Prevention and Screening
Prevention and screening represent the twin pillars of our pre-emptive defenses against cancer. Cancer prevention includes efforts to forestall the process that leads to cancer, along with the detection and treatment of precancerous conditions at their earliest, most treatable stages, and the prevention of new, or second primary, cancers in survivors. Cancer screening identifies either precancers or early cancers that are still highly amenable to treatment while the number of malignant cells is very small.
Research on cancer prevention and screening focuses on three main areas: developing early detection and screening strategies that result in the identification and removal of precancerous lesions and early-stage cancers; developing medical interventions, such as drugs or vaccines, to prevent or disrupt the carcinogenic process; and risk assessment, including understanding and modifying lifestyle factors which increase cancer risk.