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Table 1. Strains of NDV Tested in Human/Clinical Cancer Studiesa

NDV Strain  Strain Type Formulation Suggested Mechanism(s) of Action  Reference Citation(s)  
73-TLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[20]
73-TLyticOncolysate vaccinebStimulation of immune system[11,42,45,60,63,65,67-70]
UlsterNonlyticInfected tumor-cell vaccineStimulation of immune system[49,50,52-58,71-73]
MTH-68LyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[1,6,61,66]
ItalienLyticOncolysate vaccine/infectious virusStimulation of immune system; cancer cells killed by virus[62,64]
HickmanLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[80]
PV701LyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[59]
HUJLyticInfectious virusCancer cells killed by virus; stimulation of immune system[81]
La SotaNot specifiedInfected tumor cell vaccineNot specified[82]

aRefer to text and the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms for additional information and definition of terms.
bOncolysates are prepared from virus-infected cancer cells; they consist primarily of cell membrane fragments and contain virus proteins and cancer cell proteins.


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  2. Csatary LK, Eckhardt S, Bukosza I, et al.: Attenuated veterinary virus vaccine for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 17 (6): 619-27, 1993.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Batliwalla FM, Bateman BA, Serrano D, et al.: A 15-year follow-up of AJCC stage III malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysate and determination of alterations in the CD8 T cell repertoire. Mol Med 4 (12): 783-94, 1998.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  4. Cassel WA, Garrett RE: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent. Cancer 18 (7): 863-8, 1965. 

  5. Cassel WA, Murray DR: A ten-year follow-up on stage II malignant melanoma patients treated postsurgically with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 9 (4): 169-71, 1992.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  6. Zorn U, Duensing S, Langkopf F, et al.: Active specific immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma: cellular and humoral immune responses. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 12 (3): 157-65, 1997.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  7. Liebrich W, Schlag P, Manasterski M, et al.: In vitro and clinical characterisation of a Newcastle disease virus-modified autologous tumour cell vaccine for treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 27 (6): 703-10, 1991.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  8. Ockert D, Schirrmacher V, Beck N, et al.: Newcastle disease virus-infected intact autologous tumor cell vaccine for adjuvant active specific immunotherapy of resected colorectal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2 (1): 21-8, 1996.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  9. Ahlert T, Sauerbrei W, Bastert G, et al.: Tumor-cell number and viability as quality and efficacy parameters of autologous virus-modified cancer vaccines in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 15 (4): 1354-66, 1997.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  10. Möbus V, Horn S, Stöck M, et al.: Tumor cell vaccination for gynecological tumors. Hybridoma 12 (5): 543-7, 1993.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  11. Pecora AL, Rizvi N, Cohen GI, et al.: Phase I trial of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, in patients with advanced solid cancers. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2251-66, 2002.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  12. Cassel WA, Murray DR, Phillips HS: A phase II study on the postsurgical management of Stage II malignant melanoma with a Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. Cancer 52 (5): 856-60, 1983.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  13. Csatary LK: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 2 (7728): 825, 1971.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  14. Mallmann P: Autologous tumor-cell vaccination and lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (LAK-TIL). Hybridoma 12 (5): 559-66, 1993.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  15. Plager C, Bowen JM, Fenoglio C, et al.: Adjuvant immunotherapy of M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) stage III-B malignant melanoma with Newcastle disease virus oncolysate. [Abstract] Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 9: A-1091, 281, 1990. 

  16. Mallmann P, Eis-Hubinger AM, Krebs D: Lymphokine-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and autologous tumor vaccine in breast and ovarian cancer. Onkologie 15 (6): 490-6, 1992. 

  17. Anton P, Kirchner H, Jonas U, et al.: Cytokines and tumor vaccination. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 11 (5): 315-8, 1996.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  18. Csatary LK, Bakács T: Use of Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in a patient with high-grade glioblastoma. JAMA 281 (17): 1588-9, 1999.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  19. Cassel WA, Murras DR, Torbin AH, et al.: Viral oncolysate in the management of malignant melanoma. I. Preparation of the oncolysate and measurement of immunologic responses. Cancer 40 (2): 672-9, 1977.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  20. Kirchner HH, Anton P, Atzpodien J: Adjuvant treatment of locally advanced renal cancer with autologous virus-modified tumor vaccines. World J Urol 13 (3): 171-3, 1995.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  21. Proebstle TM, Staib G, Kaufmann R, et al.: Autologous active specific immunization (ASI) therapy for metastatic melanoma [abstract from Fifth World Conference on Cancers of the Skin]. [Abstract] Melanoma Res 3: A-133, 35, 1993. 

  22. Pomer S, Thiele R, Staehler G, et al.: [Tumor vaccination in renal cell carcinoma with and without interleukin-2 (IL-2) as adjuvant. A clinical contribution to the development of effective active specific immunization] Urologe A 34 (3): 215-20, 1995.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  23. Wheelock EF, Dingle JH: Observations on the repeated administration of viruses to a patient with acute leukemia. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 271(13): 645-51, 1964. 

  24. Freeman AI, Zakay-Rones Z, Gomori JM, et al.: Phase I/II trial of intravenous NDV-HUJ oncolytic virus in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Ther 13 (1): 221-8, 2006.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  25. Liang W, Wang H, Sun TM, et al.: Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract. World J Gastroenterol 9 (3): 495-8, 2003.  [PUBMED Abstract]