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Table 1. Standard Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Gliomas

Stage Standard Treatment Options 
Newly diagnosed childhood brain stem gliomas:
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomasRadiation therapy
Focal or low-grade brain stem gliomasSurgical resection (with or without radiation therapy and chemotherapy)
Observation (with or without cerebrospinal fluid diversion)
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and alternative approaches for inoperable focal or low-grade tumors
Recurrent/progressive childhood brain stem gliomas:
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomasPalliative care
Focal or low-grade brain stem gliomasRepeat surgical resection
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy