Key Points for This Section
Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and in decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer.
Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, the chance of recovery is better if the disease is found and treated at an early stage.
Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
There is no standard or routine screening test used to find neuroblastoma. A urine test is sometimes used to check for neuroblastoma, usually when the child is 6 months old. This is a test in which urine is collected for 24 hours to measure the amounts of certain substances. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it. A higher than normal amount of homovanillic acid (HMA) and vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) may be a sign of neuroblastoma.
Studies have shown that screening for neuroblastoma does not decrease the chance of dying from the disease. Almost all neuroblastomas that are found by screening children at 6 months of age are the type that have a good prognosis (chance of recovery).