National Cancer Institute
at the National Institutes of Health
Recent Advances in Cancer Research in Detail
- Removal of More Lymph Nodes May Not Be Necessary for Some Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer
Results from a randomized phase III clinical trial demonstrate that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) provided no additional survival benefit when compared with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in women with breast tumors 5cm in diameter or smaller and minimal lymph node metastasis who were treated with lumpectomy, whole-breast radiotherapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy.
- Inheriting an Extra Copy of the T (Brachyury) Gene May Cause a Rare Form of Bone Cancer
Results from studies of people with a hereditary form of bone cancer called chordoma show that inheriting an extra copy of an entire gene, known as the T (brachyury) gene, may cause some cases of the disease.
- Tiny “Nanobee” Particles Deliver Cell-Killing Bee Toxin to Tumors in Mice
In this study, tiny spheres delivered a toxin from bee venom to tumors in mice, substantially reducing tumor growth without harming normal body tissues.
- DNA Region on Chromosome 1 Is Linked to Neuroblastoma
Results from this study indicate that a specific region on chromosome 1 is associated with the development of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer that forms in the adrenal glands and nerve tissue.
- Small RNA Suppresses Tumor Cell Growth in a Mouse Model of Liver Cancer
A small RNA molecule known as a microRNA inhibits the growth of liver cancer cells, selectively triggers liver tumor cell death, and curbs tumor growth in mice, which could lead to a new strategy for treating liver cancer in humans.
- Study Provides Clues about How a Common Genetic Variant May Increase Prostate Cancer Risk
Researchers have discovered that a genetic variant associated with higher risk of prostate cancer reduces the expression of a gene called MSMB in prostate tissue.
- Prostate Cancer Screening Did Not Reduce Prostate Cancer Deaths in U.S. Trial
Initial results from this trial suggest that prostate cancer screening using the digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen tests may not reduce the number of deaths from prostate cancer.
- Cancer Drug Decreases Recurrence of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Results from this trial show that targeted therapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) following surgery to remove a localized gastrointestinal tumor reduces the likelihood that the disease will come back.
- Signaling Pathway Controls New Blood Vessel Growth
Researchers have identified a new signaling pathway that uses molecular signals and mechanical forces to control the growth of new blood vessels.
- Multiple Genetic Regions Are Associated with Cigarette Smoking Behavior
Results support previous findings that a region of chromosome 15 contains at least one gene associated with smoking intensity (the number of cigarettes smoked per day) and nicotine dependency.
- Abnormal Cells Are Present Years before Leukemia Is Diagnosed
Abnormal white blood cells are present years before diagnosis in almost all patients with a chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia.
- Gene Abnormalities Help Predict Likelihood of Childhood Leukemia Relapse
Abnormalities in a gene called IKZF1, which produces a protein involved in white blood cell development, are associated with higher risk of relapse in patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.