Recent Advances in Cancer Research in Detail
- Removal of More Lymph Nodes May Not Be Necessary for Some Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer
Results from a randomized phase III clinical trial demonstrate that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) provided no additional survival benefit when compared with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in women with breast tumors 5cm in diameter or smaller and minimal lymph node metastasis who were treated with lumpectomy, whole-breast radiotherapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy.
- Researchers Identify Distinct Subtypes of Glioblastoma
January and May 2010
A detailed genetic analysis of brain tumors from people with glioblastoma has allowed researchers to identify four distinct subtypes of the disease.
- Deleting a Single Protein Restores Critical DNA Repair Process in Mice with BRCA1 Gene Mutations
These results suggest that it may one day be possible to restore the same DNA repair process and reduce cancer risk in women with BRCA1 mutations.
- Novel Technology May Allow the Use of Autoantibodies as Cancer Biomarkers
A new technology that enables the detection of antibodies in the blood that target abnormal glycoproteins produced by cancer cells may make it possible to use these antibodies as biomarkers for the early detection of cancer.
- Cancer Cells Use an Enzyme that Breaks Down Stored Fats to Fuel Aggressive Growth and Spread
Cancer cells appear to take advantage of an enzyme that breaks down stored fats in cells to support their aggressive growth and spread, a discovery that could lead to new cancer treatments.
- Inheriting an Extra Copy of the T (Brachyury) Gene May Cause a Rare Form of Bone Cancer
Results from studies of people with a hereditary form of bone cancer called chordoma show that inheriting an extra copy of an entire gene, known as the T (brachyury) gene, may cause some cases of the disease.
- Tiny “Nanobee” Particles Deliver Cell-Killing Bee Toxin to Tumors in Mice
In this study, tiny spheres delivered a toxin from bee venom to tumors in mice, substantially reducing tumor growth without harming normal body tissues.
- DNA Region on Chromosome 1 Is Linked to Neuroblastoma
Results from this study indicate that a specific region on chromosome 1 is associated with the development of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer that forms in the adrenal glands and nerve tissue.
- Small RNA Suppresses Tumor Cell Growth in a Mouse Model of Liver Cancer
A small RNA molecule known as a microRNA inhibits the growth of liver cancer cells, selectively triggers liver tumor cell death, and curbs tumor growth in mice, which could lead to a new strategy for treating liver cancer in humans.
- Study Provides Clues about How a Common Genetic Variant May Increase Prostate Cancer Risk
Researchers have discovered that a genetic variant associated with higher risk of prostate cancer reduces the expression of a gene called MSMB in prostate tissue.
- Prostate Cancer Screening Did Not Reduce Prostate Cancer Deaths in U.S. Trial
Initial results from this trial suggest that prostate cancer screening using the digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen tests may not reduce the number of deaths from prostate cancer.
- Cancer Drug Decreases Recurrence of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Results from this trial show that targeted therapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) following surgery to remove a localized gastrointestinal tumor reduces the likelihood that the disease will come back.
- Signaling Pathway Controls New Blood Vessel Growth
Researchers have identified a new signaling pathway that uses molecular signals and mechanical forces to control the growth of new blood vessels.
- Multiple Genetic Regions Are Associated with Cigarette Smoking Behavior
Results support previous findings that a region of chromosome 15 contains at least one gene associated with smoking intensity (the number of cigarettes smoked per day) and nicotine dependency.
- Abnormal Cells Are Present Years before Leukemia Is Diagnosed
Abnormal white blood cells are present years before diagnosis in almost all patients with a chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia.
- Gene Abnormalities Help Predict Likelihood of Childhood Leukemia Relapse
Abnormalities in a gene called IKZF1, which produces a protein involved in white blood cell development, are associated with higher risk of relapse in patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- Trial Shows Comparable Accuracy for Virtual Colonoscopy and Standard Colonoscopy
Results from this trial show that virtual colonoscopy can accurately detect colorectal cancer and precancerous polyps as well as standard colonoscopy.
- Blocking the Activity of a Single Protein Kills Myeloma Cells
A protein called IRF4 activates a network of genes involved in the growth and survival of multiple myeloma cells, which could lead to a new strategy for treating this cancer.
- Changes in Cancer Risk Found for HIV-Infected Individuals
Since a new treatment for HIV became widely available in 1996, rates of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma among HIV-infected U.S. adults have decreased, but certain non-AIDS-related cancers have increased.
- Low-Dose Drug Combination Cuts Risk of Colon Polyp Recurrence
Results of from this trial show that combining low oral doses of difluoromethylornithine and sulindac greatly reduces the recurrence of colon polyps.
- Low Risk Seen in Monitoring, Not Treating, Localized Prostate Cancer
Results from a long-term study show that active surveillance, or “watchful waiting,” may be a reasonable alternative to surgery or radiation therapy for elderly men with prostate cancer.
- Weekly Paclitaxel Improves Breast Cancer Survival
A clinical trial showed that weekly doses of paclitaxel (Taxol) following surgery and standard chemotherapy improves survival rates in women with breast cancer.
- Genome Study Implicates Human Chromosome 15 in Genetic Susceptibility to Lung Cancer
Results of this study indicate that a specific region of chromosome 15 is associated with lung cancer risk independent of smoking.
- New Imaging Technology Shows Promise for Diagnosing and Treating Brain Tumors
Scientists have designed a tiny probe that targets glioma cells and allows for better imaging of tumors in mice.
- Biological Differences Found in Prostate Tumors from African-American and European-American Men
Gene expression patterns in prostate tumors from African-American and European-American men show differences related to inflammation, immune response, and metastasis.
- Accuracy of Method to Predict Breast Cancer Risk Increased for African-American Women
NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool for estimating a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer now more accurately predicts risk in African-American women.