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Table 2. Possible Causes of Anxietya

Medical Problem Examples 
aAdapted from Massie.[11]
Poorly controlled painInsufficient or as-needed pain medications.
Abnormal metabolic statesHypoxia, pulmonary embolus, sepsis, delirium, hypoglycemia, bleeding, coronary occlusion, or heart failure.
Hormone-secreting tumorsPheochromocytoma, thyroid adenoma or carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, corticotropin-producing tumors, and insulinoma.
Anxiety-producing drugsCorticosteroids, neuroleptics used as antiemetics, thyroxine, bronchodilators, beta-adrenergic stimulants, antihistamines, and benzodiazepines (paradoxical reactions are often seen in older persons).
Anxiety-producing conditionsSubstance withdrawal (from alcohol, opioids, or sedative-hypnotics).

References

  1. Massie MJ: Anxiety, panic, and phobias. In: Holland JC, Rowland JH, eds.: Handbook of Psychooncology: Psychological Care of the Patient With Cancer. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp 300-9.