Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

Clear & Simple: Developing Effective Print Materials for Low-Literate Readers

  • Updated: 02/27/2003

References

1. Kirsch I, Jungeblut A, Jenkins L, Kolstad A. Adult literacy in America: A first look at the results of the National Adult Literacy Survey, National Center for Education Statistics, Department of Education, 1993

2. Dowling W. Reading level analysis of written materials distributed by the Ohio Cancer Information Service, Columbus, Ohio, Adult Literacy Center for Individual and Organizational Development, 1990

3. Zimmerman M, Newton N, Frumin L, Wittet S. Developing health and family planning print materials for low-literate audiences: A guide. Washington, D.C.: Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, 1989

4. US Department of Health and Human Services. Making health communication programs work: A planner's guide. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Office of Cancer Communications, 1989

5. Doak C, Doak L, Root J. Teaching patients with low literacy skills. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1985

6. Pichert JW, Elam P. Readability formulas may mislead you. Patient Educ Couns 1985;7(13):
181 -91

7. Gatson N, Daniels P. Guidelines: Writing for adults with limited reading skills. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 1988

8. Jonassen D, ed. The technology of text: Principles for structuring, designing and displaying text. Vol 2. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1985

9. Bertrand, Jane E., Communications Pretesting, Chicago: Community and Family Study Center, University of Chicago, Media Monograph 6, 1978

10. Jastak Association, Inc. Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT). Copyright 1984

11. Taylor, WS. Cloze procedure: A new test for measuring readability. Journalism Quarterly 30:415-433. Fall, 1953