarterial hepatic chemo-embolization (TACE) or drug eluting beads (DEB) for any of the following reasons, as described by Raoul et al (2011):

Technical contraindications: arteriovenous fistula, including surgical portosystemic shunt or spontaneous portosystemic shunt

Severe reduction in portal vein flow: due to tumor portal vein, IVC or atrial invasion or bland portal vein occlusion

Medical contraindications including congestive heart failure, angina, severe peripheral vascular disease

Presence of extrahepatic disease

No response post TACE (or DEB) or progressive HCC despite TACE; prior TACE or DEB is allowed but must be > 28 days from study entry

Serious toxicity following prior TACE (or DEB); prior TACE or DEB must be > 28 days from study entry

Other medical comorbidities making TACE (or DEB) unsafe and/or risky (e.g. combination of relative contraindications including age > 80 years, tumor > 10 cm, > 50% replacement of the liver by HCC, extensive multinodular bilobar HCC, biliary drainage)

Patient must be able to provide study-specific informed consent prior to study entry

Patients treated with prior surgery are eligible for this study if they otherwise meet eligibility criteria

Unsuitable for resection or transplant or radiofrequency ablation (RFA)

Women of childbearing potential and male participants must agree to practice adequate contraception while on study and for at least 6 months following the last dose of radiation therapy (RT) and for at least 28 days following the last dose of sorafenib (whichever is later)

Child-Pugh score A within 14 days prior to study entry

Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage: intermediate (B) or advanced (C) within 14 days prior to study entry

Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x ULN or creatinine clearance >= 60 mL/min

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) < 6 times upper limit of normal (ULN)

Albumin >= 28 g/L

Total bilirubin < 2 mg/dL

Platelets >= 70,000 cells/mm^3

Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500 cells/mm^3

Zubrod performance status 0-2 within 28 days prior to study entry

Measureable hepatic disease and/or presence of vascular tumor thrombosis (involving portal vein, IVC and/or hepatic vein) which may not be measureable as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) on liver CT or MRI, within 28 days of registration

Patients must have an HCC diagnosis (initial, recurrent, progressive and/or refractory to other therapies) by at least one criterion listed below =< 360 days prior to study entry

Pathologically (histologically or cytologically) proven diagnosis of HCC

At least one solid liver lesion or vascular tumor thrombosis (involving portal vein, inferior vena cava [IVC] and/or hepatic vein) > 1 cm with arterial enhancement and delayed washout on multi-phasic computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the setting of cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or C without cirrhosis

For patients whose CURRENT disease is vascular only: enhancing vascular thrombosis (involving portal vein, IVC and/or hepatic vein) demonstrating early arterial enhancement and delayed washout on multi-phasic CT or MRI, in a patient with known HCC (diagnosed previously < 720 days)

Internationalized normal ratio (INR) < 1.7

Hemoglobin >= 8.0 g/dl (Note: the use of transfusion or other intervention to achieve hemoglobin [Hgb] >= 8.0 g/dl is acceptable)

Appropriate for protocol entry based upon the following minimum diagnostic workup:

History/physical examination including examination for encephalopathy, ascites, weight, height, and blood pressure within 14 days prior to study entry

Assessment by radiation oncologist and medical oncologist or hepatologist who specializes in treatment of HCC within 28 days prior to study entry

Pre-randomization scan (REQUIRED for all patients): CT scan chest/abdomen/pelvis with multiphasic liver CT or multiphasic liver magnetic resonance (MR) scan within 28 days prior to study entry; MRI of abdomen with contrast and pelvis is permitted

Exclusion Criteria:

Use of combination anti-retroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Use of regular phenytoin, carbamazepine, hypericum perforatum (also known as St. John's wort) or rifampin

Extrahepatic metastases or malignant nodes (that enhance with typical features of HCC) > 3.0 cm, in sum of maximal diameters (e.g. presence of one 3.4 cm metastatic lymph node or two 2 cm lung lesions); note that benign non-enhancing periportal lymphadenopathy is not unusual in the presence of hepatitis and is permitted, even if the sum of enlarged nodes is > 2.0 cm

Measureable common or main branch biliary duct involvement with HCC

Direct tumor extension into the stomach, duodenum, small bowel or large bowel

More than 5 discrete intrahepatic parenchymal foci of HCC

Total maximal sum of hepatocellular carcinomas or a single conglomerate HCC > 20 cm

Any one hepatocellular carcinoma > 15 cm

Pregnancy or women of childbearing potential and men who are sexually active and not willing/able to use medically acceptable forms of contraception

Severe, active co-morbidity, defined as follows:

Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization within the last 6 months before registration

Transmural myocardial infarction within the last 6 months prior to study entry

Unstable ventricular arrhythmia within the last 6 months prior to study entry

Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics within 28 days prior to study entry

Hepatic insufficiency resulting in clinical jaundice, encephalopathy and/or variceal bleed within 60 days prior to study entry

Bleeding within 60 days prior to study entry due to any cause, requiring transfusion

Thrombolytic therapy within 28 days prior to study entry; subcutaneous heparin is permitted

Known bleeding or clotting disorder

Uncontrolled psychotic disorder

Prior selective internal radiotherapy/hepatic arterial yttrium therapy, at any time

Prior radiotherapy to the region of the liver that would result in excessive doses to normal tissues due to overlap of radiation therapy fields

Prior invasive malignancy (except non-melanomatous skin cancer) unless disease free for a minimum of 2 years (note that carcinoma in situ of the breast, oral cavity, or cervix are all permissible)

Prior liver transplant

Prior sorafenib use > 60 days; note that prior chemotherapy for HCC or a different cancer is allowable

Trial Contact Information

Trial Lead Organizations / Sponsors / Collaborators

NRG Oncology

  • National Cancer Institute
Laura Ann Dawson, Principal Investigator

Trial Sites


Los Angeles

USC / Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center

Anthony El-Khoueiry
Ph: 323-865-0451

Anthony El-Khoueiry
Principal Investigator

San Francisco

UCSF Medical Center-Mount Zion

Albert J. Chang
Ph: 877-827-3222

Albert J. Chang
Principal Investigator


University of Colorado Cancer Center - Anschutz Cancer Pavilion

Tracey Elizabeth Schefter
Ph: 720-848-0650

Tracey Elizabeth Schefter
Principal Investigator


Saint Vincent's Medical Center

Christopher Michael Iannuzzi
Ph: 203-576-6329

Christopher Michael Iannuzzi
Principal Investigator


University of Illinois

Neeta Kiran Venepalli
Ph: 312-355-3046

Neeta Kiran Venepalli
Principal Investigator


University of Maryland/Greenebaum Cancer Center

Michael D. Chuong
Ph: 800-888-8823

Michael D. Chuong
Principal Investigator


Boston Medical Center

Lisa A. Kachnic
Ph: 617-638-8265

Lisa A. Kachnic
Principal Investigator

Ann Arbor

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center

Mary U. Feng
Ph: 800-865-1125

Mary U. Feng
Principal Investigator

Saint Louis

Washington University School of Medicine

Jeffrey Robert Olsen
Ph: 800-600-3606

Jeffrey Robert Olsen
Principal Investigator

New York
New York

Columbia University Medical Center

Abby B. Siegel
Ph: 212-305-8615

Abby B. Siegel
Principal Investigator

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Karyn Aalami Goodman
Ph: 212-639-7202

Karyn Aalami Goodman
Principal Investigator


University of Rochester

Yuhchyau Chen
Ph: 585-275-5830

Yuhchyau Chen
Principal Investigator


Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center

Terence Marques Williams
Ph: 800-293-5066

Terence Marques Williams
Principal Investigator


M D Anderson Cancer Center

Sunil Krishnan
Ph: 713-792-3245

Sunil Krishnan
Principal Investigator


Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center

Drew Moghanaki
Ph: 804-628-1939

Drew Moghanaki
Principal Investigator


Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin

Beth A. Erickson
Ph: 414-805-4380

Beth A. Erickson
Principal Investigator



Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences

Anand Swaminath
Ph: 905-387-9495

Anand Swaminath
Principal Investigator


London Regional Cancer Program

Michael I. Lock
Ph: 519-685-8600

Michael I. Lock
Principal Investigator


University Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital

Laura Ann Dawson
Ph: 416-946-4501

Laura Ann Dawson
Principal Investigator


CHUM - Hopital Notre-Dame

Helene Castel
Ph: 514-890-8000ext12725

Helene Castel
Principal Investigator

Hong Kong

Chai Wan

Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital

Ada Lai Yau Law
Ph: 888-823-5923

Ada Lai Yau Law
Principal Investigator

Republic of Korea


Samsung Medical Center

Hee Chul Park
Ph: 011-82-1599-3114

Hee Chul Park
Principal Investigator

Link to the current record.
NLM Identifer NCT01730937

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