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Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)

Patient Version
Last Modified: 06/06/2013

Endometrial Cancer Screening



Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.

Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer.

Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery.

Endometrial cancer is usually found early.

Endometrial cancer usually causes symptoms (such as vaginal bleeding) and is found at an early stage, when there is a good chance of recovery.

There is no standard or routine screening test for endometrial cancer.

Screening for endometrial cancer is under study and there are screening clinical trials taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Tests that may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied:

Pap test

A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from the surface of the cervix and vagina. A piece of cotton, a brush, or a small wooden stick is used to gently scrape cells from the cervix and vagina. The cells are viewed under a microscope to find out if they are abnormal. This procedure is also called a Pap smear.

Pap tests are not used to screen for endometrial cancer; however, Pap test results sometimes show signs of an abnormal endometrium (lining of the uterus). Follow-up tests may detect endometrial cancer.

Transvaginal ultrasound

No studies have shown that screening by transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) lowers the number of deaths caused by endometrial cancer.

Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) is a procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and bladder. It is also called endovaginal ultrasound. An ultrasound transducer (probe) is inserted into the vagina and used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The doctor can identify tumors by looking at the sonogram.

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Transvaginal ultrasound; drawing shows a side view of the female reproductive anatomy during a transvaginal ultrasound procedure. An ultrasound probe (a device that makes sound waves that bounce off tissues inside the body) is shown inserted into the vagina. The bladder, uterus, right fallopian tube, and right ovary are also shown. The inset shows the diagnostic sonographer (a person trained to perform ultrasound procedures) examining a woman on a table, and a computer screen shows an image of the patient’s internal tissues.
Transvaginal ultrasound. An ultrasound probe connected to a computer is inserted into the vagina and is gently moved to show different organs. The probe bounces sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture).

TVU is commonly used to examine women who have abnormal vaginal bleeding. For women who have or are at risk for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, experts suggest yearly screening with transvaginal ultrasound, beginning as early as age 25.

The use of tamoxifen to treat or prevent breast cancer increases the risk of endometrial cancer. TVU is not useful in screening for endometrial cancer in women who take tamoxifen but do not have any symptoms of endometrial cancer. In women taking tamoxifen, TVU should be used in those who have vaginal bleeding.

Endometrial sampling

It has not been proven that screening by endometrial sampling (biopsy) lowers the number of deaths caused by endometrial cancer.

Endometrial sampling is the removal of tissue from the endometrium by inserting a brush, curette, or thin, flexible tube through the cervix and into the uterus. The tool is used to gently scrape a small amount of tissue from the endometrium and then remove the tissue samples. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.

Endometrial sampling is commonly used to examine women who have abnormal vaginal bleeding. If you have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor.