Drug Dictionary


# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
IDNameDefinition
601057 C-11 cholineA radiotracer consisting of choline labeled with the positron-emitting isotope carbon C 11 with potential imaging use. Upon administration, C-11 choline incorporates into tumor cells through an active, carrier-mediated transport mechanism for choline and then is phosphorylated intracellularly by choline kinase, an enzyme frequently upregulated in human tumors, yielding phosphoryl C-11 choline. In turn, phosphoryl C-11 choline is integrated into phospholipids in the cell membrane as part of phosphatidylcholine. As the proliferation of cancer cells is much higher than normal cells, tumor cells exhibit an increased rate of C-11 choline uptake and incorporation, allowing tunor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
632625 c-Met inhibitor AMG 208A selective small-molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor AMG 208 inhibits the ligand-dependent and ligand-independent activation of c-Met, inhibiting its tyrosine kinase activity, which may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress c-Met. C-Met encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, plays an important role in epithelial cell proliferation and has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
690935 c-Met inhibitor AMG 337An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor AMG 337 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met protein, the product of the proto-oncogene c-Met, is a receptor tyrosine kinase also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR); this protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
666907 c-Met inhibitor INCB028060An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor INCB028060 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
594157 c-Met inhibitor JNJ-38877605An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor JNJ-38877605 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
694732 c-Met inhibitor LY2801653An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor LY2801653 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
749525 c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119JAn orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR)) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J selectively binds to c-Met, which inhibits c-Met phosphorylation and disrupts c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43388 c-myb antisense oligonucleotide G4460A 24-base phosphorothiolate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) for the proto-oncogene c-myb with potential antineoplastic activity. C-myb antisense oligonucleotide G4460 binds to codon sequences 2 to 9 of c-myb mRNA, inhibiting translation of the transcript. Suppression of c-myb expression with this agent may result in the restoration of normal differentiation pathways, increased antiproliferative effects, and the induction of apoptosis in early progenitor hematopoietic cells and in tumor cells that overexpress c-myb. Tumor-cell overexpression of c-myb blocks differentiation, promotes proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
654631 C-VISA BikDD: liposomeA formulation composed of DOTAP:cholesterol liposome nanoparticles complexed with the plasmid C-VISA BiKDD, with potential antineoplastic activity. C-VISA BikDD: liposome consists of a pancreatic-cancer-specific expression vector “VISA” (VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier) and a pancreatic-cancer-specific promoter CCKAR (cholecystokinin type A receptor) (CCKAR-VISA or C-VISA) which drives expression of the gene BikDD, a mutant form of the potent proapoptotic gene Bik (Bcl-2 interacting killer). Upon administration and transduction into pancreatic tumor cells, expression of BikDD by C-VISA BikDD:liposome may induce pancreatic tumor cell apoptosis and suppress pancreatic tumor cell proliferation. BikDD binds with greater affinity to anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2, bcl-xl, bcl-w and Mcl-1 and is more potent than wild-type Bik. DOTAP:cholesterol liposome is composed of cationic lipid dioleoyl-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and cholesterol at molar ratio of 1:1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
534131 cabazitaxelA semi-synthetic derivative of the natural taxoid 10-deacetylbaccatin III with potential antineoplastic activity. Cabazitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, resulting in the inhibition of microtubule depolymerization and cell division, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Unlike other taxane compounds, this agent is a poor substrate for the membrane-associated, multidrug resistance (MDR), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant tumors. In addition, cabazitaxel penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
680438 cabergolineA synthetic ergoline derivative and a long-acting dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor. Cabergoline exerts an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion by acting on dopamine receptors present in pituitary lactotrophs. This drug also binds to dopamine D2 receptors in the corpus striatum, thereby mimicking the actions of dopamine on motor control. Cabergoline also possesses antioxidant and neuroprotective properties due to its free radical scavenging activity. Cabergoline is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
461103 cabozantinib-s-malateThe s-malate salt form of cabozantinib, an orally bioavailable, small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Cabozantinib strongly binds to and inhibits several RTKs, which are often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, including hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), RET (rearranged during transfection), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor types 1 (VEGFR-1), 2 (VEGFR-2), and 3 (VEGFR-3), mast/stem cell growth factor (KIT), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3), TIE-2 (TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TRKB) and AXL. This may result in an inhibition of both tumor growth and angiogenesis, and eventually lead to tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40973 CAF regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and fluorouracil, which may be used in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer or alone for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)
40817 caffeineA naturally occurring xanthine derivative with central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activity. Due to the structural similarity to adenosine, caffeine binds to and blocks adenosine receptors, thereby preventing the inhibitory effects of adenosine on nerve cells. This leads to stimulation of medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain; and the release of epinephrine. Physiologic responses can include bradycardia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, CNS excitablility, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, increased blood flow to muscles, decreased blood flow to skin and inner organs, and release of glucose by the liver. Due to the interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine can also indirectly increase the levels of dopamine in the brain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
763908 CAIX inhibitor DTP348An orally bioavailable, nitroimidazole-based sulfamide, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CAIX inhibitor DTP348 inhibits tumor-associated CAIX, a hypoxia-inducible transmembrane glycoprotein that catalyzes the reversible reaction and rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. This prevents the acidification of the tumor’s extracellular microenvironment and decreases the intracellular pH. This results in increased cell death in CAIX-expressing, hypoxic tumors. In addition, DTP348, through its nitroimidazole moiety, is able to sensitize hypoxic tumor cells to irradiation. CAIX is overexpressed in various tumors and plays a key role in intra- and extracellular pH regulation, cancer cell progression, survival, migration and invasion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
595298 calaspargase pegolAn intravenous formulation containing E. coli-derived L-asparaginase II conjugated with succinimidyl carbonate monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (SC-PEG), with potential antineoplastic activity. L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting cells of asparagine; asparagine depletion blocks protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and ultimately induces tumor cell death. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells which, unlike normal cells, cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Pegylation decreases enzyme antigenicity and increases its half life. SC is used as a PEG linker to facilitate attachment to asparaginase and enhances the stability of the formulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752368 calcipotrieneA synthetic vitamin D derivative usually formulated for topical dermatological use, antipsoriatic calcipotriene (calcipotriol) competes equally with active 1,25-hydroxy-2D3 (the natural form of vitamin D) for 1,25-hydroxy-2D3 receptors in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. It induces differentiation and suppresses proliferation of keratinocytes, reversing abnormal keratinocyte changes in psoriasis, and leads to normalization of epidermal growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
41919 calcitriolA synthetic physiologically-active analog of vitamin D, specifically the vitamin D3 form. Calcitriol regulates calcium in vivo by promoting absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidneys, and, along with parathyroid hormone, regulation of bone growth. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Calcitriol also induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cell differentiation, and apoptosis, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of some tumor cell types. This agent may be chemopreventive for colon and prostate cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
613506 calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrhealA clay compound consisting of aluminosilicate and calcium ions with potential antidiarrheal activity. Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal consists of microscopically large flat plates of aluminosilicate separated by calcium ions that may sorb toxic chemotherapeutic drugs and their metabolites and inflammatory proteins such as TNF-alpha, which may help minimize chemotherapy-mediated or radiation therapy-mediated damage to the intestinal epithelium and so therapy-related diarrhea. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39679 calcium carbonateThe carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752931 calcium chlorideA crystalline, white substance, soluble in water, calcium chloride is the chloride salt of calcium, a bivalent metallic element with many crucial biological roles. Calcium is a major constituent of the skeleton but plays many roles as an intracellular and plasma ion as well. In medicine, calcium chloride is also used as a 10% solution in injection, for calcium replenishment. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
41817 calcium citrateThe citrate salt of calcium. An element necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the citrate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41803 calcium glucarateThe orally bioavailable calcium salt of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential chemopreventive activity. After absorption, glucaric acid is converted to d-glucaro-1,4-lactone which inhibits beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme found in certain bacteria that reside in the human gut. The detoxification of various toxin and sex hormone metabolites depends upon their conjugation to glucuronic acid in the liver and subsequent excretion of glucuronic acid conjugated metabolites in the bile. Bacterial beta-glucuronidase may catalyze the deconjugation of glucuronic acid conjugated metabolites of toxins and sex hormones, thus prolonging exposure to unconjugated and unexcreted toxin and sex hormone metabolites. Accordingly, calcium glucarate supplementation may indirectly inhibit sex hormone-mediated and toxin-mediated tumorigenesis by inhibiting bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. Elevated bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity may be associated with an increased risk for sex hormone-mediated and toxin-mediated cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39172 calcium gluconateThe gluconate salt of calcium. An element or mineral necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the gluconate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
646997 calcium-41 chloride aqueous solutionAn orally bioavailable aqueous solution containing the chloride salt of the radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) with phosphate-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration of calcium-41 chloride aqueous solution, calcium-41 is preferentially taken up by osteoblasts, which generate mineralized osteoid containing calcium. Calcium-41 accumulation and turnover in bone can be measured with bone scintigraphy and urinary isotope excretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
646998 calcium-46 chloride aqueous solutionAn orally bioavailable aqueous solution containing the chloride salt of the radioisotope calcium-46 (46Ca) with phosphate-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration of calcium-46 chloride aqueous solution, calcium-46 is preferentially taken up by osteoblasts, which generate mineralized osteoid containing calcium. Calcium-46 accumulation and turnover in bone can be measured with bone scintigraphy and urinary isotope excretion testing. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
666847 Calendula officinalis/Plantago major/Cochlearia armoracia/ Hamamelis virginiana herbal toothpasteA phytochemical-based toothpaste containing Calendula officinalis, Plantago major, Cochlearia armoracia, Hamamelis virginiana with potential soothing activity. Calendula officinalis/Plantago major/Cochlearia armoracia/ Hamamelis virginiana herbal toothpaste may relieve the discomfort associated with radiation-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
658431 calfactantA sterile suspension composed of an extract of bovine pulmonary surfactant with surfactant activity. Calfactant contains phospholipids, neutral lipids, and hydrophobic surfactant-associated proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C). Upon intratracheal administration, this agent, mimicking endogenous pulmonary surfactant, lines the alveoli and smallest bronchioles, keeping alveoli open during expiration by lowering surface tension. Resulting improvements in lung compliance and respiratory gas exchange may lead to improvements in ventilation and oxygenation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41710 calusteroneA 17-alkylated orally active androgenic steroid. Calusterone may alter the metabolism of estradiol and reduce estrogen production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37783 Campath(Other name for: alemtuzumab)
42528 Camptogen(Other name for: rubitecan)
41714 Camptosar(Other name for: irinotecan hydrochloride)
615096 camptothecin analogue TLC388A synthetic analogue of camptothecin with potential antineoplastic and radio-sensitizing activities. Camptothecin analogue TLC388 selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during S-phase, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. Topoisomerase I relaxes negative super-coiled DNA during replication and transcription. This agent has been chemically modified to enhance the potency and stability of camptothecin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
651549 camptothecin-20(S)-O-propionate hydrateThe hydrated, crystalline propionate ester (attached in position C-20) prodrug of camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon entry into cells, camptothecin-20(S)-O-propionate is hydrolyzed by esterases into the active form camptothecin. Camptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery, thus inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. Camptothecin readily undergoes hydrolysis at physiological pH, changing its conformation from the active, S-configured lactone structure to an inactive carboxylate form. The ester chain in the vicinity of the S-configured lactone moiety, a key determinant for the chemotherapeutic efficacy of the camptothecins, inhibits protein binding, rendering this agent resistant to hydrolysis and prolonging its half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42766 canarypox-hIL-12 melanoma vaccineA vaccine consisting of a replication-defective recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) that encodes the gene for human interleukin-12 (hIL-12). Produced mainly by B-cells, IL-12 is an endogenous cytokine that activates natural killer (NK) cells, promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, induces the release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and may exhibit antitumor and anti-angiogenic effects. Vaccination with canarypox-hIL-12 melanoma vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount an immune response against tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and/or metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
698351 cancer stemness inhibitor BBI608An orally available cancer cell stemness inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Even though the exact target has yet to be fully elucidated, BBI608 appears to target and inhibit multiple pathways involved in cancer cell stemness. This may ultimately inhibit cancer stemness cell (CSC) growth as well as heterogeneous cancer cell growth. CSCs, self-replicating cells that are able to differentiate into heterogeneous cancer cells, appear to be responsible for the malignant growth, recurrence and resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
746133 cancer stemness kinase inhibitor BBI503An orally available cancer cell stemness kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact target has not been fully elucidated, BBI503 targets and inhibits one or more pathways involved in cancer stem cell survival. As a result, cancer stem cell (CSC) growth as well as heterogeneous cancer cell growth is inhibited. CSCs, self-replicating cells able to differentiate into heterogeneous cancer cells, appear to be responsible for both tumor relapse and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38182 Cancidas(Other name for: caspofungin acetate)
546971 candesartan cilexetilA synthetic, benzimidazole-derived angiotensin II receptor antagonist prodrug with antihypertensive activity. After hydrolysis of candesartan cilexetil to candesartan during gastrointestinal absorption, candesartan selectively competes with angiotensin II for the binding of the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1) in vascular smooth muscle, blocking angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction and inducing vasodilatation. In addition, antagonism of AT1 in the adrenal gland inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis and secretion by the adrenal cortex; sodium and water excretion increase, followed by a reduction in plasma volume and blood pressure. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38403 canertinib dihydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of an orally bio-available quinazoline with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. Canertinib binds to the intracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB family), irreversibly inhibiting their signal transduction functions and resulting in tumor cell apoptosis and suppression of tumor cell proliferation. This agent also acts as a radiosensitizing agent and displays synergistic activity with other chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38367 canfosfamide hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of a modified glutathione analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Canfosfamide is selectively activated by glutathione S-transferase P1-1 into an alkylating metabolite that forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in tumor cell DNA, which may induce a cellular stress response and cytotoxicity, and decrease tumor proliferation. S-transferase P1-1 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in many human malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750101 cannabinolA cannabinoid isolated from the plant Cannabis that is a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), with potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Cannabinol preferentially binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB2, which is mainly expressed on a variety of immune cells, such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Stimulation of CB2 receptors by cannabinol may both trigger apoptosis in these cells and inhibit the production of a variety of cytokines. Cannabinol exerts minimal affinity for CB1 and has a weak effect on the central nervous system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
492706 cantuzumab ravtansineAn immunotoxin of a humanized monoclonal antibody C242 (MoAb HuC242) conjugated with a derivative of cytotoxic agent maytansine, DM4, with potential antitumor activity. Cantuzumab ravtansine is generated based on MoAb C242, which is raised against a cell surface superantigen, CA242, found in a variety of human tumor cells. Upon binding and entry, the immunoconjugate releases the maytansinoid agent DM4, which binds to tubulin, thereby affecting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. As a result, this agent prevents cell division and reduces cell growth of cancer cells that express CA242. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43301 Canvaxin(Other name for: polyvalent melanoma vaccine)
42852 capecitabineA fluoropyrimidine carbamate belonging to the class of antineoplastic agents called antimetabolites. As a prodrug, capecitabine is selectively activated by tumor cells to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP) by both tumor cells and normal cells. FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by reducing normal thymidine production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
721986 capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tabletA rapidly disintegrating film-coated tablet composed of the fluoropyrimidine carbamate antimetabolite capecitabine with antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, capecitabine is converted to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR) by hepatic carboxylesterase and then to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) by cytidine deaminase and is eventually activated by thymidine phosphorylase to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by reducing normal thymidine triphosphate production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablet (RDT) contains the water insoluble, disintegrating agent crospovidone which very rapidly disperses and swells in water making this RDT easier to swallow than the traditional capecitabine tablet. A rapidly disintegrating film-coated tablet composed of the fluoropyrimidine carbamate antimetabolite capecitabine with antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, capecitabine is converted to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR) by hepatic carboxylesterase and then to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) by cytidine deaminase and is eventually activated by thymidine phosphorylase to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by reducing normal thymidine triphosphate production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablet (RDT) contains the water insoluble, disintegrating agent crospovidone which very rapidly disperses and swells in water makin
698431 Capesaris(Other name for: estrogen receptor agonist GTx-758)
644579 Caphosol(Other name for: supersaturated calcium phosphate rinse)
37824 Capoten(Other name for: captopril)
727239 CAPOX regimenA regimen consisting of capecitabine and oxaliplatin used as a treatment for advanced stage colorectal cancer. This regimen differs from a similar regimen, XELOX, with regards to the dosing schedule for oxaliplatin.
269177 Caprelsa(Other name for: vandetanib)
649061 Captisol-enabled Melphalan IV(Other name for: melphalan hydrochloride/sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin complex)
37824 captoprilA sulfhydryl-containing analog of proline with antihypertensive activity and potential antineoplastic activity. Captopril competitively inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), thereby decreasing levels of angiotensin II, increasing plasma renin activity, and decreasing aldosterone secretion. This agent may also inhibit tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting endothelial cell matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endothelial cell migration. Captopril may also exhibit antineoplastic activity independent of effects on tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39751 caracemideAn agent derived from acetohydroxamic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Caracemide inhibits ribonuclease reductase, resulting in decreased DNA synthesis and tumor growth; it also inhibits acetylcholinesterase. In vivo, caracemide contributes to the formation of the neurotoxin methyl isocyanate; this effect, along with the agent's acetylcholinesterase activity, may be responsible for the severe central nervous system toxicity observed in clinical trials. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42418 carbamazepineA tricyclic compound chemically related to tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) with anticonvulsant and analgesic properties. Carbamazepine exerts its anticonvulsant activity by reducing polysynaptic responses and blocking post-tetanic potentiation. Its analgesic activity is not understood; however, carbamazepine is commonly used to treat pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751573 Carbocaine(Other name for: mepivacaine hydrochloride)
42043 carbogenAn inhalant consisting of hyperoxic gas (95%-98% oxygen and 2%-5% carbon dioxide) with radiosensitizing properties. Inhaled carbogen reduces diffusion-limited tumor hypoxia, increasing tumor radiosensitivity due to the increased availability of molecular oxygen for cytotoxic radiation-induced oxygen free radical production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750399 carbohydrate supplement drinkA nutritional supplement drink containing 12.5% carbohydrates, which may enhance recovery following gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. Oral intake of the carbohydrate drink before surgery may prevent insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia. It may also maintain adequate protein balance and muscle function. Ultimately, giving carbohydrates immediately before surgery may improve overall recovery time and return of GI function. It may also decrease muscle loss. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
695985 carbon C 11 alpha-methyltryptophanA radiopharmaceutical containing an analogue of tryptophan, alpha-methyltryptophan (AMT), labeled with carbon 11 (11C), used to measure serotonin synthesis in the human brain using positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration and once it crosses the blood-brain barrier and into the cytoplasm of serotonergic neurons, carbon C 11 alpha-methyltryptophan acts as a substrate for the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and undergoes conversion to carbon C 11 alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptophan, also known as C 11 alpha-methyl-serotonin (AMS). C 11 AMS accumulates in serotonergic nerve terminals in proportion to the synthesis rate of serotonin because C 11 AMS cannot be broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase, and thus the synthesis rate of serotonin can be imaged using PET. C 11 AMT is not incorporated into proteins, nor are metabolites released into the blood pool, making C 11 AMT an excellent tracer for serotonin synthesis in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
742529 carbon C 11 erlotinib hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt form of the quinazoline derivative erlotinib labeled with the positron-emitting isotope carbon C 11, with potential use in imaging. Competing with adenosine triphosphate, erlotinib reversibly binds to the intracellular catalytic tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Following exposure to this agent, EGFR expression status can be determined and EGFR overexpressing tumor cells can be visualized using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This may be useful in determining the tumor cell response to a particular EGFR kinase inhibitor in individual patients. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types, and plays a significant role in tumor cell progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
694530 carbon C 11 N-desmethyl-loperamideA radiopharmaceutical containing N-desmethyl loperamide (dLop) labeled with carbon 11 (11C), used to measure the activity of efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, carbon C 11 N-desmethyl-loperamide acts as a substrate for the efflux transporter P-gp. Upon uptake by P-gp at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent PET imaging, this radioligand may allow for prediction of P-gp function and expression in brain tumor patients. As P-gp activity may influence response to therapy, measuring P-gp activity may be beneficial when choosing chemotherapy. P-gp, encoded by the MDR-1 gene and a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transmembrane transporters, is overexpressed by some MDR tumors and may contribute to multidrug resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
762785 carbon C 11 sepantronium bromideA radiotracer composed of the bromide salt form of sepantronium, a small-molecule survivin antagonist and proapoptotic agent, labeled with the radionuclide carbon C 11, with potential positron emission tomography (PET) imaging activity. Upon administration, sepantronium is selectively taken up by tumor cells, binds to the survivin promoter and inhibits the transcription of survivin, which results in decreased survivin expression. Upon PET imaging, the tissue distribution of sepantronium and its tumor uptake can be assessed. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, increased cancer cell proliferation, shorter survival times, and a decreased response to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
757878 carbon C 11 temozolomideA radioconjugate composed of temozolomide, a imidazotetrazine analog of dacarbazine, labeled with the radioisotope carbon C11, with potential positron emission tomography (PET) imaging activity. As a cytotoxic alkylating agent, temozolomide is hydrolyzed at physiologic pH to the pharmacologically active compound, 5-(3-methyl-(triazen-1-yl)-imidazole)-4-carboxamide (MTIC). MTIC is further hydrolyzed to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) and a methyldiazonium cation. The cation is able to methylate DNA, particularly at the O6 and N7 positions of guanine residues, resulting in cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. Temozolomide is metabolized to MITC at all sites, crosses the blood-brain-barrier and penetrates well into the central nervous system. Upon PET, the biodistribution, uptake in cancer cells and the efficacy of temozolomide can be assessed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
762469 carbon C 13 acetateThe non-radioactive, naturally occurring isotope of acetate, carbon C 13 acetate, with potential use for metabolic tumor imaging upon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Upon infusion, carbon C 13 acetate is taken up by cancer cells and is utilized by metabolic pathways in the tumor cell. Specifically, the tumor cells oxidize acetate, in the form of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), in the citric acid cycle. Upon 13C-NMR, the metabolic phenotype of a tumor can be assessed. Certain alternative metabolic pathways are activated in tumor cells and use substrates other than glucose, such as acetate, for acetyl-CoA production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
690031 carbon C 13 dextromethorphanA radioconjugate consisting of dextromethorphan, a synthetic, methylated dextrorotatory analogue of levorphanol, conjugated with carbon-13 [(13)C] with radiotracer activity. (13)C-dextromethorphan can be used in a breath-test phenotype assay of CYP2D6 activity, based on the principle that CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation cleaves a (13)CH3 that enters the body's carbon pool to be eliminated ultimately as (13)CO2 in expired air, which can be measured. The (13)C-dextromethorphan breath test may prove useful in identifying poor CYP2D6 metabolizers of such important clinical drugs as tamoxifen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
715597 carbon C 13 lycopeneCarbon C 13 labeled lycopene used as a tracer for carotenoid metabolism studies in vivo. After oral administration of carbon C 13 lycopene, in combination with C 13 labeled phytoene and phytofluene, the absorption kinetics, distribution patterns, metabolism and targets of these carotenoids can be measured upon imaging of the non-radioactive C 13. Lycopene, a carotenoid pigment found in high concentrations in tomatoes as well as in other fruits and vegetables, serves as an antioxidant in vivo; its intake has been associated with a reduced risk of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
712100 carbon C 13 octanoateThe sodium salt form of the medium-chain fatty acid octanoate, and labeled with the isotope carbon C13, used in the octanoate breath test (OBT) to assess hepatic mitochondrial function. Upon ingestion of carbon C13 octanoate, this agent is metabolized in the liver via mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Upon determination of the ratio between 13C/12C of CO2 in exhaled breath, liver function can be accessed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
715308 carbon C 13 phytoeneA 40-carbon hydrocarbon precursor of carotenoids radiolabeled to carbon C 13 and potentially used for tracer purposes of phytoene in vivo. Upon administration, phytoene is taken up and accumulates in various tissues. Upon imaging of the radioisotope, the distribution patterns and metabolism of phytoene can be further elucidated which may aid in the understanding of the bioactivity of this agent. Phytoene is a colorless precursor of many carotenoids, including the antioxidant lycopene. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
715310 carbon C 13 phytoflueneA 40-carbon hydrocarbon precursor of carotenoids radiolabeled to carbon C 13 and potentially used for tracer purposes of phytofluene in vivo. Upon administration, phytofluene is taken up and accumulates in various tissues. Upon imaging of the radioisotope, the distribution patterns and metabolism of phytofluene can be further elucidated which may aid in the understanding of the bioactivity of this agent. Phytofluene is a colorless precursor of many carotenoids, including the antioxidant lycopene. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
662740 carbon C 14 dacomitinibA radioconjugate consisting of an orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (erbB or HER) family of tyrosine kinases radiolabeled with carbon-14 with potential antineoplastic and beta-emitting radioisotope activity. Dacomitinib specifically and irreversibly binds to and inhibits human Her-1, Her-2, and Her-4, resulting in the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. The HER receptor family of tyrosine kinases, often overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types, may contribute to tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Dacomitinib radiolabeled with carbon C-14 may be used as a radiotracer in pharmacological studies of dacomitinib metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
646836 carbon C 14 eribulin acetateA radioconjugate containing the acetate salt of eribulin, labeled with the beta particle-emitting radioisotope carbon C 14 , with radioisotopic and potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, eribulin binds to the vinca domain of tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of tubulin and the assembly of microtubules, resulting in inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly, induction of cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and, potentially, tumor regression. The radioisotope moiety of this agent acts as a radioactive tracer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
666187 carbon C 14 ombrabulinA synthetic water-soluble analogue of combretastatin A4, derived from the South African willow bush (Combretum caffrum), labeled with carbon C 14 with potential antineoplastic activity. The ombrabulin moiety of carbon C 14 ombrabulin binds to the colchicine binding site of endothelial cell tubulin, thereby inhibiting tubulin polymerization and inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. As apoptotic endothelial cells detach from their substrata, tumor blood vessels collapse; the acute disruption of tumor blood flow may result in tumor necrosis. The radioisotope moiety of this agent acts as a radioactive tracer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752239 carbon C 14 oxaliplatinA radioconjugate composed of the platinum agent oxaliplatin labeled with the isotope carbon C 14, that can be used to predict the response to oxaliplatin therapy using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Upon intravenous administration of a microdose of carbon C 14 oxaliplatin, the oxaliplatin moiety covalently links to DNA and forms mono- and di-DNA adducts. The platinum-DNA adduct formation can be measured through quantification of C14-labeled drug-DNA adducts by using AMS. By measuring the microdose-induced DNA damage, the response to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy can be assessed and predicted. Measurements that indicate either low drug-DNA adduct formation or increased DNA repair (C14 removal from DNA) are correlated with increased resistance to platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
753196 carbon C 14 selumetinibA radioconjugate containing the orally available selumetinib, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK or MAPK/ERK kinase) types 1 and 2, labeled with the radioisotope carbon C 14. Upon oral administration, selumetinib selectively inhibits MEK1/2, which prevents the activation of MEK1/2 dependent effector proteins and transcription factors. This leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in MEK1/2-overexpressing tumor cells. MEK 1 and 2 are dual-specificity kinases that are essential mediators in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in various cancer cells. Selumetinib radiolabeled with carbon C-14 may be used as a radiotracer for pharmacokinetic studies of this agent, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
753248 carbon C 14 telotristat etiprateAn orally bioavailable, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor prodrug labeled with carbon C 14, which could be used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of telotristat etiprate. Upon administration, telotristat etiprate is converted to its active moiety, telotristat (LP-778902), which binds to and blocks the activity of TPH. This may result in a reduction in peripheral serotonin (5-HT) production and improvement of serotonin-mediated gastrointestinal adverse side effects, such as severe diarrhea. TPH, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis, is overexpressed in carcinoid tumor cells. Telotristat radiolabeled with carbon C 14 facilitates the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of this agent, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751947 carbon C 14-labeled ixazomibA radioconjugate comprised of the orally-available, reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor ixazomib that is labeled with the isotope carbon C 14. Upon administration, the ixazomib moiety hydrolyzes and generates its active form, MLN2238, which inhibits the activity of the 20S catalytic core subunit of the proteasome. This blocks the targeted proteolysis normally performed by the proteasome, which results in an accumulation of unwanted or misfolded proteins. The accumulation of protein may disrupt various cell signaling pathways, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth. In addition, this agent targets tumor suppressor microRNA-33b (miR-33b). Labeling with the radioactive tracer carbon C 14 allows for evaluation of ixazomib’s absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
760680 carbon nanoparticle-based formulationA nanoparticle-based formulation containing carbon, with both a mean size of 150 nm, and potential use as a stain for lymph node draining. Upon injection of the carbon nanoparticles at the tumor site, these nanoparticles travel to regional lymph nodes and stain the lymph nodes black due to the presence of the carbon. This may allow for a more precise surgical removal of tumor-draining lymph nodes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
362071 carbon-11 acetateThe acetate salt of the radioisotope carbon-11. Although the mechanism is unclear, carbon-11 acetate preferentially accumulates in tumor tissue, serving as a tracer for imaging tumors with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39176 carboplatinA second-generation platinum compound with a broad spectrum of antineoplastic properties. Carboplatin contains a platinum atom complexed with two ammonia groups and a cyclobutane-dicarboxyl residue. This agent is activated intracellularly to form reactive platinum complexes that bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, thereby inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These carboplatin-induced DNA and protein effects result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. This agent possesses tumoricidal activity similar to that of its parent compound, cisplatin, but is more stable and less toxic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
657273 carboplatin-Taxol regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol) used for the treatment of endometrial, epithelial ovarian, head and neck, and advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancers. (NCI Thesaurus)
657275 carboplatin-Taxol-bevacizumab regimenA chemoimmunotherapy regimen consisting of carboplatin, paclitaxel (Taxol) and bevacizumab used for the treatment of advanced-stage, nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)
41613 carboxyamidotriazoleAn orally-active agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Carboxyamidotriazole binds to and inhibits non-voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, blocking both Ca2+ influx into cells and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and resulting in the disruption of calcium channel-mediated signal transduction and inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, endothelial proliferation, and angiogenesis. This agent may also inhibit tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
671851 carboxyamidotriazole orotateThe orotate salt form of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), an orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities. Carboxyamidotriazole binds to and inhibits non-voltage-operated calcium channels, blocking both Ca2+ influx into cells and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, resulting in the disruption of calcium channel-mediated signal transduction. CAI inhibits PI3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. This may inhibit endothelial proliferation, tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
756935 carboxylesterase-expressing allogeneic neural stem cellsA preparation of allogeneic neural stem cells (NSC), derived from a human fetal cell line, that are adenovirally-transduced to express a modified form of the human enzyme carboxylesterase (CE) hCE1m6, with potential adjuvant activity. Upon intracranial administration, NSCs localize to tumor sites, due to their tumor-trophic nature, and transiently express hCE1m6. Intravenous co-administration of the prodrug irinotecan allows for the selective conversion by hCE1m6 to its active metabolite and topoisomerase I inhibitor, SN-38, in the vicinity of tumor sites. This leads to a local anti-neoplastic effect and causes reduced toxicity and increased therapeutic efficacy of irinotecan. Since NSCs freely cross the blood-brain barrier, these cells can also be intravenously administered to target brain tumor cells. hCE1m6 shows increased activity as compared to unmodified human CE. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42559 carboxyphenyl retinamideA synthetic phenylretinamide analogue of retinol (vitamin A) with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Carboxyphenyl retinamide induces cell differentiation and inhibits tumor cell growth and carcinogenesis. This agent may also induce cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in some cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42585 carcinoembryonic antigen peptide 1A nine amino acid peptide fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein that is overexpressed in several cancer cell types, including gastrointestinal, breast, and non-small cell lung. Autologous vaccination with activated autologous dendritic cells (DC) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which have been exposed to CEA peptide 1 in vitro may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing CEA, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38236 carcinoembryonic antigen peptide 1-6DA 9-residue human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). CEA:571-579 peptide, which has the amino acid sequence YLSGANLNL, may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against tumors expressing CEA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
570689 carcinoembryonic antigen peptide 1-6D virus-like replicon particles vaccineA cancer vaccine, consisting of alphavirus vector-derived virus-like replicon particles expressing the 9-amino-acid carcinoembryonic antigen peptide (CAP) 1-6D, with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42704 carcinoembryonic antigen RNA-pulsed DC cancer vaccineA vaccine comprising autologous dendritic cells pulsed with mRNA-encoded Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) that targets tumor cells expressing CEA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
523412 carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing measles virusAn attenuated oncolytic Edmonston (Ed) strain of measles virus (MV) encoding the soluble extracellular N-terminal domain of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (MV-CEA) with potential antineoplastic activity. The cellular receptor of MV is human CD46 antigen, a type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein found on nearly all human tissues and overexpressed on many cancer cell types. Mediated through CD46, both haemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins of MV are required for the attachment to and fusion of host cell membranes, thereby leading to syncytia and cell lysis. The expressed CEA, a tumor associated antigen, can be detected in serum and used as a sensitive marker to monitor viral gene expression in order to easily optimize individual therapy. Compared to wild-type MV, the Ed strain of MV has a lower affinity for the MV receptor signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (CD150), mainly expressed in B- and T-lymphocytes, but a higher affinity for CD46. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37878 Cardiolite(Other name for: Tc 99m sestamibi)
40122 Cardizem(Other name for: diltiazem hydrochloride)
703207 Cardura(Other name for: doxazosin mesylate)
459751 carfilzomibAn epoxomicin derivate with potential antineoplastic activity. Carfilzomib irreversibly binds to and inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome, an enzyme responsible for degrading a large variety of cellular proteins. Inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis results in an accumulation of polyubiquinated proteins, which may lead to cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615142 caricotamide/tretazicarA combination therapy consisting of the prodrug tretazicar and the enzyme co-substrate caricotamide with potential antineoplastic activity. In the presence of separately and simultaneously administered caricotamide, tretazicar is converted to the short-lived cytotoxic DNA cross-linking agent dinitrobenzamide by NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2), resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. NQO2 has been found to be elevated in certain cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
573742 carlumabA recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against human CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Carlumab binds to and inhibits CLL2, which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis and, so, tumor cell proliferation. Endothelium-derived CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein; MCP1) is a member of the beta-chemokine family, can stimulate monocyte/macrophage migration and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and plays a role in angiogenesis and tumor cell migration; CCL2 induction of angiogenesis may involve the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) gene expression which, in turn, induces vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) gene expression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43027 Carmubris(Other name for: carmustine)
43027 carmustineAn antineoplastic nitrosourea. Carmustine alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This agent also carbamoylates proteins, including DNA repair enzymes, resulting in an enhanced cytotoxic effect. Carmustine is highly lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier readily. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
737196 carmustine sustained-release implant waferA sustained release (SR) implant wafer containing the lipophilic nitrosourea carmustine (BCNU) with antineoplastic activity. Upon intracranial administration of the implant wafer and subsequent release of BCNU from the wafer, this agent alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in the disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This wafer contains the biodegradable copolymer PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as the major drug delivery vehicle which is slowly degraded into water and carbon dioxide thereby continuously releasing BCNU over approximately 3-4 weeks. Compared to systemic administration of BCNU alone, this local SR formulation is able to maintain higher drug concentrations locally over a longer period of time while minimizing exposure to other tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
301896 Carnitor(Other name for: levocarnitine)
760314 carrageenan-containing gelA water-based, vaginal moisturizing gel containing a mixture of lambda- and kappa- carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides derived from red seaweed (Chondrus crispus), with potential microbicidal activity against various viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) and human herpes simplex virus (HSV). Upon vaginal insertion via an applicator, carrageenan specifically binds to the viral capsids, which prevents the binding of virions to heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors or other, as of yet not fully identified, cellular proteins. In addition, the viral binding of carrageenan may also interfere with conformational changes within the virions after cellular attachment. This inhibits viral infection. Certain HPV types cause cervical cancer; therefore, the prevention of HPV infection by this gel may subsequently prevent the development of cervical cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
664135 carrot/Ji-Lin ginseng/licorice root/tangerine peel soy beverageA soy-based powdered nutritional supplement drink containing carrot, Jilin ginseng, licorice root and tangerine peel with potential antioxidant, immunomodulating and protective activities. Besides vitamin C, E and other phytochemicals, carrot/Jilin ginseng/licorice root/tangerine peel/soy beverage contains a high amount of soy protein. This beverage may have a beneficial effect on overall nutrition and the immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
304435 Cartilade(Other name for: shark cartilage)
39175 carubicinAn anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Actinomadura carminata. Carubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
700417 carvedilolA synthetic antihypertensive methoxyphenoxy- 2-propanol derivative with no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, Carvedilol acts as a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent (S(-) enantiomer) and as an alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker (R(+) and S(-) enantiomers). Its acts more strongly on beta-receptors than on alpha 1-receptors, reduces peripheral vascular resistance by vasodilation, and prevents reflex tachycardia (beta-blockade) so that heart rate is either unchanged or decreased. Carvedilol also reduces renin release through beta-blockade. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
658712 carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsuleAn extended-release capsule formulation containing the phosphate salt of carvedilol, a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent with alpha 1-adrenergic blocking activity. Carvedilol is a racemic mixture; the S(-) enantiomer non-selectively binds to and blocks beta-adrenergic receptors, exerting negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, leading to a reduction in cardiac output. Both R(+) and S(-) enantiomers bind to and block alpha 1-adrenergic receptors with equal potency, causing vasodilation and a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance. This agent has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
466062 caseinate protein isolateAn isolate comprised of the sodium or calcium salt of the glycoprotein casein, the primary protein found in milk and other dairy products, with anti-catabolic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41298 Casodex(Other name for: bicalutamide)
476572 casopitant mesylateThe mesylate salt of a centrally-acting neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist with antidepressant and antiemetic activities. Casopitant competitively binds to and blocks the activity of the NK1 receptor, thereby inhibiting NK1-receptor binding of the endogenous tachykinin neuropeptide substance P (SP), which may result in antiemetic effects. SP is found in neurons of vagal afferent fibers innervating the brain-stem nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema, which contains the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), and may be elevated in response to chemotherapy. The NK1 receptor is a G-protein receptor coupled to the inositol phosphate signal-transduction pathway and is found in both the nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38182 caspofungin acetateThe acetate salt of an antimycotic echinocandin lipopeptide, semisynthetically derived from a fermentation product of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis. Caspofungin inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, resulting in decreased synthesis of beta(1,3)-D-glucan (an essential component of the fungal cell wall), weakening of the fungal cell wall, and fungal cell wall rupture. This agent is active against Aspergillus and Candida species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41228 Catapres(Other name for: clonidine hydrochloride)
746336 cathepsin-activatable Cy5 fluorescent imaging probe LUM015A cathepsin-activatable fluorescent probe with imaging activity. The cathepsin-activatable fluorescent probe LUM015 contains the Cy5 fluorophore linked, via a pan-cathepsin protease cleavable peptide, to a fluorescent quencher. Upon injection, the peptide in LUM015 can be cleaved by cathepsins overexpressed by tumor cells, which releases the quencher and activates the fluorophore. Upon imaging, tumor cells expressing cathepsin family proteases can be detected. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
543136 cationic liposome-encapsulated paclitaxelA cationic liposome preparation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel, the active ingredient in cationic liposome-encapsulated paclitaxel, binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, resulting in the inhibition of mitosis and cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Cationic liposome encapsulation of paclitaxel allows the delivery of high doses of paclitaxel to target tissues while minimizing systemic toxicity. Tumor endothelial cells may preferentialy bind and internalize cationic liposomes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
487002 catumaxomabA trifunctional bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Catumaxomab has two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T cell surface antigen; and one for human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a cell surface antigen expressed by a variety of epithelial tumor cells. In addition, the modified Fc portion of this antibody binds Fc receptors on antingen presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Catumaxomab brings T cells, EpCAM-expressing epithelial tumor cells and APCs together into tricellular complexes, which may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against EpCAM-expressing epithelial tumor cells. Fc-mediated binding of APCs in the tricellular complex potentiates EpCAM antigen presentation to T cells and the activation of anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell functions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
360459 Caverject(Other name for: alprostadil)
41154 CB10-277A synthetic derivative of dimethylphenyl-triazene related to dacarbazine, with antineoplastic properties. Related to the agent dacarbazine, CB10-277 is converted in vivo to a monomethyl triazene form that alkylates DNA, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and repair; in addition, this agent may act as a purine analogue, resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis, and may interact with protein sulfhydryl groups. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
696436 CBP/beta-catenin antagonist PRI-724A potent, specific inhibitor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in cancer stem cells with potential antineoplastic activity. Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor PRI-724 specifically inhibits the recruiting of beta-catenin with its coactivator CBP (the binding protein of the cAMP response element-binding protein CREB); together with other transcription factors beta-catenin/CBP binds to WRE (Wnt-responsive element) and activates transcription of a wide range of target genes of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Blocking the interaction of CBP and beta-catenin by this agent prevents gene expression of many proteins necessary for growth, thereby potentially suppressing cancer cell growth. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway regulates cell morphology, motility, and proliferation; aberrant regulation of this pathway leads to neoplastic proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
538747 CBT-1(Other name for: MDR modulator CBT-1)
38051 CC-1088An analog of thalidomide with potential antineoplastic activity that belongs to the functional class of agents called selective cytokine inhibitory drugs (SelCIDs). SelCIDs inhibit phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE 4), an enzyme involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) production. CC-1088 inhibits production of the cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (a pro-angiogenic factor) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
453550 CC-401A second generation ATP-competitive anthrapyrazolone c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Based on the chemistry of SP600125, another anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of JNK, CC-401 competitively binds the ATP binding site of JNK, resulting in inhibition of the phosphorylation of the N-terminal activation domain of transcription factor c-Jun; decreased transcription activity of c-Jun; and a variety of cellular effects including decreased cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
346082 CC-8490A benzopyran with potential antineoplastic activity. CC-8490 acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. This agent also inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of glioblastoma cells via a mechanism independent of estrogen receptor-related mechanisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
712206 CCL21-expressing H1944 cell vaccineA cancer cell vaccine comprised of the allogeneic human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1944 that has been transduced ex vivo with adenoviral vector encoding human cytokine chemokine C-C motif ligand 21 (CCL21), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CCL21-expressing H1944 cell vaccine expresses the chemokine CCL21, which may induce an antitumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response in the tumor microenvironment. CCL21 has been shown to attract antigen presenting cells (APCs), like leukocytes and DCs, and natural killer (NK) cells and their T-cell effectors to induce a cytotoxic immune response. H1944 cells contain tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
703421 CCR2 antagonist PF-04136309An orally available human chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, CCR2 antagonist PF-04136309 specifically binds to CCR2 and prevents binding of the endothelium-derived chemokine ligand CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or MCP1) to its receptor CCR2, which may result in inhibition of CCR2 activation and signal transduction. This may inhibit inflammatory processes as well as angiogenesis, tumor cell migration, and tumor cell proliferation. The G-protein coupled receptor CCR2 is expressed on the surface of monocytes and macrophages, stimulates the migration and infiltration of these cell types, and plays an important role in inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell migration and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
729923 CD-expressing Bifidobacterium APS001FA recombinant anaerobic bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum, encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon injection, the CD-expressing bifidobacterium preferentially localizes and grows in the hypoxic environment of the tumor and expresses CD, an enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of the prodrug flucytosine (5-FC) into the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Upon administration of 5-FC, and subsequent localized conversion into 5-FU and its cytotoxic active metabolites, the tumor is specifically exposed to cytotoxic agents while the exposure to normal tissues is minimal. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
761274 CD105/Yb-1/SOX2/CDH3/MDM2 polypeptide plasmid DNA vaccineA plasmid DNA vaccine containing the mammalian expression vector pUMVC3 (pNGVL3) encoding epitopes of CD105 (Endoglin), Y-box binding protein 1 (Yb-1), SRY-box 2 (SOX2), cadherin 3 (CDH3), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) proteins, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration of pUMVC3-CD105/Yb-1/SOX2/CDH3/MDM2-epitopes plasmid DNA vaccine, the plasmid transfects cells and the peptides are expressed. This generates a specific memory Th1 (T-helper) cell immune response, stimulates secretion of cytokines by the T cells and leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD105/Yb-1/SOX2/CDH3/MDM2-expressing tumor cells. CD105/Yb-1/SOX2/CDH3/MDM2 proteins are highly immunogenic tumor associated antigens that are overexpressed in breast cancer. Additionally, these antigens are associated with breast cancer stem cells and with epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
757487 CD133 antigen peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccineA cell-based cancer vaccine comprised of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted peptides derived from the CD133 antigen, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration, the CD133 antigen peptide-pulsed autologous DC vaccine may stimulate an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD133-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. CD133, a cancer stem cell marker, is expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and overexpressed on many types of cancer cells; it is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and increased cancer survival. HLA-A2 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T-cells. Epitope design that is restricted to those epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A2 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751382 CD138CAR-CD137/TCRzeta-expressing T lymphocytes2013-08-07T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for syndecan-1 (CD138) (CART-138 T cells) coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCRzeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD138CAR- CD137/TCRzeta -expressing T lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to syndecan-1-expressing tumor cells and induces selective toxicity in those tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of syndecan-1. Syndecan-1, a type 1 transmembrane proteoglycan and tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. It plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750848 CD19CAR-CD28zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T lymphocytesAllogeneic T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to the costimulatory signaling domain CD28, the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD28 zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T lymphocytes directs the T-lymphocytes to and induces selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, is required for T-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. Furthermore, inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD28 costimulatory domain and TCR zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen, which is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
760911 CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-CD28-expressing autologous T lymphocytesAutologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to three co-stimulatory signaling domains derived from CD28, 4-1BB (CD137), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-CD28-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells and induce their selective toxicity. CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, is required for T-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. CD3-zeta is a transmembrane signaling adaptor polypeptide that regulates the assembly of TCR complexes, modulates the expression of the complex on the cell surface and plays a key role in antigen recognition. CD19 antigen, a B-cell specific cell surface antigen, is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
729149 CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T lymphocytesAllogeneic T-lymphocytes transduced with a modified lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T-lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19 and the inclusion of this signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
736184 CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T lymphocytesAutologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a modified lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19 and the inclusion of this signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3-zeta (or CD247) is a transmembrane signaling adaptor polypeptide that regulates the assembly of complete TCR complexes and their expression on the cell surface. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
736185 CD19CAR-CD3zeta-expressing autologous T lymphocytesAutologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a modified lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes are directed to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity only in these tumor cells. The CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3-zeta (or CD247) is a transmembrane signaling adaptor polypeptide that regulates the assembly of complete T-cell receptor complexes and their expression on the cell surface. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
570533 CD20-targeted polypeptide TRU-015A proprietary antibody-based single-chain polypeptide with B cell-depleting activity. Significantly smaller than a whole antibody, CD20-targeted polypeptide TRU-015 binds specifically to the B cell-specific cell surface antigen CD20 with full immunoglobulin Fv fragment-type target binding activity and full immunoglobulin Fc fragment-type effector function. This agent transiently depletes CD20-bearing B cells by inducing B cell -directed complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and B cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
763099 CD28CAR/CD137CAR-expressing T lymphocytesThird generation, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cells composed of T-lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a CAR consisting of an a single chain variable fragment specific for a particular antigen, coupled to the two co-stimulatory signaling domains Cluster of Differentiation 28 (CD28) and Cluster of Differentiation 137 (CD137; 4-1BB), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD28CAR/CD137CAR-expressing T-lymphocytes are directed to, and induce selective toxicity in tumor cells expressing the particular antigen. CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule that is required for T-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of the antigen. Furthermore, inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity when compared to the inclusion of the CD28 co-stimulatory domain and CD3-zeta alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
587501 CD3/CD28 costimulated vaccine-primed autologous T-cellsA population of T cells that have been sensitized to vaccine tumor antigen(s) in vivo; collected from the patient; co-stimulated with antibodies to the T-cell cell surface proteins CD3 and CD28 and expanded ex vivo; and then infused into the same patient. CD3, part of the T cell receptor complex, and CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, are both required for full T-cell activation. Adoptive transfer of CD3/CD28 costimulated vaccine-primed autologous T-cells may induce the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and associated antitumor effects and a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750489 CD33CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T-lymphocytesAutologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD33 scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCRzeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD33-specific CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes target CD33-expressing tumor cells and induce selective toxicity in CD33-expressing tumor cells. Following binding to CD33, the 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances both activation and signaling. Inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may also increase the antitumor activity when compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD33 is expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells as well as on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
640980 CD34/TK75-transduced donor lymphocytesA preparation of donor T-lymphocytes that are transfected with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric suicide gene consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human CD34 and mutant 75 of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK75) with potential controllable immunomodulating activity. Donor T cell therapy following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation may result in a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) and help control transplant-related viral infections. In the event that graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) develops due to donor lymphocyte infusion, CD34/TK75-transduced donor lymphocytes may be selectively eliminated by administration of the prodrug antiviral agent ganciclovir GCV. In CD34/T75-transduced donor lymphocytes, GCV is phosphorylated by expressed HSV-TK75 to its monophosphate form and, subsequently, converted into its active triphosphate form, which specifically kills the donor lymphocytes. The expressed CD34 moiety of the chimeric suicide gene serves as a selection marker; mutant 75 of HSV-TK confers increased GCV sensitivity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
601870 CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cellsRegulatory T cells that express CD4 and CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor) antigens, with immunomodulating activity.. CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4+ T cells expressing high levels of CD25 and the transcription factor Foxp3, are essential in maintaining immunologic homeostasis, preventing autoimmunity by suppressing self-reactive T cells; CD4+CD25+ Tregs may induce tolerance to allogeneic organ transplants such as hematopoetic stem cell transplants (HSCTs). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
588974 CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody CP-870,893A fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) agonist of the cell surface receptor CD40 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Similar to the CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154), CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody CP-870,893 binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types, triggering the cellular proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), activating B cells and T cells, and enhancing the immune response; in addition, this agent may activate CD40 present on the surfaces of some solid tumor cells, resulting in apoptosis and decreased tumor growth. CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on various immune cells, many B-cell malignancies, and some solid tumors, mediating both indirect tumor cell killing through the activation of the immune system and direct tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
666905 CD95 ECD/IgG-Fc fusion protein APG101A human, soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the CD95 receptor fused to the Fc-domain of the human IgG antibody, with potential antineoplastic activity. CD95 ECD/IgG-Fc fusion protein APG101 binds to the CD95 ligand (CD95L) and blocks the binding of CD95L to the CD95 receptor. In tumor cells, blockage of CD95L-mediated signaling pathways may prevent cell migration and invasive cell growth; in healthy cells, blockage of CD95L-mediated signaling pathways may prevent apoptosis and may protect cell damage. Activation of the CD95 receptor plays an important role in the initiation of apoptosis in healthy cells or the invasive growth of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
759831 CDA inhibitor E7727/decitabine combination agent ASTX727An orally available combination agent containing the cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor E7727 and the cytidine antimetabolite decitabine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of ASTX727, the CDA inhibitor E7727 binds to and inhibits CDA, an enzyme primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine and cytidine analogs. This prevents the breakdown of decitabine, increasing its bioavailability and efficacy while decreasing GI toxicity due to the administration of lower doses of decitabine. Decitabine exerts its antineoplastic activity through the incorporation of its triphosphate form into DNA, which inhibits DNA methyltransferase and results in hypomethylation of DNA. This interferes with DNA replication and decreases tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
637599 CDC7 kinase inhibitor BMS-863233An orally bioavailable cell division cycle 7 homolog (CDC7) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDC7 kinase inhibitor BMS-863233 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. CDC7, a serine-threonine kinase overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication by activating origins of replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
660731 CDC7 kinase inhibitor NMS-1116354An orally bioavailable cell division cycle 7 homolog (CDC7) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDC7 kinase inhibitor NMS-1116354 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. The serine-threonine kinase CDC7 initiates DNA replication by phosphorylating MCM2 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 2) at Ser40 and Ser53. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
529362 CDK inhibitor P276-00A flavone and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. P276-00 selectively binds to and inhibits Cdk4/cyclin D1, Cdk1/cyclin B and Cdk9/cyclin T1, serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. Inhibition of these kinases leads to cell cycle arrest during the G1/S transition, thereby leading to an induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
488948 CDK inhibitor SNS-032A 2-aminothiazole-derived, small-molecule cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK inhibitor SNS-032 selectively binds to CDKs 2, 7, and 9, preventing their phosphorylation and activation; inhibition of CDK activity may result in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis and decreased tumor cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent has been shown to sensitize radioresistant tumor cells to ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
660138 CDK2/TRKA inhibitor PHA-848125 ACAn orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and thropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA), with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK2/TRKA inhibitor PHA-848125 AC potently inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and exhibits activity against other CDKs including CDK1 and CDK4, in addition to TRKA. Inhibition of these kinases may result in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells that express these kinases. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in some cancer cell types. The neurotrophin receptor TRKA is mutated in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
618682 CDK4 inhibitor P1446A-05A protein kinase inhibitor specific for the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4 inhibitor P1446A-05 specifically inhibits CDK4-mediated G1-S phase transition, arresting cell cycling and inhibiting cancer cell growth. The serine/threonine kinase CDK4 is found in a complex with D-type G1 cyclins and is the first kinase to become activated upon mitogenic stimulation, releasing cells from a quiescent stage into the G1/S growth cycling stage; CDK-cyclin complexes have been shown to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) transcription factor in early G1, displacing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and blocking transcriptional repression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
706364 CDK4/6 dual inhibitor LY2835219An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that targets the CDK4 (cyclin D1) and CDK6 (cyclin D3) cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4/6 dual inhibitor LY2835219 specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation in early G1. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of the serine/threonine kinases CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
689330 CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor targeting cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin D3/CDK6 cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011 specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
513177 CDKI AT7519An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. AT7519M selectively binds to and inhibits cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), which may result in cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are serine/theronine kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in some types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
529189 CDKI R547An orally bioavailable diaminopyrimidine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) with potential antineoplastic activity. CDKI R547 selectively binds to and inhibits CDKs, especially CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin E, and CDK4/cyclin D1. The inhibition of CDKs results in cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Through CDK inhibition, this agent also reduces phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, thus preventing activation of transcription factor E2F and so further suppressing tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are ATP-dependent serine/threonine kinases that are important regulators of cell cycle progression and are frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
686272 CDKs/JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor TG02 citrateAn orally bioavailable citrate salt form of TG02, a multi-kinase inhibitor for cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) subtypes 1, 2, 7 and 9, Janus-associated kinase 2 (JAK2), FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, FLK2, STK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CDK/JAK2/FLT3 Inhibitor TG02 binds to and inhibits the CDK subtypes, JAK2, and FLT3. TG02 also inhibits, to a lesser extent, TYK2, TYRO3, STAT5 and P38delta. This may result in both an induction of apoptosis and an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that overexpress these kinases. JAK2, often upregulated or mutated in a variety of cancer cells, mediates STAT3 activation and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. FLT3, a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39737 Ce-Vi-Sol(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
42612 CEA-Scan(Other name for: arcitumomab)
666096 CEA/tetanus toxoid T helper epitope fusion protein-expressing DNA plasmid vaccineA plasmid vaccine encoding wild type human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) fused to a tetanus toxoid T helper epitope, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination and subsequent intradermal electroporation, CEA/tetanus toxoid T helper epitope fusion protein-expressing DNA plasmid vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. The tetanus toxoid helper peptide epitope, obtained from the bacterial Clostridium tetani toxoid, binds to class II MHC molecules and increases the helper T-cell response thereby inducing an increased and long-term immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42652 CeaVac(Other name for: monoclonal antibody 3H1 anti-idiotype vaccine)
754238 cebranopadolAn orally available antagonist of the nociceptin receptor opioid receptor like -1 (ORL-1), with potential analgesic activity. Upon oral administration, cebranopadol binds to ORL-1 and prevents its interaction with nociceptin. This leads to a decrease of nociceptin/ORL-1-mediated signaling and interferes with the sensation of pain, which results in an analgesic effect. Nociceptin is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39737 Cecon(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
425596 cediranib maleateThe maleate salt of an indole ether quinazoline derivative with antineoplastic activities. Competing with adenosine triphosphate, cediranib binds to and inhibits all three vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-1,-2,-3) tyrosine kinases, thereby blocking VEGF-signaling, angiogenesis, and tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43065 CeeNU(Other name for: lomustine)
640180 cefazolin sodiumThe sodium salt of cefazolin, a beta-lactam antibiotic and first-generation cephalosporin with bactericidal activity. Cefazolin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity, which results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38350 cefepime hydrochlorideThe hydrochoride salt of a semi-synthetic, beta-lactamase-resistant, fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived from an Acremonium fungal species with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Administered parenterally, cefipime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity, resulting in a reduction of bacterial cell wall stability and cell lysis. This agent is more active against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens compared to third-generation cephalosporins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37809 cefiximeA broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived semisynthetically from the marine fungus Cephalosporium acremonium with antibacterial activity. As does penicillin, the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis, resulting in a reduction in bacterial cell wall stability and bacterial cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
564415 cefmetazole sodiumThe sodium salt of the second-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin cefmetazole with antibacterial activity. Cefmetazole binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and prevents the crosslinking of peptidoglycan, which may result in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, the loss of cell wall integrity, and bacterial cell wall rupture. PBPs are transpeptidases that are responsible for peptidoglycan crosslinking. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39177 cefotaximeA third generation semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefotaxime inhibits mucopeptide synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin binding proteins thereby interfering with the final transpeptidation step required for cross-linking of peptidoglycan units which are a component of bacterial cell walls. This results in a reduction of cell wall stability and causes cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
455227 cefpodoxime proxetilA third generation semi-synthetic cephalosporin and a beta-lactam antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefpodoxime's effect is dependent on its binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Binding results in the inhibition of the transpeptidase enzymes, thereby preventing cross-linking of the pentaglycine bridge with the fourth residue of the pentapeptide and interrupting consequent synthesis of peptidoglycan chains. As a result, cefpodoxime inhibits bacterial septum and cell wall synthesis formation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39179 ceftazidime sodiumThe sodium salt of ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftazidime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall, resulting in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftazidime is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftazidine also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
570771 ceftobiprole medocarilA water-soluble prodrug of ceftobiprole, a pyrrolidinone cephalosporin antibiotic, with bactericidal activity. Ceftobiprole binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes involved in the terminal stages of bacterial cell wall assembly and cell wall reshaping during bacterial growth and division. This agent exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Ceftobiprole is refractory to hydrolysis by class A and class C lactamases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41088 ceftriaxone sodiumThe sodium salt form of ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftriaxone binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftriaxone is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftriaxone also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43023 Celebrex(Other name for: celecoxib)
43023 celecoxibA nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a diaryl-substituted pyrazole structure. Celecoxib selectively inhibits cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity (COX-2); COX-2 inhibition may result in apoptosis and a reduction in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39273 Celestone(Other name for: betamethasone)
500063 Celexa(Other name for: citalopram hydrobromide)
39231 Celiptium(Other name for: elliptinium acetate)
536220 cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83A proprietary agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83 IC83 inhibits cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes, which may result in enhanced cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents and diminished tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes are involved in the recognition and repair of damaged DNA and are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42797 Cellcept(Other name for: mycophenolate mofetil)
522734 cenisertibAn orally bioavailable, synthetic, small-molecule multi-Aurora kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Cenisertib selectively binds to and inhibits multiple Aurora kinases (AKs), which may result in the inhibition of cell division and proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress AKs. Overexpressed in certain tumor cell types, AKs, a family of serine-threonine kinases, are important regulators of cell division and proliferation that are involved in controlling chromatid segregation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39737 Cenolate(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
640964 CEOP regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone which may be used in the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)
43417 cephalexinA beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cephalexin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to second and third generation cephalosporins, cephalexin is more active against gram-positive and less active against gram-negative organisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38167 ceramideOne of a number of a class of sphingolipids, N-acyl derivatives with long chains. Ceramide is the core molecule for the synthesis of sphingomyelin, an essential lipid for myelination and neurotransmission; it may function as a second messenger to stimulate differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
743774 Cerazette(Other name for: desogestral)
42352 Cereport(Other name for: lobradimil)
39545 Cerespan(Other name for: papaverine)
694589 ceritinibAn orally available inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ceritinib binds to and inhibits wild-type ALK kinase, ALK fusion proteins and ALK point mutation variants. Inhibition of ALK leads to both the disruption of ALK-mediated signaling and the inhibition of cell growth in ALK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
760457 certolizumabA Fab fragment of a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon administration, certolizumab binds to TNF-alpha, preventing the interaction of this cytokine with endogenous cell surface receptors, thereby rendering TNF-alpha inactive and inhibiting TNF-mediated inflammatory responses. TNF-alpha is a protein involved in inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39779 Cerubidine(Other name for: daunorubicin hydrochloride)
442270 Cervarix(Other name for: human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 virus-like particle/AS04 vaccine)
346468 Cervene(Other name for: TGFa-PE38 immunotoxin)
689548 cesium Cs 131An unstable radioisotope of cesium (Cs) with radiocytotoxic application. Cs-131 is a gamma photon-emitting radionuclide with high energy and a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days. When used in prostate brachytherapy, Cs-131 demonstrated advantages over other commonly used isotopes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
540312 cesium Cs 137A radioactive isotope of cesium with an atomic mass of 139 and potential application in radiotherapy. Cesium Cs 137 is prevalent due to its spontaneous production, which occurs as a result of nuclear fission of other radioactive materials, such as uranium and plutonium. This radionuclide has a relatively long half-life, 30 years, and decays by emitting beta particles. Both Cs 137 and its metastable nuclear isomer, barium-137m, emit gamma radiation of moderate energy and so are used in sterilization procedures in the food industry or in hospital environments. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39274 Cetacort(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
39737 Cetane(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
42384 cetuximabA recombinant, chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Cetuximab binds to the extracellular domain of the EGFR, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization may result in an inhibition in signal transduction and anti-proliferative effects. This agent may inhibit EGFR-dependent primary tumor growth and metastasis. EGFR is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
755023 cetuximab-IRDye 800An immunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody cetuximab conjugated to the N-hydroxysuccinamide (NHS) ester form of the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye IRDye 800CW (cetuximab-IRDye 800) with potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of cetuximab-IRDye 800 binds to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon binding, IRDye 800 may be detected using NIR imaging, which facilitates the visualization and quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39737 Cevalin(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
38315 cevimeline hydrochlorideA cholinergic analogue with glandular secretion stimulatory activity. Cevimeline binds to and activates muscarinic receptors, thereby increasing the secretions in exocrine salivary and sweat glands. This cholinergic agonist also increases the tone of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Cevimeline is being studied as a treatment for dry mouth caused by radiation therapy to the head and neck. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
697525 cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382A small molecule and orally available inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R; cFMS) with potential antineoplastic activity. cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382 binds to and inhibits the activity of cFMS. By preventing colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-cFMS signaling, this agent may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in cFMS-overexpressing tumor cells. cFMS, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and plays an essential role in macrophage differentiation and regulation of cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
41614 chamomileThe flower-heads of either the plant Anthemis nobilis or the plant Matricaria chamomilla. Chamomile has a warm aromatic odour and a very bitter taste and contains volatile oils which are a mixture of butyl and amyl angelates and valerates. Due to its coumarin constituents, large doses may interfere with coagulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
584706 Chantix(Other name for: varenicline)
673506 checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor LY2606368An inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY2606368 selectively binds to chk1, thereby preventing activity of chk1 and abrogating the repair of damaged DNA. This may lead to an accumulation of damaged DNA and may promote genomic instability and apoptosis. LY2606368 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1, a serine/threonine kinase, mediates cell cycle checkpoint control and is essential for DNA repair and plays a key role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
530784 checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762A synthetic small molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinases (Chks) with potential chemosensitizing activity. AZD7762 binds to and inhibits Chks, which may prevent cell cycle arrest and subsequent nucleotide excision repair in DNA-damaged tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Chks are protein kinases that regulate either G1/S or G2/M transitions in the cell cycle. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, Chks become activated and initiate cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or the completion of DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
486735 Chemophase(Other name for: recombinant human hyaluronidase)
760526 chiauranibAn orally available, small molecule inhibitor of select serine-threonine kinases, including aurora kinase B (aurora B), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT), and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, chiauranib binds to and inhibits the activity of aurora B, VEGFRs, c-kit and PDGFRs, which may result in a decrease in the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. These kinases are overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
702501 chidamideAn orally bioavailable benzamide type inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoenzymes 1, 2, 3 and 10, with potential antineoplastic activity. Chidamide selectively binds to and inhibits HDAC leading to an increase of acetylation levels of histone protein H3. This agent also inhibits the expression of signaling kinases in the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways and may result in cell cycle arrest and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. This may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. HDACs, a class of enzymes that deacetylate chromatin histone proteins, are upregulated in many tumor types and play key roles in gene expression. Compared to some other benzamide type HDAC inhibitors, chidamide is more stable, more resistant to degradation and has a longer half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
757141 chimeric Ad11p/Ad3 oncolytic virusA complex, replication-selective, E1B and partial E3 gene deleted, adenovirus type 11p (Ad11p)/Ad3 chimeric oncolytic virus with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intralesional injection of chimeric Ad11p/Ad3 oncolytic virus, the adenovirus selectively and rapidly replicates in cancer cells; however, it is unable to replicate in normal, healthy cells. This induces a selective adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity in cancer cells, which leads to cancer cell lysis. Following the lysis of infected cells, the replicated virus is released and can infect adjacent cells, which both induces further tumor cell oncolysis and may activate the immune system to kill the infected tumor cells. The E1B protein causes p53 inactivation in host cells, which promotes viral replication. Deletion of E1B prevents replication in normal, healthy cells that express wild-type p53. The mutation and subsequent inactivation of p53 in cancer cells enables the E1B-deleted adenovirus to selectively replicate in cancer cells. Partial deletion of the E3 gene, which encodes the adenovirus death protein, enhances the safety profile of the administered adenovirus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
763221 chimeric fibril-reactive monoclonal antibody 111F4A chimeric monoclonal antibody specifically targeting human immunoglobulin light chain (LC)-related fibrils, which may potentially be used in the treatment of light chain-associated (AL) amyloidosis. Upon administration, chimeric fibril-reactive monoclonal antibody 111F4 targets and binds to the amyloid-related, conformational epitope on LC-related fibrils. This inhibits fibrillogenesis, induces an Fc-mediated cellular inflammatory response, increases degradation and elimination of AL amyloidomas, and prevents systemic LC-associated amyloid deposits. In AL amyloidosis the amyloid fibrils are composed of immunoglobulin light chain fragments. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
357577 Chinese herbal formulation PHY906An oral traditional Chinese herbal formulation in powder form containing a spray dried aqueous extract from the herbs Scutellaria baicalensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Paeonia lactiflora with potential immunomodulating and chemoprotective activities. Although the mechanism of actions remain to be fully elucidated, PHY906 possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities such as the enhancement of oral uptake of pharmacologically active agents, inhibition of CYP3A4, modulation of certain cytokines, macrophages and lymphocytes, and inhibition of expression of MMP, NF-kB, beta-glucuronidase, the NK-1 receptor, and the delta-opioid receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38529 Chinese herbsHerbs used in Chinese Herbal Therapy for toxicity attenuation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
669871 ChiRhoStim(Other name for: synthetic human secretin)
539740 chk1 inhibitor PF-477736A proprietary compound targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential chemopotentiation activity. Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 inhibits chk1, an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that is a key component in the DNA replication-monitoring S/G2 checkpoint system. By overriding the last checkpoint defense against DNA damaging agent-induced lethal damage, chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents against tumor cells with intrinsic checkpoint defects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
624396 Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776An agent targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) with potential radiosensitization and chemosensitization activities. Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776 specifically binds to and inhibits Chk1, which may result in tumor cells bypassing Chk1-dependent cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases to undergo DNA repair prior to entry into mitosis; tumor cells may thus be sensitized to the DNA-damaging effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1 is an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that in response to DNA damage phosphorylates cdc25 phosphatases, resulting in inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK-cyclin complexes and cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43113 chlorambucilAn orally-active antineoplastic aromatic nitrogen mustard. Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
658708 chlorambucil-prednisone regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of chlorambucil and prednisone used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)
41544 chlorhexidineA biguanide compound used as an antiseptic agent with topical antibacterial activity. Chlorhexidine is positively charged and reacts with the negatively charged microbial cell surface, thereby destroying the integrity of the cell membrane. Subsequently, chlorhexidine penetrates into the cell and causes leakage of intracellular components leading to cell death. Since gram positive bacteria are more negatively charged, they are more sensitive to this agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
747732 chlorhexidine gluconateThe gluconate salt form of chlorhexidine, a biguanide compound used as an antiseptic agent with topical antibacterial activity. Chlorhexidine gluconate is positively charged and reacts with the negatively charged microbial cell surface, thereby destroying the integrity of the cell membrane. Subsequently, chlorhexidine gluconate penetrates into the cell and causes leakage of intracellular components leading to cell death. Since gram positive bacteria are more negatively charged, they are more sensitive to this agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
761171 chlorogenic acidA polyphenol and the ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid that is found in coffee and black tea, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Chlorogenic acid scavenges free radicals, which inhibits DNA damage and may protect against the induction of carcinogenesis. In addition, this agent may upregulate the expression of genes involved in the activation of the immune system and enhance activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells. Chlorogenic acid also inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
654729 chloroquineA 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. This agent may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Chloroquine's potential chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities in cancer may be related to its inhibition of autophagy, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41055 chloroquinoxaline sulfonamideA chlorinated heterocyclic sulfanilamide with potential antineoplastic activity and potential immunosuppressive activity. Chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide poisons topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta, thereby causing double-stranded breaks in DNA, accumulation of unrepaired DNA, and apoptosis. This agent also exhibits lymphotoxicity by inhibiting lymphocyte activation in a cell cycle-specific manner. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
759562 chlorotoxin-indocyanine green imaging Agent BLZ-100A tumor-targeting imaging agent composed of the tumor-specific peptide chlorotoxin (CTX), a 36-amino acid neurotoxin found in the venom of the Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpion, linked to the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG), with potential tumor imaging activity using a near-infrared (NIR) imaging system. Upon intravenous administration of BLZ-100, the CTX moiety of BLZ-100 specifically binds to and is internalized by cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin. Using a NIR imaging system, the ICG, which emits light in the NIR range, permits the intraoperative visualization of tumor cells. This leads to the clear distinction of healthy tissues from tumor cells, and facilitates the surgical removal of tumor tissue while sparing normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39182 chlorozotocinA glucose-linked chloroethylnitrosourea with potential antineoplastic activity. Chlorozotocin alkylates DNA and proteins, induces the formation of interstrand DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks, and causes DNA strand breakage, thereby damaging DNA and resulting in cell death. This agent has been shown to exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory effects in cell lines and animal models. Chlorozotocin is a mutagen and is less myelotoxic than other nitrosoureas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39752 chlorpromazineA phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity. Chlorpromazine exerts its antipsychotic effect by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in cortical and limbic areas of the brain, thereby preventing the excess of dopamine in the brain. This leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. Chlorpromazine appears to exert its anti-emetic activity by blocking the dopamine receptors in the chemical trigger zone (CTZ) in the brain, thereby relieving nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
577391 chlorzoxazoneA benzoxazolone derivative with mild sedative and centrally-acting muscle relaxant activities. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, chlorzoxazone (CZ) appears to act at the spinal cord and subcortical levels of the brain to inhibit multisynaptic reflex arcs involved in producing and maintaining muscle spasms. This agent is extensively hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (HCZ),11,12 which is subsequently glucuronidated and eliminated renally. Highly selective for CYP2E1, CZ may be used as a selective probe for phenotyping CYP2E1 in humans; the ratio of HCZ-to-CZ plasma concentrations obtained 2 to 4 hours after oral administration of CZ may be used as a phenotypic measure of CYP2E1 enzymatic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39734 cholecalciferolA steroid hormone produced in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light or obtained from dietary sources. The active form of cholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) plays an important role in maintaining blood calcium and phosphorus levels and mineralization of bone. The activated form of cholecalciferol binds to vitamin D receptors and modulates gene expression. This leads to an increase in serum calcium concentrations by increasing intestinal absorption of phosphorus and calcium, promoting distal renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increasing osteoclastic resorption. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
596155 cholecalciferol/d-alpha tocopherol/L-selenomethionine/green tea extract/saw palmetto berry extract/daidzein/genistein/lycopene prostate health supplementA dietary supplement consisting of a blend of 8 natural ingredients with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. This dietary supplement contains vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol), vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol), selenium (as L-selenomethionine), epigallocatechin (green tea extract), saw palmetto (berry extract), lycopene, and the isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein. This combination preparation may decrease prostate cell growth and inhibit prostate carcinogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
698116 cholecystokinin B receptor antagonist YF476An orally active, benzodiazepine type, selective cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR; CCK2R; gastrin receptor) antagonist with potential gastric acid reducing and antiproliferative activity. Upon administration of YF476, this agent selectively binds to and blocks the CCKBR, thereby preventing the binding of gastrin and cholecystokinin. This may prevent gastric neuroendocrine enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell-induced secretion of histamine, ultimately preventing gastric acid secretion from adjacent parietal cells. In addition, YF476 may inhibit ECL cell proliferation and ECL-derived gastric carcinoids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615652 Choletec(Other name for: technetium Tc 99m mebrofenin)
687183 choline kinase alpha inhibitor TCD-717A small-molecule inhibitor of choline kinase alpha (CHKA), with potential antineoplastic activity. TCD-717 targets and binds to CHKA, an enzyme that plays a key role in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Blockade of this enzyme induces cells to activate a different route for phospholipid production which causes a toxic effect and eventually leads to cell destruction. CHKA, overexpressed in human cancer cells while only minimally expressed in normal cells, appears to play a significant role in cellular proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, increased cell motility and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
547294 choline magnesium trisalicylateA nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) belonging to the salicylate family. Choline magnesium trisalicylate inhibits inflammation-related prostaglandin synthesis. This agent's analgesic effect is mediated through peripheral and central pathways, resulting in a decrease in pain perception; its antipyretic effect is mediated via the hypothalamic heat regulation center. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40931 CHOP regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride (doxorubicin hydrochloride), vincristine and prednisone used to treat both indolent and aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
489132 CHP-NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine IMF-001A peptide cancer vaccine containing nanoparticles of cholesteryl hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) complexed with the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 protein, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CHP-NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine IMF-001 may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The self-aggregating CHP, composed of a pullulan backbone and cholesterol branches, forms stable colloidal nanoparticles in water. NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testis, is upregulated in various cancers, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39184 chromomycin A3A glycosidic antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. Chromomycin A3 reversibly binds to guanine-cytosine (G-C) base pairs in the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis. This agent is used as a fluorescent chromosome dye. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
462366 Cialis(Other name for: tadalafil)
514473 ciclopirox olamine lotionA lotion preparation of the olamine salt of ciclopirox, a synthetic hydroxypyridone derivative with broad-spectrum antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ciclopirox may chelate trivalent cations, such as Fe3+ and Al3+, thereby inhibiting the availability of essential metal co-factors for enzymes, which may result in a loss of enzyme activities that are essential for cellular metabolism, organization of cell wall structure, and other crucial cell functions in a wide variety of fungal species. This agent may also disrupt DNA repair, cell division signals and mitotic spindles as well as some elements of intracellular transport in susceptible fungi. Ciclopirox exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
672648 ciclopirox olamine oralAn aqueous suspension of the olamine salt form of ciclopirox, a synthetic, broad-spectrum hydroxypyridone antifungal agent with additional antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Although the exact mechanism of action of ciclopirox has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent is able to chelate trivalent cations, such as Fe3+, thereby inhibiting the availability of essential co-factors for enzymes. This may lead to a loss of activity of enzymes that are essential for cellular metabolism, organization of cell wall structure and other crucial cell functions. In addition, ciclopirox exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42545 cidofovirA synthetic, acyclic, monophosphate nucleotide analog of deoxycytidine with antiviral activity, and mostly used against cytomegalovirus (CMV). After incorporation into the host cell, cidofovir is phosphorylated by pyruvate kinases to its active metabolite cidofovir diphosphate. Cidofovir diphosphate, bearing structural similarity to nucleotides, competes with deoxycytosine-5-triphosphate (dCTP) for viral DNA polymerase and gets incorporated into the growing viral DNA strands. As a result, it prevents further DNA polymerization and disrupts DNA replication of viruses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37844 cilengitideA cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide with potential antineoplastic activity. Cilengitide binds to and inhibits the activities of the alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) integrins, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39185 cimetidineA histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist. Enhancing anti-tumor cell-mediated responses, cimetidine blocks histamine's ability to stimulate suppressor T lymphocyte activity and to inhibit natural killer (NK) cell activity and interleukin-2 production. Cimetidine also may inhibit tumor growth by suppressing histamine's growth-factor activity and blocking histamine-induced stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic growth factor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
662071 cinacalcet hydrochlorideThe orally bioavailable hydrochloride salt of the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Cinacalcet increases the sensitivity of calcium-sensing receptors on chief cells in the parathyroid gland to extracellular calcium, thereby reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. A reduction in PTH levels inhibits osteoclast activity, which may result in a decrease in cortical bone turnover and bone fibrosis, and normalization of serum calcium and phosphorus levels. In addition, by reducing PTH levels, cinacalcet may reduce PSA levels; PTH appears to raise PSA levels and may increase prostate cancer cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
689412 cinobufaginA bufadienolide compound extracted from the dried venom secreted by the parotid glands of toads and one of the glycosides in the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the mechanism of action of cinobufagin is still under investigation, it has been found to suppress cancer cell proliferation and cause apoptosis in cancer cells via a sequence of apoptotic modulators that include mitochondrial Bax and cytosolic chromosome c, and caspases 3, 8, and 9. Possible upstream mediators of cinobufagin-induced apoptosis include Fas and p53. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38095 cintredekin besudotoxA recombinant chimeric protein with potent antitumor activity. Cintredekin besudotox is composed of interleukin-13 (IL13), a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine, linked to a mutated form of pseudomonas exotoxin A; this agent targets and kills tumor cells that express the IL13 receptor (IL13R).The IL13 moiety attaches to the IL13R on the tumor cell membrane, facilitating the entry of the exotoxin. The exotoxin moiety induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, thereby inactivating elongation factor 2 and inhibiting protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40784 Cipro(Other name for: ciprofloxacin)
40784 ciprofloxacinA synthetic broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme essential for DNA replication. This agent is more active against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42346 Circadin(Other name for: therapeutic melatonin)
715688 cis-urocanic acidA derivative of the amino acid histidine, formed in the mammalian skin from trans-urocanic acid upon ultraviolet radiation, and protodynamic agent, with potential anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity. Upon intravesical instillation of cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), this agent is protonated at the imidazolyl moiety in the mildly acidic extracellular tumor environment and penetrates into the cancer cell. Once inside the cell and due to the slightly alkaline pH inside the tumor cell, cis-UCA is deprotonated, i.e. the imidazolyl proton is released into the cytosol which eventually raises the intracellular acidity. This acidification impairs many cellular processes, such as metabolic activity, and may lead to cell cycle arrest, an induction of cellular apoptosis and necrotic cell death. In addition, cis-UCA enhances ERK and JNK signaling pathways by inhibiting the activity of serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
721951 cisatracurium besylateA non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant of the benzylisoquinolinium class. Cisatracurium besylate acts as a competitive acetylcholine antagonist that binds to nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Compared to other neuromuscular blocking agents, it is intermediate in its onset and duration of action. Cisatracurium besylate is used to maintain neuromuscular relaxation during major surgical procedures, primarily to facilitate endotracheal intubation. Cisatracurium besylate can cause bronchospasms, hypotension, and bradycardia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39515 cisplatinAn inorganic platinum agent (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) with antineoplastic activity. Cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42697 cisplatin-e therapeutic implantAn injectable gel comprised of a collagen matrix containing the inorganic platinum (Pt) agent cisplatin and the sympathomimetic agent epinephrine with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection, cisplatin forms highly reactive, positively charged, platinum complexes, which covalently bind to nucleophilic groups in DNA, preferably at the N7 position of guanine bases. This induces both intra- and inter-strand DNA cross-links. In addition, cisplatin forms DNA-Pt-protein cross-links. Cross-link formation results in both the induction of apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Epinephrine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is added to the gel to both enhance the penetration of cisplatin into tumor tissue and reduce its dispersion into the surrounding tissues. Intratumoral injection of cisplatin-E therapeutic implant may increase local chemotherapeutic efficacy, as compared to the systemic administration of cisplatin, while reducing its systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42657 Cistane(Other name for: isotretinoin)
500063 citalopram hydrobromideThe orally bioavailable hydrobromide salt of the racemic bicyclic phthalene derivative citalopram with antidepressant activity. As a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram selectively inhibits the CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin, thereby potentiating serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS). This agent has minimal effects on the CNS neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
555692 citatuzumab bogatoxA fusion protein immunotoxin consisting of a humanized, single-chain monoclonal antibody Fab fragment specific for the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) conjugated with a modified bouganin cytotoxin with potential antineoplastic activity. Citatuzumab bogatox binds to EpCAM, delivering modified bouganin cytotoxin directly to EpCam-positive tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell protein synthesis and tumor cell death. EpCAM, a cell surface protein, is expressed by a variety of tumor cells and is frequently found in head and neck cancers. Bouganin is a plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), a toxic plant N-glycosidase that depurinates the universally conserved alpha-sarcin loop of ribosomal rRNA, inactivating the ribosome and preventing protein synthesis. Compared to unmodified bouganins, modified bouganins may have a reduced propensity to activate human T cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
699634 citicolineA nutritional supplement and source of choline and cytidine with potential neuroprotective and nootropic activity. Citicoline, also known as cytidine-5-diphosphocholine or CDP-choline, is hydrolyzed into cytidine and choline in the intestine. Following absorption, both cytidine and choline are dispersed, utilized in various biosynthesis pathways, and cross the blood-brain barrier for resynthesis into citicoline in the brain, which is the rate-limiting product in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. This agent also increases acetylcholine (Ach), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, citicoline is involved in the preservation of sphingomyelin and cardiolipin and the restoration of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Citicoline also increases glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity, and exerts antiapoptotic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
41817 Citracal(Other name for: calcium citrate)
480467 Citroma(Other name for: magnesium citrate)
747593 Civacir(Other name for: hepatitis C immune globulin intravenous)
561575 cixutumumabA fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Cixutumumab selectively binds to membrane-bound IGF-1R, thereby preventing the binding of the natural ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Downregulation of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway may result in the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and may decrease cancer cellular proliferation. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily overexpressed by many cancer cell types, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF-1R signaling has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
737263 CK2-targeting synthetic peptide CIGB-300A synthetic peptide targeting the substrates of casein kinase 2 (CK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and nucleolar localization, CK2-targeting synthetic peptide CIGB-300 binds to phosphoacceptor sites on the CK2’s substrates, in particular the oncoprotein nucleophosmin (B23 or NPM1). This blocks the activation of B23 and induces apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth in susceptible tumor cells. CK2, a protein kinase often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, appears to be correlated with malignant transformation, tumor growth and survival. Overexpression of B23 has been correlated with increased cellular growth and proliferation as well as inhibition of differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41184 cladribineA purine nucleoside antimetabolite analogue. Cladribine triphosphate, a phosphorylated metabolite of cladribine, incorporates into DNA, resulting in single-strand breaks in DNA, depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and apoptosis. Because this agent is resistant to adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that inactivates some antineoplastic agents, it is selectively toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes which exhibit little deoxynucleotide deaminase activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39748 Clafen(Other name for: cyclophosphamide)
39177 Claforan(Other name for: cefotaxime)
42657 Claravis(Other name for: isotretinoin)
652199 Clarinol(Other name for: conjugated linoleic acid)
42308 clarithromycinA semisynthetic 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic. Clarithromycin binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis in susceptible organisms. Clarithromycin has been shown to eradicate gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas, presumably due to the eradication of tumorigenic Helicobacter pylori infection. This agent also acts as a biological response modulator, possibly inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth through alterations in growth factor expression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
742117 Claritin(Other name for: loratadine)
558909 Class 1 PI3K family inhibitor XL147An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) family of lipid kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Class 1 PI3K kinase family inhibitor XL147 reversibly binds to class 1 PI3Ks in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K signaling pathway; this may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents including genotoxic agents and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
647103 claudiximabA monoclonal antibody directed against the antigen GC182 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, claudiximab specifically binds to GC128, which may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against GC182-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation. The CD20-like antigen GC182, a gastric differentiation protein, is often overexpressed on the cell surfaces of a variety of tumor cells, including gastric, pancreatic, esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
652185 clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsionAn injectable phospholipid emulsion containing the butyrate salt of the synthetic, short-acting, dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel antagonist clevidipine with antihypertensive activity. Clevidipine specifically binds to calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting the influx of extracellular calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle cells. This results in dilatation of systemic arteries, a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and so a decrease in arterial blood pressure. This agent is metabolized by esterases in the blood and extravascular tissues to an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
652185 Cleviprex(Other name for: clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion)
691979 clevudineA synthetic pyrimidine analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Intracellularly, clevudine is phosphorylated to its active metabolites, clevudine monophosphate and triphosphate. The triphosphate metabolite competes with thymidine for incorporation into viral DNA, thereby causing DNA chain termination and inhibiting the function of HBV DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). Clevudine has a long half-life and shows significant reduction of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), therefore the patient is less likely to have a relapse after treatment is discontinued. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751579 clindamycin phosphateThe phosphate salt form of clindamycin, a semi-synthetic, chlorinated broad spectrum antibiotic produced by chemical modification of lincomycin. Clindamycin phosphate is used in topical preparations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
552702 clindamycin/hydrocortisone lotionA topical lotion, containing clindamycin and hydrocortisone, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Clindamycin, a lincomycin antibiotic, binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. As a glucocorticoid agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
588950 Clino-San vaginal lubricantA vaginal lubricant formulated as a topical gel used to prevent and treat vaginal dryness. With a pH similar to that of normal vaginal discharge, Clino-San vaginal lubricant may reduce dryness, pain and irritation often caused by insufficient vaginal discharge due to atrophy of the vulvovaginal mucosa. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
753387 ClinOleic(Other name for: olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin-based emulsion)
41538 Clinoril(Other name for: sulindac)
653982 clioquinolAn orally bioavailable, lipophilic, copper-binding, halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline with antifungal, antiparasitic and potential antitumor activities. Clioquinol forms a stable chelate with copper (copper (II) ions), which inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome; consequently, ubiquitinated proteins may accumulate in tumor cells, followed by tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, the clioquinol-copper complex appears to decrease the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human copper-enriched prostate cancer cells. Serum levels of copper are often elevated in patients with cancer; copper chelation may inhibit copper-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and tumor secretion of angiogenic factors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
547027 clobetasol propionateThe propionate salt form of clobetasol, a topical synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Clobetasol propionate exerts its effect by binding to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. This results in synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins, while inhibiting the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators. Specifically, clobetasol propionate appears to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, thereby controlling the release of the inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41862 clodronate disodiumThe disodium salt of a nitrogen-free bisphosphonate analog of naturally occurring pyrophosphate. Clodronate binds to calcium and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and hydroxyapatite crystal formation and dissolution, resulting in a reduction of bone turnover. This agent may control malignancy-associated hypercalcemia, inhibit osteolytic bone metastasis and decrease pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
257309 clofarabineA second generation purine nucleoside analog with antineoplastic activity. Clofarabine is phosphorylated intracellularly to the cytotoxic active 5'-triphosphate metabolite, which inhibits the enzymatic activities of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA polymerase, resulting in inhibition of DNA repair and synthesis of DNA and RNA. This nucleoside analog also disrupts mitochondrial function and membrane integrity, resulting in the release of pre-apoptotic factors, including cytochrome C and apoptotic-inducing factor, which activate apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
257309 Clofarex(Other name for: clofarabine)
42108 clofibrateAn aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
257309 Clolar(Other name for: clofarabine)
39542 Clomid(Other name for: clomiphene citrate)
39542 clomiphene citrateThe citrate salt form of clomiphene, a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal ovulatory stimulant evaluated for antineoplastic activity against breast cancer. Clomiphene has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities that compete with estrogen for binding at estrogen receptor sites in target tissues. This agent causes the release of the pituitary gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), leading to ovulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41228 clonidine hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt form of clonidine, an imidazoline derivate and centrally-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist as well as antagonist with antihypertensive activity. Clonidine hydrochloride binds to and stimulates central alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thereby decreasing sympathetic outflow to the heart, kidneys, and peripheral vasculature. The reduction in sympathetic outflow, leads to decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased blood pressure, and decreased heart rate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
703399 Clonidine Lauriad(Other name for: clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet)
703399 clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tabletAn extended release, proprietary mucoadhesive buccal tablet formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of clonidine, the imidazoline derivative and adrenergic alpha 2 receptor agonist, with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon contact of the tablet with the buccal mucosa, clonidine binds to the adrenergic receptors on macrophages and lymphocytes and may reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). As a result, this agent may prevent chemoradiation therapy-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38611 clopidogrel bisulfateA thienopyridine with antiplatelet activity. Clopidogrel bisulfate irreversibly alters the platelet receptor for adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thereby blocking the binding of ADP to its receptor, inhibiting ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein complex GPIIb/IIIa, and inhibiting fibrinogen binding to platelets and platelet adhesion and aggregation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38440 Cloretazine(Other name for: laromustine)
502157 Clostridium novyi-NT sporesSpores of Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated strain of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium novyi, with potential immunostimulating and oncolytic activities. Upon intravenous administration, Clostridium novyi-NT spores germinate exclusively in hypoxic tissue, such as avascular regions of tumors. Germination results in lysis and destruction of surrounding viable tumor cells. Although C. novyi-NT spores do not proliferate in oxygenated tumor regions, they may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytolytic immune response against tumor cells, both hypoxic and well-oxygenated. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39116 clotrimazoleA synthetic, imidazole derivate with broad-spectrum, antifungal activity. Clotrimazole inhibits biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, thereby damaging and affecting the permeability of the cell membrane. This results in leakage and loss of essential intracellular compounds, and eventually causes cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
748867 cMet CAR-mRNA electroporated autologous T lymphocytesA preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been electroporated with an mRNA encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or cMet) scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta) coupled to the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, cMet CAR-mRNA electroporated autologous T lymphocytes direct T-cells to cMet-expressing tumor cells, which induces a selective toxicity in cMet-expressing tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of cMet. The inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity as compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. The mRNA CAR is expressed for a limited amount of time, which can prevent serious, unforeseen side effects. cMet, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39060 CMF regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, which may be used in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer or alone for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)
273709 CMV pp65 peptideA peptide derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) internal matrix protein pp65. CMV pp65 peptide antigen is used in recombinant vaccinia virus as an HLA-A-restricted epitope to produce vaccines and specific CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses against CMV infection, a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In BMT, CMV infection may be prevented by passive immunization with donor-derived CMV-pp65-specific T-cell clones if provided early post-BMT. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
599982 CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccineA peptide-based cancer vaccine containing a mutated form of the HLA-A*0201-restricted cytomegaloviral epitope CMVpp65(495-503) with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV-positive cells, resulting in cell lysis. HLA-A*0201 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*0201 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. CMVpp65, a tegument protein of the herpes virus CMV, is the main viral antigen found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after viral infection and may activate cell-mediated immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
753682 CMVpp65/gB plasmid vaccine ASP0113A poloxamer-formulated, bivalent DNA vaccine containing two plasmids encoding both the human cytomegaloviral (CMV) tegument phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), a major internal matrix protein, and glycoprotein B (gB), an important CMV component responsible for attachment and entry into cells, with potential immunostimulatory properties. Upon intramuscular injection of CMVpp65/gB plasmid vaccine ASP0113, the expressed proteins may activate the immune system to mount both cellular and humoral immune responses against CMV-positive cells. This results in cell lysis of CMV-infected cells and prevents both viral replication and the development of CMV disease. This vaccine also provides active immunization and protective immunity against CMV infection in CMV-negative patients exposed to infected donor cells or tissues in transplant recipients. CMV infection can cause serious complications in patients receiving either allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) or solid organ transplants. The poloxamer-based delivery system enhances DNA delivery. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
724577 CNDO-109-activated allogeneic natural killer cellsA preparation of non-interleukin-2 primed, tumor activated allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells with potential immunostimulating activity. The allogeneic NK cells obtained from a first or second degree relative of the patient are co-incubated with a lysate from the CTV-1 cell line, a minimally differentiated myeloid line derived from an acute myelogenous leukemia patient. Infusion of CNDO-109-activated allogeneic NK cells may be able to lyse and destroy NK-resistant tumor cells and a broad spectrum of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
403156 CNGRC peptide-TNF alpha conjugateA cytokine-peptide conjugate composed of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) chemically linked to the peptide CNGRC. The peptide moiety CNGRC, a ligand for the membrane-bound metalloprotease CD13, binds to endothelial cells of the angiogenic vasculature that express CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N); subsequently, the TNF-alpha moiety induces apoptosis in endothelial cells expressing CD13, thereby inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39740 Co-Rax(Other name for: warfarin)
551654 cobimetinibAn orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 or MEK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Cobimetinib specifically binds to and inhibits the catalytic activity of MEK1, resulting in inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation and activation and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is effective in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells bearing a B-RAF mutation, which has been found to be associated with many tumor types. A threonine-tyrosine kinase and a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that is frequently activated in human tumors, MEK1 is required for the transmission of growth-promoting signals from numerous receptor tyrosine kinases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
529346 Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extractA homeopathic herbal formulation with potential anti-emetic activity. Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract contains equal homeopathic units of the following extracts: extract of Cocculus indicus (fish berry), the fruit of the southeast Asian/Indian climbing plant Anamirta cocculus; extract of the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica (poison nut), an evergreen tree native to southeast Asia; extract of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); and petroleum. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action for this formulation has yet to be fully elucidated, alkaloids in these plant extracts have been shown to relieve nausea, vomiting, and, in some cases, dizziness. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40563 codeine phosphateThe phosphate salt of codeine, a naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloid and opioid agonist with analgesic, antidiarrheal and antitussive activities. Codeine mimics the actions of endogenous opioids by binding to the opioid receptors at many sites within the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulation of mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a decrease in the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the codeine metabolite morphine induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Stimulation of gut mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a reduction in intestinal motility and delayed intestinal transit times. Antitussive activity is mediated through codeine’s action on the cough center in the medulla. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39187 coenzyme Q10A naturally occurring benzoquinone important in electron transport in mitochondrial membranes. Coenzyme-Q functions as an endogenous antioxidant; deficiencies of this enzyme have been observed in patients with many different types of cancer and limited studies have suggested that coenzyme-Q may induce tumor regression in patients with breast cancer. This agent may have immunostimulatory effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
405875 CoFactor(Other name for: folitixorin)
757510 coffee dietary supplementA dietary supplement containing coffee, with potential gastrointestinal (GI) tract stimulating activity. Following consumption of the dietary supplement, the coffee may both stimulate peristalsis and increase bowel movement. The supplement may also stimulate the central nervous system, suppress appetite and cause weight loss. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39188 colchicineAn alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale with anti-gout and anti-inflammatory activities. The exact mechanism of action by which colchicine exerts its effect has not been completely established. Colchicine binds to tubulin, thereby interfering with the polymerization of tubulin, interrupting microtubule dynamics, and disrupting mitosis. This leads to an inhibition of migration of leukocytes and other inflammatory cells, thereby reducing the inflammatory response to deposited urate crystals. Colchicine may also interrupt the cycle of monosodium urate crystal deposition in joint tissues, thereby also preventing the resultant inflammatory response. Overall, colchicine decreases leukocyte chemotaxis/migration and phagocytosis to inflamed areas, and inhibits the formation and release of a chemotactic glycoprotein that is produced during phagocytosis of urate crystals. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
629499 cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131An I 131 radioiodinated synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, manufactured with a proprietary process, with radioisotopic and potential antineoplastic activities. cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131 (MIBG) localizes to adrenergic tissue and may be used to image or eradicate tumor cells that accumulate and metabolize norepinephrine. This agent is manufactured using a technology that avoids the production of unwanted "cold contaminants" (i.e., carrier molecules), which may cause undesirable side effects and compete with MIBG for binding on target receptor sites. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
715600 COLD-fX(Other name for: North American ginseng extract AFX-2)
542697 collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogelA topical preparation containing collagen, aloe vera, vitamin E, and lidocaine hydrochloride with wound-healing activity. The four ingredients of collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel may promote wound repair and new tissue growth in which : collagen, a structural protein in connective tissue, provides a connective tissue matrix for the attachment of various cells involved in wound repair; aloe vera carbohydrate polymers provide a moist wound environment; vitamin E promotes blood vessel formation; and lidocaine acts as a local anesthetic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
492715 colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factorA nanoparticle delivery system for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) consisting of recombinant TNF bound to pegylated colloidal gold nanoparticles with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, colloidal gold-bound recombinant human TNF travels through the bloodstream, avoiding immune detection and uptake by the reticuloendothelial system because of nanoparticle pegylation. Due to their size, the colloidal gold nanoparticles exit the circulatory system only at hyperpermeable tumor neovasculature sites; TNF then binds to and activates tumor cell TNF receptors, which may result in an increase in tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Compared to the administration of unbound TNF, colloidal gold-bound TNF may improve the efficacy and safety of TNF administration by delivering TNF specifically to tumor tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
708406 colloidal oatmeal creamA colloidal oatmeal-based skin cream with potential moisturizing and skin protecting activity. Upon application to the skin, colloidal oatmeal cream forms a protective barrier and thereby prevents water loss, provides moisture to the skin and protects the skin from damage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
39059 Colprosterone(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)
423355 Combidex(Other name for: ferumoxtran-10)
538436 Combotox(Other name for: deglycosylated ricin A chain-conjugated anti-CD19/anti-CD22 immunotoxins)
653978 combretastatin A1 diphosphateThe diphosphate prodrug of the stilbenoid combretastatin A1, originally isolated from the plant Combretum caffrum, with vascular-disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, combretastatin A1 diphosphate (CA1P) is dephosphorylated to the active metabolite combretastatin A1 (CA1), which promotes rapid microtubule depolymerization; endothelial cell mitotic arrest and apoptosis, destruction of the tumor vasculature, disruption of tumor blood flow and tumor cell necrosis may ensue. In addition, orthoquinone intermediates, metabolized from combretastatin A1 by oxidative enzymes found to be elevated levels in some tumor types, may bind to tumor cell thiol-specific antioxidant proteins and DNA, and stimulate oxidative stress by enhancing superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production. CA1 binds to tubulin at the same site as colchicine but with higher affinity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
461103 Cometriq(Other name for: cabozantinib-s-malate)
662920 Commit(Other name for: nicotine lozenge)
39740 Compound 42(Other name for: warfarin)
573083 conatumumabA fully human monoclonal agonist antibody directed against the extracellular domain of human TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptor 2 (TR-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Conatumumab mimics the activity of native TRAIL, binding to and activating TR-2, thereby activating caspase cascades and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. TR-2 is expressed by a variety of solid tumors and cancers of hematopoietic origin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
734496 Concentraid(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)
758144 concentrated beet crystalsA formulation containing concentrated beetroot crystals, with potential antioxidant and protective activities. Concentrated beetroot crystals contain antioxidants, including betacyanin, which scavenge free radicals, and high levels of nitrates and folic acid. Intake of concentrated beetroot crystals leads to the conversion of nitrate to nitric oxide (NO). This may have a beneficial effect on blood flow and blood pressure through the stimulation of NO-mediated vasodilation. Additionally, this agent may decrease fatigue and increase physical performance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41225 Concerta(Other name for: methylphenidate hydrochloride)
723690 conditionally replicative adenovirus 5/3-delta24A replication competent, oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) with its knob domain of fiber protein substituted by that of the serotype 3 (Ad5/3-delta24), with potential oncolytic activity. Upon administration, oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-delta24 binds to specific Ad3 receptors that are highly expressed on certain tumor cells. This results in the replication of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-delta24 in tumor cells and induces tumor cell lysis which may potentially result in the activation of a systemic immune response against tumor-associated antigens. The Ad5/3-delta24 has a 24 base-pair deletion in constant region 2 of the E1A gene which allows for selective replication in cells that are defective in the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A or p16INK4a). As most tumor cells are defective in the Rb/p16 pathway, this virus selectively replicates in these cells. The replacement of the Ad5 fiber knob, which mediates viral-cell receptor binding, allows for a Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR)-independent infection of tumor cells; CAR expression is often deficient on cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
39237 conjugated estrogensPurified orally bioavailable female sex hormones isolated from pregnant mare urine or synthetically derived from plant materials and primarily conjugated as sulfate esters. Estrogen binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, resulting in histone acetylation, alteration of chromatin conformation, and initiation of transcription. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
652199 conjugated linoleic acidA slightly altered form of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid important to human health found in beef and dairy fats. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41340 Constant-T(Other name for: theophylline)
756789 contrast agent CS-1000An aqueous colloidal nanoemulsion containing perfluorocarbon (PFC) polymers that can be used as a tracer for cell tracking purposes during fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Upon administration of the contrast agent CS-1000 to cells ex vivo, this agent freely enters the cells. Upon introduction of these cells into the patient and subsequent 19F MRI, the amount of fluorine can be detected and cellular persistence, survival and distribution of the treated cells can be assessed. The emulsion allows for fast entry of the fluorinated polymers into cells; the polymers do not degrade and remain in the cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
653981 copanlisibA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Copanlisib inhibits the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
656998 COPP regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine and prednisone used for the treatment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)
749986 COPP-ABV regimenA regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone and procarbazine (COPP) alternating with doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine (ABV), used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
747224 copper Cu 62 ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone)A radiopharmaceutical composed of the nonspecific perfusion agent ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone) (ETS) linked to the beta-emitting, radioisotope copper Cu 62, with potential tumor imaging activity upon positron emitting tomography (PET). Upon injection, copper Cu 62-ETS distributes to various organs, especially the kidneys and the myocardium. Upon PET imaging, tumor blood flow can be visualized and the efficacy of antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutics can be assessed. Cu62-ETS has a short half life of 9.74 minutes. ETS has an enhanced hyperemic response compared to other perfusion agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
756429 copper Cu 62-ATSMA radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic, neutral, bioreductive copper-bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, copper-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM), labeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 62, with hypoxia-selective and positron emitting tomography (PET) radioimaging activities. With a high membrane permeability and low reduction potential, copper Cu 62-ATSM easily enters cells. This agent can only be reduced by mitochondria found in hypoxic cells with abnormally high electron concentrations. This chemical reaction traps Cu 62-ATSM in the cell, which allows for the selective accumulation of this agent in hypoxic cells compared to normoxic cells. The extent of copper Cu 62-ATSM retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia with PET. This provides information about diagnosis, prognosis, treatment options and outcomes for certain cancers. The short half-life of copper Cu 62 (9.7 minutes) reduces the amount of radiation a patient is subjected to and allows for several imaging studies to be performed. Hypoxic tumors are associated with increased malignancy and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
756428 copper Cu 62-PTSMA radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic, bioreductive copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, copper-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-PTSM), linked to the beta-emitting, radioisotope copper Cu 62, with potential perfusion and positron emitting tomography (PET) tumor imaging activities. Upon injection, the distribution of copper Cu 62-PTSM correlates with blood flow. This agent’s high membrane permeability allows for rapid diffusion into cells. Once it enters the cell, 62Cu-PTSM is then reduced by the mitochondria, which prevents diffusion of the agent out of the cell. Upon PET imaging, tumor blood flow can be visualized and tumor perfusion can be assessed. Compared with other copper radionuclides, the short half-life of copper Cu 62 (9.7 minutes) reduces the amount of radiation a patient is subjected to and allows for several imaging studies to be performed. PTSM lacks selectivity for hypoxic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
758399 copper Cu 64 plerixaforA radioconjugate labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope, copper Cu 64, and also composed of plerixafor, a bicyclam and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilizing agent that targets the chemokine receptor CXCR4, with tumor imaging potential using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Upon administration, the plerixafor moiety blocks the binding of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha or CXCL12) to the cellular receptor CXCR4. In turn, the CXCR4-expressing tumor cells can be visualized using PET/CT and the resulting images could be used to predict a tumor's response to certain treatments. The expression of CXCR4 on cancer cells has been correlated with increased tumor cell survival, tumor progression, and increased metastatic potential. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
712836 copper Cu 64 TP3805A peptide analog of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) radiolabeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic ability upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The peptide moiety of copper Cu 64 TP3805 is able to bind to vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide receptors 1 (VPAC1). Upon PET imaging, the cancer cells expressing VPAC1 can be visualized and this may allow for early detection. The oncogenic product VPAC1 is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, moreover, it is overexpressed in 100% of breast tumors at the onset of the cancer. Compared to other positron-emitting radioisotopes, Cu 64 has a longer half life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
588359 copper Cu 64 trastuzumabA diagnostic radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64. Copper Cu 64 trastuzumab binds to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), allowing the detection of HER2 distribution using positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
626166 copper Cu 64-ATSMA radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazone) labeled with the positron- and beta-emitting isotope (64)Cu with hypoxia-selective and antineoplastic activities. With a high membrane permeability and redox potential, copper Cu 64-ATSM is preferentially taken up by hypoxic cells compared to normoxic cells; the extent of retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia by positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, the radioactive copper moiety of this agent may deliver a selective cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to hypoxic tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
761239 copper Cu 64-DOTA-AE105A radiotracer composed of AE105, a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) peptide antagonist, conjugated with DOTA and labeled with the radionuclide copper Cu 64, with potential imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, the AE105 moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-AE105 targets and binds to uPAR-expressing tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, the copper Cu 64 moiety can be visualized, uPAR-expressing tumor cells can be quantified and the degree of tumor aggressiveness can be assessed. uPAR expression is correlated with increased tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness as well as a poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
718878 copper Cu 64-DOTA-anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody U3-1287A radioimmunoconjugate of the fully human monoclonal antibody against the third member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER3 or ERBB3, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody U3-1287 binds to and blocks the activation of HER3, thereby resulting in the inhibition of EGFR-dependent PI3K/AKT signaling and the subsequent inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. The Cu 64 moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER3-expressing tumor cells. HER3, which lacks the kinase domain conveying ligand-binding signaling by forming heterodimers with other EGFR members that have kinase activity, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
724695 copper Cu 64-DOTA-rituximabA radioimmunoconjugate containing rituximab, a recombinant chimeric murine/human antibody directed against the human CD20 antigen, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The monoclonal antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-Rituximab specifically binds to cell surface antigen CD20. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CD20-expressing tumor cells. CD20 is a non-glycosylated phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
667958 copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumabA radioimmunoconjugate containing the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent. The trastuzumab moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase and client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
614606 copper gluconateThe orally bioavailable copper salt of D-gluconic acid. In addition to its roles as an enzyme cofactor for cytochrome C oxidase and superoxide dismutase, copper forms complexes with the thiocarbamate disulfiram (DSF) forming DSF-copper complexes, which enhances the DSF-mediated inhibition of the 26S proteasome; proteasome inhibition may result in inhibition of cellular protein degradation, cessation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cellular proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39410 Cordarone(Other name for: amiodarone hydrochloride)
42667 cordycepinA purine nucleoside antimetabolite and antibiotic isolated from the fungus Cordyceps militaris with potential antineoplastic activity. Cordycepin is an adenosine analogue, which is readily phosphorylated to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate intracellularly. Triphosphate cordycepin can be incorporated into RNA, and inhibits transcription elongation and RNA synthesis due to the absence of a hydroxyl moiety at the 3' position. Because it can be converted to an inactive metabolite by adenosine deaminase, this agent must be administered with an adenosine deaminase inhibitor in order to be effective. Cordycepin has displayed cytotoxicity against some leukemic cell lines in vitro. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
700417 Coreg(Other name for: carvedilol)
658712 Coreg CR(Other name for: carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsule)
659002 Corgard(Other name for: nadolol)
594403 Coriolus versicolor extractAn extract derived from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor, containing polysaccharide K (PSK) and polysaccharide-peptide (PSP), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Coriolus versicolor extract has been shown to stimulate the production of lymphocytes and cytokines, such as interferons and interleukins, and may exhibit antioxidant activities. However, the precise mechanism of action(s) of this agent is unknown. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39274 Cort-Dome(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
43296 Cortalone(Other name for: prednisolone)
39274 Cortef(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
39274 Cortenema(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
385686 corticorelin acetateA synthetic therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous human corticotropin-releasing factor (hCRF). Synthesized in the hypothalamus, hCRF stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In cerebral edema, hCRF acts by impeding the flow of fluid from blood vessels into brain tissue, thereby decreasing edema and stabilizing intracranial pressure. This agent possesses anti-edema properties independent of adrenal gland function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
742019 corticotropin-releasing hormoneA hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and regulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39274 Cortispray(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
39274 Cortril(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
38293 Corynebacterium granulosum P40An insoluble fraction isolated from the bacterium Corynebacterium granulosum with potential cancer immunotherapeutic activity. As a non-specific immunostimulant, Corynebacterium granulosum P40 activates the reticulo-endothelial system; induces the production of certain cytokines; enhances macrophage activity; and potentiates a delayed-type hypersensitivity response when co-administered with an antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39675 Cosmegen(Other name for: dactinomycin)
43561 Cotara(Other name for: iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody TNT-1/B)
39724 Cotrim(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
39740 Coumadin(Other name for: warfarin)
42491 coumarinO hydroxycinnamic acid. Pleasant smelling compound found in many plants and released on wilting. Has anticoagulant activity by competing with Vitamin K. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
486330 coxsackievirus A21A naturally occurring enterovirus with potential antitumor activity. Upon intratumoral administration, coxsackievirus A21 targets and binds to intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and decay acceleration factor (DAF), both cell surface molecules that are both overexpressed on certain malignant cells. After entering the cells, coxsackievirus A21 replicates in these cancer cells, thereby causing cancer cell lysis. This results in a reduction of tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
640981 Cozaar(Other name for: losartan potassium)
285619 CP-724,714An orally bioavailable quinazoline with potential antineoplastic activity. CP-724,714 selectively binds to the intracellular domain of HER2, reversibly inhibiting its tyrosine kinase activity and resulting in suppression of tumor cell growth. HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is overexpressed in many adenocarcinomas, particularly breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
467169 CpG oligodeoxynucleotideA synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, containing unmethylated CpG motifs derived from bacterial DNA, with immunostimulatory activities. A CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) binds to and activates a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and is taken up into cells by endocytosis; once internalized, it may activate numerous signaling transduction pathways resulting in the release of multiple cytokines. Through activation of TLR9, a CpG ODN can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and NK cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Additionally, a CpG ODN can indirectly modulate T-cell responses, through the release of cytokines (IL-12 and IFN gamma), to induce a preferential shift to the Th1 (helper) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ cellular cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
662816 CpG oligodeoxynucleotide GNKG168A synthetic, 21-mer, unmethylated CpG motif-based oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), with immunostimulatory activity. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide GNKG168 binds to and activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and is taken up into cells by endocytosis; once internalized, it may activate numerous signaling transduction pathways resulting in the release of multiple cytokines, such as immunoglobulins (Igs), interferons (IFNs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Through activation of TLR9, this ODN can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, through the release of IL-12 and IFN, this agent may induce a preferential shift to the T-helper 1(Th1) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
699385 CR2-fH fusion protein TT30A recombinant, chimeric human fusion protein consisting of the iC3b/C3d-binding region of human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) linked to the alternative complement pathway (ACP) inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH) (CR2-fH), with potential complement system inhibiting activity. Via its C3 binding domain, TT30 selectively binds to complement-activated cell surfaces and via its fH binding domain regulates ACP activity. This suppresses excessive complement activity and may result in an inhibition of ACP-mediated hemolysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) red blood cells (RBCs) as well as preventing ACP-induced tissue damage. Factor H is a key regulator in the activation of ACP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
361777 creatine monohydrateThe monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
518325 crenolanibAn orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Crenolanib binds to and inhibits PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of PDGFR-related signal transduction pathways, and, so, the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. PDGFR, up-regulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to cell migration and the development of the microvasculature. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43514 Creon(Other name for: pancrelipase)
758316 cridanimod sodiumThe sodium salt form of cridanimod, a small molecule that can increase progesterone receptor (PR) expression, with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon intramuscular administration, cridanimod is able to induce the expression of PR in endometrial cancer. This could increase the sensitivity of endometrial cancer cells to progestin monotherapy. In combination with a progestin, cancer cells could be eradicated through increased PR-mediated signaling, leading to an inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary gland, via a negative feedback mechanism, and, eventually, an inhibition of estrogen release from the ovaries. This leads to an inhibition of cellular growth in estrogen-dependent tumor cells. In addition, this agent is able to increase the production and release of interferon (IFN) alpha and beta. PR is often downregulated in endometrial cancer and makes it resistant to progestin-mediated hormone therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41146 Cristanaspase(Other name for: asparaginase)
42594 Crixivan(Other name for: indinavir sulfate)
586080 crizotinibAn orally available aminopyridine-based inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Crizotinib, in an ATP-competitive manner, binds to and inhibits ALK kinase and ALK fusion proteins. In addition, crizotinib inhibits c-Met kinase, and disrupts the c-Met signaling pathway. Altogether, this agent inhibits tumor cell growth. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
536028 crolibulinA small molecule tubulin polymerization inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Crolibulin binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, which may result in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As a vascular disruption agent (VDA), this agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, which may result in a reduction in tumor blood flow and tumor hypoxia and ischemic necrosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42541 crotoxinA specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
683963 crystalline genistein formulation AXP107-11An orally available crystalline formulation of genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone and phytoestrogen with potential antineoplastic, chemosensitizing, and antioxidant activities. Similar to genistein, crystalline genistein formulation AXP107-11 increases expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which deactivates protein kinase Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK1 and 3; ERK2 and 1), thereby disrupting PI3K/Akt signal transduction and inducing apoptosis. This agent also induces antioxidant enzymes through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibits NF-kB activation and decreases inflammation response, thereby sensitizing tumors to chemotherapy. Compared to genistein itself, this crystalline formulation shows improved solubility and bioavailability. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
702917 CTP-37-DT vaccineA vaccine composed of synthetic peptides derived from beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid. Vaccination with this peptide may elicit the host immune response against hCG-producing cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
469015 Cubicin(Other name for: daptomycin)
468840 Culturelle(Other name for: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG)
42546 Cuprenil(Other name for: penicillamine)
42546 Cuprimine(Other name for: penicillamine)
43115 curcuminA phytopolylphenol pigment isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric, with a variety of pharmacologic properties. Curcumin blocks the formation of reactive-oxygen species, possesses anti-inflammatory properties as a result of inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX) and other enzymes involved in inflammation; and disrupts cell signal transduction by various mechanisms including inhibition of protein kinase C. These effects may play a role in the agent's observed antineoplastic properties, which include inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of chemically induced carcinogenesis and tumor growth in animal models of cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
612154 curcumin/green tea extract/Polygonum cuspidatum extract/soybean extract capsuleAn oral capsule containing curcumin, green tea extract, Polygonum cuspidatum extract, and soybean extract, with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. The antioxidants in curcumin/green tea extract/Polygonum cuspidatum extract/soybean extract capsule bind to and neutraliize free-radicals, which may prevent their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39813 Curretab(Other name for: medroxyprogesterone)
271195 custirsen sodiumThe eicosasodium salt of a mixed-backbone antisense oligodeoxynucleotide with chemosensitizing properties. Custirsen inhibits testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2). Administration of custirsen abrogates the anti-apoptotic effect of TRPM-2, thereby sensitizing cells to chemotherapy and resulting in tumor cell death. TRPM-2 is an anti-apoptotic clusterin that is overexpressed by prostate cancer cells and is associated with chemoresistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
657030 CVP regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone used for the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)
659935 CXCR4 antagonist BL-8040An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) with potential antineoplastic activity. CXCR4 antagonist BL-8040 selectively binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, inhibition of CXCR4 may induce mobilization of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow into blood. The G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
661023 CXCR4 antagonist TG-0054An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with receptor binding and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilization activities. CXCR4 inhibitor TG-0054 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, thereby preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation; this may the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow into blood. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
586491 CXCR4 inhibitor MSX-122An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4 with potential antineoplastic and antiviral activities. CXCR4 inhibitor MSX-122 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) to the CXCR4 receptor and receptor activation, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; it is also a co-receptor for HIV entry into T cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
672350 CXCR4 inhibitor POL6326An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with receptor binding and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilization activities. CXCR4 inhibitor POL6326 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, thereby preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation. This may induce the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow into blood. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
703819 CXCR4 peptide antagonist LY2510924An inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, CXCR4 inhibitor LY2510924 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, thereby preventing CXCR4 binding to its ligand, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and subsequent receptor activation. This may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40295 cyanocobalaminAn essential nutrient and natural water-soluble vitamin of the B-complex family that must combine with an intrinsic factor for absorption by the intestine. Cyanocobalamin is necessary for hematopoiesis, neural metabolism, DNA and RNA production, and carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. B12 improves iron functions in the metabolic cycle and assists folic acid in choline synthesis. B12 metabolism is interconnected with that of folic acid. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and neurologic lesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
706714 cyclin B1 peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccineA cell-based cancer vaccine comprised of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with cyclin B1 peptide, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, cyclin B1 peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and anti-cyclin B1 antibody responses against cyclin B1-expressing cancer cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Cyclin B1, a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell division, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751769 cyclobenzaprine hydrochlorideA centrally acting muscle relaxant, chemically similar to amitriptyline hydrochloride with antidepressant activity. The exact mechanism of action of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride has not been fully determined. However, it primarily acts at the brain stem to reduce tonic somatic motor activity, influencing both gamma and alpha motor neurons. This leads to a reduction in muscle spasms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
489507 cyclodextrin-based polymer-camptothecin CRLX101A formulation of camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata, conjugated with to a hydrophilic, cyclodextrin-based linear polymer with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, camptothecin is slowly released from the formulation at the tumor site and taken up by tumor cells. During the S phase of the cell cycle, camptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. Compared to camptothecin alone, the cyclodextrin-based polymer formulation has a prolonged half life and greatly improves the biodistribution of camptothecin resulting in an accumulation of camptothecin at the tumor site, which enhances tumor exposure while greatly reducing toxic side effects. In addition, cyclodextrin-based polymer-camptothecin may be able to overcome certain kinds of multidrug resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751769 Cycloflex(Other name for: cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride)
39200 cycloleucineA non-metabolizable synthetic amino acid, formed through the cyclization of the amino acid leucine, with immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, and cytostatic activities. Cycloleucine competitively inhibits the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase, resulting in the inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis from methionine and ATP, and subsequent nucleic acid methylation and polyamine production; RNA, and perhaps to a lesser extent, DNA biosyntheses and cell cycle progression are finally disrupted. This agent is also a competitive inhibitor at the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41433 cyclopentenyl cytosineA pro-drug carbocyclic analogue of cytidine with antineoplastic and antiviral activities. Cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) is converted to the active metabolite cyclopentenyl cytosine 5'-triphosphate (CPEC-TP); CPEC-TP competitively inhibits cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthase, thereby depleting intracellular cytidine pools and inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may also induce differentiation of some tumor cell types. The antiviral activity of this agent is broad-spectrum. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39748 cyclophosphamideA synthetic alkylating agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. In the liver, cyclophosphamide is converted to the active metabolites aldophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard, which bind to DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and initiating cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39201 cyclosporineA natural cyclic polypeptide immunosuppressant isolated from the fungus Beauveria nivea. The exact mechanism of action of cyclosporine is not known but may involve binding to the cellular protein cytophilin, resulting in inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin. This agent appears to specifically and reversibly inhibit immunocompetent lymphocytes in the G0-or G1-phase of the cell cycle. T-lymphocytes are preferentially inhibited with T-helper cells as the primary target. Cyclosporine also inhibits lymphokine production and release. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
614830 cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsionAn topical ophthalmic formulation containing cyclosporine, an undecapeptide produced by the fungus Beauveria nivea, with immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory activities. The exact therapeutic mechanism of action of cyclosporine is not known but may involve binding to the cellular protein cytophilin, resulting in inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin. This agent appears to specifically and reversibly inhibit immunocompetent lymphocytes in the G0-or G1-phase of the cell cycle. T-lymphocytes are preferentially inhibited with T-helper cells as the primary target. Cyclosporine also inhibits lymphokine production and release. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40024 Cyfos(Other name for: ifosfamide)
453549 Cyklokapron(Other name for: tranexamic acid)
693517 CYL-02 plasmid DNAA gene transfer preparation of a plasmid DNA encoding mouse somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) and a fusion protein of human deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) and uridine monophosphate kinase (UMK), complexed to a synthetic polycationic carrier, polyethylenimine, with antineoplastic adjuvant application. Upon administration, CYL-02 plasmid DNA expresses DCK::UMK fusion protein that converts gemcitabine into its toxic phosphorylated metabolite. Expression of sst2 protein by this agent could induce both antioncogenic and local antitumor bystander effects. A loss of sst2 gene expression often is found in pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and is the receptor for somatostatin which negatively regulates a number of processes such as epithelial cell proliferation. Combination effects of these gene products allows for less chemotherapy to cause tumor cell lysis in not only the original tumor, but in distant tumors as well. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
434427 Cynviloq™(Other name for: paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle)
737730 CYP17 inhibitor CFG920An orally available inhibitor of the steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17A1 or CYP17), with potential antiandrogen and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, CYP17 inhibitor CFG920 inhibits the enzymatic activity of CYP17A1 in both the testes and adrenal glands, thereby inhibiting androgen production. This may decrease androgen-dependent growth signaling and may inhibit cell proliferation of androgen-dependent tumor cells. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17A1, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, exhibits both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, and plays a key role in the steroidogenic pathway that produces steroidal hormones. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
756850 CYP17 inhibitor VT-464An orally available non-steroidal, lyase-selective inhibitor of the steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17A1 or CYP17), with potential anti-androgenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, CYP17 inhibitor VT-464 selectively inhibits the enzymatic activity of the cytochrome P450 C17,20 lyase in both the testes and adrenal glands, thereby inhibiting androgen production. This may decrease androgen-dependent growth signaling and may inhibit cell proliferation of androgen-dependent tumor cells. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17A1, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, exhibits both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities; it plays a key role in the steroidogenic pathway. The lyase-selective activity of VT-464 prevents the increased synthesis of mineralocorticoids that is normally seen with non-selective CYP17 inhibitors, which also inhibit the 17-alpha-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
315774 cyproheptadine hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of a synthetic methyl-piperidine derivative with antihistaminic and anti-serotoninergic properties. Cyproheptadine competes with free histamine (HA) for binding at HA-receptor sites, thereby competitively antagonizing histamine stimulation of HA-receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, large blood vessels, and bronchial smooth muscle. This agent also competes with free serotonin for binding at serotonin receptor sites. Cyproheptadine exhibits anticholinergic and sedative properties and has been shown to stimulate appetite and weight gain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39203 cyproterone acetateThe acetate salt of a synthetic steroidal antiandrogen with weak progestational and antineoplastic activities. Cyproterone binds the androgen receptor (AR), thereby preventing androgen-induced receptor activation in target tissues and inhibiting the growth of testosterone-sensitive tumor cells. This agent also exerts progestational agonist properties at the level of the pituitary that reduce luteinizing hormone (LH), resulting in reductions in testicular androgen secretion and serum testosterone levels. Treatment with cyproterone alone results in incomplete suppression of serum testosterone levels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
570535 Cyramza(Other name for: ramucirumab)
43081 Cyren A(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
663945 cysteine-rich non-denatured whey protein isolate IMN1207A biologically active, cysteine-rich, undenatured, bovine whey-based protein isolate with potential anti-cachexia and glutathione-enhancing properties. Upon administration of cysteine-rich whey protein isolate, cystine and glutamylcystine are taken up by cells and release free cysteine. The available cysteine allows cells to synthesize glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide made from amino acids glycine, glutamate and cysteine, thereby maintaining and increasing intracellular GSH concentrations. GSH plays a major role as an antioxidant, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage due to harmful substances such as free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds. As IMN 1207 is rich in protein, this agent may prevent weight loss and increase body weight and strength. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
756625 cytadine analogue RX-3117An orally available small molecule and nucleoside antimetabolite with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the cytidine analogue RX-3117 is taken up by cells through a carrier-mediated transporter, phosphorylated by uridine cytidine kinase (UCK) and then further phosphorylated to its diphosphate (RX-DP) and triphosphate forms (RX-TP). The triphosphate form is incorporated into RNA and inhibits RNA synthesis. The diphosphate RX-DP is reduced by ribonucleotide reductase (RR) to dRX-DP; its triphosphate form (dRX-TP) is incorporated into DNA. In addition, RX-3117 also inhibits DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). This eventually leads to cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis. UCK is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine-nucleotide salvage pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39015 cytarabineAn antimetabolite analogue of cytidine with a modified sugar moiety (arabinose instead of ribose). Cytarabine is converted to the triphosphate form within the cell and then competes with cytidine for incorporation into DNA. Because the arabinose sugar sterically hinders the rotation of the molecule within DNA, DNA replication ceases, specifically during the S phase of the cell cycle. This agent also inhibits DNA polymerase, resulting in a decrease in DNA replication and repair. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
353478 cytochlorA radio-sensitizing pyrimidine nucleoside with potential antineoplastic activity. Cytochlor is metabolized first to a phosphate derivative, CldCMP, by the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase and then to the active uracyl derivative, CldUMP, by the enzyme dCMP deaminase; deoxycytidine kinase and dCMP deaminase have been found in abnormally high concentrations in most cancers. CldUMP, the active metabolite, incorporates into DNA and, upon exposure to radiation, induces the formation of uracil radicals and double-strand DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
558123 cytokine-induced killer cellsA preparation of autologous lymphocytes with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are CD3-and CD56-positive, non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted, natural killer (NK)-like T lymphocytes, generated ex-vivo by incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-1, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and then expanded. When reintroduced back to patients after autologous stem cell transplantation, CIK cells may recognize and kill tumor cells associated with minimal residual disease (MRD). CIK cells may have enhanced cytotoxic activity compared to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615911 cytomegalovirus IE-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytesCytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), specifically reactive to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early-1 (IE-1) protein, with immunomodulating activity. Adoptive immunotherapy with cytomegalovirus IE-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes may help reconstitute CD8+ cytomegalovirus-specific CTL responses in CMV-infected immunocompromised hosts. IE-1 is one of the first CMV antigens expressed by CMV-infected cells, predominantly inducing a CD8+ CTL response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
560207 cytomegalovirus pp65-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytesCytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphoprotein pp65 with potential antiviral activity. To prepare CMV pp65-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro, dendritic cells (DCs) are pulsed with CMV pp65 epitopes and then used to stimulate and propagate CMV pp65-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs); the CMV pp65-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte population is then expanded so as to be sufficient for use in adoptive T lymphocyte therapy. When administered into a patient post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, this agent may elicit a specific CTL response against CMV-infected host cells, which may result in the resolution of CMV infection. The CMV pp65 protein (65 kDa lower matrix phosphoprotein), the primary component of the enveloped subviral particle, is an immunodominant target for helper and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to CMV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43629 Cytomel(Other name for: liothyronine sodium)
39015 Cytosar-U(Other name for: cytarabine)
39748 Cytoxan(Other name for: cyclophosphamide)