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Table 4. Standard Treatment Options for Childhood Astrocytomas

Grade/Stage Standard Treatment Options 
Childhood low-grade astrocytomas:
Newly diagnosed childhood low-grade astrocytomasObservation
Surgery
Adjuvant therapy (for tumors that are incompletely resected):
Observation
Radiation therapy
Second surgery
Chemotherapy
Targeted therapy (for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas)
Recurrent childhood low-grade astrocytomasSecond surgery
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy
Childhood high-grade astrocytomas:
Newly diagnosed childhood high-grade astrocytomasSurgery
Adjuvant therapy:
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy
Recurrent childhood high-grade astrocytomasHigh-dose, marrow-ablative chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (not considered standard treatment)
Novel therapeutic approaches (not considered standard treatment)