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Summary of First Four Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Screening Roundsa

T0 (Baseline) T1 T2 T3
Number Tested (PSA or DRE) 34,26232,69631,69730,544
PSA positive (>4 ng/mL) (%)
DRE positive (%)
Either test positive (%)14.013.514.415.1
Biopsies and Cancers
PSA >4 ng/mL2,7182,5022,5932,676
Cancers/1,000 screened14.
DRE abnormal and PSA ≤4 ng/mL 2,0831,9231,9731,943
Cancers/1,000 screened1.
PSA >4 ng/mL or DRE abnormal 4,8014,4254,5664,619
Cancers/1,000 screened16.011.510.811.1

DRE = digital rectal exam; PSA = prostate-specific antigen; T = tumor.
aAdapted from Grubb et al.[46]


  1. Grubb RL 3rd, Pinsky PF, Greenlee RT, et al.: Prostate cancer screening in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial: update on findings from the initial four rounds of screening in a randomized trial. BJU Int 102 (11): 1524-30, 2008.  [PUBMED Abstract]