Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

Fact Sheet

Fact Sheets: Cancer Therapy

Access to Investigational Drugs
(Reviewed: 08/04/2009) - A fact sheet that defines investigational drugs (drugs under study but not yet FDA approved) and describes the special conditions under which patients and their doctors can apply to receive these treatments.

Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer
(Reviewed: 06/16/2009) - A fact sheet that explains different types of adjuvant therapy (treatment given after primary therapy to increase the chance of long-term survival) and neoadjuvant therapy (treatment given before primary therapy). Discusses side effects, risks, and benefits of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors
(Reviewed: 10/07/2011) - A fact sheet that describes the process of eliminating the blood supply to tumors. Lists the cancers in which this approach is being tested.

Biological Therapies for Cancer
(Reviewed: 06/12/2013) - A fact sheet that provides an overview of how the immune system functions and describes the actions of biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, therapeutic vaccines, the bacterium bacillus Calmet-Guérin, cancer-killing viruses, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell transfer.

Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
(Reviewed: 08/12/2013) - A fact sheet that explains the step-by-step procedures of two types of transplantations used with high-dose chemotherapy, including their risks and benefits.

Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy
(Reviewed: 02/12/2013) - A fact sheet that describes breast reconstruction after mastectomy, including surgical options, follow-up care, and breast cancer screening after reconstruction.

Cancer Clinical Trials
(Reviewed: 02/22/2013) - A fact sheet that describes types of clinical trials, who sponsors them, how they are conducted, how participants are protected, and who pays for the patient care costs associated with a clinical trial.

Cancer Clinical Trials at the NIH Clinical Center
(Reviewed: 03/12/2013) - A fact sheet about cancer clinical trials at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.

Cancer Vaccines
(Reviewed: 11/15/2011) - A fact sheet that discusses cancer vaccines. Explains how they work, how they are made, and describes research related to their use.

Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 09/10/2003) - A fact sheet that describes cryosurgery, the technique of using extreme cold to treat tumors. Lists the indications, risks, benefits, and side effects of cryotherapy.

Donating Tissue for Cancer Research: Biospecimens and Biorepositories
(Reviewed: 08/31/2010) - A fact sheet that describes the importance of biospecimens and biorepositories in cancer research, and NCI's efforts to increase the availability of high-quality biospecimens. Also explains how patients and others can help support research that uses biospecimens.

Drug Discovery at the National Cancer Institute
(Reviewed: 06/06/2006) - A fact sheet about how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has played an active role in the development of drugs for cancer treatment for over 40 years.

Follow-up Care After Cancer Treatment
(Reviewed: 05/17/2010) - A fact sheet that provides information about follow-up medical care for patients who have completed cancer treatment.

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer
(Reviewed: 08/02/2012) - A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
(Reviewed: 12/12/2013) - A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy and its role in treating prostate cancer. Includes information about the different types of hormone therapy, how they are used, and possible side effects.

How To Find a Doctor or Treatment Facility If You Have Cancer
(Reviewed: 06/05/2013) - A fact sheet that offers suggestions for choosing a physician and facility for cancer treatment.

Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment
(Reviewed: 08/31/2011) - A fact sheet that defines hyperthermia (treating tumors with heat) and its side effects.

Lasers in Cancer Treatment
(Reviewed: 09/13/2011) - A fact sheet that describes use of high-intensity light in cancer treatment, its advantages and disadvantages, and types of procedures that use it.

Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer
(Reviewed: 09/06/2011) - A fact sheet that explains photodynamic therapy, how it is administered, and indications and side effects of treatment.

Radiation Therapy for Cancer
(Reviewed: 06/30/2010) - A fact sheet that defines the different types of radiation therapy and discusses scientific advances that improve the effectiveness of this treatment.

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
(Reviewed: 08/11/2011) - A fact sheet that describes the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure, its use in determining the extent, or stage, of cancer in the body, and the results of research on the use of SLNB in breast cancer and melanoma.

Surgery to Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer
(Reviewed: 08/12/2013) - A fact sheet that describes mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, two prophylactic surgeries that may be performed to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at very high risk; the situations in which they may be considered; and nonsurgical options.

Targeted Cancer Therapies
(Reviewed: 12/05/2012) - A fact sheet that describes targeted cancer therapies, which are drugs that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules involved in carcinogenesis (the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells) and tumor growth.