Drug Dictionary


# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
IDNameDefinition
40860 m-azidopyrimethamineAn antifolate derived from diaminopyrimidine with cytotoxic properties. With a mechanism of action similar to that of methotrexate (MTX), m-azidopyrimethamine blocks tetrahydrofolate synthesis, resulting in depletion of nucleotide precursors and inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is more lipophilic but less potent than MTX. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
639653 M87o-transduced CD34+ peripheral blood stem cellsPeripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) transduced with the retroviral vector M87o encoding for the HIV-1-entry inhibitor peptide membrane-anchored antiviral peptide C46 (maC46). Expression of C46 by M87o-transduced CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells may prevent the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 entry. C46 is a membrane-anchored peptide encoding amino acids 628 to 673 of the HIV-1 entry inhibitory transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39600 Maalox suspension(Other name for: magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide/simethicone suspension)
735530 macimorelinAn orally available synthetic mimetic of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue ghrelin with potential anti-cachexia activity. Upon oral administration, macimorelin mimics endogenous ghrelin by stimulating appetite and binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor GHSR in the central nervous system, thereby mimicking the GH-releasing effects of ghrelin from the pituitary gland. Stimulation of GH secretion increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels which may further stimulate protein synthesis. In addition, ghrelin reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may play a direct role in cancer-related loss of appetite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
721764 macitentanAn orally available dual endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist with potential antihypertensive and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, macitentan and its metabolites block the binding of endothelin isoform 1 (ET-1) to type-A and type-B ETR on both the tumor cells and the endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. This prevents ET-1 mediated signaling transduction which may decrease tumor cell proliferation, progression, and angiogenesis in tumor tissue. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that plays an important role in inflammation and tissue repair, is, together with its receptors, overexpressed varyingly in many tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615423 macrogol 3350-based oral osmotic laxativeAn isotonic solution containing macrogol 3350 and electrolytes with laxative activity. Macrogol 3350-based oral osmotic laxative promotes the retention of water in the bowel, thereby increasing the water content of stool, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and stool transit time and evacuation of colonic contents. Macrogol 3350 is also known as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41254 mafosfamideA synthetic oxazaphosphorine derivative with antineoplastic properties. Mafosfamide alkylates DNA, forming DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis. Although closely related to cyclophosphamide, mafosfamide, unlike cyclophosphamide, does not require hepatic activation to generate its active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide; accordingly, mafosfamide is potentially useful in the intrathecal treatment of neoplastic meningitis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38649 MAGE-10.A2A synthetic nonapeptide derived from a melanoma-associated antigen. Vaccination with MAGE-10.A2 may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells that express the melanoma-associated antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
685200 MAGE-3.A1 peptide vaccineA synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A1-restricted peptide derived from human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-3.A1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
506045 MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, FBP peptides ovarian cancer vaccineA cancer vaccine containing multiple synthetic antigen peptides derived from MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, and folate binding protein (FBP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic properties. MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, FBP peptides cancer vaccine includes the antigen peptides MAGE-A1:161-169, FBP:191-199, Her-2/neu:369-377, MAGE-A1:96-104, and Her-2/neu:754-762. Upon administration, this cancer vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these antigen peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, and FBP proteins may be over-expressed in various cancer cell types, such as epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
651378 MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1 peptides vaccineA cancer vaccine comprised of synthetic peptides derived from human melanoma antigen A1 (MAGE-A1), human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-A1/MAGE-A3/NY-ESO-1 peptides vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and NY-ESO-1 tumor-associated antigens (TAAS) are overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
391278 MAGE-A3 peptide vaccineA peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-A3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
700454 MAGE-A3 reactive T cell receptor-transduced autologous T cellsHuman autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the MAGE-A3 reactive TCR-transduced autologous T cells bind to tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3, which may halt the growth of MAGE-A3-expressing cancer cells; the TCR is specific for MAGE-A3:168-176. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
478746 MAGE-A3/HPV 16 peptide vaccineA multi-epitope "Trojan antigen" ("TA") construct vaccine consisting of human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 peptide epitopes linked by the furin-sensitive linker peptide RVKR (arginine-serine-lysine-arginine) with immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. The TA construct enters the cytoplasm of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and is processed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where the endopeptidase furin releases the epitopes from the RVKR linker peptide and, together with various exopeptidases, generates MHC class I-binding peptides. Expressed on the cell surfaces of APC, these MHC class I-binding peptides stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that display the same peptide epitopes on their cell surfaces. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
759543 MAGE-A4-specific TCR gene-transduced T lymphocytes TBI-1201Autologous human T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human melanoma antigen A4 (MAGE-A4), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, MAGE-A4-specific TCR gene-transduced T lymphocytes TBI-1201 binds to tumor cells expressing MAGE-A4. This may result in both an inhibition of growth and increased cell death for MAGE-A4-expressing tumor cells. The tumor-associated antigen MAGE-A4 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
480467 magnesium citrateThe citrate salt of the element magnesium with cathartic activity. The cathartic action of magnesium cations appears to result, in part, from osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may also stimulate the activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and increase the biosynthesis of the phospholipid proinflammatory mediator platelet activating factor (PAF) in the gut. NO may stimulate intestinal secretion via prostglandin- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms while PAF produces significant stimulation of colonic secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
537610 magnesium hydroxideA solution of magnesium hydroxide with antacid and laxative properties. Milk of magnesium exerts its antacid activity in low doses such that all hydroxide ions that enter the stomach are used to neutralize stomach acid. This agent exerts its laxative effect in higher doses so that hydroxide ions are able to move from the stomach to the intestines where they attract and retain water, thereby increasing intestinal movement (peristalsis) and inducing the urge to defecate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39600 magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide/simethicone suspensionAn oral suspension containing magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide and simethicone with antacid activity. Both magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide react with excess acid in the stomach thereby neutralizing gastric acid. Simethicone, a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane and silica gel, reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles, promoting gas bubble coalescence and so intestinal gas transit and evacuation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
747592 magnesium isoglycyrrhizinateThe magnesium salt form of the saponin, isoglycyrrhizinate, a derivative of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra, with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may prevent or reduce hepatotoxicity through the scavenging of free radicals. This agent also modulates the activity of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
658594 magnesium oxideThe oxide salt of magnesium with antacid, laxative and vascular smooth muscle relaxant activities. Magnesium combines with water to form magnesium hydroxide which reacts chemically to neutralize or buffer existing quantities of stomach acid; stomach-content and intra-esophageal pH rise, resulting in a decrease in pepsin activity. This agent's laxative effect is the result, in part, of osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may behave as calcium antagonists in vascular smooth muscle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
573418 magnesium valproateThe magnesium salt of valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid) with antiepileptic and potential antineoplastic activities. Magnesium valproate dissociates in the gastrointestinal tract and is absorbed into the circulation as magnesium ions and valproic acid ions; valproic acid may inhibit histone deacetylases, inducing tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, and growth arrest. In addition, valproic acid exerts an antiepileptic effect, likely by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) catabolism and so increasing concentrations of GABA in the central nervous system (CNS). The presence of the magnesium in this agent may contribute to its anticonvulsant activity and sedative properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37987 Magnevist(Other name for: gadopentetate dimeglumine)
670889 Maitake mushroom extractAn extract of the edible mushroom Maitaki, Grifola frondosa, rich in glucan polysaccharides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon oral ingestion, Maitaki mushroom extract may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, thereby amplifying both innate and T cell-mediated immune responses against cancer cells. In addition, this extract may stimulate the production of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and promote hematopoiesis, and may improve the neutrophil count. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43081 Makarol(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
751582 Maldex(Other name for: maltodextrin)
751582 Maldrin(Other name for: maltodextrin)
584589 malignant glioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccineA cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysates from malignant glioma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, malignant glioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine exposes the immune system to undefined malignant glioma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which may result in anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against glioma cells and glioma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751582 maltodextrinAn oligosaccharide derived from starch that is used as a food additive and as a carbohydrate supplement. As a supplement, maltodextrin is used to provide and sustain energy levels during endurance-oriented workouts or sports, to help build muscle mass and support weight gain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
729924 maltoseA disaccharide consisting of two glucose units linked through an alpha-1,4 glycosidic bond. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
632222 mammaglobin-A DNA vaccineA cancer vaccine containing a plasmid encoding the mammaglobin-A gene with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, mammaglobin-A DNA vaccine may induce both humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells that express mammaglobin-A, which may result in decreased tumor growth. The 10 kiloDalton (kD) glycoprotein mammglobin-A is expressed in over 80% of human breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
596487 mangafodipir trisodiumThe trisodium salt of mangafodipir with potential antioxidant and chemoprotective activities. Consisting of manganese (II) ions chelated to fodipir (dipyridoxyl diphosphate or DPDP), mangafodipir scavenges oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, potentially preventing oxygen free radical damage to macromolecules such as DNA and minimizing oxygen free radical-related chemotoxicity in normal tissues. However, this agent may potentiate the chemotherapy-induced generation of oxygen free radicals in tumor cells, resulting in the potentiation of chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity; tumor cells, with higher levels of reactive oxygen species than normal cells, possess a lower threshold for oxygen free radical-mediated cytotoxicity. Mangafodipir is traditionally used as an imaging agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39493 mannitolA naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
588952 Manuka honeyA monofloral honey with potential wound repair and antibacterial activities. Manuka honey is produced by bees fed on the flowers of the New Zealand Manuka bush (Leptospermum scoparium). Manuka honey contains a significant higher concentration of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal, which may account for its antibacterial activity; this agent may release small amounts of hydrogen peroxide which may also contribute to its antibacterial activity. Manuka honey has been reported to stimulate the formation of new blood capillaries and the growth of fibroblasts and epithelial cells when applied topically to wounds. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
486626 mapatumumabA fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 (TRAIL-R1) with apoptosis promoting and potential antitumor activities. TRAIL-R1 is a cell surface receptor expressed on many malignant cell types. Mapatumumab selectively binds to and activates the TRAIL cell receptor, thereby inducing apoptosis and reducing tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39758 marcellomycinAn antineoplastic oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Actinosporangium bohemicum. Marcellomycin intercalates into DNA and induces DNA crosslinks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also induces differentiation in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by interfering with glycoprotein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
269131 marijuanaAny part of, or extract from, the female hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana contains cannabinoids, substances with hallucinogenic, psychoactive, and addictive properties. This agent has potential use for treating cancer pain and cachexia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42443 marimastatAn orally-active synthetic hydroxamate with potential antineoplastic activity. Marimastat covalently binds to the zinc(II) ion in the active site of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby inhibiting the action of MMPs, inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. This agent may also inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), an enzyme involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production that may play a role in some malignancies as well as in the development of arthritis and sepsis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39707 Marinol(Other name for: dronabinol)
518316 marizomibA naturally-occurring salinosporamide, isolated from the marine actinomycete Salinospora tropica, with potential antineoplastic activity. Marizomib irreversibly binds to and inhibits the 20S catalytic core subunit of the proteasome by covalently modifying its active site threonine residues; inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome mediated proteolysis results in an accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which may result in the disruption of cellular processes, cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. This agent more may more potent and selective than the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38100 Marqibo(Other name for: liposomal vincristine sulfate)
42205 MART-1 antigenA tumor-associated melanocytic differentiation antigen. Vaccination with MART-1 antigen may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing the melanocytic differentiation antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752696 MART-1 reactive CD8+ lymphocytesHuman CD8-positive T-lymphocytes that are engineered to recognize melanoma tumor-associated antigen MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells, also called Melan-A) in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted manner, with potential antineoplastic activity. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are isolated from a melanoma patient, exposed to the MART-1:27-35(27L) peptide and MART-1 specific T-lymphocytes are isolated and expanded. Upon infusion, these lymphocytes recognize and exert a cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response against MART-1-expressing melanoma cells. The synthetic MART-1:27-35 HLA-A2-restricted peptide has an amino acid substitution, leucine to alanine at position 27, to increase its immunogenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750374 MART-1/gp100/Tyrosinase/MAGE-A3 peptides-loaded irradiated allogeneic plasmacytoid dendritic cellsIrradiated allogeneic, HLA-A*0201 positive, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) loaded with 4 melanoma peptides derived from the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) MelA/MART-1, gp100/pmel17, tyrosinase, and MAGE-A3, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, the irradiated allogeneic pDCs may trigger functional multi-specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against HLA-A*0201-positive melanoma cancer cells expressing the TAAs MelA/MART-1, gp100/pmel17, tyrosinase, and MAGE-A3. These TAAs are upregulated in a variety of tumor cells. The pDCs are derived from a distinct subset of dendritic cells (DCs) with a plasma cell-like morphology and express a characteristic set of surface markers and may increase the anti-tumor immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
599670 MART-1:26-35(27L) peptide vaccineA peptide-based cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 26 through 35 of MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells-1) with a leucine substitution at amino acid position 27 to improve immunogenicity. Upon administration, MART-1:26-35(27L) peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against MART-1-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor growth. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) MART-1 may be overexpressed on melanoma cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
476336 MART-1:27-35 peptide vaccineA natural or synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 27 through 35 of the melanoma-associated antigen MART-1 with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with MART-1:27-35 peptide may induce cytotoxic host immune responses against melanoma cells that express this peptide. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
629109 masitinib mesylateThe orally bioavailable mesylate salt of masatinib, a multi-targeted protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Masitinib selectively binds to and inhibits both the wild-type and mutated forms of the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit; SCFR); platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR); fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3); and, to a lesser extent, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). As a consequence, tumor cell proliferation may be inhibited in cancer cell types that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
479648 masoprocolA naturally occurring antioxidant dicatechol originally derived from the creosote bush Larrea divaricatta with antipromoter, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. Masoprocol directly inhibits activation of two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and the c-erbB2/HER2/neu receptor, resulting in decreased proliferation of susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent may induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations as a result of disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in association with the activation of stress activated protein kinases (SAPKs). In addition, NDGA inhibits arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX), resulting in diminished synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrines; it may prevent leukocyte infiltration into tissues and the release of reactive oxygen species and, at higher concentrations, may also inhibit cyclooxygenase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
547030 mast cell stabilizer TF002A small molecule with mast cell stabilizing activity. Mast cell stabilizer TF002 inhibits the formation of lipid rafts of mast cell membranes that contain the signaling machinery which triggers the release of mast cell allergic and inflammatory mediators. Inhibition of lipid raft assembly by this agent results in mast cell stabilization, preventing mast cell degranulation and the release of the inflammatory mediators involved in type I allergic reactions (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and cytokines). The assembly of the signaling machinery in mast cell lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, is initiated by IgE binding to its receptor on the mast cell surface; subsequently, allergens crosslink with the IgE/receptor complex and other proteins and lipids are recruited into the signaling machinery. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
765083 Matricaria recutita gelA gel-based formulation containing an extract of the herb Matricaria chamomilla (M. recutita or German chamomile), which is native to eastern and southern Europe, belongs to the Asteraceae family and is high in flavonoids, with potential anti-inflammatory, skin protective, moisturizing, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and calming activities. M. recutita extract contains flavonoids, including apigenin, luteolin and quercetin, as well as coumarins, herniarin, umbelliferone, anthemic acid, anthemidine, tannin and matricarin. Upon topical application of the Matricaria recutita gel, the active ingredients in the chamomile may exert anti-inflammatory, calming and anti-oxidant effects on the skin and may protect the skin against radiotherapy-induced dermatitis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
765084 Matricaria recutita topical infusionA gel-based formulation containing an extract of the herb Matricaria chamomilla (M. recutita or German chamomile), which is native to eastern and southern Europe, belongs to the Asteraceae family and is high in flavonoids, with potential anti-inflammatory, skin protective, moisturizing, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and calming activities. M. recutita extract contains flavonoids, including apigenin, luteolin and quercetin, as well as coumarins, herniarin, umbelliferone, anthemic acid, anthemidine, tannin and matricarin. Upon topical application of the Matricaria recutita infusion, the active ingredients in the chamomile may exert anti-inflammatory, calming and anti-oxidant effects on the skin and may protect the skin against radiotherapy-induced dermatitis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
41607 Matulane(Other name for: procarbazine hydrochloride)
350433 matuzumabA humanized monoclonal antibody with antineoplastic activity. Matuzumab binds the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with high affinity, competitively blocking natural ligand binding and blocking receptor-mediated downstream signalling, resulting in impaired tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39789 Maxidex(Other name for: dexamethasone)
38350 Maxipime(Other name for: cefepime hydrochloride)
39492 maytansineAn ansamycin antibiotic originally isolated from the Ethiopian shrub Maytenus serrata. Maytansine binds to tubulin at the rhizoxin binding site, thereby inhibiting microtubule assembly, inducing microtubule disassembly, and disrupting mitosis. Maytansine exhibits cytotoxicity against many tumor cell lines and may inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752996 MC-Glucan(Other name for: sizofiran)
743909 MCPyV TAg-specific polyclonal autologous CD8-positive T cell vaccineA preparation of polyclonal autologous CD8 positive T-lymphocytes specific for the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) T antigen (TAg) with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patient were obtained and antigen-specific CD8+ T cells targeting a specific MCPyV TAg epitope were derived and expanded ex vivo. Upon infusion of the MCPyV TAg-specific polyclonal autologous CD8-positive T cell vaccine, the T cells recognize the MCPyV antigen and exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against the MCPyV TAg-expressing MCC cells. MCPyV is expressed in about 80% of MCC and is not expressed in normal, human tissue; the MCPyVTag oncoprotein plays a key role in MCC survival and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
629935 MCT/LCT lipid emulsionA nutritional lipid emulsion consisting of both coconut oil-derived medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) and soybean oil-derived long chain triglycerides (LCTs). The LCTs in the MCT/LCT lipid emulsion supply the body with essential omega-6 fatty acids, which are needed as components of phospholipids in cell membranes and as precursors of eicosanoids. The MCTs mainly provide calories for energy. In addition to LCTs and MCTs, this lipid emulsion contains egg yolk lecithin, glycerol, and the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
629937 MCT/LCT/fish oil omega-3 fatty triglyceride lipid emulsionA nutritional lipid emulsion consisting of coconut oil-derived medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), soybean oil-derived long chain triglycerides (LCT), and the fish oil-derived polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. This lipid emulsion supplies essential fatty acids and calories for energy. Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the production of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), Il-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The MCTs mainly provide calories for energy. In addition to LCTs, MCTs, and omega-3 fatty acids, this lipid emulsion contains egg yolk lecithin, glycerol, and the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
581121 MDM2 antagonist RO5045337An MDM2 (human homolog of double minutes-2; HDM2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. RO5045337 binds to MDM2, thereby preventing the binding of the MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and thus the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger protein, is a negative regulator of the p53 pathway; often overexpressed in cancer cells, it has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
715916 MDM2 antagonist RO5503781An orally available, small molecule, antagonist of MDM2 (mouse double minute 2; Mdm2 p53 binding protein homolog), with potential antineoplastic activity. RO5503781 binds to MDM2 blocking the interaction between the MDM2 protein and the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing the MDM2-p53 interaction, p53 is not enzymatically degraded and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This may lead to p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger nuclear phosphoprotein and negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is often overexpressed in cancer cells and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
759578 MDM2 antagonist RO6839921An MDM2 (human homolog of murine double minute-2; HDM2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, RO6839921 binds to MDM2 and prevents the binding of the MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteasome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This may result in the restoration of p53 signaling, followed by p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger protein, is a negative regulator of the p53 pathway and is often overexpressed in cancer cells; p53 inhibition has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750863 MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032bAn orally available MDM2 (murine double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032b binds to, and prevents the binding of MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This results in the restoration of p53 signaling and leads to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger protein and a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is overexpressed in cancer cells; it has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
538747 MDR modulator CBT-1A naturally-occurring, orally bioavailable bisbenzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid with potential chemosensitization activity. MDR modulator CBT-1 binds to and inhibits the MDR efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may inhibit the efflux of various chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and reverse P-gp-mediated tumor cell MDR. P-gp is a transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is overexpressed by some multidrug resistant tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
702931 measles/mumps/rubella vaccineA trivalent vaccine containing live attenuated viruses that can cause measles, mumps and rubella. It is an injection administered subcutaneously in two separate doses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39152 Measurin(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)
743306 mebendazoleA synthetic benzimidazole derivate and anthelmintic agent. Mebendazole interferes with the reproduction and survival of helminths by inhibiting the formation of their cytoplasmic microtubules, thereby selectively and irreversibly blocking glucose uptake. This results in a depletion of glycogen stores and leads to reduced formation of ATP required for survival and reproduction of the helminth. This eventually causes the helminths death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43434 mechlorethamine hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of mechlorethamine, a nitrogen mustard and an analogue of sulfur mustard, with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. Mechlorethamine is metabolized to an unstable, highly reactive ethyleniminium intemediate that alkylates DNA, particularly the 7 nitrogen of guanine residues, resulting in DNA base pair mismatching, DNA interstrand crosslinking, the inhibition of DNA repair and synthesis, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This agent also exhibits lympholytic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
526788 Meclan(Other name for: meclocycline sulfosalicylate)
526788 meclocycline sulfosalicylateThe sulfosalicylate salt form of meclocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity. Meclocycline sulfosalicylate is bacteriostatic and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing the addition of amino acids to the growing peptide chain. This tetracycline is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
588952 Medihoney™(Other name for: Manuka honey)
41528 Medlone 21(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
41528 Medrol(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
39813 medroxyprogesteroneA synthetic derivative of progesterone administered as an acetate salt (medroxyprogesterone acetate) with antiestrogenic activity. As a do all progestins, medroxyprogesterone binds to and activates nuclear receptors which subsequently bind to and activate target genes for transcription. As an antiestrogen, this agent may inhibit the growth-stimulating effects of estrogen on estrogen-sensitive tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
711805 mefloquineA quinolinemethanol derivative with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, mefloquine, a weak base, preferentially accumulates in lysosomes and disrupts lysosomal function and integrity, thereby leading to host cell death. Similar to chloroquine, the chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities of this agent may be related to its inhibition of autophagocytosis, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Compared to chloroquine, mefloquine has better blood-brain-barrier (BBB) penetration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43435 Megace(Other name for: megestrol acetate)
43435 megestrol acetateThe acetate salt of megestrol, a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring female sex hormone progesterone, with progestogenic, antiestrogenic, and antineoplastic activities. Mimicking the action of progesterone, megestrol binds to and activates nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in the reproductive system and pituitary; ligand-receptor complexes are translocated to the nucleus where they bind to progesterone response elements (PREs) located on target genes. Megestrol’s antineoplastic activity against estrogen-responsive tumors may be due, in part, to the suppression of pituitary gonadotrophin production and the resultant decrease in ovarian estrogen secretion; interference with the estrogen receptor complex in its interaction with genes and; as part of the progesterone receptor complex, direct interaction with the genome and downregulation of specific estrogen-responsive genes. This agent may also directly kill tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
714900 MEK 1/2 inhibitor AS703988/MSC2015103BAn orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP2K, MAPK/ERK kinase, or MEK) 1 and 2 with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK 1/2 inhibitor AS703988/MSC2015103B selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2, preventing the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1 and MEK2 are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway that regulates cell growth and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
543526 MEK inhibitor AZD8330An orally active, selective MEK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor AZD8330 specifically inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK or MAP/ERK kinase1), resulting in inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
673612 MEK inhibitor GDC-0623An orally active, selective MEK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor GDC-0623 specifically inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK or MAP/ERK kinase), resulting in inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
633506 MEK inhibitor RO4987655An orally active small molecule, targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 or MEK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor RO4987655 binds to and inhibits MEK, which may result in the inhibition of MEK-dependent cell signaling and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. MEK, a dual specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase, is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
651550 MEK inhibitor TAK-733An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor TAK-733 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2, preventing the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1/2 (MAP2K1/K2) are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
732484 MEK inhibitor WX-554An orally available small molecule mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP2K, MAPK/ERK kinase, or MEK) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor WX-554 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK, thereby preventing the activation of MEK-dependent effector proteins including some transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK, a dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, is frequently upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
629676 MEK-1/MEKK-1 inhibitor E6201A synthetic, fungal metabolite analogue inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK-1) with potential antipsoriatic and antineoplastic activities. MEK-1/MEKK-1 inhibitor E6201 specifically binds to and inhibits the activities of MEK-1 and MEKK-1, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. MEK-1 and MEKK-1 are key components in the RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK signaling pathway, which regulates cell proliferation and is frequently activated in human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
698315 MEK/Aurora kinase dual inhibitor BI 847325An orally available dual inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Aurora kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, MEK/Aurora kinase inhibitor BI 847325 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK, which both prevents the activation of MEK-dependent effector proteins and inhibits growth factor-mediated cell signaling. BI 847325 also binds to and inhibits the activity of the Aurora kinases A, B and C which may disrupt the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, prevent chromosome segregation, and inhibit both cellular division and proliferation in Aurora kinase-overexpressing tumor cells. Altogether, this leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor growth as well as the induction of tumor regression. MEK, a dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, is frequently upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
599034 Mekinist(Other name for: trametinib)
506112 Melan-A VLP vaccineA vaccine consisting of the melanocyte differentiation antigen Melan A (also called MART-1) encapsulated in noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, Melan-A VLP vaccine may stimulate the immune system to exert a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the Melan A antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Melan A is upregulated in most melanomas. VLPs stimulate the immune system and promotes the CTL response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
697136 Melan-A/MAGE-3.DP4 peptide vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of a peptide derived from the melanocyte differentiation antigen Melan-A (or MART-1) and the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DP4-restricted human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3.DP4), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, Melan-A/MAGE-3.DP4 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing Melan-A and MAGE-3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor associated antigens Melan-A and MAGE-3 are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
341633 melanoma helper peptide vaccineA multivalent vaccine consisting of peptides derived from melanoma-associated antigens and an adjuvant peptide derived from tetanus toxoid. Vaccination with this agent may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing melanoma-associated antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
675320 melanoma TRP2 CTL epitope vaccine SCIB1A proprietary DNA-based cancer vaccine that encodes a melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and a modified monoclonal antibody, a chimera of human IgG1/murine IgG2a with T cell mimotopes expressed within the complementarity-determining regions (CDR) of the antibodies, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular injection and electroporation, melanoma TRP2 CTL epitope vaccine SCIB1 expresses the modified antibody. Subsequently, the Fc component of the engineered antibody targets and binds to the CD64 receptor on the dendritic cells (DCs); upon processing by DCs, the cellular immune system may be activated to induce helper T-cell and CTL immune responses against tumor cells expressing the TRP2 antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
691982 MELITAC 12.1 peptide vaccineA peptide cancer vaccine consisting of an emulsion of a mixture of 12 class I MHC-restricted melanoma peptides and a class II MHC-restricted tetanus toxoid helper peptide, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the MELITAC 12.1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing the melanoma peptide antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The melanoma peptides contained in the vaccine are upregulated in melanoma cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751983 MELK inhibitor OTS167An orally available inhibitor of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, OTS167 binds to MELK, which prevents both MELK phosphorylation and activation; thus inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream MELK substrates. This may lead to an inhibition of both cell proliferation and survival in MELK-expressing tumor cells. MELK, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in cancer cell survival, invasiveness and cancer-stem cell formation and maintenance; it is highly upregulated in various types of cancer cells and absent in normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
746026 Mellaril(Other name for: thioridazine hydrochloride)
472195 meloxicamAn oxicam derivative and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Unlike traditional nonselective NSAIDs, meloxicam preferentially inhibits the activity of cyclo-oxygenase II (COX-II), resulting in a decreased conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin precursors. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis is responsible for the therapeutic effects of meloxicam. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42973 melphalanA phenylalanine derivative of nitrogen mustard with antineoplastic activity. Melphalan alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine and induces DNA inter-strand cross-linkages, resulting in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and cytotoxicity against both dividing and non-dividing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
649061 melphalan hydrochloride/sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin complexA propylene glycol-free intravenous formulation containing the hydrochloride salt of the nitrogen mustard phenylalanine derivative melphalan complexed with polyanionic sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-CD) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, melphalan is converted into highly reactive ethylenimmonium intermediates that induce covalent guanine N7-N7 intra- and inter-crosslinks and alkylation of adenine N3 of DNA; RNA and proteins may also be alkylated. Subsequently, RNA transcription and protein synthesis are inhibited, resulting in cell growth arrest. The addition of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin to the formulation improves the solubility, stability and ease of use of melphalan; cyclodextrins are cyclic dextrins derived from starch. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751473 melphalan-flufenamide prodrugA melphalan prodrug in which the alkylating agent melphalan is bound to flufenamide, with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. Upon administration, the dipeptide bond in the melphalan-flufenamide compound is hydrolyzed by peptidases, which are overexpressed by certain cancer cells. This results in the specific release and accumulation of the active metabolite melphalan in cancer cells. Melphalan alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine residues and induces DNA intra- and inter-strand cross-linkages. This results in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and the induction of apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. The administration of the melphalan-flufenamide prodrug allows for enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to melphalan alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
579596 memantine hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of memantine, a low-affinity, voltage-dependent, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Memantine binds to and inhibits cation channels of glutamanergic NMDA receptors located in the central nervous system (CNS), preventing the prolonged influx of calcium ions and the associated neuronal excitotoxicity, and thereby potentially enhancing cognitive function. Memantine is also a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5HT3) receptor and nicotinic receptor antagonist. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
652192 membrane-disrupting peptide EP-100A water-soluble, positively charged fusion protein consisting of a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor-targeting ligand conjugated to the membrane-disrupting peptide CLIP 71 with membrane-disrupting and potential antineoplastic activities. The LHRH ligand moiety of membrane-disrupting peptide EP-100 specifically binds to LHRH receptors, which are upregulated on a variety of human cancer cell types. Subsequently, the positively charged CLIP 71 moiety of this agent interacts with the negatively charged membrane on the cancer cell surface, which may result in cell membrane disruption and cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
652615 menadione topical lotionA topical lotion containing the small organic molecule protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor menadione (vitamin K3) with potential EGFR- and ErbB2/HER2-activating activities. Upon topical administration, menadione binds to and inhibits the activity of PTPs that dephosphorylate and inactivate EGFR and ErbB2 in human keratinocytes; local reversal of EGFR and ErbB2 inhibition associated with the systemic administration of EGFR inhibitors may help alleviate EGFR inhibitor-mediated skin toxicity. EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and ErbB2/HER2 (erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) are cell surface receptors that are upregulated in a number of cancer cells types and play important roles in the growth and maintenance of normal epithelial tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
459755 menatetrenoneA menaquinone compound and form of vitamin K2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Menatetrenone may act by modulating the signalling of certain tyrosine kinases, thereby affecting several transcription factors including c-myc and c-fos. This agent inhibits tumor cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40153 menogarilA semisynthetic derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic nogalamycin. Menogaril intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40153 Menogarol(Other name for: menogaril)
39278 meperidine hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of a synthetic piperidine ester with opioid analgesic activity. Meperidine mimics the actions of endogenous neuropeptides via opioid receptors such as the mu-opiiod receptor, thereby producing characteristic morphine-like effects including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia and physical dependence. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751573 mepivacaine hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt form of mepivacaine, an amide-type local anesthetic agent. At the injection site, mepivacaine binds to specific voltage-gated sodium ion channels in neuronal cell membranes, which inhibits both sodium influx and membrane depolarization. This leads to a blockage of nerve impulse initiation and conduction and results in a reversible loss of sensation. Compared to other local anesthetics, this agent has a more rapid onset and moderate duration of action. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41528 Meprolone(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
43436 mercaptopurineA thiopurine-derivative antimetabolite with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. Produced through the metabolism of mercaptopurine by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), mercaptopurine metabolites 6-thioguanosine-5'-phosphate (6-thioGMP) and 6-thioinosine (T-IMP) inhibit nucleotide interconversions and de novo purine synthesis, thereby blocking the formation of purine nucleotides and inhibiting DNA synthesis. This agent is also incorporated into DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine, which results in the disruption of DNA replication. In addition, mercaptopurine is converted to 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (MMPR) by 6-thiopurine methyltransferase; MMPRs are also potent inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752956 mercaptopurine oral suspensionAn oral suspension containing the thiopurine-derivative antimetabolite 6-mercaptopurine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, mercaptopurine is metabolized by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) to its active metabolite 6-thioinosine monophosphate (TIMP); TIMP inhibits nucleotide interconversions and de novo purine ribonucleotide synthesis, which both blocks the formation of purine nucleotides and inhibits DNA synthesis. This agent is also incorporated into DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine, which results in the disruption of DNA replication. By blocking DNA synthesis and replication, cancer cells are unable to proliferate. Compared to the tablet formulation, the liquid is easier to swallow and offers more flexibility and accuracy in dosing, which is beneficial for use in pediatric patients. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
760529 mercaptopurine tabletThe anhydrous form of mercaptopurine, a thiopurine-derivative antimetabolite with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. Produced through the metabolism of mercaptopurine by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), mercaptopurine metabolites 6-thioguanosine-5'-phosphate (6-thioGMP) and 6-thioinosine monophosphate (T-IMP) inhibit nucleotide interconversions and de novo purine synthesis, thereby blocking the formation of purine nucleotides and inhibiting DNA synthesis. This agent is also incorporated into DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine, which results in the disruption of DNA replication. In addition, mercaptopurine is converted to 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (MMPR) by 6-thiopurine methyltransferase; MMPRs are also potent inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41899 meropenemA broad-spectrum carbapenem with antibacterial properties, synthetic Meropenem inhibits cell wall synthesis in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It penetrates cell walls and binds to penicillin-binding protein targets. Meropenem acts against aerobes and anaerobes including Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium sp.. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41899 Merrem I.V.(Other name for: meropenem)
732182 mesalamineAn agent derived from sulfasalazine, an antiinflammatory agent. Mesalamine may reduce inflammation through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin production. Following rectal or oral administration, only a small amount of mesalamine is absorbed; the remainder, acting topically, reduces bowel inflammation, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and stomach pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
39759 mesnaA sulfhydryl compound that is used to reduce the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with certain chemotherapeutic agents. Mesna is converted to a free thiol compound in the kidney, where it binds to and inactivates acrolein and other urotoxic metabolites of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, thereby reducing their toxic effects on the urinary tract during urinary excretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39759 Mesnex(Other name for: mesna)
732671 mesothelin-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytesA preparation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for mesothelin with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. After transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, the mesothelin-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered PBLs bind to tumor cells expressing mesothelin. This may stimulate the secretion of cytokines and result in cell lysis of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in many epithelial-derived cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
599454 mesothelioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccineA cell-based cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mesothelioma tumor lysate with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, mesothelioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against mesothelioma tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
588972 MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SGX523An orally bioavailable small molecule, belonging to the class of c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, with potential antineoplastic activity. MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SGX523 specifically binds to c-Met protein, or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), preventing binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and disrupting the MET signaling pathway; this agent may induce cell death in tumor cells expressing c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
587999 Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-777607An inhibitor of MET tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-777607 binds to c-Met protein, or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), preventing binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and disrupting the MET signaling pathway; this agent may induce cell death in tumor cells expressing c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
672542 MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor EMD 1204831An inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) with potential antineoplastic activity. MET inhibitor EMD 1204831 selectively binds to MET tyrosine kinase, thereby disrupting MET-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing this kinase. MET is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
660212 MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor EMD 1214063An inhibitor of MET tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor EMD 1214063 selectively binds to MET tyrosine kinase and disrupts MET signal transduction pathways, which may induce apoptosis in tumor cells overexpressing this kinase. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor or HGFR), is the product of the proto-oncogene c-Met and is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types; this protein plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
601032 MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor PF-04217903An orally bioavailabe, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor PF-04217903 selectively binds to and inhibits c-Met, disrupting the c-Met signaling pathway, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth, migration and invasion of tumor cells, and the induction of death in tumor cells expressing c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
703771 MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor SAR125844An inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, c-Met inhibitor SAR125844 binds to c-Met, thereby disrupting c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in a variety of cancers, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42884 Metastat(Other name for: incyclinide)
41810 Metastron(Other name for: strontium chloride Sr 89)
755994 metatinib tromethamineAn orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, metatinib tromethamine may inhibit the BCL-ABL protein, which may lead to decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in tumor cells. BCR-ABL oncoprotein is generated by a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 specifically t(9;22)(q34;q11). The resulting fusion gene produces proteins with constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, which stimulate both abnormal cell division and increased cellular proliferation. This fusion is associated with both chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
593641 metformin hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of the biguanide metformin with antihyperglycemic and potential antineoplastic activities. Metformin inhibits complex I (NADPH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby increasing the cellular AMP to ATP ratio and leading to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and regulating AMPK-mediated transcription of target genes. This eventually prevents hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhances insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation and ultimately leads to a decrease in glucose levels. Metformin may exert antineoplastic effects through AMPK-mediated or AMPK-independent inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is up-regulated in many cancer tissues. Furthermore, this agent also inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression which is mediated through the suppression of transcription activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39498 methadone hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of methadone, a synthetic opioid with analgesic activity. Similar to morphine and other morphine-like agents, methadone mimics the actions of endogenous peptides at CNS opioid receptors, primarily the mu-receptor, resulting in characteristic morphine-like effects including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia and physical dependence. Because of the prolonged half-life of merthadone compared to other morphine-like agents such as heroin, the onset of opiate withdrawal symptoms is slower, the duration of opiate withdrawal is prolonged, and opiate wihdrawal symptoms are less severe. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39498 Methadose(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)
39495 methanol extraction residue of BCGA cell wall fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) obtained by menthol extraction with immunomodulating properties and potential use in cancer immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
484587 methazolamideA sulfonamide derivate and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Methazolamide inhibits tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), which may result in increased cell death in hypoxic tumors. As a hypoxia-inducible transmembrane glycoprotein, CAIX catalyzes the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions, helping to maintain acidification of the tumor microenvironment and enhance resistance to cytotoxic therapy in some hypoxic tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41671 Methazolastone(Other name for: temozolomide)
42650 methionine C 11A synthetic amino acid radiolabeled with carbon-11. Acting as a methyl donor, methionine C 11 is incorporated into macromolecules, where it serves as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for detecting tumors with high rates of protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41710 Methosarb(Other name for: calusterone)
41719 methotrexateAn antimetabolite and antifolate agent with antineoplastic and immunosuppressant activities. Methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Methotrexate also exhibits potent immunosuppressant activity although the mechanism(s) of actions is unclear. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41719 Methotrexate LPF(Other name for: methotrexate)
41858 methotrexate-e therapeutic implantAn injectable collagen matrix gel containing the antimetabolite methotrexate and the sympathicomimetic agent epinephrine with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection, methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Epinephrine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is added to the gel to enhance penetration of methotrexate into the tumor tissue and reduce dispersion to the surrounding tissues thereby enhancing the local concentration of methotrexate and increasing its anti-tumor activity. Intratumoral injection of methotrexate combined with epinephrine may potentially increase chemotherapeutic efficacy compared to systemic administration and reduce systemic toxicity and side effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39499 methoxsalenA naturally occurring substance isolated from the seeds of the plant Ammi majus with photoactivating properties. As a member of the family of compounds known as psoralens or furocoumarins, methoxsalen's exact mechanism of action is unknown; upon photoactivation, methoxsalen has been observed to bind covalently to and crosslink DNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
339378 methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin betaA pegylated form of recombinant human erythropoietin, a glycosylated protein naturally produced in the kidney that stimulates erythrocyte production in the bone marrow. Methoxypolyethylene glycol epoetin beta may reverse anemias induced by cancer therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
599836 methoxyamineAn orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor with potential adjuvant activity. Methoxyamine covalently binds to apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) DNA damage sites and inhibits base excision repair (BER), which may result in an increase in DNA strand breaks and apoptosis. This agent may potentiate the anti-tumor activity of alkylating agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38410 methyl-5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride creamA topical cream formulation containing the hydrochloride salt of methyl-5-aminolevulinate, a lipophilic methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid, with photosensitizer prodrug activity. Upon topical administration, methyl-5-aminolevulinate in the cream is selectively absorbed by tumor cells where it is converted to the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Upon photoirradiation, PpIX is activated and transfers energy to oxygen, generating singlet oxygen and superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may result in free-radical-mediated DNA damage and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41780 methylene blueA synthetic basic dye. Methylene blue stains to negatively charged cell components like nucleic acids; when administered in the lymphatic bed of a tumor during oncologic surgery, methylene blue may stain lymph nodes draining from the tumor, thereby aiding in the visual localization of tumor sentinel lymph nodes. When administered intravenously in low doses, this agent may convert methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40293 methylene dimethane sulfonateA member of the homologous series of dimethane sulphonic acid esters with alkylating properties. Methylene dimethane sulfonate alkylates DNA, resulting in interstrand DNA crosslinking, inhibition of DNA replication, disruption of the cell cycle, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39497 methylmercaptopurine ribosideA purine derivative with antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic properties. 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6-MMPR) inhibits amidophosphoribosyltransferase, the first committed step in de novo purine synthesis, and inhibits fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-induced cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
437863 methylnaltrexoneA methyl derivative of noroxymorphone with selective, opioid-receptor antagonistic activity. Methylnaltrexone displaces opioids from peripheral opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the skin, resulting in decreases in opioid-related constipation, urinary retention, and pruritis, respectively. Methylnaltrexone does not cross the blood-brain barrier and does not affect the centrally-mediated analgesic effect of opioids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41225 methylphenidate hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of the synthetic central nervous system stimulant methylphenidate. Methylphenidate appears to activate the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect and, in some clinical settings, may improve cognitive function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41528 methylprednisoloneA synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. Methylprednisolone binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. This agent also decreases the number of circulating lymphocytes, induces cell differentiation, and stimulates apoptosis in sensitive tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43296 Meti-derm(Other name for: prednisolone)
39502 metoclopramide hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of the substituted benzamide metoclopramide, a para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) derivative that is structurally related to procainamide, with gastroprokinetic and antiemetic activities. Metoclopramide binds to dopamine 2 (D2) receptors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), antagonizing dopamine-mediated relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and promoting gastroprokinesis; the pyloric sphincter and the duodenal bulb are relaxed, peristalsis of the duodenum and jejunum increase, and gastric emptying and intestinal transit accelerate. This agent may also increase the resting tone of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES), preventing acid reflux. In the central nervous system (CNS), metoclopramide antagonizes D2 dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptive trigger zone (CTZ) of the medulla, thereby preventing nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39206 metoprineA diaminopyrimidine folate antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Metoprine inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in decreased cellular folate metabolism and cell growth; it also inhibits histamine-N-methyltransferase, resulting in decreased histamine catabolism. Lipid-soluble metoprine is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
694582 metoprololA cardioselective competitive beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist with antihypertensive properties and devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Metoprolol antagonizes beta 1-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium, thereby reducing the rate and force of myocardial contraction leading to a reduction in cardiac output. This agent may also reduce the secretion of renin with subsequent reduction in levels of angiotensin II thereby preventing vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39503 Metro I.V.(Other name for: metronidazole hydrochloride)
41528 Metrocort(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
39503 metronidazole hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of a synthetic nitroimidazole derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities. Although its mechanism of action is not fully elucidated, un-ionized metronidazole is readily taken up by obligate anaerobic organisms and is subsequently reduced by low-redox potential electron-transport proteins to an active, intermediate product. Reduced metronidazole causes DNA strand breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis and bacterial cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38410 Metvixia cream(Other name for: methyl-5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride cream)
41528 Metypred(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
39501 metyrosineA methylated tyrosine, a catecholamine synthesis antagonist with antihypertensive property. Metyrosine competitively inhibits tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, an enzyme that activates molecular oxygen to catalyze the hydroxylation of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), an intermediate to catecholamine (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) production. This agent reduces the elevated levels of catecholamines associated with pheochromocytoma, thereby preventing hypertension. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41658 Mevacor(Other name for: lovastatin)
41719 Mexate(Other name for: methotrexate)
41719 Mexate-AQ(Other name for: methotrexate)
43475 MG 98A second-generation, mixed-backbone, phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) with potential antitumor activity. MG 98 is a highly specific inhibitor of translation of the mRNA for human DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), hybridizing to the 3' un-translated region of DNMT1 mRNA. The silencing of DNMT1 translation by MG 98 may result in the prevention or reversal of abnormal methylation of tumor suppressor genes and ultimately in tumor growth inhibition or tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43552 MicafunginA semi-synthetic echinocandin derived from a natural product of the fungus Coleophama empedri with potent antifungal activity. Micafungin, like other cyclic lipopeptides, noncompetitively inhibits the fungal specific enzyme 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase, an enzyme essential for fungal cell wall synthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme weakens of the cell wall, thereby leading to osmotic lysis and eventually, fungal cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
647541 micellar nanoparticle-encapsulated cisplatin NC-6004A nanoparticle-based prodrug formulation consisting of polymeric micelles incorporating the inorganic platinum agent cisplatin with potential antineoplastic activity. In micellar nanoparticle-encapsulated cisplatin NC-6004, cisplatin forms a polymer-metal complex with hydrophilic polyethylene glycol poly(glutamic acid) block copolymers by attaching to the micelle inner core consisting of the hydrophobic polymer polyamino acid. Upon cell entry and release from the polymer-metal complex, cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged platinum complexes that bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-linking, DNA-protein cross-linking and, subsequently, tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. Due to the hydrophilic nature of polyethylene glycol, this formulation increases the water-solubility of cisplatin and decreases the nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity associated with the administration of cisplatin alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
570688 micronutrient-fortified probiotic yogurtAn micronutrient-fortified fermented dairy product with potential positive immunomodulatory activity. Micronutrient-fortified probiotic yogurt contains various micronutrients in addition to beneficial microorganisms, such as strains of Lactobacillus. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains have been shown to protect against gastrointestinal and urogenital infections, to moderate diarrheal episodes, and to increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. In immunocompromised subjects, micronutrient supplementation may also increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
706747 microtubule-targeted agent BAL101553An orally available, highly water-soluble lysine prodrug of the synthetic small molecule BAL27862 with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration of BAL101553 and conversion into the active form BAL27862, this agent binds to tubulin at a site distinct from the vinca-alkaloid-binding site, and prevents tubulin polymerization and destabilizes microtubules, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest, blockage of cell division and an induction of cell death in cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41056 midazolam hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of a short-acting benzodiazepine derivative with an imidazole structure and anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and sedative properties. Midazolam binds to the benzodiazepine receptor at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride ionophore complex in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in increases in the opening of chloride channels, membrane hyperpolarization, and the inhibitory effect of GABA. This agent may also interfere with the reuptake of GABA, thereby causing accumulation of GABA in the synaptic cleft. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
756929 midazolam-containing buccal liquidAn oromucosal solution containing the maleate salt form of midazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine derivative, with anxiolytic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and sedative activities. Upon administration of the solution into the buccal cavity, midazolam exerts its effect by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride ionophore complex in the central nervous system (CNS). This leads to an increase in the permeability of chloride channels, membrane hyperpolarization and enhances the inhibitory effect of GABA in the CNS. Midazolam may also interfere with the reuptake of GABA, thereby causing accumulation of GABA in the synaptic cleft. The oromucosal formulation facilitates administration to patients that are unable to swallow. The ethanol in this formulation improves the buccal absorption of midazolam. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
462346 midostaurinA synthetic indolocarbazole multikinase inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Midostaurin inhibits protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) tyrosine kinases, which may result in disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of proliferation, apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis in susceptible tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41541 mifamurtideA liposomal formulation containing a muramyl dipeptide (MDP) analogue with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities.. Muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE), a derivative of the mycobacterial cell wall component MDP, activates both monocytes and macrophages. Activated macrophages secrete cytokines and induce the recruitment and activation of other immune cells, which may result in indirect tumoricidal effects. Liposomal encapsulation of MTP-PE prolongs its half-life and enhances tissue targeting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40888 Mifeprex(Other name for: mifepristone)
40888 mifepristoneA derivative of the synthetic progestin norethindrone with antiprogesterone activity. Mifepristone competitively binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in inhibition of the effects of endogenous or exogenous progesterone. This agent also exhibits antiglucocorticoid and weak antiandrogenic activities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
534127 milatuzumabA humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human CD74 with potential antineoplastic activity. Milatuzumab specifically binds to CD74 on CD74-positive cells. Although the exact mechanism through which this agent induces apoptosis is unknown, it may involve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). Alternatively, as CD74 is the cellular receptor for the cytokine migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), the cytotoxicity of this agent may be related to inhibition of CD74 activation by MIF. CD74, an integral membrane protein that functions as an MHC class II chaperone, may also be an accessory-signaling molecule; activation of CD74 may initiate cell survival mechanisms involving induction of a signaling cascade resulting in NFkB activation, entry of stimulated cells into the S phase of the cell cycle, elevation of DNA synthesis, cell division, and augmented expression of Bcl-xL. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
671813 milatuzumab-doxorubicin antibody-drug conjugateAn immunoconjugate consisting of milatuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD74, conjugated to the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. The milatuzumab moiety of this antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) selectively binds to CD74 on tumor cell surfaces; upon internalization, the doxorubicin moiety is released, where it intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix and inhibits topoisomerase II, thereby preventing DNA replication and increasing double-strand breakage. As a result, this agent may inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that overexpress CD74. CD74, an integral membrane protein and tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in certain cancer cells and promotes survival in rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43081 Milestrol(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
537610 Milk of Magnesia(Other name for: magnesium hydroxide)
598301 milk protein-based energy drinkAn oral milk protein-based nutritional supplement. Milk protein-based energy drink is a flavored liquid that consists of milk protein, rapeseed and sunflower oils, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace-elements, providing 1.5kcal and 10 mg of protein per ml. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
459958 milk thistleA substance derived from any of several Old World coarse prickly-leaved shrubs and subshrubs including the plant Silybum marianum. Milk thistle's active chemical component is silymarin, which is a combination of flavonoids such as silibinin, dehydrosilibinin, silychristin and silydianin. These compounds are antioxidants and may alter the membrane structure of the liver cell, thereby blocking the absorption of toxins; they may also stimulate the production of new liver cells. In addition, milk thistle may increase cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, exhibiting dose-dependent cardiac myocyte cytoprotection against doxorubicin. The silibinin component of milk thistle has been shown to inhibit growth factor receptor-mediated mitogenic and cell survival signaling, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. (NCI04) Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41615 milodistimA recombinant fusion protein derived from the coding sequences of two growth factors, interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Milodistim exhibits greater receptor binding affinity and colony stimulating activity than its parent cytokines. This agent stimulates proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells and allows the stimulation and expansion of multi-lineage hematopoiesis from immature bone marrow progenitor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41212 miltefosineAn orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (INF-gamma). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
753195 Minnelide(Other name for: triptolide analogue)
552699 Minocin(Other name for: minocycline hydrochloride)
552699 minocycline hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of minocycline, a broad spectrum long-acting derivative of the antibiotic tetracycline, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Minocycline binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and interferes with the binding of tRNA to the ribosomal complex, thereby inhibiting protein translation in bacteria. In addition, minocycline inhibits the inflammatory enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX) and may impede T cell-microglia interactions; both activities may contribute to minocycline's neuroprotective effects. 5LOX catalyzes the synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
509172 minocycline-EDTAA combination preparation containing the broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic minocycline and the chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. Minocycline exhibits bacteriostatic activity by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and preventing binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex during protein translation; this results in an inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis and, consequently, an inhibition of bacterial cell growth. EDTA may cause the dispersal and killing of biofilms by chelating metal ions important to the stabilization of biofilm structure. The two agents in this combination may act synergistically to eradicate bacteria embedded in biofilms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39713 Mintezol(Other name for: thiabendazole)
37878 Miraluma(Other name for: Tc 99m sestamibi)
339378 Mircera(Other name for: methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin beta)
459975 Mirena(Other name for: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system)
559298 mirtazapineA synthetic tetracyclic derivative of the piperazino-azepines with antidepressant activity. Although its mechanism of action is unknown, mirtazapine enhances central adrenergic and serotonergic transmission, possibly by acting as an antagonist at central presynaptic alpha 2 adrenergic inhibitory autoreceptors and heteroreceptors. This agent is a potent antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2 (5-HT2), 5-HT3, and histamine 1 (H1) receptors, and a moderate anatgonist of peripheral alpha 1 adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39504 misonidazoleA nitroimidazole with radiosensitizing and antineoplastic properties. Exhibiting high electron affinity, misonidazole induces the formation of free radicals and depletes radioprotective thiols, thereby sensitizing hypoxic cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. This single-strand breaks in DNA induced by this agent result in the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41724 mistletoe extractAn extract of the whole plant Viscum album (mistletoe) with potential biological response modifier (BRM) activity. Mistletoe extract may both stimulate the antitumoral functions of the immune system and have a direct toxic effect on tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41738 Mithracin(Other name for: plicamycin)
39500 mitoguazoneA guanylhydrazone with potential antineoplastic activity. Mitoguazone competitively inhibits S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMD), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of polyamines, resulting in decreased proliferation of tumor cells, antimitochondrial effects, and p53-independent apoptosis. Polyamines, specifically spermine and spermidine, are essential for thymidine kinase production, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39216 mitolactolA synthetic derivative of hexitol with antineoplastic and radiosensitizing properties. Mitolactol alkylates DNA via actual or derived epoxide groups, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42674 mitomycin CA methylazirinopyrroloindoledione antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells, mitomycin C also inhibits RNA and protein synthesis at high concentrations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
560180 mitosis-angiogenesis inhibitor R1530A pyrazolobenzodiazepine small molecule with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. Mitosis-angiogenesis inhibitor (MAI) R1530 inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases involved in angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, -2, -3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) beta‚ FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) -1, -2. In addition, this agents exhibits anti-proliferative activity by initiating mitotic arrest and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39506 mitotaneA synthetic derivative of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) with anti-adrenocorticoid properties. Following its metabolism in the adrenal cortex to a reactive acyl chloride intermediate, mitotane covalently binds to adrenal proteins, specifically inhibiting adrenal cortical hormone production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39219 mitoxantrone hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of an anthracenedione antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Mitoxantrone intercalates into and crosslinks DNA, thereby disrupting DNA and RNA replication. This agent also binds to topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA repair. Mitoxantrone is less cardiotoxic compared to doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42674 Mitozytrex(Other name for: mitomycin C)
41656 mivobulin isethionateThe isethionate salt of mivobulin, a synthetic colchicine analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Mivobulin isethionate binds to tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule polymerization and mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
590146 mixed bacteria vaccineA cancer vaccine containing a mixture of killed bacteria with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Mixed bacteria vaccine (MBV or Coley’s toxins) consists of a pyrogenic bacterial lysate derived from Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus pyogenes; the active components in the lysate may be lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall of Serratia, and streptokinase, an enzyme produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. LPS has been shown to stimulate the host humoral immune response and induce the release of various antitumor cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
446551 MK0731A synthetic small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. MK0731 selectively inhibits kinesin spindle protein (KSP), which may result in the inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly, induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase, and apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress KSP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
486351 MKC-1An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, bisindolylmaleimide cell cycle inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. MKC-1 and its metabolites inhibit tubulin polymerization, blocking the formation of the mitotic spindle, which may result in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis. In addition, this agent has been shown to inhibit the activities of the oncogenic kinase Akt, the mTOR pathway, and importin-beta, a protein essential to the transport of other proteins from the cytosol into the nucleus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
299464 MLN2704An immunoconjugate that consists of a humanized monoclonal antibody (MLN591), directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen linked to a maytansinoid (DM1). The monoclonal antibody moiety of MLN2704 binds to tumor cells expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen; MLN274 is then internalized into the tumor cell where the DM1 maytansinoid moiety binds to tubulin and inhibits tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly, resulting in a disruption of microtubule activity and cell division, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
589811 MnSOD-plasmid liposomesA plasmid DNA encoding human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and liposomally encapsulated with potential chemoprotective activity. When administered orally and localizing in the esophagus, MnSOD-plasmid liposomes express MnSOD, which scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS); MnSOD scavenging of ROS may result in a reduction in ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and micro-ulceration in the epithelial lining of the esophagus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
472195 Mobec(Other name for: meloxicam)
472195 Mobic(Other name for: meloxicam)
472195 Mobicox(Other name for: meloxicam)
42928 Mobista(Other name for: recombinant flt3 ligand)
486941 mocetinostatA rationally designed, orally available, Class 1-selective, small molecule, 2-aminobenzamide HDAC inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Mocetinostat binds to and inhibits Class 1 isoforms of HDAC, specifically HDAC 1, 2 and 3, which may result in epigenetic changes in tumor cells and so tumor cell death; although the exact mechanism has yet to be defined, tumor cell death may occur through the induction of apoptosis, differentiation, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, upregulation of tumor suppressors, down regulation of growth factors, oxidative stress, and autophagy, among others. Overexpression of Class I HDACs 1, 2 and 3 has been found in many tumors and has been correlated with a poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
256449 modafinilA synthetic central nervous system stimulant with wakefulness-promoting activity. Modafinil appears to inhibit dopamine reuptake, resulting in an increase in extracellular dopamine. This agent exhibits pronounced wakefulness-promoting activity (without sympathomimetic activity) and may improve cognitive function in certain clinical settings. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
759182 Modicon(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)
740207 modified citrus pectin supplementA dietary supplement containing the modified citrus pectin (MCP) derived from the soluble fiber of citrus fruit peels and a galectin-3 inhibitor with potential antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, immunostimulatory, metal chelating, and anti-metastatic activities. MCP is a low molecular weight version of pectin composed of short, slightly-branched carbohydrate chains and is modified for enhanced absorbability. The bioactive fragments, most likely the galactan-containing portion, of pectin binds to galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein involved in imflammation, heart disease and is upregulated on the surface of certain types of tumor cells. Binding of MCP may result in the suppression of cancer cell aggregation, adhesion, proliferation and metastasis. In addition, MCP decreases prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and may remove heavy metals. Also, unsaturated oligogalacturonic acids in MCP may stimulate the immune system through the activation of natural killer cells, cytotoxic T-cells, and B-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
558806 modified vaccinia Ankara (Bavarian Nordic)-HER2 vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of a proprietary, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding an epitope of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, modified vaccinia Ankara (Bavarian Nordic)-HER2 vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against HER2-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. HER2, also known as ErbB-2, is a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor and a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family; it plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of some breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39812 Modrastane(Other name for: trilostane)
500479 mogamulizumabA humanized monoclonal antibody directed against C-C chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Mogamulizumab selectively binds to and blocks the activity of CCR4, which may inhibit CCR4-mediated signal transduction pathways and, so, chemokine-mediated cellular migration and proliferation of T cells, and chemokine-mediated angiogenesis. In addition, this agent may induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CCR4-positive T cells. CCR4, a G-coupled-protein receptor for C-C chemokines such MIP-1, RANTES, TARC and MCP-1, is expressed on the surfaces of some types of T cells, endothelial cells, and some types of neurons. CCR4, also known as CD194, may be overexpressed on adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38724 molybdenumAn element with atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
660135 momelotinibAn orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinases 1 and 2 (JAK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Momelotinib competes with JAK1/2 for ATP binding, which may result in inhibition of JAK1/2 activation, inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and so the induction of apoptosis and a reduction of tumor cell proliferation in JAK1/2-expressing tumor cells. JAK2 is the most common mutated gene in bcr-abl-negative myeloproliferative disorders; the JAK2V617F gain-of-function mutation involves a valine-to-phenylalanine modification at position 617. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is a major mediator of cytokine activity and is often dysregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
531049 mometasone furoateThe furoate salt form of mometasone, a synthetic topical glucocorticosteroid receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and vasoconstrictive properties. Mometasone furoate exerts its effect by binding to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. This results in synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins, while inhibiting the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators.. Specifically, mometasone furoate appears to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, thereby controlling the release of the inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid from phospholipid membrane by phospholipase A2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39494 monobenzoneA monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone with topical depigmentation activity. Although the exact mechanism of action of depigmentation is unknown, the metabolites of monobenzone appear to have a cytotoxic effect on melanocytes. Furthermore, the depigmentation effect might be mediated through the inhibition of tyrosinase, which is essential in the synthesis of melanin pigments, thereby causing permanent depigmentation of the skin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
746809 monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitor AZD3965An orally available inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965 binds to MCT1 and prevents the transport of lactate into and out of the cell. This leads to an accumulation of lactate, intracellular acidification, and eventually cancer cell death. MCT1, a protein overexpressed on tumor cells, is responsible for the transport of monocarboxylates across the cell membrane and plays a key role in cell metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38413 monoclonal antibody 105AD7 anti-idiotype vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of a humanized monoclonal antibody that mimics a tumor-associated antigen 791Tgp72 (also known as CD55). Vaccination with this agent may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing CD55, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38135 monoclonal antibody 11D10 anti-idiotype vaccineA vaccine consisting of a monoclonal antibody (MoAB) directed against an idiotype that mimics a human milk fat globule (HMFG) membrane epitope. Vaccination with monoclonal antibody 11D10 anti-idiotype vaccine induces anti-anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab3) that may react with breast cancer cell lines expressing the HMFG membrane epitope. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41244 monoclonal antibody 14G2AA murine monoclonal antibody directed against the ganglioside GD2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody 14G2A binds to the ganglioside GD2 and induces antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against GD2-expressing tumor cells. GD2 is overexpressed in malignant melanoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41259 monoclonal antibody 3F8A murine monoclonal antibody directed against the cell-surface, tumor-associated antigen ganglioside GD2. Vaccination with monoclonal antibody 3F8 may stimulate a host cytotoxic immune response against tumors that express ganglioside GD2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42652 monoclonal antibody 3H1 anti-idiotype vaccineA recombinant monoclonal antibody in which the heavy and light chain variable domains mimic a specific epitope of the tumor-associated protein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This agent is used as a cancer vaccine against tumors that express CEA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37797 monoclonal antibody 4B5 anti-idiotype vaccineA humanized anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that mimics the disialoganglioside GD2 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, monoclonal antibody 4B5 anti-idiotype vaccine may elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses against GD2- expressing tumor cells. GD2 is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) that may be highly expressed by melanomas and other neuroectodermal tumors, while only minimally expressed by normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42834 monoclonal antibody A27.15A murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human transferrin (Tf) receptor. Monoclonal antibody A27.15 binds to the Tf receptor, blocking the binding of transferrin to the receptor and resulting in decreased tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42527 monoclonal antibody A33A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human A33 antigen. Monoclonal antibody A33 recognizes the human A33 antigen, a 43 KDa transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is highly and homogenously expressed in 95% of colorectal cancer metastases with only restricted expression in normal colonic mucosa. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
717457 monoclonal antibody AbGn-7A chimeric monoclonal antibody against a Lewis-A-like glycotope (AbGn-7 antigen) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Monoclonal antibody AbGn-7 targets and binds to the carbohydrate AbGn-7 antigen on the cell surface of tumor cells and may induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), thereby killing AbGn-7-epitope positive tumor cells. AbGn-7 antigen is expressed on a variety of tumor cell types, including human colorectal, pancreatic and gastric tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38505 monoclonal antibody CALA humanized monoclonal antibody directed against parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP). As a poly-hormone with diverse biological roles, PTH-rP is expressed by normal tissues, acting in local tissue environments in a variety of ways; it is commonly overexpressed by breast, prostate, and other cancers, acting systemically by promoting bone resorption, inhibiting calcium excretion from the kidney, inducing hypercalcemia, and possibly playing a role in the formation of bony metastases. By blocking the effects of PTH-rP on calcium metabolism, monoclonal antibody CAL may inhibit cancer-related hypercalcemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41760 monoclonal antibody CC49A second-generation murine monoclonal antibody based on the antibody B72.3 that is directed against tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG72). TAG72 is expressed by gastric, breast, pancreatic, colorectal, and ovarian carcinoma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38456 monoclonal antibody CC49-delta CH2A humanized CH2 domain-deleted second-generation monoclonal antibody based on the antibody B72.3 that is directed against tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG72). TAG72 is expressed by gastric, breast, pancreatic, colorectal, and ovarian carcinoma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
714212 monoclonal antibody CEP-37250/KHK2804A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting glycolipids, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, monoclonal antibody CEP-37250/KHK2804 targets and binds to a specific tumor antigen, thereby stimulating the immune system to exert an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against the tumor associated antigen (TAA)-expressing cancer cells. This agent has shown to be active in both wild-type and mutant K-RAS-expressing colorectal cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42835 monoclonal antibody E2.3A murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human transferrin (Tf) receptor. Monoclonal antibody E2.3 binds to the Tf receptor, blocking the binding of transferrin to the receptor and resulting in decreased tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
257174 monoclonal antibody GD2 anti-idiotype vaccineA class of vaccines that consist of anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies against the tumor-associated antigen disialoganglioside GD2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with a monoclonal antibody GD2 anti-idiotype vaccine produces an immunoglobulin response against GD2 with subsequent destruction of GD2 positive tumor cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). GD2 is overexpressed in melanoma, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43332 monoclonal antibody HeFi-1A murine monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody HeFi-1 binds to CD30, a cell surface antigen found on mitogen-activated B-cells and T-cells, and Reed-Sternberg cells. Monoclonal antibody HeFi-1 has been shown to arrest tumor growth and prevent metastasis in animal models. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38031 monoclonal antibody Hu3S193A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the Lewis Y antigen, a tumor-associated epithelial antigen, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following binding, monoclonal antibody Hu3S193 triggers an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in cells expressing Lewis Y antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
425344 monoclonal antibody HuAFP31A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against alpha fetoprotein with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, monoclonal antibody HuAFP31 (mAb HuAFP31) binds to and stimulates a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express alpha fetoprotein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
322247 monoclonal antibody HuHMFG1A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against MUC1, a mucin glycoprotein overexpressed in breast and other carcinomas. Monoclonal antibody HuHMFG1 stimulates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells expressing MUC1, resulting in a decrease in tumor burden. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
425351 monoclonal antibody HuPAM4A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the pancreatic cancer antigen MUC1 with potential antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody HuPAM4 (mAb HuPAM4) binds to cells expressing MUC1 antigen; mAb HuPAM4 may be useful as a carrier for radioisotopes and other antineoplastic therapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41472 monoclonal antibody L6A murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody L6 binds to the L6 antigen, a cell surface glycoprotein overexpressed in many carcinomas, and induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against L6-expressing tumor cells. This agent may be conjugated with various toxins in order to target their cytotoxic activity to tumor cells expressing the L6 antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41126 monoclonal antibody Lym-1A murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody directed against the HLA-Dr10 protein, a cell surface marker present on over eighty percent of lymphoma cells. When conjugated with a radioactive isotope, Lym-1 monoclonal antibody selectively transports the cytotoxic radioisotope to HLA-Dr10-expressing tumor cells, thereby sparing healthy B-cells and normal tissues. This agent also mediates antibody-dependent cytotoxicity thereby promoting Raji B-lymphoid cell lysis by human neutrophils. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38169 monoclonal antibody m170A panadenocarcinoma murine monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody m170 may be conjugated with a radioactive element and used in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a procedure that uses a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody to target radiation to cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42523 monoclonal antibody Me1-14 F(ab')2The F(ab)2 fragment of Me1-14, a murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody directed against proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate-associated protein expressed by gliomas and melanomas. By binding to proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate-associated protein, monoclonal antibody Me1-14 F(ab')2 conjugated to a radioisotope may localize gliomas and melanomas when used as a tracer in radioimaging applications; in radioimmunotherapeutic applications, this agent conjugated to a radioisotope may be used to deliver targeted radiotoxicity to these tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
703720 monoclonal antibody MGA271An Fc-domain optimized, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against cancer stem cells (CSCs), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After binding of monoclonal antibody MGA271 to an as of yet not elucidated target expressed on CSCs and differentiated tumor cells, this agent may induce an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CSCs. CSCs are tumor initiating cells that are able to self-renew and are responsible for tumor cell growth and resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38589 monoclonal antibody Mik-beta-1A murine monoclonal antibody directed against the beta subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), expressed on resting T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and some leukemic cell types. Monoclonal antibody Mik-beta-1 prevents the binding of IL-2 to IL-2R beta, thereby inhibiting the IL-2-mediated proliferation and activation of T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39362 monoclonal antibody R24An IgG murine monoclonal antibody directed against the ganglioside GD3 glycolipid, located in the cell membranes of some tumor cells. Monoclonal antibody R24 binds to GD3-positive cells, thereby initiating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against GD3-positive cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
415732 monoclonal antibody RAV12A chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against a primate-restricted N-linked carbohydrate epitope (glycotope) expressed on various human carcinomas with potential antineoplastic activity. Following binding, monoclonal antibody RAV12 disrupts sodium channels of tumor cells expressing this glycotope, resulting in cell and organelle swelling, loss of membrane integrity, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
357600 monoclonal antibody SGN-30A genetically-engineered, chimeric mouse-human, anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody SGN-30 specifically binds to the receptor CD-30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor super-family, which may be overexpressed on the surfaces of Hodgkin lymphoma cells and anaplastic-large cell lymphoma cells. After binding to CD30, this agent interferes with the G1 phase of the cell cycle, thereby inducing growth arrest and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
686537 monoclonal T-cell receptor anti-CD3 scFv fusion protein IMCgp100A fusion protein containing a modified form of human T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the gp100 antigen and fused to an anti-CD3 single-chain antibody fragment, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon direct intratumoral administration of IMCgp100 into the melanoma lesion, the TCR moiety of this agent targets and binds to the tumor associated antigen (TAA) gp100 presented on the melanoma tumor cell; the anti-CD3 fragment moiety binds to CD3- expressing T lymphocytes, thereby selectively cross-linking tumor cells and T-lymphocytes. This may lead to the recruitment of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to the T lymphocyte/tumor cell aggregates and result in CTL-mediated death of gp100-expressing melanoma cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
680696 Monofer(Other name for: iron isomaltoside 1000)
732707 monophosphoryl lipid AA modified form of lipid A, the biologically active part of Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, and a Toll-like receptor 4 (TL= R4) agonist, with potential immunostimulatory activity. As a vaccine adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) stimulates both cellular and humoral responses to the vaccine antigen. Compared to LPS, MPLA exerts a similar immunostimulatory activity but with reduced toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
751157 monosialotetrahexosylgangliosideA glycosphingolipid containing a sialic acid residue found in neuronal cell membranes, with potential neuroprotective and neuroregenerative activities. Upon administration, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside, also called GM-1, is able to both prevent neurologic damage and induce regeneration of damaged neurons through neurotrophic repair mechanisms, enhancement of the production of neutrophins, and augmenting neurite outgrowth. In addition, GM-1 exerts anti-excitotoxic activity, prevents necrosis, and improves neuronal recovery and function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
650426 Montanide ISA 51 VGAn water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion with immunomoadjuvant activity. Montanide ISA 51 VG appears to act by enhancing the immune system’s cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against antigen(s) in vaccines. The surfactant mannide monooleate in Montanide ISA 51 VG contains vegetable-grade (VG) oleic acid derived from olive oil. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
702862 Montanide ISA 720A proprietary adjuvant, applicable for water-in-oil (W/O; 30/70 v/v) vaccine emulsion, with potential immunoadjuvant activity. Montanide ISA 720 is made of natural metabolizable non-mineral oil and a highly refined emulsifier from the mannide mono-oleate family; it is rapidly metabolized and eliminated, and may be used in various vaccines, including cancer vaccines. Upon administration, Montanide ISA 720 forms a depot at the injection site and is therefore capable of slowly releasing the antigen(s) from the injection site. This may result in enhanced cellular and humoral immune responses to the antigen vaccine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
593502 montelukast sodiumThe orally bioavailable monosodium salt of montelukast, a selective cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist with anti-inflammatory and bronchodilating activities. Montelukast selectively and competitively blocks the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor, preventing binding of the inflammatory mediator leukotriene D4 (LTD4). Inhibition of LTD4 activity results in inhibition of leukotriene-mediated inflammatory events including: migration of eosinophils and neutrophils; adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelium, monocyte and neutrophil aggregation; increased airway edema; increased capillary permeability; and bronchoconstriction. The CysLT1 receptor is found in a number of tissues including spleen, lung, placenta, small intestine, and nasal mucosa, and in a variety of cell types including monocyte/macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, CD34-positive hemopoietic progenitor cells, neutrophils and endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752157 Monurol(Other name for: fosfomycin tromethamine)
41779 MOPP regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of mechlorethamine, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine and prednisone, used alone or in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of stage I-IV Hodgkin lymphoma. Due to the increased risk of gonadal toxicity, this regimen has been widely replaced by the ABVD regimen. (NCI Thesaurus)
304320 Morinda citrifolia fruit extractAn extract prepared from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, a plant that yields various herbal preparations. Morinda citrifolia fruit juice has antioxidant properties and may prevent tumorigenesis via inhibition of DNA-carcinogen adduct formation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41804 morphine sulfateThe sulfate salt of morphine, an opiate alkaloid isolated from the plant Papaver somniferum and produced synthetically. Morphine binds to and activates specific opiate receptors (delta, mu and kappa), each of which are involved in controlling different brain functions. In the central nervous and gastrointestinal systems, this agent has widespread effects including analgesia, anxiolysis, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, and gastrointestinal system smooth muscle contraction. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
651246 morphine sulfate sustained-release tabletA sustained-release tablet formulation containing the sulfate salt of the opiate alkaloid morphine with analgesic activity. Morphine binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the effects of the endogenous opioids. Binding of morphine to opioid receptors stimulates exchange of GTP for GDP, inhibits adenylate cyclase, and decreases intracellular cAMP. This inhibits the release of various nociceptive neurotransmitters, such as substance P, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and somatostatin. In addition, morphine closes N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and opens calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels, which results in hyperpolarization of neuronal membranes and a reduction in neuronal excitability, and subsequently, analgesia and sedation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
391228 motesanib diphosphateThe orally bioavailable diphosphate salt of a multiple-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Motesanib selectively targets and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR), kit, and Ret receptors, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42391 motexafin gadoliniumA synthetic metallotexaphyrin with radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing properties. Motexafin gadolinium accumulates in tumor cells preferentially due to their increased rates of metabolism, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) intracellularly and lowering the tumor cell apoptotic threshold to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42402 motexafin lutetiumA pentadentate aromatic metallotexaphyrin with photosensitizing properties. Motexafin lutetium preferentially accumulates in tumor cells due to their increased rates of metabolism and absorbs light, forming an extended high energy conformational state that produces high quantum yields of singlet oxygen, resulting in local cytotoxic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40475 Motrin(Other name for: ibuprofen)
419686 mouse gp100 plasmid DNA vaccineA vaccine consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding the murine melanoma-associated antigen gp100. Upon administration, expressed gp100 antigen may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell HLA-A2.1-restricted immune response against tumor cells that express the gp100 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
394099 mouse prostate-specific membrane antigen plasmid DNA vaccineA vaccine consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding the murine prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Upon administration, expressed PSMA may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells that express PSMA, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
489176 mouse renal adenocarcinoma cell-encapsulated agarose-agarose macrobeadsAn agarose matrix containing mouse renal adenocarcinoma (RENCA) cells, with potential antineoplastic activity. The agarose-agarose macrobeads consist of two spherical agarose layers; the mouse RENCA cells are contained within the inner agarose layer. Upon placement into the abdominal cavity, the restricted mouse renal adenocarcinoma cells in the agarose macrobeads produce and release certain growth-retarding factors that inhibit the proliferation of the RENCA cells. Upon diffusion of these growth-slowing factors out of the agarose layers, these substances may inhibit cancer cell proliferation of proliferating tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38341 MOv-gamma chimeric receptor geneA recombinant engineered chimeric gene derived from the murine gene encoding the variable region of monoclonal antibody MOv18 against folate-binding protein, which is often overexpressed in human ovarian cancer cells, and the gene encoding the Fc receptor for the gamma subunit of human IgG and IgE. Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing the MOv-gamma gene may be used in the immunotherapeutic treatment of ovarian cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
472195 Movalis(Other name for: meloxicam)
472195 Movatec(Other name for: meloxicam)
742409 Moviprep(Other name for: PEG-3350/sodium sulfate/sodium chloride/potassium chloride/sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid-based laxative)
540032 moxetumomab pasudotoxA recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the Fv portion of the anti-CD22 antibody covalently fused to a 38 KDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin-A (PE38) with potential antineoplastic activity. The Fv portion of moxetumomab pasudotox binds to CD22, a cell surface receptor expressed on a variety of malignant B-cells, thereby delivering the toxin moiety PE38 directly to tumor cells. Once internalized, PE38 induces caspase-mediated apoptosis via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage and blocks translational elongation by binding to elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Moxetumomab Pasudotox exhibits a greater affinity for CD22 than its predecessor, anti-CD22 immunotoxin CAT-3888 (BL22 immunotoxin), and hence may be more effective against tumor cells expressing lower levels of CD22. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
306456 moxifloxacin hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of a fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic. Moxifloxacin binds to and inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and repair and cell death in sensitive bacterial species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
410786 Mozobil(Other name for: plerixafor)
761238 Mps1 kinase inhibitor BAY1161909An orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of the serine/threonine monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the Mps1 kinase inhibitor BAY1161909 binds to and inhibits the activity of Mps1. This causes inactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), accelerated mitosis, chromosomal misalignment, chromosomal missegregation, mitotic checkpoint complex destabilization, and increased aneuploidy. This leads to the induction of cell death in cancer cells overexpressing Mps1. Mps1, a kinase expressed in proliferating normal tissues and aberrantly overexpressed in a wide range of human tumors, is activated during mitosis and is essential for SAC functioning and controls chromosome alignment. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752248 mRNA-derived lung cancer vaccine CV9202A non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) vaccine containing six modified mRNAs, which encode six different NSCLC associated antigens, with potential antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. Upon intradermal administration, mRNA-derived lung cancer vaccine CV9202 may stimulate the immune system to mount both humoral and cellular responses against NSCLC cells. The six tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) encoded by these mRNAs are frequently expressed by NSCLC cells and are minimally expressed or absent in normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
636121 mRNA-derived prostate cancer vaccine CV9103A prostate cancer vaccine containing mRNAs encoding prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (STEAP), with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, mRNA-derived prostate cancer vaccine CV9103 may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response (CTL) against PSA-, PSMA-, PSCA- and STEAP-expressing prostate tumor cells. The mRNA used in this vaccine is modified and formulated to have enhanced translational potency and adjuvant activities. .PSA, PSMA, PSCA and STEAP may be upregulated in prostate cancer cells; their expression in prostate cancer has been correlated with disease progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
748869 mRNA-derived prostate cancer vaccine CV9104A prostate cancer vaccine containing six messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding for antigens upregulated in prostate cancer, including mRNAs for prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and mucin 1 (MUC1), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon intradermal administration of mRNA-derived prostate cancer vaccine CV9104, this agent enters cells, the mRNAs are translated into the respective prostate specific antigens and may cause the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response (CTL) against PSA-, PSMA-, PAP- and MUC1-expressing prostate tumor cells. The mRNAs used in this vaccine are modified to have enhanced translational potency and adjuvant activities. PSA, PSMA, PAP and MUC1 are frequently upregulated in prostate cancer cells; their expression in prostate cancer has been correlated with disease progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41804 MS Contin(Other name for: morphine sulfate)
41804 MSir(Other name for: morphine sulfate)
694483 MTF-1 inhibitor APTO-253 HClThe hydrochloride salt of a small molecule inhibitor of human metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) with potential antitumor activity. MTF-1 inhibitor APTO-253 inhibits MTF-1 activity and thereby induces the expression of MTF-1 dependent tumor suppressor factor Kruppel like factor 4 (KLF4). This subsequently leads to the downregulation of cyclin D1, blocking cell cycle progression and proliferation. This agent also causes decreased expression of genes involved in tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
662098 mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD2014An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with potential antineoplastic activity. mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD2014 inhibits the activity of mTOR, which may result in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in a variety of tumors, plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
612860 mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055An inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with potential antineoplastic activity. mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 inhibits the serine/threonine kinase activity of mTOR, resulting in decreased expression of mRNAs necessary for cell cycle progression, which may induce cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. mTOR phosphorylates transcription factors, such as S6K1 and 4E-BP1, which stimulate protein synthesis and regulate cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
683644 mTOR kinase inhibitor CC-223An orally available inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with potential antineoplastic activity. mTOR kinase inhibitor CC-223 inhibits the activity of mTOR, which may result in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in a variety of tumors, plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which is frequently dysregulated in human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
600513 mTOR kinase inhibitor OSI-027An orally bioavailable mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. mTOR kinase inhibitor OSI-027 binds to and inhibits both the raptor-mTOR (TOR complex 1 or TORC1) and the rictor-mTOR (TOR complex 2 or TORC2) complexes of mTOR, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in some tumors and plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
728650 mTOR1/2 kinase inhibitor ME-344An active metabolite of NV-128, a novel flavonoid small molecule inhibitor of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, mTOR1/2 Kinase inhibitor ME-344 downregulates the PIK3/AKT/mTOR pathway and results in chromatin condensation in the absence of caspase activation. Consequently, this agent induces caspase-independent cell death in tumor cells with a de-regulated PIK3/AKT/mTOR pathway or chemotherapeutic resistant cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
763422 mTORC1/mTORC2/DHFR inhibitor ABTL0812An orally bioavailable, lipid analogue and inhibitor of raptor-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (mTOR complex 1; mTORC1), rictor-mTOR (mTOR complex 2; mTORC2) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, mTORC1/mTORC2/DHFR inhibitor ABTL0812 binds to and inhibits both mTORC1 and mTORC2, which may result in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation in mTORC1/2-expressing tumor cells. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in some tumors; it plays an important role in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway which is often deregulated in cancer cells. In addition, ABTL0812 inhibits DHFR, an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, thereby blocking tetrahydrofolate synthesis, and resulting in both the depletion of nucleotide precursors and the inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. This leads to autophagy-induced cell death and further inhibition of cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42454 MUC1 antigenMUC-1 antigen is a mammary-type apomucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane glycoprotein, of which the extracellular domain is formed by a repeating 20 amino acid sequence (in tandem) with a high content of serine and threonine on which are O-linked carbohydrate chains. MUC-1 synthesis and secretion are features of glandular epithelial tissues; MUC-1 is overexpressed in lactating breast and in breast, ovary, lung, and prostate malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
458103 MUC1 peptide vaccineA cancer vaccine comprised of a synthetic peptide derived from the mucin 1 (MUC1) antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, MUC1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells positive for the MUC1 antigen, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Overexpressed on many tumor cells, MUC1 antigen, a mammary-type apomucin, is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
637356 MUC1 peptide-poly-ICLC adjuvant vaccineA vaccine preparation containing mucus 1 (MUC1) peptide and the adjuvant poly-ICLC with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MUC1 peptide-poly-ICLC adjuvant vaccine may induce the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T cell response against MUC1-expressing tumor cells. MUC1, a tumor associated antigen normally present on the lining of the human colon, may be overexpressed and/or mutated in a variety of cancer cell types. The adjuvant poly-ICLC, a ligand for toll-like receptor-3, induces the release of cytokines which may help boost the immune response against MUC1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38032 MUC1-KLH conjugate vaccineA peptide vaccine, containing human tumor-associated epithelial mucin (MUC1) conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with MUC1-KLH conjugate vaccine may stimulate humoral and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against tumor cells expressing the MUC1 antigen. In this vaccine, MUC1 antigen is conjugated with KLH, an immunostimulant and a hapten carrier, to enhance immune recognition. MUC1 antigen, a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed by most glandular and ductal epithelial cells, is overexpressed in an aberrant or deglycosylated form in various cancers such as those of the breast, prostate, and ovary. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38033 MUC1-KLH vaccine/QS21A peptide vaccine containing the human tumor-associated antigen epithelial mucin (MUC1 antigen) conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and combined with the nonspecific immunoadjuvant QS21 with potential antineoplastic activity. MUC1 antigen is linked with KLH, an immunostimulant and a hapten carrier, in order to enhance immune recognition; the co-administration of saponin-derived QS21 potentially amplifies the total immune response to the MUC1 antigen. Administration of MUC1-KLH vaccine/QS21 may result in both the production of antitumor antibodies and the stimulation of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the MUC1 antigen. MUC1 antigen, a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed by most glandular and ductal epithelial cells, is overexpressed as an aberrant or deglycosylated form in various cancers such as breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
694292 MUC1-targeted peptide GO-2-03-2CAn optimized small peptide drug candidate targeting epithelial mucin (MUC1) with antineoplastic activity. MUC1-targeted peptide GO-203-2C interacts with oncoprotein MUC1 C-terminal subunit on the cell surface, thereby impeding cell-cell interactions, signaling, and metastasis. MUC1 antigen, a membrane bound glycoprotein expressed by most glandular and ductal epithelial cells, is over-expressed in many diverse human carcinomas including those of the breast, prostate, lung, colon, pancreas, and ovary, and has been associated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
699480 MUC16-targeted antibody-drug conjugate DMUC5754AAn antibody drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the MUC16 protein (CA-125) conjugated to, via a cleavable linker, the antimicrotubulin agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of DMUC5754A selectively binds to MUC16. After internalization of the drug conjugate and proteolytic cleavage of the linker, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M-phase growth arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. MUC16, a transmembrane protein, is overexpressed on the cell surface of more than 80 percent of ovarian cancer cells but not on healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
694843 mucoadhesive oral wound rinseA viscous, oral hydrogel rinse intended for the management of oral mucositis/stomatitis. Mucoadhesive oral wound rinse consists of purified water, glycerin, benzyl alcohol, sodium saccharin, carbomer homopolymer A, potassium hydroxide, citric acid, polysorbate 60 and phosphoric acid. Upon gargling and rinsing with this solution, it forms a soothing protective hydrogel coating over the oral mucosa, thereby potentially preventing or reducing chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750455 mucoadhesive paclitaxel formulationAn orally available, mucoadhesive lipid preparation consisting of paclitaxel, a compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia, in a formulation that is comprised of a mixture of monoolein, tricarprylin, and Tween 80, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, DHP107 forms droplets and micelles in the intestine; these adhere to mucoepithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract and are absorbed through lipid-based uptake mechanisms. Upon absorption, paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin molecules, which results in the inhibition of both microtubule depolymerization and cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by both binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein B-cell Leukemia 2 (Bcl-2).The mucoadhesive paclitaxel formulation does not contain P-glycoprotein inhibitors, the solvent cremophor or any other toxic solvent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39130 Mucomyst(Other name for: acetylcysteine)
694843 MuGard(Other name for: mucoadhesive oral wound rinse)
732857 multi-AGC kinase inhibitor AT13148An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of AGC group kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. AT13148 inhibits, in an ATP-competitive manner, the enzymatic activity of two AGC kinases, protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) and p70S6K which play key roles in the PI3K/PKB/mTOR signaling pathway. Blockade of this pathway leads to an inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. PI3K/PKB/mTOR pathway is dysregulated in greater than 50% of tumors, and is often correlated with resistance and increased tumor survival. AGC group kinases are serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by secondary messengers such as cyclic AMP and lipids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
732837 multi-epitope folate receptor alpha peptide vaccineA peptide vaccine containing five immunogenic peptide epitopes of the human folate receptor alpha (FR alpha or FOLR1), including FR30, FR56, FR76, FR113, and FR238, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the multi-epitope FR alpha peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against FR alpha-overexpressing tumor cells. FR alpha is a high-affinity folate-binding protein and a member of the folate receptor family; this receptor is overexpressed in a majority of ovarian cancers and in about 50% of breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
341632 multi-epitope melanoma peptide vaccineA peptide cancer vaccine consisting of a combination of peptides derived form several melanoma epitopes. Vaccination with multi-epitope melanoma peptide vaccine stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the corresponding antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. This vaccine may stimulate a broader CTL response compared to single-antigen vaccines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
751745 multi-peptide CMV-Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccineA vaccine consisting of an inactivated, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding three herpes virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1) and UL122 (IE2), with potential immunostimulating activity. The viral peptides expressed after administration of the multi-peptide CMV-MVA vaccine, may stimulate the immune system to mount both cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T-cell responses against CMV-infected cells. This results in cell lysis and prevents viral replication and the development of CMV disease. This vaccine also provides active immunization and protective immunity against CMV infection in CMV-negative patients. CMV infection can cause serious complications in patients receiving either allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) or solid organ transplants. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
703644 Multiferon(Other name for: multisubtype natural human leukocyte interferon alpha)
729454 multifunctional/multitargeted anticancer agent OMN54An orally available, multivalent herbal formulation containing a novel mixture of whole extracts from three commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi mushroom), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Chinese sage, or danshen) and Scutellaria barbata (ban zhi lian), with potential immunomodulating, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antiviral activities. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated due to the complexity of the multiple phytochemicals, multifunctional/multitargeted anticancer agent OMN54 appears to work in an additive and synergistic manner by acting on a variety of signaling pathways and on multiple targets, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-1beta, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
617168 MultiHance(Other name for: gadobenate dimeglumine)
37987 MultiHance(Other name for: gadopentetate dimeglumine)
666086 multikinase inhibitor 4SC-203A multikinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Multikinase inhibitor 4SC-203 selectively inhibits FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3/STK1), FLT3 mutated forms, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). This may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis and cell proliferation in tumor cells in which these kinases are upregulated. FLT3 (FLK2), a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias (AML). VEGFRs, tyrosine kinase receptors, are overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and play key roles in angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
534287 multikinase inhibitor AT9283A small-molecule inhibitor of several kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Multikinase inhibitor AT9283 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases A and B, JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) and the kinase BCR-ABL, which may result in the inhibition of cellular division and proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis; JAK2 is a kinase that transduces signals from the single chain and IL-3 cytokine receptor families, and from the IFN-gamma receptors; BCR-ABL is a fusion protein with tyrosine kinase activity that is commonly found in CML. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
656309 multikinase inhibitor SAR103168A multikinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, multikinase inhibitor SAR103168 may, through the inhibition of multiple kinases, inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). STAT5, a protein often upregulated in cancer cells, plays a key role in signal transduction pathways and the suppression of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42580 Multikine(Other name for: recombinant leukocyte interleukin)
597298 MultiStem(Other name for: allogeneic multipotent adult progenitor cells)
703644 multisubtype natural human leukocyte interferon alphaA preparation containing a mixture of multiple naturally occurring, active subtypes 1, 2, 8, 10, 14 and 21 of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) with immunomodulating, anti-viral and anti-cancer activities. Multi-subtype natural human leukocyte IFN-alpha is purified from the leukocyte fraction of human blood challenged with Sendai virus. Upon administration, IFN-alpha subtypes bind to cell surface IFN-alpha receptors (IFNARs), resulting in an upregulation of interferon stimulated genes and related protein products. This ultimately leads to the proliferation of human B cells, activation of natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs), an increase in HLA-I and HLA-II expression and activation of CD8-lymphocytes. Compared to single-subtype IFN, multi-subtypes act synergistically. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
764051 multitargeted kinase inhibitor MGCD516An orally bioavailable, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, multitargeted kinase inhibitor MGCD516 binds to and inhibits the activity of several RTKs including hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR; c-Met; MET), tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase; AXL), mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR; c-kit; KIT), the receptor tyrosine kinase MER, discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) types 1 (VEGFR-1; FLT1), 2 (VEGFR-2; KDR; Flk-1) and 3 (VEGFR-3), members of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) family, RET (rearranged during transfection), tropomyosin-related kinases (TRK) and members of the ephrin (Eph) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This may result in both the inhibition of signal transduction pathways mediated by these RTKs and the reduction of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cell types that overexpress these RTKs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
596693 multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor JNJ-26483327An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, multitargeted reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor JNJ-26483327 binds to and inhibits several members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, including EGFR, HER2 and HER4; Src family kinases (Lyn, Yes, Fyn, Lck and Src); and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 3 (VEGFR3). By inhibiting several different signaling molecules that play crucial roles at various stages in tumorigenesis, this agent may inhibit tumor growth, invasion, migration and metastasis. In addition, JNJ-26483327 crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
597305 multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor MGCD265An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor MGCD265 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including the c-Met receptor (hepatocyte growth factor receptor); the Tek/Tie-2 receptor; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) types 1, 2, and 3; and the macrophage-stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R or RON). Inhibition of these RTKs and their downstream signaling pathways may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation in tumors overexpressing these RTKs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
659167 multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor PLX3397A capsule formulation containing a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor of KIT, CSF1R and FLT3 with potential antineoplastic activity. Multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor PLX3397 binds to and inhibits phosphorylation of stem cell factor receptor (KIT), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and down-modulation of macrophages, osteoclasts and mast cells involved in the osteolytic metastatic disease. FLT3, CSF1R and FLT3 are overexpressed or mutated in many cancer cell types and play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43255 multivitaminA dietary supplement containing all or most of the vitamins that may not be readily available in the diet. Vitamins may be classified according to their solubility either in lipids (vitamins A, D, E, K, F) or in water (vitamins C, B-complex). Present in minute amounts in various foods, vitamins are essential to maintaining normal metabolism and biochemical functions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43584 mureletecanA water-soluble prodrug, consisting of camptothecin covalently linked to polymeric backbone methacryloylglycynamide, with potential antineoplastic activity. After entering tumor cells, the active moiety camptothecin is slowly released from mureletecan via hydrolysis of the ester linkage. Camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata, binds to and stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. This inhibits the religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-stranded DNA breaks and produces potentially lethal double-stranded DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and apoptosis. Compared to camtpothecin, this prodrug formulation increases camptothecin drug delivery to the tumor site while reducing systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
597306 murine TYRP2 plasmid DNA vaccineA plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the mouse tumor associated antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TYRP2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, murine TYRP2 plasmid DNA vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing TYRP2; this vaccine may also induce an immune response against tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TYRP1). TYRP2 and TYRP1, melanosomal membrane glycoproteins upregulated in melanoma cells, are involved in melanin synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39580 muromonab-CD3A murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody with immunosuppressive activity. Muromonab-CD3 binds to and inhibits CD3 on the surface of circulating T-lymphocytes; binding of muromonab-CD3 to CD3-positive T cells results in an early activation of this T cell subset, followed by cytokine release, and subsequently inhibition of T cell functions. This agent may cause the opsonization and elimination of CD3-positive T cells from the circulation by mononuclear phagocytes in the liver and spleen. CD3 is part of the functional T cell receptor (TCR) complex, which is necessary for antigen recognition by T cells, and is required for signal transduction. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
697625 muscadine grape skin extractA nutritional supplement containing an extract of the skin of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia), with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. The skin extract of the muscadine grape contains numerous phytochemicals including hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids, such as anthocyanin 3,5-diglucosides, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol glycosides. Upon administration, muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) appears to inhibit PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling, eventually leading to apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
697625 Muscadine Plus(Other name for: muscadine grape skin extract)
698992 muscarinic agonist APD515A liquid, oromucosal formulation containing a muscarinic agonist with potential anti-xerostomia activity. Upon application to the inside lining of the mouth, muscarinic agonist APD515 may locally act on muscarinic receptors on the salivary glands and may stimulate the production of saliva thereby relieving dryness of the mouth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
360459 MUSE(Other name for: alprostadil)
43434 Mustargen(Other name for: mechlorethamine hydrochloride)
42674 Mutamycin(Other name for: mitomycin C)
43586 mutant p53 peptide pulsed dendritic cell vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells which have been pulsed with a mutant p53 peptide. Vaccination with mutant p53 peptide pulsed dendritic cells may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing mutant p53, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Many tumor cells overexpress mutant p53 proteins, resulting in the loss of apoptosis regulation and abnormal cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
670438 MVA-EBNA1/LMP2 vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding the gene for the CD4 epitope-rich C-terminal domain of the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) antigen EBNA1 and fused to the full-length of the EBV-associated antigen latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MVA EBNA1/LMP2 vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell immune response against cancer cells expressing EBNA1 and LMP2. Multi-antigen vaccine therapy may be more efficacious than single-antigen vaccine therapy. EBNA1, a sequence-specific DNA binding protein, plays an important role in EBV episomal genome maintenance and gene transactivation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
656523 MVA-FCU1 TG4023A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding the suicide gene FCU1with potential antineoplastic activity. FCU1 is a bifunctional yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) / uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) fusion gene. Upon intratumoral administration, MVA-FCU1 TG4023 enters tumor cells where FCU1 is expressed. Subsequently, the noncytotoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is administered systemically and is deaminated by CD in FCU1- transduced tumor cells into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is then directly metabolized to 5-fluoro-uridine monophosphate (5-FUMP) by UPRT; 5-FUMP may then be further transformed to 5-fluoro-deoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP), an irreversible inhibitor of thymidylate synthase and, so, DNA synthesis through deprivation of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP). 5-FU and its active metabolites may then selectively kill tumor cells, avoiding toxicity in nonmalignant cells. The MVA viral vector, derived from the replication-competent strain Ankara, is a highly attenuated, replication-defective vaccinia strain incapable of virion assembly. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37853 MVA-MUC1-IL2 vaccineA bivalent cancer vaccine comprised of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain encoding human mucin 1 (MUC1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Originally developed for the eradication of smallpox, MVA is a highly attenuated and replication-defective strain incapable of virion assembly and exerts potent immunostimulatory activity against antigens. Vaccination with MVA-MUC1-IL2 vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against tumor cells expressing MUC1, a tumor associated antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Expression of IL-2 augments the specific CTL response against MUC1 expressing cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
590620 MVA-PSA-PAP prostate cancer vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding genes for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MVA-PSA-PAP prostate cancer vaccine expresses PSA and PAP peptides, which may elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against prostate cancer cells expressing PSA and PAP. Multi-antigen vaccine therapy may be more efficacious than single-antigen therapy vaccine therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
702861 MVF-HER-2(597-626)-MVF-HER-2 (266-296) peptide vaccineA combination peptide vaccine of 2 chimeric peptides of the promiscuous T cell epitope derived from measles virus fusion protein (MVF; amino acid residues 288-302) co-synthesized with B-cell epitopes derived from the HER-2/neu a.a. 597-626 and HER-2/neu a.a. 266-296, with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with MVF-HER-2(597-626)/MVF-HER-2(266-296) peptide vaccine may induce an active specific immune response, mounting a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells that overexpress the HER-2 protein. The oncogenic protein HER-2, a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is correlated with increased tumor growth, progression and a poor prognosis. HER-2(597-626) corresponds to the binding site of trastuzumab on the extracellular domain IV of HER-2; HER-2 (266-296) corresponds to the binding site of pertuzumab on the dimerization loop of domain II of HER-2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
759983 MYC-targeting siRNA DCR-MYCA lipid nanoparticle-based formulation consisting of small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against the oncogene c-Myc encapsulated in lipids with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of MYC-targeting siRNA DCR-MYC, the lipid formulation promotes the uptake by tumor cells where the siRNAs moieties are subsequently released. The siRNAs bind to c-Myc mRNAs, which may result in the inhibition of translation and expression of the c-Myc protein and leads to growth inhibition for tumor cells that are overexpressing c-Myc. c-Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in a variety of cancers, is involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39116 Mycelex(Other name for: clotrimazole)
39116 Mycelex Troche(Other name for: clotrimazole)
529352 mycobacterial cell wall-DNA complexA proprietary preparation of mycobacterial DNA oligonucleotides embedded in mycobacterial cell wall fragments derived from cultures of Mycobacterium phlei, with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. DNA oligonucleotides in the mycobacterial cell wall-DNA complex (MCC) induce apoptosis by increasing BAX protein levels, releasing cytochrome C from mitochondria, and activating caspase-3 and -7, which results in the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and the release of nuclear matrix proteins. In addition to its pro-apoptotic effect, MCC activates monocytes and macrophages to produce various cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). This results in the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
764997 Mycobacterium tuberculosis arabinomannan Z-100An extract from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) containing the polysaccharide arabinomannan, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration of M. tuberculosis arabinomannan Z-100, this agent may activate the immune system by increasing the expression of various cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNg) and interleukin-12. This inhibits the activity of suppressor T-cells, increases T helper 1 cell (Th1) activity and may restore the balance between Th1/Th2 cells. Additionally, Z-100 may inhibit metastasis and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
571076 Mycobacterium wAn attenuated strain of Mycobacterium w, a non-pathogenic, rapidly growing, atypical mycobacterium, with non-specific immunopotentiating properties. In addition to sharing a number of common B and T cell determinants with Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium w (Mw) also shares an immunogenic determinant with prostate specific antigen (PSA). In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that heat-killed Mw can induce significant T-cell responses. This agent may induce host T-cell responses against tumor cells expressing PSA. PSA is a glycoprotein secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells and may be overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37812 Mycobutin(Other name for: rifabutin)
42797 mycophenolate mofetilThe morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolic acid (MPA) with potent immunosuppressive properties. Mycophenolate stops T-cell and B-cell proliferation through selective inhibition of the de novo pathway of purine biosynthesis. In vivo, the active metabolite, MPA, reversibly inhibits inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides. MPA displays high lymphocyte specificity and cytotoxicity due to the higher dependence of activated lymphocytes on both salvage and de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides relative to other cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
732227 mycophenolic acidAn antineoplastic antibiotic derived from various Penicillium fungal species. Mycophenolic acid is an active metabolite of the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil. Mycophenolic acid inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), preventing the formation of guanosine monophosphate and synthesis of lymphocyte DNA that results in inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, antibody production, cellular adhesion, and migration of T and B lymphocytes. Mycophenolic acid also has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
732227 Myfortic(Other name for: mycophenolic acid)
41947 Myleran(Other name for: busulfan)
39153 Mylosar(Other name for: azacitidine)
42868 Mylotarg(Other name for: gemtuzumab ozogamicin)
584999 Mylovenge(Other name for: idiotype-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine APC8020)
581226 Myochrysine(Other name for: gold sodium thiomalate)