Drug Dictionary


# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
IDNameDefinition
38596 S-3304An orally-agent agent with potential antineoplastic activity. S-3304 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
560733 S-adenosyl-L-methionine disulfate p-toluene-sulfonateThe disulfate salt of the stable p-toluene-sulfonate complex of s-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) with chemopreventive activity. SAMe disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate undergoes hydrolytic conversion to its active compound SAMe within cells. Although the mechanism of action is largely unknown, SAMe attenuates experimental liver damage and prevents experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, SAMe may reduce mitochondrial cytochrome C release, caspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and attenuate okadaic acid-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. SAMe is an essential compound in cellular transmethylation reactions and a precursor of polyamine and glutathione synthesis in the liver; SAMe deficiency is associated with chronic liver disease-associated decreases in the activity of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of SAMe as the first step in methionine catabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
749378 S1P receptor agonist KRP203The hydrochloride salt form of 2-amino-2 propanediol (KRP-203), a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist, with potential immunosuppressive activity. Upon administration of S1P receptor agonist KRP203, this agent binds to S1P receptors on lymphocytes, which prevents binding of serum S1P to S1P receptors and leads to S1P receptor internalization. This reduces the number of circulating blood leukocytes and accelerates lymphocyte homing into peripheral lymph nodes, thereby preventing their infiltration into peripheral inflammatory sites. This agent also decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes, such as interferon gamma (IFN-g), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
42684 sabarubicinA disaccharide analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Sabarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also induces apoptosis through a p53-independent mechanism. Sabarubicin is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
735160 Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic supplementA probiotic containing the non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii with antidiarrheal and potential anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immunomodulating activities. As a dietary supplement, S. boulardii may improve digestion and help maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by modulating the composition of the normal intestinal microflora. During colonization of the GI tract, S. boulardii forms a protective barrier that helps maintain the integrity of the epithelial barrier. This prevents attachment of pathogens to the intestinal mucosa. In addition, this probiotic secretes a protease that binds to and degrades toxins A and B produced by Clostridium difficile, thereby preventing their harmful effects. Dietary supplementation with this microorganism may reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and may potentiate natural and acquired immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41910 safingolA saturated derivative of sphingosine. As an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), safingol competitively binds to the regulatory phorbol-binding domain of PKC, a kinase involved in tumorigenesis. This agent has been shown to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents and may potentiate chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615854 sagopiloneA fully synthetic low-molecular-weight epothilone with potential antineoplastic activity. Sagopilone binds to tubulin and induces microtubule polymerization while stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization, which may result in the inhibition of cell division, the induction of G2/M arrest, and apoptosis. The agent is not a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and so may exhibit activity in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumors. The epothilone class of metabolites was originally isolated from the myxobacterium Solangium cellulosum. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42876 Salagen(Other name for: pilocarpine hydrochloride)
573226 salirasibA salicylic acid derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Salirasib dislodges all Ras isoforms from their membrane-anchoring sites, thereby preventing activation of RAS signaling cascades that mediated cell proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. RAS signaling is believed to be abnormally activated in one-third of human cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, colon, lung and breast. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
37800 salmonella VNP20009A genetically stable Salmonella typhimurium strain, attenuated by chromosomal deletion of the purI and msbB genes, with tumor-targeting activity. In rodent models, salmonella VNP20009 has been shown to selectively accumulate and grow in a variety of tumor types, inhibiting the growth of primary and metastatic tumors. This agent may be genetically engineered to contain trangenes that express therapeutic agents or cell surface tumor-associated antigen-specific antibodies, such as CEA-specific antibodies, which may improve its tumor targeting and therapeutic potential. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
574480 Salvia officinalis extract tabletAn oral tablet containing an extract of the plant Salvia officinalis (common sage) with reported antihydrotic, antibiotic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, and hypoglycemic properties. The primary biologically active component of common sage appears to be its essential oil which contains mainly cineol, borneol, and alpha- and beta-thujone. In addition, sage leaf contains numerous other substances including tannic acid; resins with oleic, ursonic, and ursolic acids; bitter substances with cornsole and cornsolic acid; fumaric, chlorogenic, caffeic and nicotinic acids; nicotinamide; flavones; flavone glycosides; and estrogenic substances. However, the mechanism(s) of action of common sage in the treatment of various disorders is unclear. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
560733 SAM-e Complete(Other name for: S-adenosyl-L-methionine disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate)
706549 Sam68 modulator CWP232291A small molecule and prodrug of CWP232204 targeting Src associated in mitosis, of 68 kDa (Sam68 or KHDRBS1), with potential antineoplastic activity. CWP232291 is converted in serum into its active form CWP232204 which binds to Sam68, thereby resulting in the induction of apoptosis in selective cancer cells. Due to the multimodular structure of Sam68, the apoptosis mediated by CWP232204-Sam68 interaction can be attributed to 1) activation of transcription factor NF-kB induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling, 2) alternative splicing of BCL-2 apoptosis gene, driving the balance towards pro-apoptotic as opposed to anti-apoptotic isoforms, 3) down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin via Want signaling. Sam68, a KH domain RNA-binding protein belonging to the signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family, plays a key role in various cellular processes including cell cycle progression and apoptosis; it is upregulated in many types of cancer cells and its expression is associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42245 samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodiumThe pentasodium salt of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam, a therapeutic agent consisting of a medium energy beta- and gamma-emitting radioisotope, samarium Sm 153, and a teraphosphonate chelator, ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP). The chelator moiety of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam associates with hydroxyapatite crystals concentrated in areas of bone turnover, thereby selectively delivering samarium Sm 153-mediated cytotoxic radiation to osteoblastic bone metastases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
642824 Sancuso(Other name for: granisetron transdermal system)
39201 Sandimmun(Other name for: cyclosporine)
39201 Sandimmune(Other name for: cyclosporine)
40109 Sandoglobulin(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)
38866 Sandostatin(Other name for: octreotide acetate)
38866 Sandostatin Lar Depot(Other name for: octreotide acetate)
42358 Sandostatin pamoate(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)
42358 Sandostatin pamoate LAR(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)
39201 SangCya(Other name for: cyclosporine)
513165 sapacitabineAn orally bioavailable pyrimidine analogue prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapacitabine is hydrolyzed by amidases to the deoxycytosine analogue CNDAC (2'-Cyano-2'-deoxyarabinofuranosylcytosine), which is then phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form. As an analogue of deoxycytidine triphosphate, CNDAC triphosphate incorporates into DNA strands during replication, resulting in single-stranded DNA breaks during polymerization due to beta-elimination during the fidelity checkpoint process; cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase and apoptosis ensue. The unmetabolized prodrug may exhibit antineoplastic activity as well. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
593099 sapitinibAn erbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapitinib binds to and inhibits erbB tyrosine receptor kinases, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors expressing erbB. The erbB protein family, also called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
465382 saponin-cholesterol-phospholipid adjuvantAn adjuvant comprised of saponin, derived from the bark of Quillaia saponaria Molina, cholesterol and phospholipid with antigen-delivery and immunostimulatory activities. This saponin-based adjuvant in combination with various antigens, including those for human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the human cancer antigen NY-ESO-1, may result in potent antibody, CD4+ T-helper-cell, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses against the targeted antigen. In addition, this agent may reduce the amount of antigen necessary to induce an efficient immune response in the host. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42693 saquinavir mesylateThe mesylate salt form of saquinavir, a synthetic peptidomimetic substrate with antiviral property. Saquinavir selectively binds to and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, an aspartic protease that cleaves viral gag and gag-pol polyprotein (precursors for viral proteases, reverse transcriptase, and integrase). Inhibition of HIV-1 protease prevents functional viral proteins to be cleaved from the viral polyprotein precursor and results in the release of immature, noninfectious virions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
453588 saracatinibAn orally available 5-, 7-substituted anilinoquinazoline with anti-invasive and anti-tumor activities. Saracatinib is a dual-specific inhibitor of Src and Abl, protein tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. This agent binds to and inhibits these tyrosine kinases and their effects on cell motility, cell migration, adhesion, invasion, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Specifically, saracatinib inhibits Src kinase-mediated osteoclast bone resorption. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43503 Sarasar(Other name for: lonafarnib)
43325 SarCNUAn alkylating chloroethylnitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Selectively accumulating in some tumor cells, SarCNU forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
40566 sargramostimA recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human GM-CSF. Binding to specific cell surface receptors, sargramostim modulates the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production and may reverse treatment-induced neutropenias. This agent also promotes antigen presentation, up-regulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function; it may also augment host antitumoral immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
390313 sargramostim plasmid DNA hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine adjuvantA vaccine adjuvant consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Upon administration, expressed sargramostim may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response enhancing the host immune response to a concomitantly administered hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42679 sargramostim plasmid DNA melanoma vaccine adjuvantA vaccine adjuvant consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding sargramostim (a granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor). Upon administration, expressed sargramostim may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response enhancing the host immune response to a concomitantly administered melanoma vaccine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42810 sargramostim plasmid DNA pancreatic tumor cell vaccineA whole cell vaccine comprised of irradiated allogenic pancreatic tumor cells transfected with a plasmid DNA encoding human sargramostim (GM-CSF). Vaccination results in expression of GM-CSF, which induces proliferation and differentiation hematopoietic lineage cells as well as stimulating macrophage and dendritic cell functions in antigen presentation and antitumor cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, administration of this pancreatic tumor cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against similar host tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
616875 saridegibAn orally bioavailable, cyclopamine-derived inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Specifically, saridegib binds to and inhibits the cell membrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor SMO, which may result in the suppression of Hh pathway signaling and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and survival. SMO is activated upon binding of Hh ligand to the cell surface receptor Patched (PTCH); inappropriate activation of Hh signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation may be associated with SMO mutations. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the developing cerebellum and other tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
572214 Sativex(Other name for: nabiximols)
42141 satraplatinAn orally administered third generation platinum compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Satraplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39503 Satric(Other name for: metronidazole hydrochloride)
732708 saw palmetto berry extract supplementAn herbal supplement used commonly to alleviate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In vitro studies show that it may also have anti-cancer properties specific for prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
456262 SB-743921A synthetic small molecule with potential antineoplastic properties. SB-743921 selectively inhibits kinesin spindle protein (KSP), an important protein involved in the early stages of mitosis that is expressed in proliferating cells. Inhibition of KSP results in inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly and interrupts cell division, thereby causing cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
256423 SB-AS02B adjuvantA proprietary oil-in-water emulsion specifically designed for combining protein preparations used in vaccines. SB-AS02B adjuvant contains monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21, a saponin extracted from the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina. This agent may be used for formulating cancer-specific vaccine preparations such as those containing MAGE-3 melanoma protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
373865 SB-AS15 adjuvantA vaccine adjuvant containing CpG 7909, monophosphoryl lipid, and QS-21 with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulatory activities. CpG 7909 is a synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide containing 3 CpG motifs that selectively targets Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), thereby activating dendritic and B cells and stimulating cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses against tumor cells bearing tumor antigens. Monophosphoryl lipid is a detoxified derivative of lipid A, a component of Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS); this agent may enhance humoral and cellular responses to various antigens. QS-21 is a purified, naturally occurring saponin derived from the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina and exhibits various immunostimulatory activities. Combinations of monophosphoryl lipid and QS-21 may be synergistic in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42168 Sclerosol Intrapleural Aerosol(Other name for: talc)
719932 SDF-1-targeted agent NOX-A12A 45-mer L-stereoisomer RNA oligonucleotide linked to a 40 kDa polyethyleneglycol that targets the small chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) with potential antineoplastic and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilization activities. SDF-1 targeted agent NOX-A12 specifically binds to SDF-1 thereby preventing the binding of SDF-1 to its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, and blocking the subsequent receptor activation. This may prevent angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and could sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy. In addition, inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction may induce mobilization of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow into blood. The unique mirror-image configuration of this agent renders it resistant to hydrolysis and does not hybridize with native nucleic acids. Furthermore, this agent does not induce the innate immune response and has shown a favorable immunogenicity profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
554706 Se-methyl-seleno-L-cysteineA naturally occurring organoselenium compound found in many plants, including garlic, onions, and broccoli, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Se-Methyl-seleno-L-cysteine (MSC) is an amino acid analogue of cysteine in which a methylselenium moiety replaces the sulphur atom of cysteine. This agent acts as an antioxidant when incorporated into glutathione peroxidase and has been shown to exhibit potent chemopreventive activity in animal models. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42217 sedoxantrone trihydrochlorideThe trihydrochloride salt of the anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic sedoxantrone with potential antineoplastic activity. Sedoxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
589188 Seigen(Other name for: lactobacillus fermented extract)
753197 selatinib ditosilateAn orally bioavailable ditosilate salt form of selatinib, an analog of the quinazoline lapatinib and dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ErbB-2 or HER-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, selatinib reversibly blocks phosphorylation of both EGFR and ErbB2, thereby suppressing tumor growth in EGFR/ErbB-2-overexpressing tumor cells. The tyrosine kinases EGFR and ErbB2 have been implicated in the growth of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
748900 selective estrogen receptor degrader ARN-810An orally available, nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, SERD ARN-810 binds to the estrogen receptor and induces a conformational change that results in the degradation of the receptor. This may inhibit the growth and survival of ER-expressing cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38725 seleniumA nonmetallic chemical element found in trace amounts in human body. Selenium primarily occurs in vivo as selenocompounds, mostly selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase (enzymes responsible for detoxification). Alone or in combination with Vitamin E, selenocompounds act as antioxidants. These agents scavenge free radicals; prevent blood clots by inhibiting platelet aggregation; strengthen the immune system; and have been shown, in some instances, to inhibit chromosomal damage and mutations. Exhibiting chemopreventive activity, selenocompounds also inhibit the induction of protein kinase C. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
511023 seliciclibAn orally bioavailable, small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential proapoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Seliciclib primarily inhibits CDK2/E, CDK2/A, CDK7 and CDK9 by competing for their ATP binding sites, leading to a disruption of cell cycle progression. In addition, this agent appears to interfere with CDK-mediated phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, inhibiting RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, which may result in the down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins such as induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1. CDKs, serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in cell cycle regulation, are overexpressed in various malignancies. Mcl-1 belongs to the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins and is a protein crucial to the survival of a range of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
734824 selinexorAn orally available, small molecule inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1 protein, exportin 1 or XPO1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Selinexor modifies the essential CRM1-cargo binding residue cysteine-528, thereby irreversibly inactivating CRM1-mediated nuclear export of cargo proteins such as tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs), including p53, p21, BRCA1/2, pRB, FOXO, and other growth regulatory proteins. As a result, this agent, via the approach of selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), restores endogenous tumor suppressing processes to selectively eliminate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. CRM1, the major export factor for proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
532294 selumetinibAn orally active, small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Selumetinib is an ATP-independent inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK or MAPK/ERK kinase) 1 and 2. MEK 1 and 2 are dual-specificity kinases that are essential mediators in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, are often upregulated in various cancer cells, and are drivers of diverse cellular responses, including proliferation. Inhibition of both MEK1 and 2 by selumetinib prevents the activation of MEK1/2 dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, thereby leading to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in various cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43310 semaxanibA quinolone derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Semaxanib reversibly inhibits ATP binding to the tyrosine kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which may inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and proliferation and reduce the tumor microvasculature. This agent also inhibits the phosphorylation of the stem cell factor receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, often expressed in acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
599247 semuloparinAn ultralow-molecular-weight heparin (ULMWH) (Mw: 2000-3000 daltons) consisting of a polydisperse mixture of oligomeric heparin fragments with potential anticoagulant activity. Semuloparin binds to and activates antithrombin III (ATIII), which may result in the inhibition of activated factor Xa and, to a much lesser extent, factor IIa (thrombin) and so the inhibition of fibrin formation. Compared to low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), AVE5026 exhibits an even higher ratio of anti-Factor Xa to anti-Factor IIa activity (>30:1). Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of LMWHs is associated with lower incidences of major bleeding, osteoporosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Like LMWHs, this agent may inhibit tumor growth by regulating angiogenesis and apoptosis. AVE5026 is prepared by partial depolymerization of unfractionated porcine mucosal heparin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43727 semustineA methylated derivative of carmustine with antineoplastic activity. As an alkylating agent, semustine forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base-pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
488482 Seneca Valley virus-001A native, replication-competent oncolytic picornavirus with potential antineoplastic activity. Administered systemically, Seneca Valley virus-001 (SVV-001) specifically targets and infects tumor cells with neuroendocrine characteristics. Upon infection, this agent replicates intracellularly, resulting in tumor cell lysis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. The selective tropism of virus replication may involve receptor-mediated internalization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
480408 senna extractAn extract made from the dried leaflets on the pods of Cassia angustifolia or Cassia acutifolia with cathartic activity. Dimeric glycosides in dried senna extract are converted to the active monoanthrones by bacterial action in the colon. Through direct effects on enterocytes, enteric neurons, and muscle, monoanthrones produce giant migrating colonic contractions in addition to water and electrolyte secretion. As do other stimulant laxatives, monoanthrones may induce a limited low-grade inflammation in the colon through activation of prostaglandin/cyclic AMP and nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathways and perhaps inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
480407 senna fruitThe fruit of Cassia acutifolia and Cassia angustifolia (Cassia) with laxative and purgative activities. The active ingredients in senna fruit include the hydroxyanthracene glycosides sennosides A and B (rhein dianthrones) and sennosides C and D (rhein aloe-emodin heterodianthrones). Sennosides irritate the bowel lining and stimulate the bowel muscular coat, particularly in the colon, resulting in accelerated bowel transit and evacuation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
662071 Sensipar(Other name for: cinacalcet hydrochloride)
481366 Sensorcaine-MPF(Other name for: bupivacaine hydrochloride)
476771 sepantronium bromideA small-molecule proapoptotic agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Sepantronium bromide selectively inhibits survivin expression in tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of survivin antiapoptotic activity (via the extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic pathways) and tumor cell apoptosis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, is expressed during embryonal development and is absent in most normal, terminally differentiated tissues; upregulated in a variety of human cancers, its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, shorter survival times, and a decreased response to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39724 Septra(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
557106 serine protease inhibitor WX-671An orally bioavailable, 3-amidinophenylalanine-derived, second generation serine protease inhibitor prodrug targeting the human urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system with potential antineoplastic and antimetastatic activities. After oral administration, serine protease inhibitor WX-671 is converted to the active Nα-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl)-3-amidino-(L)-phenyla lanine-4-ethoxycarbonylpiperazide (WX-UK1), which inhibits several serine proteases, particularly uPA; inhibition of uPA may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. uPA is a serine protease involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix and tumor cell migration and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
546978 serine/threonine kinase inhibitor XL418A selective, orally active small molecule, targeting protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) and ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K), with potential antineoplastic activity. XL418 inhibits the activities of PKB and p70S6K, both acting downstream of phosphoinosotide-3 kinase (PI3K). These kinases are often upregulated in a variety of cancers. Inhibition of PKB by this agent will induce apoptosis, while inhibition of p70S6K will result in the inhibition of translation within tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
469006 Seromycin(Other name for: D-cycloserine)
39542 Serophene(Other name for: clomiphene citrate)
322832 sertraline hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt of sertraline, a synthetic derivative of naphthalenamine with anti-serotoninergic and anti-depressant properties. Sertraline appears to selectively inhibit the neuronal uptake of serotonin, raising serotonin levels in the CNS. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
524061 sevofluraneA fluorinated isopropyl ether with general anesthetic activity. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, sevoflurane may interfere with the release and re-uptake of neurotransmitters at post-synaptic terminals, and/or alter ionic conductance following receptor activation by a neurotransmitter. This agent may also interact directly with the lipid matrix of neuronal membranes, thereby affecting gating properties of ion channels. In addition, sevoflurane may activate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, hyperpolarizing cell membranes and resulting in a general anesthetic effect, a decrease in myocardial contractility and mean arterial pressure, and an increased respiratory rate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
304435 shark cartilageA nutritional supplement gleaned from the exoskeleton of the shark. Shark cartilage inhibits metalloproteinases (MMPs) and possesses antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42021 shark cartilage extract AE-941A multifunctional antiangiogenic agent derived from shark cartilage with potential antineoplastic activity. Shark cartilage extract AE-941 competitively inhibits the binding of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its cell receptor, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), stimulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and activates caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways in endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
633945 sheddase inhibitor INCB007839An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) family of multifunctional membrane-bound proteins with potential antineoplastic activity. Sheddase inhibitor INCB007839 represses the metalloproteinase "sheddase" activities of ADAM10 and ADAM17, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. The metalloproteinase domains of ADAMs cleave cell surface proteins at extracellular sites proximal to the cell membrane, releasing or "shedding" soluble protein etcodomains from the cell surface; the disintegrin domains of these multifunctional proteins interact with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). ADAM10 processes particular epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands and appears to regulate Notch signaling through the cleavage of Notch and its related ligand delta-like ligand-1 (Dll-1). ADAM17 (also known as Tumor necrosis factor-Converting Enzyme or TACE) is involved in processing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from its membrane bound precursor to its soluble circulating form and in processing ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
736014 Sheng-Mai SanA Chinese herbal medicine composed of extracts from the roots of Panax ginseng (ren shen) and Ophiopogon japonicas (mai men dong), and the berries of Schisandra chinensis (wu wei zi) with potential protective activity. Ginseng contains a complex mixture of saponins, ginsenosides and panaxosides; homoisoflavonoids isolated from Ophiopogon show anti-inflammatory properties; Schisandra contains abundant amounts of phytoestrogen lignans with antioxidant activity. Although the mechanism of action maybe inexplicit or complex, these phytochemicals work synergistically and may improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, cough, thirst, dry mouth, and palpitations as well as have an effect on chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced fatigue, weakness, and neutropenia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
657494 short chain fatty acid HQK-1004A short chain fatty acid (SCFA) with potential herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK)-inducing activity. Upon administration, short chain fatty acid HQK-1004 may induce the expression of thymidine kinase (TK) by a silenced HSV-TK, which may activate a co-administered antiviral prodrug such as ganciclovir, resulting in the destruction of virally-infected cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
544559 sialyl Lewisª-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccineA vaccine consisting of the oligosaccharide antigen sialyl Lewisª (CA19-9) conjugated to the nonspecific immunomodulator keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, sialyl Lewisª-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine may induce production of IgG and IgM antibodies as well as trigger an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells expressing the sialyl Lewisª antigen. Sialyl Lewisª is a blood group antigen and a tumor-associated antigen associated with epithelial cancers such as breast cancer and various digestive cancers. Sialyl Lewisª serves as a ligand for the cytokine-inducible cell adhesion molecule (CAM) E-selectin, an endothelial cell-specific type I transmembrane surface protein, thus facilitating hematogenous metastasis by mediating the adhesion of circulating cancer cells to vascular endothelium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
685237 siG12D LODERA proprietary, miniature biodegradable polymeric matrix containing small-interfering RNAs for the mutated KRAS oncogene, KRASG12D, (siG12D), with potential antitumor activity. Upon intratumoral injection, siG12D is released locally, thereby preventing translation of KRAS proteins and potentially inhibiting growth of tumor cells overexpressing KRAS. KRAS, a member of the small GTPase superfamily, is mutated in over 90% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and is associated with tumor cell proliferation and reduced survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41474 Sigosix(Other name for: recombinant interleukin-6)
522726 silatecan AR-67A synthetic, highly lipophilic derivative of camptothecin, with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. Silatecan DB-67 binds to and stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex, inhibiting the religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-stranded DNA breaks and producing lethal double-stranded DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery; inhibition of DNA replication and apoptosis follow. Camptothecin readily undergoes hydrolysis at physiological pH, changing its conformation from the active lactone structure to an inactive carboxylate form. Modifications on the E ring of camptothecin prevent binding of human serum albumin, which prefers the inactive carboxylate form, thereby enhancing the stability of the active lactone structure and resulting in prolonged agent activity. In addition, this agent may radiosensitize tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
269137 sildenafil citrateThe citrate salt of a pyrazolopyrimidinone derivative structurally related to zaprinast. Sildenafil selectively inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase, resulting in vasodilation in the corpus cavernosum of the penis and penile erection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38423 silicon phthalocyanine 4A synthetic photosensitizer agent containing a large macrocyclic ring chelated with silicon. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 localizes primarily in mitochondrial cytosolic membranes and, after photoexcitation, forms reactive oxygen species that induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
643477 silmitasertibAn orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of CK2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Silmitasertib selectively binds to and inhibits the enzyme casein kinase II (CK2), which may lead to an inhibition of cellular proliferation. CK2, a protein kinase often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, appears to be correlated with malignant transformation, tumor growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
764149 silodosinAn orally available, alpha-1 adrenoreceptor (alpha-1a) selective antagonist that can be used to relieve symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Upon administration, silodosin selectively binds alpha-1a receptors located in the human prostate and bladder with high affinity and blocks signaling pathways mediated by alpha-1a. Blockade of these receptors causes smooth muscle relaxation, lowers intraurethral pressure, and results in improved urine flow and a reduction in the symptoms of BPH, such as difficulty with urinating, painful urination, urinary frequency and incomplete bladder emptying. In addition, silodosin may be used to improve lower urinary tract symptoms, which can occur after receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
475765 siltuximabA chimeric, human-murine, monoclonal antibody targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon intravenous administration of siltuximab, this agent targets and binds to IL-6. This inhibits the binding of IL-6 to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), which results in the blockade of the IL-6/IL-6R-mediated signal transduction pathway. This inhibits cancer cell growth in tumors overexpressing IL-6. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
717602 Silvadene(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)
674543 silver nitrateAn inorganic chemical with antiseptic activity. Silver nitrate can potentially be used as a cauterizing or sclerosing agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
717602 silver sulfadiazineA sulfonamide-based topical agent with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Silver sulfadiazine may act through a combination of the activity of silver and sulfadiazine. When this agent interacts with sodium chloride-containing body fluids, silver ions are released slowly and sustainably into wounded areas. Ionized silver atoms catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds leading to protein structural changes and inactivating thiol-containing enzymes; silver ions may also intercalate DNA thereby interfering with replication and transcription of bacteria. As a competitive inhibitor of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), sulfadiazine inhibits bacterial dihydropteroate synthase, thereby resulting in disruption of folic acid metabolism and ultimately DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
558906 Silybin-Phytosome(Other name for: phosphatidylcholine-bound silybin)
284684 silymarinA mixture of flavonolignans isolated from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum. Silymarin may act as an antioxidant, protecting hepatic cells from chemotherapy-related free radical damage. This agent may also promote the growth of new hepatic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
715259 simethiconeA mixture of polydimethylsiloxanes with antifoaming and anti-bloating effects. Simethicone reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles causing them to coalesce into larger bubbles that can be passed more easily by belching or flatulence. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
749475 simmitecan hydrochlorideThe hydrochloride salt form of simmitecan, an ester prodrug of chimmitecan, a 9-alkyl-substituted camptothecin derivative with potential antineoplastc activity. Upon intravenous administration, simmitecan is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase and the activated form, chimmitecan, is produced. Chimmitecan inhibits topoisomerase I, stabilizes covalent topoisomerase I-DNA complexes, and inhibits the religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks. Futhermore, the covalent topoisomerase I-DNA complexes interfere and block the DNA replication machinery, resulting in the production of potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks. This leads to an inhibition of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. The modification at position 9 yields improved cytotoxicity compared to some other camptothecin analogues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
459956 Simulect(Other name for: basiliximab)
455226 simvastatinA lipid-lowering agent derived synthetically from a fermentation product of the fungus Aspergillus terreus. Hydrolyzed in vivo to an active metabolite, simvastatin competitively inhibits hepatic hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, and modulates immune responses by suppressing MHC II (major histocompatibility complex II) on interferon gamma-stimulated, antigen-presenting cells such as human vascular endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
681082 Sinequan(Other name for: doxepin hydrochloride)
593502 Singulair(Other name for: montelukast sodium)
346499 siplizumabA monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Siplizumab binds to CD2, a specific receptor found in T cells and NK cells, thereby triggering a host immune response that results in lysis of CD2+ cells, selective suppression of the immune system, and control of activated T cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38038 sipuleucel-TA cell-based vaccine composed of autologous antigen-presenting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (enriched for a dendritic cell fraction) that have been exposed to a recombinant protein consisting of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) fused to prostatic-acid phosphatase (PAP), a protein expressed by prostate cancer cells. Upon administration, the vaccine may stimulate an antitumor T-cell response against tumor cells expressing PAP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
492229 siRNA-expressing SV40 vectorA simian virus 40 (SV40)-based shuttle vector, encoding small interfering RNA (siRNA), with potential antineoplastic activity. The expression of siRNA in target tumor cells transfected with an siRNA-expressing SV40 vector may result in siRNA-mediated silencing of target oncogenes and, so, the inhibition of tumor cell growth and the induction of tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
761870 siRNA-transfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells APN401Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) transfected ex vivo with small-interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) directed against the E3 ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b gene (Cbl-b), with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. The Cbl-b gene is silenced ex vivo through the binding of Cbl-b siRNA to Cbl-b mRNA, which prevents the translation of the Cbl-b protein in T-lymphocytes. Upon infusion, the activated, Cbl-b-silenced T-lymphocytes are able to increase the production of cytokines, proliferate and activate the immune system, which leads to cancer cell eradication. Cbl-b, a negative regulator of the immune system, is mutated in a variety of cancer cell types. Its expression is inversely correlated with activation of T-lymphocytes and tumor cell eradication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42555 sirolimusA natural macrocyclic lactone produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus, with immunosuppressant properties. In cells, sirolimus binds to the immunophilin FK Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12) to generate an immunosuppressive complex that binds to and inhibits the activation of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulatory kinase. This results in inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and proliferation that occurs in response to antigenic and cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15) stimulation and inhibition of antibody production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
485274 sivifene gelThe phenylhydrazone 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone formulated as a topical agent with immunomodulating and potential antineoplastic activities. Applied topically as a gel, sivifene may stimulate a local immune response against human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752996 Sixofilan(Other name for: sizofiran)
752996 sizofiranA soluble beta-D-glucan produced by the Basidiomycetes fungus, Schizophyllum commune Fries, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Although sizofiran’s exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to stimulate the immune system by increasing cytokine production, activating macrophages and enhancing the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) and natural killer (NK) cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39789 Sk-Dexamethasone(Other name for: dexamethasone)
39163 SK-Diphenhydramine(Other name for: diphenhydramine hydrochloride)
39247 SK-Furosemide(Other name for: furosemide)
40223 SK-Probenecid(Other name for: probenecid)
41340 Slo-bid(Other name for: theophylline)
41340 Slo-Phyllin(Other name for: theophylline)
688091 Smac mimetic CUDC-427An orally available, monovalent mimetic of second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (Smac/DIABLO) and inhibitor of IAPs (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins) with potential antineoplastic activity. Smac mimetic CUDC-427 binds to the Smac binding groove on IAPs, including the direct caspase inhibitor X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and the cellular IAPs 1 and 2. This inhibits the activities of these IAPs and promotes the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9 via their baculoviral lAP repeat (BIR) domains. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
655953 Smac mimetic GDC-0152A second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic inhibitor of IAPs (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins) with potential antineoplastic activity. Smac mimetic GDC-0152 binds to the Smac binding groove on IAPs, including the direct caspase inhibitor X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and the cellular IAPs 1 and 2, which may inhibit their activities and promote the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9 via their baculoviral lAP repeat (BIR) domains. Smac, the endogenous IAP antagonist, relies on its N-terminal four amino-acid motif for binding to IAPs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
670651 SMAC mimetic LCL161An orally bioavailable second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic and inhibitor of IAP (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein) family of proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. SMAC mimetic LCL161 binds to IAPs, such as X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and cellular IAPs 1 and 2. Since IAPs shield cancer cells from the apoptosis process, this agent may restore and promote the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by binding and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9, which play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis and inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
596304 SMO antagonist BMS 833923An orally bioavailable small-molecule SMO (Smoothened) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. SMO antagonist BMS-833923 inhibits the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway protein SMO, which may result in a suppression of the SHH signaling pathway. SMO is a G-protein coupled receptor that lies just downstream of the SHH ligand cell surface receptor Patched-1 in the SHH pathway; in the absence of ligand Patched-1 inhibits SMO and ligand binding to Patched-1 results in increased levels of SMO. The SHH signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair; constitutive activation of this pathway is associated with uncontrolled cellular proliferation and has been observed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
688313 Smo receptor-specific Hh signaling inhibitor LY2940680An orally bioavailable small molecule antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor smoothened (Smo) with potential antineoplastic activity. Smo inhibitor LY2940680 inhibits signaling that is mediated by the Hh pathway protein Smo, which may result in a suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and may lead to the inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair; constitutive activation of this pathway is associated with uncontrolled cellular proliferation and has been observed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
737707 smokeless tobaccoTobacco that is not smoked but used in another form such as chewing tobacco or snuff. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
662542 Smoothened antagonist LDE225 topicalA topical formulation of the small-molecule Smoothened (Smo) antagonist LDE225 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon topical application, smoothened antagonist LDE225 topical selectively binds to the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor Smo, which may result in the suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and, so, the inhibition of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Inappropriate activation of Hh pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation, as is observed in a variety of cancers, may be associated with mutations in the Hh-ligand cell surface receptor Smo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
671850 Smoothened antagonist LEQ506An orally bioavailable small-molecule Smoothened (Smo) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Smoothened antagonist LEQ506 selectively binds to the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor Smo, which may result in the suppression of the Hh signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Dysregulated activation of Hh pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation, as is observed in a variety of cancers, may be associated with mutations in the Hh-ligand cell surface receptor Smo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
574615 SN-38-loaded polymeric micelles NK012A formulation consisting of polymeric micelles loaded with the irinotecan metabolite SN-38 with potential antineoplastic activity. SN-38-loaded polymeric micelles NK012 is an SN-38-releasing nanodevice constructed by covalently attaching SN-38 to the block copolymer PEG-PGlu, followed by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous milieu. SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), a biological active metabolite of the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11), binds to and inhibits topoisomerase I by stabilizing the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks, inhibition of DNA replication, and apoptosis. SN-38 has been reported to exhibit up to 1,000-fold more cytotoxic activity against various cancer cells in vitro than irinotecan. This formulation increases the water-solubility of SN-38 and allows the delivery of higher doses of SN-38 than those achievable with SN-38 alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
712786 SNS01-T nanoparticlesA colloidal mixture of nanoparticles consisting of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the native eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), plasmids expressing a pro-apoptotic mutant of elF5A under the control of a B-cell specific promoter (B29), and a synthetic cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) as a delivery vehicle, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the siRNA component of SNS01-T suppresses elF5A expression, thereby interfering with translation of eIF5A and reducing levels of hypusinated elF5A in cancer cells. In turn, this inhibits activation of the transcription factor NF-kB and induces apoptosis. In addition, the B-cell specific plasmid component expresses an arginine substituted form of eIF5A, eIF5AK50R, which can not be hypusinated, thus leads to a selective induction of apoptosis in B-cells. The native unhypusinated form of eIF5A is pro-apoptotic and can be modified at the lysine residue, by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and subsequently deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DHH), to the anti-apoptotic hypusinated form which is associated with tumor cell growth and survival. The delivery vehicle protects the siRNA and plasmid from degradation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
302644 soblidotinA dolastatin-10 derivative. Soblidotin inhibits tubulin polymerization, resulting in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
500040 SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224An orally bioavailable, second-generation tetrathiomolybdate analog with potnetial antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224 selectively chelates the copper ion in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), inhibiting SOD1 activity; this may result in a decrease in intra-cellular H2O2 levels and, in turn, increased activity of intracellular phosphatases. The ATN-224-mediated increase in phosphatase activity may interfere with the activation of multiple kinase signaling pathways required for cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. This agent has been shown to inhibit VEGF and FGF-2 signaling in endothelial cells, IGF-1, EGF, NF-kB, and integrin signaling in tumor cells, and PDGF signaling in pericytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
706308 sodium alginate microspheresAn embolic agent containing microporous hydrospheres of sodium alginate with potential arterial occlusive activity. In transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), the sodium alginate microspheres (KMG) are administered into blood vessels that feed the tumor, occluding tumor blood vessels and inducing ischemic tumor necrosis. In addition, these microspheres may be used to encapsulate various therapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750287 sodium bicarbonateThe monosodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing and electrolyte replacement properties. Upon dissociation, sodium bicarbonate forms sodium and bicarbonate ions. Ion formation increases plasma bicarbonate and buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, resulting in raised blood pH. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
654582 sodium bicarbonate solutionAn aqueous oral mouthwash solution containing the monosodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing and antimucositis activities. Upon introduction into the mouth, the sodium bicarbonate dissociates, forming sodium and bicarbonate ions, which buffer excess hydrogen ion and elevates the oral pH. An alkaline oral environment is less prone to colonization with yeast and aciduric bacteria. In addition, this solution may help relieve mucositis and mucositis-induced pain by diluting human saliva, and cleansing and lubricating mucosal tissues of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
690032 sodium bicarbonate/potassium bicarbonate/anhydrous citric acidA combination preparation containing sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and anhydrous citric acid, with acid-neutralizing properties. This combination in water principally contains the antacids potassium citrate and sodium citrate, and is used for the relief of acid indigestion and heartburn. This combination does not contain aspirin, and therefore does not exert aspirin's analgesic or anti-inflammatory effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615498 sodium biphosphate/sodium phosphate oral laxativeAn oral hyperosmotic saline laxative containing sodium biphosphate and sodium phosphate. Sodium phosphate/sodium biphosphate oral laxative promotes retention of water in the bowel, thereby increasing stool water content and volume, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and stool transit time and evacuation of colonic contents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
306451 sodium borocaptateA boron-carrying compound. After parenteral administration, borocaptate sodium accumulates preferentially in tumor cells. When exposed to neutron irradiation, borocaptate absorbs neutrons and self-destructs releasing short-range alpha radiation and 'recoil' lithium in tumor cells, resulting in alpha radiation-induced tumor cell death. This highly selective, localized radiotargeting of tumor cells, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), spares adjacent normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
632705 sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressingA textile fiber dressing composed of sodium carboxymethylcellulose with potential wound-healing activity. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing protects the wound site from external factors that may cause pain, promote infection, or slow the natural wound healing process. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a non-toxic, non-allergenic, anionic water-soluble polymer derived from cellulose. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
361795 sodium citrateThe sodium salt of citrate with alkalinizing activity. Upon absorption, sodium citrate dissociates into sodium cations and citrate anions; organic citrate ions are metabolized to bicarbonate ions, resulting in an increase in the plasma bicarbonate concentration, the buffering of excess hydrogen ion, the raising of blood pH, and potentially the reversal of acidosis. In addition, increases in free sodium load due to sodium citrate administration may increase intravascular blood volume, facilitating the excretion of bicarbonate compounds and an anti-urolithic effect. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
582893 sodium dichloroacetateThe sodium salt of dichloroacetic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Dichloroacetate ion inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, resulting in the inhibition of glycolysis and a decrease in lactate production. This agent may stimulate apoptosis in cancer cells by restoring normal mitochondrial-induced apoptotic signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
594404 sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucroseA compound containing elemental iron as the sodium salt of a ferric ion carbohydrate complex in an alkaline aqueous solution with approximately 20% sucrose w/v in water for injection, used to replete the total body content of iron. Iron is critical for normal hemoglobin and myoglobin syntheses to maintain oxygen transport and various enzymatic processes, including the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39598 sodium fluorideAn inorganic salt of fluoride used topically or in municipal water fluoridation systems to prevent dental caries. Fluoride appears to bind to calcium ions in the hydroxyapatite of surface tooth enamel, preventing corrosion of tooth enamel by acids. This agent may also inhibit acid production by commensal oral bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
593616 sodium glycididazoleThe sodium salt of glycididazole with potential radiosensitizing activity. Due to its low redox potential, glycididazole is selectively activated via bioreduction in hypoxic tumor cells and may sensitize hypoxic tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
555067 sodium hyaluronate topical hydrogelA proprietary topical gel formulation containing sodium hyaluronate with wound repair and skin moisturizing properties. Upon application, sodium hyaluronate topical hydrogel adheres to injured tissues, hydrates skin, and provides protection from further chemical or mechanical irritation. Hyaluronate, a non-sulfated glucosaminoglycan, is a chief component of the extracellular matrix in connective, epithelial, and neural tissues and contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
721984 sodium iodide I-131A radiopharmaceutical containing the beta- and gamma-emitting radioisotope I-131. After absorption, the iodide is distributed through the extracellular fluid of the body and accumulates in the thyroid gland, thereby allowing the imaging of the thyroid. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
672554 sodium metaarseniteA highly soluble, orally available trivalent arsenic-containing telomerase inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. Although the exact mechanism through which sodium metaarsenite exerts its effect has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to target and bind to telomeric sequences, specifically TTAGGG repeats, leading to a shortening of telomeres, and subsequent induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, sodium metaarsenite also leads to the translocation of the catalytic subunit of telomerase into the cytoplasm and inhibition of the activity of telomerase. Telomerase is active in most tumors cells and is responsible for the maintenance of telomere length and plays a key role in cellular proliferation, but is quiescent in normal, healthy cells. The susceptibility to sodium metaarsenite seems to be inversely correlated with initial length of telomeres. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
536018 sodium phenylbutyrateThe sodium salt of phenylbutyrate, a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, with potential antineoplastic activity. Phenylbutyrate reversibly inhibits class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs), which may result in a global increase in gene expression, decreased cellular proliferation, increased cell differentiation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
724764 sodium phosphateAn inorganic compound used as a laxative, dietary supplement and for electrolyte-replacement purposes. Phosphate, a predominant intracellular anion, plays an important role in energy storage, osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities, regulating serum calcium concentrations, and numerous cellular phosphate-transfer reactions. Sodium phosphate increases fluidity of the intestinal contents by retention of water by osmotic forces, thereby indirectly inducing intestinal smooth muscle constriction. Sodium phosphate is also used in the renal excretion of hydrogen ions while promoting the reabsorption of sodium ions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
615425 sodium picosulfate/magnesium oxide/citric acid oral laxativeAn oral laxative formulation containing the stimulant cathartic sodium picosulfate as the primary active ingredient . Picosulfate acts on the enteric nerves in the intestinal wall to increase muscle contractions, thereby stimulating peristaltic action and promoting defecation. Other active ingredients are osmotic agents that increase stool water content. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43094 sodium salicylateThe sodium salt of salicylic acid. As a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium salicylate irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenases I and II, thereby inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis and associated inflammation and pain. This agent may also activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
681583 sodium seleniteAn inorganic form of the trace element selenium with potential antineoplastic activity. Selenium, administered in the form of sodium selenite, is reduced to hydrogen selenide (H2Se) in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and subsequently generates superoxide radicals upon reaction with oxygen. This may inhibit the expression and activity of the transcription factor Sp1; in turn Sp1 down-regulates androgen receptor (AR) expression and blocks AR signaling. Eventually, selenium may induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
475763 sodium stibogluconatePentavalent antimony (Sb) in differential complex formation with gluconic acid with leishmanicidal and potential antineoplastic activities. The Sb moiety of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) may inhibit protein tyrosine phophorylases (PTPases) by covalently modifying sulfhydryl groups in PTPase cysteine residues, resulting in specific inactivation of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases-1 and -2 (SHP-1 and SHP-2), PTPases which negatively regulate interferon (IFN) signaling; enhancement of IFN-induced Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation; and induction of cellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. SSG in combination with IFN-alpha may synergize to overcome tumor cell resistance to IFN-alpha-mediated apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
765193 sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate-based laxativeAn oral preparation containing sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, with osmotic laxative activity. Upon oral administration of the sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate-based laxative, this osmotic laxative promotes the retention of water in the bowel. This increases the water content of stool, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and facilitates the evacuation of colonic contents. This results in a complete cleansing of the colon. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39602 sodium thiosulfateA water soluble salt and reducing agent that reacts with oxidizing agents. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, thiosulfate likely provides an exogenous source of sulfur, thereby hastening the detoxification of cyanide through the enzyme rhodanese (thiosulfate cyanide sulfurtransferase) which converts cyanide to the relatively nontoxic, excretable thiocyanate ion. In addition, this agent neutralizes the reactive alkylating species of nitrogen mustard, thereby decreasing skin toxicity related to nitrogen mustard extravasation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39602 Sodothiol(Other name for: sodium thiosulfate)
729636 sofosbuvirAn orally available nucleotide prodrug and a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor with potential HCV inhibiting activity. Upon oral administration, sofosbuvir is metabolized to 2'-deoxy-2'-alpha-fluoro-beta-C-methyluridine-5'-monophosphate, which is then converted into the active triphosphate nucleotide that inhibits the NS5B polymerase, thereby preventing viral replication. The HCV NS5B protein, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is essential for the replication of the viral HCV RNA genome. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
585657 Solaraze(Other name for: diclofenac sodium gel)
40992 Solatene(Other name for: beta carotene)
415541 Soliris(Other name for: eculizumab)
592863 solitomabA recombinant bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both CD3 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Solitomab attaches to both CD3-expressing T lymphocytes and EpCAM-expressing tumor cells, thereby selectively cross-linking tumor and T lymphocytes; this may result in the recruitment of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to T lymphocyte/tumor cell aggregates and the CTL-mediated death of EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. CD3 is an antigen expressed on mature T cells; EpCAM, a cell surface protein, is expressed by a variety of tumor cells and is frequently found in head and neck cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39861 Solu-Cortef(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)
41528 Solu-Medrol(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
456264 somatotropinA recombinant form of endogenous human growth hormone (GH), a polypeptide produced by the anterior lobe of the human pituitary gland. GH exhibits growth-promoting effects and metabolic effects on carbohydrate, fat, protein and bone metabolism. GH stimulates protein synthesis and the uptake of amino acids into cells, and induces lipolysis in adipose tissues. The secretion of GH increases with sexual maturation and then declines steadily. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
750171 Somatuline Depot(Other name for: lanreotide acetate)
655949 Somavert(Other name for: pegvisomant)
41340 Somophyllin-CRT(Other name for: theophylline)
41340 Somophyllin-T(Other name for: theophylline)
595163 sonepcizumabA humanized monoclonal antibody directed against sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, sonepcizumab binds S1P, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. S1P is the extracellular ligand for the G protein-coupled lysophospholipid receptor EDG-1 (endothelial differentiation gene-1). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
299013 sorafenib tosylateThe tosylate salt of sorafenib, a synthetic compound targeting growth signaling and angiogenesis. Sorafenib blocks the enzyme RAF kinase, a critical component of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that controls cell division and proliferation; in addition, sorafenib inhibits the VEGFR-2/PDGFR-beta signaling cascade, thereby blocking tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
752436 Sorghum bicolor supplementAn herbal-based nutritional supplement containing the leaf sheaths of the plant Sorghum bicolor, with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and immunomodulating activities. Sorghum bicolor supplement contains various phytochemicals, including phenolic acids and polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins. Sorghum bicolor supplement is particularly rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanins, such as luteolinidin and apigeninidin, and appears to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells through the stimulation of various apoptosis promoter genes and the downregulation of certain apoptosis inhibitor genes. In addition, due to the strong antioxidant nature of the phytochemicals, these compounds are able to scavenge free radicals and prevent tissue damage. Also, intake of this supplement modulates the immune system by both increasing the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and initiating the activation of macrophages. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
43244 Soriatane(Other name for: acitretin)
766941 sotagliflozinAn orally bioavailable inhibitor of the sodium-glucose co-transporter subtypes 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), with potential antihyperglycemic activity. Upon oral administration, sotagliflozin binds to and blocks both SGLT1 in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and SGLT2 in the kidneys, thereby suppressing the absorption of glucose from the GI tract and the reabsorption of glucose by the proximal tubule into the bloodstream, respectively. This decreases glucose uptake and enhances the urinary excretion of glucose, which lowers and/or normalizes blood glucose levels. SGLT1 is the primary transporter responsible for glucose absorption from the GI tract. SGLT2, a transport protein exclusively expressed in the proximal renal tubules, mediates approximately 90% of renal glucose reabsorption from tubular fluid. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
615188 sotaterceptA soluble fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1 with anabolic bone activity. Sotatercept selectively binds to activin, inhibiting its binding to ActRIIA and ActRIIA signaling, resulting in the stimulation of osteoblast activity and the inhibition of osteoclast activity and so normal bone formation and increased bone mineral density and strength. The Fc moiety of this fusion protein binds to the salvage receptor FcRN, preventing its lysosomal degradation and so extending its half-life in the circulatory system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
708113 sotrastaurin acetateThe acetate salt form of sotrastaurin, an orally available pan-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor with potential immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities. Sotrastaurin inhibits both T- and B-cell activations via PKC theta and beta isozymes, respectively. Both PKCs are important in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB). Inhibition of PKC beta in B-cells results in prevention of NF-kB-mediated signaling and down regulation of NF-kB target genes. This may eventually lead to an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. This agent may act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. PKC, a family of serine/threonine protein kinases overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, is involved in cell differentiation, mitogenesis, inflammation, and the activation and survival of lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
42657 Sotret(Other name for: isotretinoin)
466602 soy isoflavonesA dietary supplement isolated from soybeans containing phytoestrogen isoflavones. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, soy isoflavones mimic estrogen action mediated through estrogen receptors. In addition, this agent also modulates estrogen metabolism. As a result, soy isoflavones have been shown to reduce tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis, as well as to be able to regulate hormone balance and reduce the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
740493 soy lecithin/glycerol dioleate-based oral sprayAn oral spray containing soy phospholipid and glycerol dioleate, with protective, analgesic and anti-mucositic activities. Upon spraying onto the oral mucosal surface and contact with saliva, the soy lecithin/glycerol dioleate-based oral spray forms a gel and adheres to the mucosal surfaces thereby forming a lipid film. This provides a protective barrier and an analgesic effect within the oral cavity. In addition, the lipid barrier prevents bacterial growth at affected areas thereby decreasing infection risk. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42493 soy protein isolateA dietary protein isolated from soybeans that contains isoflavone phytoestrogens. Soy protein isolate has been shown to reduce tumor incidence and growth in some animal studies, possibly by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing tumor cell proliferation, and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Soy protein isolate may also inhibit endothelial cell proliferation. Isoflavone phytoestrogens display mild estrogen-like activities which may regulate hormone balance and reduce the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39547 sparfosic acidA stable transition state analogue for an aspartate transcarbamylase- cartalyzed reaction with antineoplastic activity. Sparfosic acid is a stable transition analogue of the activated complex for the reaction catalyzed by aspartate transcarbamylase, the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. This agent inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and increases the extent to which fluorouracil metabolites are incorporated into RNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
712053 sphingosine kinase-2 inhibitor ABC294640An orally available, aryladamantane compound and selective inhibitor of sphingosine kinase-2 (SK2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ABC294640 competitively binds to and inhibits SK2, thereby preventing the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic amino alcohol sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the lipid mediator that is pro-survival and critical for immunomodulation. This may eventually lead to the induction of apoptosis and may result in an inhibition of cell proliferation in cancer cells overexpressing SK2. SK2 and its isoenzyme SK1 are overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
682857 Spiriva(Other name for: tiotropium bromide monohydrate)
39605 spirogermaniumA synthetic organometallic compound containing the element germanium with possible antineoplastic activity. Spirogermanium exhibits significant toxicity, particularly neurotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39441 spiromustineA bifunctional nitrogen alkylating agent with antineoplastic activity and lipophilic properties. Containing a lipophilic hydantoin group that serves as a carrier to cross the blood brain barrier, spiromustine forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base-pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39444 spironolactoneA synthetic 17-spironolactone corticosteroid with potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive, and antiandrogen activities. Spironolactone competitively inhibits adrenocortical hormone aldosterone activity in the distal renal tubules, myocardium, and vasculature. This agent may inhibit the pathophysiologic effects of aldosterone produced in excess by various types of malignant and benign tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39763 spiroplatinA synthetic derivative of cyclohexane sulfatoplatinum with antineoplastic properties. Spiroplatin induces DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Similar to other platinum compounds, this agent has been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
746910 spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor GS-9973An orally available inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor GS-9973, this agent may inhibit the activity of Syk, which inhibits B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and leads to an inhibition of tumor cell activation, migration, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a non-receptor cytoplasmic, BCR-associated tyrosine kinase, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoeitic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
755930 spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659An inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (syk), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and antineoplastic activities. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659 may inhibit the activity of syk, which abrogates downstream B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and leads to an inhibition of B-cell activation, chemotaxis, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a BCR-associated non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39106 Sporanox(Other name for: itraconazole)
315885 Sprycel(Other name for: dasatinib)
683662 spyrine(Other name for: trientine hydrochloride)
721725 SR-T100 gelA cutaneous gel preparation containing an extract from Solanum incanum with potential antineoplastic activity. SR-T100 gel contains high amounts of the steroidal alkaloid glycoside solamargine. Solamargine is able to upregulate expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 6 (TNFRSF6 or Fas), and their signaling adaptors TNFR1-associated death domain, and Fas-associated death domain. In addition, this agent is able to upregulate expression of apoptosis promoter Bax, and suppress the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Altogether, this induces apoptosis in tumor cells and may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
471256 SR31747AA synthetic peripheral sigma receptor ligand with immunomodulatory and potential antitumor activities. Although the exact mechanism by which SR31747A exerts its antitumor effects has not been fully established, SR31747A binds to and inhibits the sigma1 receptor (SR31747A-binding protein-1 or SR-BP1), human sterol isomerase (emopamil-binding protein) and the sigma2 receptor, which may result in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Upregulated in various cancers, the sigma1 and sigma2 receptors and human sterol isomerase are proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
590687 Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391An orally bioavailable small molecule Src kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Unlike other Src kinase inhibitors which bind to the ATP-binding site, Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 specifically binds to the peptide substrate binding site of Src kinase; inhibition of kinase activity may result in the inhibition of primary tumor growth and the suppression of metastasis. Src tyrosine kinases are upregulated in many tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
739328 Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0424An orally bioavailable small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets both Abl and Src kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AZD0424 selectively inhibits both Src and Abl kinase activity which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth in susceptible tumor cells. Src and Abl kinases are upregulated in certain tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
38156 SS1(dsFv)-PE38 immunotoxinA recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the single chain anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody SS1(dsFv) linked to Pseudomonas exotoxin PE-38. The monoclonal antibody moiety of the agent binds to cells that express mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer, mesotheliomas, and some squamous cell carcinomas; after internalization, the exotoxin moiety inactivates eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, thereby disrupting tumor cell protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
717602 SSD(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)
37989 St. John's wortAn herbal extract prepared from the plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) with photodynamic, antineoplastic, and antidepressant activities. Hypericin, one of the active compounds found in Hypericum perforatum, is a photosensitizer that, when exposed to a particular wavelength and intensity of light, may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Another compound, hyperforin, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in certain tumor cell lines. Hypericum perforatum preparations may also stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters, resulting in increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents and other drugs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
646826 stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agentAn injectable ultrasound contrast media formulation composed of microbubbles of stabilized sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in sodium chloride solution. With stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent, ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microbubble-blood interface during ultrasound imaging, thereby enhancing blood vessel visualization and the contrast between blood vessels and adjacent tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
600817 Stakel(Other name for: padeliporfin)
581399 standardized freeze-dried table grape powderA standardized freeze-dried preparation of desiccated table grapes containing polyphenols (including flavanols, anthocyanins, flavonols, and stilbenes such as resveratrol) and other unidentified compounds with antioxidant activity. Standardized freeze-dried table grape powder increases serum antioxidant activity and reduces the macrophage-mediated oxidation and uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This agent has been shown to inhibit genes linked to the development of sporadic colorectal cancer and may exhibit chemopreventive activity for other human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41653 Stanford V regimenA chemotherapy regimen consisting of mechlorethamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide and prednisone, administered on a compressed schedule and used in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma; it may be followed by consolidative radiation therapy. (NCI Thesaurus)
39057 staphylococcus aureus protein AA protein that resides in the microbial wall of staphylococcus aureus and interferes with opsonization by binding to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin. The protein has a deleterious effect on the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract, and plays a role in the induction of pneumonia. Protein A also initiates polymorphonuclear cell migration into airway passages via TNFR1 activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
729992 STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 481464An antisense oligonucleotide targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) with potential antitumor activity. STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 481464 binds to STAT3 mRNA, thereby inhibiting translation of the transcript. Suppression of STAT3 expression induces tumor cell apoptosis and decreases tumor cell growth. STAT3, a protein overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a critical role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
601204 STAT3 decoy oligonucleotideA double-stranded 15-mer oligonucleotide, corresponding closely to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) response element within the c-fos promoter, with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide binds specifically to activated STAT3 and blocks binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters, which results in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
570187 STAT3 inhibitor OPB-31121An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. OPB-31121 inhibits the phosphorylation of STAT3, which prevents binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters and may result in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
684303 STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602 inhibits the phosphorylation and thus the activation of STAT3 protein, impeding STAT3 protein from translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and thereby blocking STAT3's regulation of gene expression through direct binding to the promoters of responsive genes. STAT3 regulates the cellular functions that lead to the cancer phenotype, and constitutive activation of STAT3 is observed in a wide range of human cancers, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41804 Statex SR(Other name for: morphine sulfate)
41064 stavudineA synthetic nucleoside, analog of didehydro-3-deoxythymidine with potent antiretroviral activity. In vivo, stavudine is phosphorylated by cellular kinases to the active metabolite stavudine triphosphate; this metabolite inhibits the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase both by competing with the natural substrate deoxythymidine triphosphate and by incorporation into viral DNA causing a termination of DNA chain elongation (due to the lack the essential 3'-OH group). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
747205 Stelara(Other name for: ustekinumab)
40446 Stelazine(Other name for: trifluoperazine hydrochloride)
42168 Sterile Talc Powder(Other name for: talc)
42168 Steritalc(Other name for: talc)
626715 steroid sulfatase inhibitor BN 83495An orally bioavailable tricyclic coumarin-based sulfamate with potential antineoplastic activity. Steroid sulfatase inhibitor BN 83495 selectively binds to and inhibits steroid sulfatase (STS), which may inhibit the production of locally active estrogens and so inhibit estrogen-dependent cell growth in tumor cells, such as those of the breast, ovary, and endometrium. STS is a cytoplasmic enzyme responsible for the conversion of circulating inactive estrone sulfate and estradiol sulfate to biologically active unconjugated estrone and estradiol, respectively. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43081 Stilbestrol(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
43081 Stilbetin(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
43081 Stilboestroform(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
43081 Stilboestrol(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
734496 Stimate(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)
529341 Stimuvax(Other name for: emepepimut-S)
595192 Stivarga(Other name for: regorafenib)
39481 Stoxil(Other name for: idoxuridine)
475797 Strattera(Other name for: atomoxetine hydrochloride)
598429 strawberry-blackberry-black raspberry-blueberry berry mixtureA dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of strawberries, blackberries, black raspberries and blueberries with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action through which berries may exert their anti-tumor effect has yet to be elucidated, in vivo studies suggest that the ingestion of a mixture of berries seems to result in a reduction in tumor growth and tumor development. As berries are rich in phytonutrients, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, ellagitannins, galltannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, the antineoplastic effects of strawberry-blackberry-black raspberry-blueberry berry mixture on cancer cells may be attributable to phytonutrient antioxidant and apoptotic activities. In addition, phytoestrogens in berries may be protective against estrogen-sensitive tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42952 streptavidinAn extracellular protein that has four high affinity binding sites for biotin. Streptavidin is widely utilized in fluorescence microscopy applications due to the ease with which a conjugate fluorescent moiety can be coupled to the protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39703 streptonigrinAn aminoquinone antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces flocculus. Streptonigrin complexes with DNA and topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA cleavage and inhibition of DNA replication and RNA synthesis. This agent also acts as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor and causes free radical-mediated cellular damage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42831 streptozocinA methylnitrosourea antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces achromogenes. Streptozocin alkylates DNA, forming inter-strand DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis. Due to its glucose moiety, this agent is readily taken up by pancreatic beta cells, inducing diabetes mellitus at high concentrations. Unlike other nitrosoureas, streptozocin causes little myelosuppression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
361537 Stromagen(Other name for: autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010)
41810 strontium chloride Sr 89The chloride salt of a radioactive isotope of strontium. Strontium chloride Sr 89 is taken up and incorporated preferentially in metastatic lesions in bone where it emits cytotoxic beta radiation, resulting in an inhibition and/or reduction of tumor growth and so tumor-related bone pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
486831 SU014813An orally-active, tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. SU014813 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha and beta, c-Kit and Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt-3). This leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and an induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39241 Sublimaze(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)
751578 substance P-saporinAn agent composed of substance P (SP) conjugated to the ribosome-inactivating protein and neurotoxin saporin (SAP), isolated from the seeds of the plant Saponaria officinalis (SP-SAP), with potential analgesic activity. Upon administration, SP-SAP targets the SP receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), located on neurons. When SP-SAP binds NK-1R and the receptor/conjugate complex internalizes, the saporin moiety inactivates ribosomes and prevents protein synthesis, which causes cell death, destroys NK-1R-expressing nerves and decreases pain perception. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
524060 Sufenta(Other name for: sufentanil citrate)
524060 sufentanil citrateThe citrate salt form of sufentanil, a synthetic congener of fentanyl and related to the phenylpieridines, with analgesic property. Sufentanil citrate binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptor, thereby producing analgesia, respiratory depression, miosis, reduced gastrointestinal motility, and euphoria. In addition, this agent has a more rapid onset of action and shorter duration of action compared to fentanyl. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
651245 sufentanil transdermal systemA transdermal matrix patch formulation containing the synthetic opioid sufentanil with analgesic activity. Sufentanil binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the effects of the endogenous opioids. Binding of sufentanil to opioid receptors stimulates exchange of GTP for GDP, inhibits adenylate cyclase, and decreases intracellular cAMP. This inhibits the release of various nociceptive neurotransmitters, such as substance P, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and somatostatin. In addition, sufentanil closes N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and opens calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels, which results in hyperpolarization of neuronal membranes and a reduction in neuronal excitability, and, subsequently, analgesia and sedation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42546 Sufortan(Other name for: penicillamine)
39724 Sulfamethoprim(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
685032 sulfasalazineA synthetic salicylic acid derivative with affinity for connective tissues containing elastin and formulated as a prodrug, antiinflammatory sulfasalazine acts locally in the intestine through its active metabolites, sulfamide 5-aminosalicylic acid and salicylic acid, by a mechanism that is not clear. It appears inhibit cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin production and is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
760894 sulfatinibAn orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 (FGFR1), with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. Upon oral administration, sulfatinib binds to and inhibits VEGFRs and FGFR1 thereby inhibiting VEGFR- and FGFR1-mediated signal transduction pathways. This leads to a reduction of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation in VEGFR/FGFR1-overexpressing tumor cells. Expression of VEGFRs and FGFR1 may be upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39724 Sulfatrim(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
691987 sulforaphaneA naturally-occurring phytochemical belonging to the class of isothiocyanates. As the aglycone metabolite of glucosinolate glucoraphanin (sulforaphane glucosinolate), sulforaphane acts as an antioxidant and potent stimulator of endogenous detoxifying enzymes. This agent displays anticarcinogenic properties due to its ability to induce phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, thereby providing protection against certain carcinogens and toxic, reactive oxygen species. Broccoli sprouts contain large amounts of sulforaphane, which is also found in other cruciferous vegetables including cabbage and kale. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
757694 sulforaphane-cyclodextrin complexAn orally available, stable formulation comprised of sulforaphane, a naturally-occurring phytochemical belonging to the class of isothiocyanates, and encapsulated within alpha-cyclodextrin, with cancer preventive activity. Upon administration, sulforaphane acts as an antioxidant and potent stimulator of endogenous detoxifying enzymes. This agent is able to induce phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, thereby providing protection against certain carcinogens and toxins. Broccoli sprouts contain large amounts of sulforaphane, which is also found in other cruciferous vegetables including cabbage and kale. Cyclodextrin is able to prevent sulforaphane's rapid breakdown, which improves its stability and half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41538 sulindacA sulfinylindene derivative prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Converted in vivo to an active metabolite, sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), blocks cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase (cGMP-PDE), an enzyme that inhibits the normal apoptosis signal pathway; this inhibition permits the apoptotic signal pathway to proceed unopposed, resulting in apoptotic cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
39724 Sulmeprim(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
41122 sulofenurA diarylsulfonylurea with potential antineoplastic activity. Sulofenur's antineoplastic mechanism of action is unknown. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
41528 Summicort(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
299061 sunitinib malateThe orally bioavailable malate salt of an indolinone-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Sunitinib blocks the tyrosine kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor b (PDGFRb), and c-kit, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis and cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits the phosphorylation of Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), another receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by some leukemic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
510282 sunscreenA substance that helps protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays. Sunscreens reflect, absorb, and scatter both ultraviolet A and B radiation to provide protection against both types of radiation. Using lotions, creams, or gels that contain sunscreens can help protect the skin from premature aging and damage that may lead to skin cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
723999 Supect(Other name for: radotinib hydrochloride)
751380 superagonist interleukin-15:interleukin-15 receptor alphaSu/Fc fusion complex ALT-803A fusion protein complex composed of a mutated form of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 (IL-15N72D) and a soluble, dimeric IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ra) Fc fusion protein (IL-15Ra-Fc) (IL-15N72D/IL-15Ra-Fc), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, superagonist interleukin-15:interleukin-15 receptor alphaSu/Fc fusion complex ALT-803 binds to the IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta-common gamma chain (IL-2Rbetagamma) receptor on natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which activates and increases the levels of NK cells and memory CD8+(CD44high) T-cells. The memory T-cells enhance the secretion of the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-g), which further potentiates the immune response against tumor cells. This may increase tumor cell killing and decrease tumor cell proliferation. IL-15 regulates CD8+ T and NK cell development, activation and proliferation. By coupling IL-15 to IL15Ra-Fc, this agent has a prolonged drug half-life and shows an increased ability to bind IL-2Rbetagamma, which enhances its immune stimulatory activity as compared to IL-15 alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
644579 supersaturated calcium phosphate rinseAn aqueous oral rinse composed of an electrolyte solution supersaturated with phosphate and calcium ions with antimucositis and analgesic activities. This solution may help relieve mucositis and mucositis-induced pain by restoring the natural electrolyte and pH balance of human saliva and lubricating mucosal tissues of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
755944 supinoxin(Other name for: P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902)
732255 Supprelin(Other name for: histrelin acetate)
574264 Suprane(Other name for: desflurane)
37809 Suprax(Other name for: cefixime)
765193 Suprep®(Other name for: sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate-based laxative)
40052 suraminA polysulphonated naphthylurea with potential antineoplastic activity. Suramin blocks the binding of various growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), to their receptors, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and migration. This agent also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis; retroviral reverse transcriptase; uncoupling of G-proteins from receptors; topoisomerases; cellular folate transport; and steroidogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
346072 survivin antigenA tumor-associated antigen. Vaccination with survivin antigen may result in a cytotoxic T-cell response against survivin antigen-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Overexpressed in many tumors, endogenous survivin inhibits tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
709395 survivin antigen vaccine DPX-SurvivacA lipid depot-based therapeutic cancer vaccine composed of survivin epitopes, a universal T Helper peptide and a polynucleotide adjuvant encapsulated in liposomes and then formulated in the hydrophobic carrier Montanide ISA51 VG, with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon injection of the survivin antigen vaccine DPX-Survivac, a depot is created at the injection site from which the antigens and adjuvant are released. This vaccine may elicit a long lasting cellular response against survivin-expressing cancers, resulting in a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an induction of tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
684391 survivin mRNA antagonist EZN-3042A locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotide targeting survivin mRNA, with potential antineoplastic activity. EZN-3042 hybridizes to survivin mRNA, thereby blocking translation of survivin protein and inhibiting survivin-induced anti-apoptotic activity and promoting tumor cell apoptosis in survivin-overexpressing tumor cells. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. LNAs contain a methylene bridge linking 2'-oxygen and 4'-carbon of ribose sugar rings, thereby increasing their stability and decreasing degradation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
559164 survivin Sur1M2 peptide vaccineA modified recombinant nonapeptide (LMLGEFLKL) derived from the anti-apoptosis protein survivin with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, survivin Sur1M2 peptide vaccine may elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against survivin-expressing cancers, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. The survivin protein inhibits caspase activation and apoptosis; it is undetectable in normal adult tissues but is expressed by several human cancers including lung, colon, breast, pancreas, and prostate cancer as well as hematopoietic malignancies and skin cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
757980 survivin/p53/HER2 antigen-loaded autologous dendritic cell vaccineAn autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) derived from survivin, p53 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ERBB2), with immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, this DC vaccine may elicit a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these TAAs, resulting in tumor cell death. Survivin, p53 and HER2 are essential in neoplastic growth, and are considered to be universal tumor antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
540650 Sustiva(Other name for: efavirenz)
299061 Sutent(Other name for: sunitinib malate)
690749 SVN53-67/M57-KLH peptide vaccineA peptide vaccine containing a 15-mer peptide (DLAQMFFCFKELEGW), with C to M alteration at amino acid position 57, derived from the anti-apoptosis protein survivin, and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration of SVN53-67/M57-KLH peptide vaccine, this peptide is able to bind both HMC class I and II molecules and may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as well as a T-helper cell response against survivin-expressing cancer cells. This may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and ultimately tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, expressed during embryonic development while absent in most normal adult cells, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. KLH may enhance immune recognition and may promote an enhanced response. As SVN53-67 is weakly immunogenic in humans, the M57 alteration may lead to greater affinity towards HLA-A*0201 and thus an enhanced antitumor immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
755483 Syk-JAK inhibitor PRT062070An orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus-associated kinases (JAK), with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, Syk-JAK inhibitor PRT062070 specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of Syk, JAK1, and JAK3 with preferential inhibition of JAK1 and JAK3-dependent cytokine-mediated signaling and functional responses. This negatively affects the downstream JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, and leads to both reduced inflammation in various animal models and enhanced antiproliferative activity towards non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) cell lines. Syk is a non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase involved in signal transduction in cells of hematopoietic origin including B cells, macrophages, basophils and neutrophils. Abnormal function of Syk has been implicated in several hematopoietic malignancies including NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The JAK-STAT pathway plays a key role in the signaling of many cytokines and growth factors and is involved in cellular proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and the immune response; JAK kinases may be upregulated in inflammatory diseases, myeloproliferative disorders, and various malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43407 Sylatron(Other name for: peginterferon alfa-2b)
475765 Sylvant(Other name for: siltuximab)
471831 Symadine(Other name for: amantadine hydrochloride)
579574 Symbicort(Other name for: budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate inhalation aerosol)
471831 Symmetrel(Other name for: amantadine hydrochloride)
719142 synbiotic supplementA nutritional supplement comprised of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients, with potential immunomodulating and gastrointestinal (GI) flora-restoring activity. Upon ingestion of the synbiotic supplement, the prebiotics and probiotics work synergistically in the GI tract, thereby modulating the GI flora ecosystem and may improve the functions of the intestinal barrier. In addition, synbiotics may have a beneficial effect on the immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43081 Synestrin(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
42332 Synovir(Other name for: thalidomide)
39476 Synribo(Other name for: omacetaxine mepesuccinate)
584599 synthetic brain tumor peptides-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccineA cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic brain tumor peptides with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, synthetic brain tumor peptides-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)l and antibody responses against glioma tumor cells, resulting in glioma tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
474021 synthetic breast cancer peptides-tetanus toxoid-Montanide ISA-51 vaccineA cancer vaccine comprised of multiple synthetic breast cancer peptides and the adjuvant tetanus toxoid helper peptide emulsified in the adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 with immunopotentiation activity. Vaccination with this cancer vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against breast cancer cells. Synthetic breast cancer peptides may stimulate the immune response against cells that produce breast cancer markers such as erbB2 (HER2/neu) while tetanus toxoid helper peptide binds to class II MHC molecules as a nonspecific vaccine helper epitope, resulting in a long-term immunopotentiation by increasing the helper T-cell response. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
726670 synthetic breast cancer peptides-tetanus toxoid-poly ICLC vaccineA cancer vaccine comprised of nine class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted breast cancer associated peptides, the tetanus toxoid helper peptide and the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly ICLC, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. The nine peptides derived from six cancer associated proteins are epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and four cancer/testis antigens (CTAs: MAGE-A1, -A3, -A10, and NY-ESO-1). Vaccination with this vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells overexpressing these tumor associated antigens TAAs). As a nonspecific T-helper epitope, tetanus toxoid helper peptide binds to class II MHC and results in long-term immunopotentiation by increasing the helper T-cell response. Poly ICLC, the double-stranded RNA molecules of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with poly L-lysine in carboxymethylcellulose, binds to TLR3 and induces the release of cytokines which may help boost the immune response against the TAAs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
626093 synthetic colorectal tumor-associated peptides vaccine IMA910A synthetic tumor-associated peptide (TUMAP)-based cancer vaccine directed against colorectal cancer with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Synthetic colorectal tumor-associated peptides vaccine IMA910 contains 13 different synthetic tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs), each of which represents a tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific for colorectal cancer. Upon administration, this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against colorectal tumors expressing these TAAs, which may result in a reduction in colorectal tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
761688 synthetic glioblastoma mutated tumor-specific peptides vaccine therapy APVAC2A personalized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of one or two de novo synthesized patient-specific tumor-mutated peptides associated with glioblastoma (GB), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with synthetic GB mutated tumor-specific peptides vaccine therapy APVAC2 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the selected mutated tumor-associated peptides, which results in decreased GB growth. These peptides are specifically selected and synthesized based on the expression of the patient’s own mutated tumor-associated antigens, which were detected during individual tumor genome sequencing. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
761678 synthetic glioblastoma tumor-associated peptides vaccine therapy APVAC1A personalized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of five to ten peptides associated with glioblastoma (GB), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with synthetic GB tumor-associated peptides vaccine therapy APVAC1 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the tumor associated peptides, and results in decreased GB growth. The peptides are derived from a glioma actively-personalized vaccine consortium (GAPVAC) warehouse and are specifically selected based on the patient's expression of tumor-associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
42274 synthetic human papillomavirus 16 E6 peptideA synthetic peptide sequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoprotein E6. The E6 oncoprotein is implicated in the tumorigenesis of cervical carcinoma. Vaccination with HPV 16 E6 peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells expressing the E6 oncoprotein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
669871 synthetic human secretinA synthetic human therapeutic agent which is chemically identical or similar to endogenous secretin, a peptide hormone found in the mucosal S-cells of the proximal small intestine. Secretin stimulates the pancreatic acinar cells and ductal epithelial cells to emit bicarbonate rich digestive fluids, thereby increases duodenal bicarbonate level. Bicarbonate neutralizes acidity of the intestines, consequently increasing the pH and facilitating the action of intestinal digestive enzymes. In addition, secretin stimulates the stomach and the liver to produce pepsin and bile, respectively. Both pepsin and bile aide the digestive action of the duodenum, which resulting in the prevention of gastric inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
751803 synthetic long E6/E7 peptides vaccine HPV-01A therapeutic peptide vaccine consisting of thirteen synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which are 25-35 amino acids in size, derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoproteins E6 and E7, with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, synthetic long E6/E7 peptides vaccine HPV-01 is taken up and degraded into small pieces by dendritic cells. The processed viral epitopes are presented by dendritic cells, which may stimulate the host immune system to mount both cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T cell responses against HPV E6/E7-expressing tumor cells. This results in the destruction of tumor cells and leads to decreased tumor growth. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are implicated in the tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. The SLPs allow for optimal presentation by antigen-presenting cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
445465 synthetic melanoma-associated antigens vaccineA cancer vaccine containing synthetic epitope peptides derived from melanoma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including melanoma-melanocyte antigen gp100(280-288), melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase(1-9), and melanoma-associated antigen melan-A(27-35). Upon administration, synthetic melanoma-associated antigens vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against melanoma cells that express TAAs which share epitopes with the vaccine epitope peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
434424 synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agentA synthetic, non-recombinant, pegylated, peptidic erythropoiesis stimulating agent. Synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent binds to and activates the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor on erythroid progenitor cells, thereby inducing their proliferation and differentiation into mature erythrocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
543797 synthetic peptides E-PRA and E-PSM vaccineA cancer vaccine consisting of E-PRA and E-PSM, two synthetic peptide analogs of PRAME (PReferential Antigen MElanoma) and PSMA (Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon direct administration into lymph nodes, synthetic peptides E-PRA and E-PSM vaccine may sitmulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PRAME and PSMA are tumor-associated antigens upregulated and expressed on the cell surfaces of certain tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
43081 Synthoestrin(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
39117 Synthroid(Other name for: levothyroxine sodium)