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Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)

  • Posted: 11/20/2003
  • Updated: 08/18/2014

Table 16. Summary of Studies of Behavioral Correlates for Prostate Cancer Screening

Study Population  Sample Size  Percent Undergoing Screening  Predictive Correlates for Screening Behavior  
AAHPC = African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study Network; DRE = digital rectal exam; FDR = first-degree relative; NHIS = National Health Interview Survey; PSA = prostate-specific antigen.
Unaffected men with at least one FDR with prostate cancer [28]82 men (aged ≥40 y; mean age 50.5 y)PSA: Aged >50 y.
Annual income ≥ U.S. $40,000.
50% reported PSA screening within the previous 14 mo.History of PSA screening before study enrollment.
Higher levels of self-efficacy and response efficacy for undergoing prostate cancer screening.
Sons of men with prostate cancer [29]124 men (60 men with a history of prostate cancer aged 38–84 y, median age 59 y; 64 unaffected men aged 31–78 y, median age 55 y)PSA: 39.4% patient request.
– Unaffected men: 95.3% reported ever having a PSA test.
– Affected men: 71.7% reported ever having a PSA test before diagnosis.
DRE:
– Unaffected men: 96.9% reported ever having a DRE.
– Affected men: 91.5% reported ever having a DRE before diagnosis.35.6% physician request.
Both PSA and DRE:
– Unaffected men: 93.8% had both procedures.
– Affected men: 70.0% reported having both procedures before diagnosis.
Unaffected men with and without an FDR with prostate cancer [6]156 men aged ≥40 y (56 men with an FDR; 100 men without an FDR)PSA: Older age.
63% reported ever having a PSA test.
FDRs reported higher disease vulnerability and less belief in disease prevention, but this did not result in increased prostate cancer screening when compared with those without an FDR.
DRE:
86% reported ever having a DRE.
Unaffected Swedish men from families with a 50% probability of carrying a mutation in a dominant prostate cancer susceptibility gene [3]110 men aged 50–72 y68% of men aged ≥50 y were screened for prostate cancer.More relatives with prostate cancer.
Low score on the avoidance subscales of the Impact of Event Scale.[30]
Brothers or sons of men with prostate cancer [31]136 men aged 40–70 y (72% were African American men)PSA: More relatives with prostate cancer.
72% reported ever having a PSA test.
– 73% within 1 y.Older age.
– 23% 1–2 y ago.
– 4% >2 y ago.
DRE: Urinary symptoms.
90% reported ever having had a DRE.
– 60% within 1 y.
– 23% 1–2 y ago.71% reported their physician had spoken to them about prostate cancer screening.
– 17% >2 y ago.
Unaffected men with and without an FDR with prostate cancer [32]166 men aged 40–80 y (83 men with an FDR; 83 men with no family history)PSA: Family history of prostate cancer.
– FDR: 72% reported ever having had a PSA test.
– No family history: 53% reported ever having had a PSA test.Greater perceived vulnerability to developing prostate cancer.
French brothers or sons of men with prostate cancer [33]420 men aged 40–70 yPSA: Younger age.
More relatives with prostate cancer.
Increased anxiety.
88% adhered to annual PSA screening.Married.
Higher education.
Previous history of prostate cancer screening.
Data from unaffected African American men participating in AAHPC and data from the 1998 and 2000 NHIS [34]Unaffected men aged 40–69 y:PSA: Younger age.
AAHPC Cohort:
– 45% reported ever having had a PSA test.
– AAHPC Cohort: 134 menAfrican American men in 2000 NHIS:
– 65% reported ever having had a PSA test.
DRE:
– NHIS 1998 Cohort: 5,583 men (683 African American, 4,900 white)AAHPC Cohort:Fewer relatives with prostate cancer.
– 35% reported ever having had a DRE.
African American men in 1998 NHIS:
– NHIS 2000 Cohort: 3,359 men (411 African American, 2,948 white)– 45% reported ever having had a DRE.
Unaffected African American men who participated in the 2000 NHIS [35]736 men aged ≥45 yPSA: Older age (≥50 y).
Private or military health insurance.
48% reported ever having had a PSA test.Fair or poor health status.
Family history of prostate cancer.

References

  1. Bratt O, Damber JE, Emanuelsson M, et al.: Risk perception, screening practice and interest in genetic testing among unaffected men in families with hereditary prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 36 (2): 235-41, 2000.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  2. Miller SM, Diefenbach MA, Kruus LK, et al.: Psychological and screening profiles of first-degree relatives of prostate cancer patients. J Behav Med 24 (3): 247-58, 2001.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Vadaparampil ST, Jacobsen PB, Kash K, et al.: Factors predicting prostate specific antigen testing among first-degree relatives of prostate cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13 (5): 753-8, 2004.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  4. Bock CH, Peyser PA, Gruber SB, et al.: Prostate cancer early detection practices among men with a family history of disease. Urology 62 (3): 470-5, 2003.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  5. Horowitz M, Wilner N, Alvarez W: Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosom Med 41 (3): 209-18, 1979.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  6. Cormier L, Reid K, Kwan L, et al.: Screening behavior in brothers and sons of men with prostate cancer. J Urol 169 (5): 1715-9, 2003.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  7. Jacobsen PB, Lamonde LA, Honour M, et al.: Relation of family history of prostate cancer to perceived vulnerability and screening behavior. Psychooncology 13 (2): 80-5, 2004.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  8. Roumier X, Azzouzi R, Valéri A, et al.: Adherence to an annual PSA screening program over 3 years for brothers and sons of men with prostate cancer. Eur Urol 45 (3): 280-5; author reply 285-6, 2004.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  9. Weinrich SP: Prostate cancer screening in high-risk men: African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study Network. Cancer 106 (4): 796-803, 2006.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  10. Ross LE, Uhler RJ, Williams KN: Awareness and use of the prostate-specific antigen test among African-American men. J Natl Med Assoc 97 (7): 963-71, 2005.  [PUBMED Abstract]