Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®)

Health Professional Version

Classification of Pediatric Myeloid Malignancies

French-American-British (FAB) Classification for Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

The first comprehensive morphologic-histochemical classification system for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was developed by the FAB Cooperative Group.[1-5] This classification system, which has been replaced by the World Health Organization (WHO) system described below, categorized AML into the following major subtypes primarily based on morphology and immunohistochemical detection of lineage markers:

  • M0: Acute myeloblastic leukemia without differentiation.[6,7] M0 AML, also referred to as minimally differentiated AML, does not express myeloperoxidase (MPO) at the light microscopy level, but may show characteristic granules by electron microscopy. M0 AML can be defined by expression of cluster determinant (CD) markers such as CD13, CD33, and CD117 (c-KIT) in the absence of lymphoid differentiation.
  • M1: Acute myeloblastic leukemia with minimal differentiation but with the expression of MPO that is detected by immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry.
  • M2: Acute myeloblastic leukemia with differentiation.
  • M3: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) hypergranular type. (Refer to the Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia section of this summary for more information on treatment options under clinical evaluation.)
  • M3v: APL, microgranular variant. Cytoplasm of promyelocytes demonstrates a fine granularity, and nuclei are often folded. Same clinical, cytogenetic, and therapeutic implications as FAB M3.
  • M4: Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML).
  • M4Eo: AMML with eosinophilia (abnormal eosinophils with dysplastic basophilic granules).
  • M5: Acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL).
    • M5a: AMoL without differentiation (monoblastic).
    • M5b: AMoL with differentiation.
  • M6: Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL).
    • M6a: Erythroleukemia.
    • M6b: Pure erythroid leukemia (myeloblast component not apparent).
    • M6c: Presence of myeloblasts and proerythroblasts.
  • M7: Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL).

Other extremely rare subtypes of AML include acute eosinophilic leukemia and acute basophilic leukemia.

World Health Organization (WHO) Classification System

In 2001, the WHO proposed a new classification system that incorporated diagnostic cytogenetic information and more reliably correlated with outcome. In this classification, patients with t(8;21), inv(16), t(15;17), or MLL translocations, which collectively constituted nearly half of the cases of childhood AML, were classified as AML with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities. This classification system also decreased the bone marrow percentage of leukemic blast requirement for the diagnosis of AML from 30% to 20%; an additional clarification was made so that patients with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities did not need to meet the minimum blast requirement to be considered AML.[8-10]

In 2008, the WHO expanded the number of cytogenetic abnormalities linked to AML classification, and for the first time included specific gene mutations (CEBPA and NPM mutations) in its classification system.[11] Such a genetically based classification system links AML class with outcome and provides significant biologic and prognostic information. With new emerging technologies aimed at genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, and immunophenotypic classification, AML classification will likely evolve and provide informative prognostic and biologic guidelines to clinicians and researchers.

WHO classification of AML

  • AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities:
    • AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22), RUNX1-RUNX1T1(CBFA2-AML1-ETO).
    • AML with inv(16)(p13.1;q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22), CBFB-MYH11.
    • APL with t(15;17)(q24;q21), PML-RARA.
    • AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23), MLLT3(AF9)-MLL.
    • AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34), DEK-NUP214.
    • AML with inv(3)(q21;q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2), RPN1-EVI1.
    • AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1;22)(p13;q13), RBM15-MKL1.
    • AML with mutated NPM1.
    • AML with mutated CEBPA.
  • AML with myelodysplasia-related features.
  • Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms.
  • AML, not otherwise specified:
    • AML with minimal differentiation.
    • AML without maturation.
    • AML with maturation.
    • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
    • Acute monoblastic and monocytic leukemia.
    • Acute erythroid leukemia.
    • Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
    • Acute basophilic leukemia.
    • Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis.
  • Myeloid sarcoma.
  • Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome:
    • Transient abnormal myelopoiesis.
    • Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome.
  • Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

Histochemical Evaluation

The treatment for children with AML differs significantly from that for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). As a consequence, it is critical to distinguish AML from ALL. Special histochemical stains performed on bone marrow specimens of children with acute leukemia can be helpful to confirm their diagnosis, although such approaches have been mostly replaced by flow cytometric immunophenotyping. The stains most commonly used include myeloperoxidase, periodic acid-Schiff, Sudan Black B, and esterase. In most cases the staining pattern with these histochemical stains will distinguish AML from AMML and ALL (see below).

Table 1. Histochemical Staining Patternsa
 M0AML, APL (M1-M3)AMML (M4)AMoL (M5)AEL (M6)AMKL (M7)ALL
AEL = acute erythroid leukemia; ALL = acute lymphoblastic leukemia; AML = acute myeloid leukemia; AMKL = acute megakaryocytic leukemia; AMML = acute myelomonocytic leukemia; AMoL = acute monocytic leukemia; APL = acute promyelocytic leukemia; PAS = periodic acid-Schiff.
aRefer to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification for Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia section of this summary for more information about the morphologic-histochemical classification system for AML.
bThese reactions are inhibited by fluoride.
Myeloperoxidase-++----
Nonspecific esterases       
 Chloracetate-++±---
 Alpha-naphthol acetate--+ b+ b-± b-
Sudan Black B-++----
PAS--±±+-+

Immunophenotypic Evaluation

The use of monoclonal antibodies to determine cell-surface antigens of AML cells is helpful to reinforce the histologic diagnosis. Various lineage-specific monoclonal antibodies that detect antigens on AML cells should be used at the time of initial diagnostic workup, along with a battery of lineage-specific T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte markers to help distinguish AML from ALL and bilineal (as defined below) or biphenotypic leukemias. The expression of various cluster determinant (CD) proteins that are relatively lineage-specific for AML include CD33, CD13, CD14, CDw41 (or platelet antiglycoprotein IIb/IIIa), CD15, CD11B, CD36, and antiglycophorin A. Lineage-associated B-lymphocytic antigens CD10, CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD24 may be present in 10% to 20% of AMLs, but monoclonal surface immunoglobulin and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin heavy chains are usually absent; similarly, CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7 lineage-associated T-lymphocytic antigens are present in 20% to 40% of AMLs.[12-14] The aberrant expression of lymphoid-associated antigens by AML cells is relatively common but generally has no prognostic significance.[12,13]

Immunophenotyping can also be helpful in distinguishing some FAB subtypes of AML. Testing for the presence of HLA-DR can be helpful in identifying APL. Overall, HLA-DR is expressed on 75% to 80% of AMLs but rarely expressed on APL. In addition, APL cases with PML-RARA were noted to express CD34/CD15 and demonstrate a heterogeneous pattern of CD13 expression.[15] Testing for the presence of glycoprotein Ib, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, or Factor VIII antigen expression is helpful in making the diagnosis of M7 (megakaryocytic leukemia). Glycophorin expression is helpful in making the diagnosis of M6 (erythroid leukemia).[16]

Less than 5% of cases of acute leukemia in children are of ambiguous lineage, expressing features of both myeloid and lymphoid lineage.[17-19] These cases are distinct from ALL with myeloid coexpression in that the predominant lineage cannot be determined by immunophenotypic and histochemical studies. The definition of leukemia of ambiguous lineage varies among studies, although most investigators now use criteria established by the European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL) or the more stringent WHO criteria.[20-22] In the WHO classification, the presence of MPO is required to establish myeloid lineage. This is not the case for the EGIL classification.

The WHO classification system is summarized in Table 2.[22,23]

Table 2. Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage According to the WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissuesa
ConditionDefinition
NOS = not otherwise specified; WHO = World Health Organization.
aBéné MC: Biphenotypic, bilineal, ambiguous or mixed lineage: strange leukemias! Haematologica 94 (7): 891-3, 2009. [23] Obtained from Haematologica/the Hematology Journal website http://www.haematologica.org.
Acute undifferentiated leukemiaAcute leukemia that does not express any marker considered specific for either lymphoid or myeloid lineage
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1Acute leukemia meeting the diagnostic criteria for mixed phenotype acute leukemia in which the blasts also have the (9;22) translocation or the BCR-ABL1 rearrangement
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(v;11q23); MLL rearrangedAcute leukemia meeting the diagnostic criteria for mixed phenotype acute leukemia in which the blasts also have a translocation involving the MLL gene
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, B/myeloid, NOSAcute leukemia meeting the diagnostic criteria for assignment to both B and myeloid lineage, in which the blasts lack genetic abnormalities involving BCR-ABL1 or MLL
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, T/myeloid, NOSAcute leukemia meeting the diagnostic criteria for assignment to both T and myeloid lineage, in which the blasts lack genetic abnormalities involving BCR-ABL1 or MLL
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, B/myeloid, NOS—rare typesAcute leukemia meeting the diagnostic criteria for assignment to both B- and T-lineage
Other ambiguous lineage leukemiasNatural killer cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma

Leukemias of mixed phenotype comprise the following two groups of patients:

  1. Bilineal leukemias in which there are two distinct populations of cells, usually one lymphoid and one myeloid.
  2. Biphenotypic leukemias in which individual blast cells display features of both lymphoid and myeloid lineage.

Biphenotypic cases represent the majority of mixed phenotype leukemias.[17] B-myeloid biphenotypic leukemias lacking the TEL-AML1 fusion have a lower rate of complete remission and a significantly worse event-free survival (EFS) compared with patients with B-precursor ALL.[17] Some studies suggest that patients with biphenotypic leukemia may fare better with a lymphoid, as opposed to a myeloid, treatment regimen,[18,19,24] although the optimal treatment for patients remains unclear.

Cytogenetic Evaluation and Molecular Abnormalities

Chromosomal analyses of leukemia should be performed on children with AML because chromosomal abnormalities are important diagnostic and prognostic markers.[25-30] Clonal chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in the blasts of about 75% of children with AML and are useful in defining subtypes with particular characteristics (e.g., t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), 11q23 abnormalities, t(1;22)). Leukemias with the chromosomal abnormalities t(8;21) and inv(16) are called core-binding factor leukemias; core-binding factor (a transcription factor involved in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation) is disrupted by each of these abnormalities.

Molecular probes and newer cytogenetic techniques (e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) can detect cryptic abnormalities that were not evident by standard cytogenetic banding studies.[31] This is clinically important when optimal therapy differs, as in APL. Use of these techniques can identify cases of APL when the diagnosis is suspected but the t(15;17) is not identified by routine cytogenetic evaluation. The presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in patients with AML most likely represents chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) that has transformed to AML rather than de novo AML. Molecular methods are also being used to identify recurring gene mutations in adults and children with AML, and as described below, some of these recurring mutations have prognostic significance.

A unifying concept for the role of specific mutations in AML is that mutations that promote proliferation (Type I) and mutations that block normal myeloid development (Type II) are required for full conversion of hematopoietic stem/precursor cells to malignancy.[32,33] Support for this conceptual construct comes from the observation that there is generally mutual exclusivity within each type of mutation, such that a single Type I and a single Type II mutation are present within each case. Further support comes from genetically engineered models of AML for which cooperative events rather than single mutations are required for leukemia development. Type I mutations are commonly in genes involved in growth factor signal transduction and include mutations in FLT3, KIT, NRAS, KRAS, and PTNP11.[34] Type II genomic alterations include the common translocations and mutations associated with favorable prognosis (t(8;21), inv(16), t(16;16), t(15;17), CEBPA, and NPM1). MLL rearrangements (translocations and partial tandem duplication) are also classified as Type II mutations.

Specific recurring cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities are briefly described below. The abnormalities are listed by those in clinical use that identify patients with favorable or unfavorable prognosis, followed by other abnormalities.

Molecular abnormalities associated with favorable prognosis include the following:

  • t(8;21) (RUNX1-RUNX1T1): In leukemias with t(8;21), the RUNX1(AML1) gene on chromosome 21 is fused with the RUNX1T1 (ETO) gene on chromosome 8. The t(8;21) translocation is associated with the FAB M2 subtype and with granulocytic sarcomas.[35,36] Adults with t(8;21) have a more favorable prognosis than adults with other types of AML.[25,37] These children have a more favorable outcome compared with children with AML characterized by normal or complex karyotypes [25,38-40] with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 80% to 90%.[28,29] The t(8;21) translocation occurs in approximately 12% of children with AML.[28,29]
  • inv(16) (CBFB-MYH11): In leukemias with inv(16), the CBF beta gene (CBFB) at chromosome band 16q22 is fused with the MYH11 gene at chromosome band 16p13. The inv(16) translocation is associated with the FAB M4Eo subtype.[41] Inv(16) confers a favorable prognosis for both adults and children with AML [25,38-40] with a 5-year OS of about 85%.[28,29] Inv(16) occurs in 7% to 9% of children with AML.[28,29]
  • t(15;17) (PML-RARA): AML with t(15;17) is invariably associated with APL, a distinct subtype of AML that is treated differently than other types of AML because of its marked sensitivity to the differentiating effects of all-trans retinoic acid. The t(15;17) translocation leads to the production of a fusion protein involving the retinoid acid receptor alpha and PML.[42] Other much less common translocations involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha can also result in APL (e.g., t(11;17)(q23;q21) involving the PLZF gene).[43] Identification of cases with the t(11;17)(q23;q21) is important because of their decreased sensitivity to all-trans retinoic acid.[42,43] APL represents about 7% of children with AML.[29,44]
  • Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations: NPM1 is a protein that has been linked to ribosomal protein assembly and transport as well as being a molecular chaperone involved in preventing protein aggregation in the nucleolus. Immunohistochemical methods can be used to accurately identify patients with NPM1 mutations by the demonstration of cytoplasmic localization of NPM.[45] Mutations in the NPM1 protein that diminish its nuclear localization are primarily associated with a subset of AML with a normal karyotype, absence of CD34 expression,[46] and an improved prognosis in the absence of FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations in adults and younger adults.[46-51]

    Studies of children with AML suggest a lower rate of occurrence of NPM1 mutations in children compared with adults with normal cytogenetics. NPM1 mutations occur in approximately 8% of pediatric patients with AML and are uncommon in children younger than 2 years.[33,52-54] NPM1 mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis in patients with AML characterized by a normal karyotype.[33,53,54] For the pediatric population, conflicting reports have been published regarding the prognostic significance of an NPM1 mutation when a FLT3-ITD mutation is also present, with one study reporting that an NPM1 mutation did not completely abrogate the poor prognosis associated with having a FLT3-ITD mutation,[53,55] but with other studies showing no impact of a FLT3-ITD mutation on the favorable prognosis associated with an NPM1 mutation.[33,54]

  • CEBPA mutations: Mutations in the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha gene (CEBPA) occur in a subset of children and adults with cytogenetically normal AML. In adults younger than 60 years, approximately 15% of cytogenetically normal AML cases have mutations in CEBPA.[50,56] Outcome for adults with AML with CEBPA mutations appears to be relatively favorable and similar to that of patients with core-binding factor leukemias.[50,56] Studies in adults with AML have demonstrated that CEBPA double-mutant, but not single-allele mutant, AML was independently associated with a favorable prognosis.[57-60]

    CEBPA mutations occur in 5% to 8% of children with AML and have been preferentially found in the cytogenetically normal subtype of AML with FAB M1 or M2; 70% to 80% of pediatric patients have double-mutant alleles, which is predictive of a significantly improved survival and similar to the effect observed in adult studies.[61,62] Although both double- and single-mutant alleles of CEBPA were associated with a favorable prognosis in children with AML in one large study,[61] a second study observed inferior outcome for patients with single CEBPA mutations.[62] However, very low numbers of children with single-allele mutants were included in these two studies (only 13 in toto), making a conclusion regarding the prognostic significance of single-allele CEBPA mutations in children premature.[61]

Molecular abnormalities associated with an unfavorable prognosis include the following:

  • Chromosomes 5 and 7: Chromosomal abnormalities associated with poor prognosis in adults with AML include those involving chromosome 5 (monosomy 5 and del(5q)) and chromosome 7 (monosomy 7).[25,37,63] These cytogenetic subgroups represent approximately 2% and 4% of pediatric AML cases, respectively, and are also associated with poor prognosis in children.[28,37,63-66]

    In the past, patients with del(7q) were also considered to be at high risk of treatment failure and data from adults with AML support a poor prognosis for both del(7q) and monosomy 7.[30] However, outcome for children with del(7q), but not monosomy 7, appears to be comparable to that of other children with AML.[29,66] The presence of del(7q) does not abrogate the prognostic significance of favorable cytogenetic characteristics (e.g., inv(16) and t(8;21)).[25,66,67]

    Chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities appear to lack prognostic significance in AML patients with Down syndrome who are 4 years of age and younger.[68]

  • Chromosome 3 (inv(3)(q21;q26) or t(3;3)(q21;q26)) and EVI1 overexpression: The inv(3) and t(3;3) abnormalities involving the EVI1 gene located at chromosome 3q26 are associated with poor prognosis in adults with AML,[25,37,69] but are very uncommon in children (<1% of pediatric AML cases).[28,39,70]
  • FLT3 mutations: Presence of a FLT3-ITD mutation appears to be associated with poor prognosis in adults with AML,[71] particularly when both alleles are mutated or there is a high ratio of the mutant allele to the normal allele.[72,73] FLT3-ITD mutations also convey a poor prognosis in children with AML.[55,74-78] The frequency of FLT3-ITD mutations in children is lower than that observed in adults, especially for children younger than 10 years, for whom 5% to 10% of cases have the mutation (compared with approximately 30% for adults).[76,77,79] The prevalence of FLT3-ITD is increased in certain genomic subtypes of pediatric AML, including those with the NUP98-NSD1 fusion gene.[80]

    For APL, FLT3-ITD and point mutations occur in 30% to 40% of children and adults.[72,75,76,81-84] Presence of the FLT3-ITD mutation is strongly associated with the microgranular variant (M3v) of APL and with hyperleukocytosis.[75,83,85,86] It remains unclear whether FLT3 mutations are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with APL who are treated with modern therapy that includes all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide.[81,82,85,87,88]

    Activating point mutations of FLT3 have also been identified in both adults and children with AML, though the clinical significance of these mutations is not clearly defined.

Other molecular abnormalities observed in pediatric AML include the following:

  • MLL gene rearrangements: Translocations of chromosomal band 11q23 involving the MLL gene, including most AMLs secondary to epipodophyllotoxin,[89] are associated with monocytic differentiation (FAB M4 and M5). The most common translocation, representing approximately 50% of MLL-rearranged cases in the pediatric AML population, is t(9;11)(p22;q23) in which the MLL gene is fused with the MLLT3(AF9) gene.[90] An MLL gene rearrangement occurs in approximately 20% of children with AML.[28,29] However, more than 50 different fusion partners have been identified for the MLL gene in patients with AML. The median age for 11q23/MLL-rearranged cases in the pediatric AML setting is approximately 2 years, and most translocation subgroups have a median age at presentation of younger than 5 years.[90] However, pediatric cases with t(6;11)(q27;q23) and t(11;17)(q23;q21) have significantly older median ages at presentation (12 years and 9 years, respectively).[90]

    Outcome for patients with de novo AML and MLL gene rearrangement is generally reported as being similar to that for other patients with AML.[25,28,90,91] However, as the MLL gene can participate in translocations with many different fusion partners, the specific fusion partner appears to influence prognosis, as demonstrated by a large international retrospective study evaluating outcome for 756 children with 11q23- or MLL-rearranged AML.[90] For example, cases with t(1;11)(q21;q23), representing 3% of all 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML, showed a highly favorable outcome with 5-year EFS of 92%. While reports from single clinical trial groups have variably described more favorable prognosis for cases with t(9;11), in which the MLL gene is fused with the AF9 gene, the international retrospective study did not confirm the favorable prognosis of the t(9;11)(p22;q23) subgroup.[25,28,90,92-94]

    Several 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML subgroups appear to be associated with poor outcome. For example, cases with the t(10;11) translocation are a group at high risk of relapse in bone marrow and the central nervous system (CNS).[25,29,95] Some cases with the t(10;11) translocation have fusion of the MLL gene with the AF10-MLLT10 at 10p12, while others have fusion of MLL with ABI1 at 10p11.2.[96,97] The international retrospective study found that these cases, which present at a median age of approximately 1 year, have a 5-year EFS in the 20% to 30% range.[90] Patients with t(6;11)(q27;q23) and with t(4;11)(q21;q23) also have a poor outcome, with a 5-year EFS of 11% and 29%, respectively, in the international retrospective study.[90] A follow-up study by the international collaborative group demonstrated that additional cytogenetic abnormalities further influenced outcome of children with MLL translocations, with complex karyotypes and trisomy 19 predicting poor outcome and trisomy 8 predicting a more favorable outcome.[98]

  • t(6;9) (DEK-NUP214): t(6;9) leads to the formation of a leukemia-associated fusion protein DEK-NUP214.[99,100] This subgroup of AML has been associated with a poor prognosis in adults with AML,[99,101,102] and occurs infrequently in children (less than 1% of AML cases). The median age of children with DEK-NUP214 AML is 10 to 11 years, and approximately 40% of pediatric patients have FLT3-ITD.[103] t(6;9) AML appears to be associated with a high risk of treatment failure in children, particularly for those not proceeding to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.[28,100,103]
  • t(1;22) (RBM15-MKL1): The t(1;22)(p13;q13) translocation is uncommon (<1% of pediatric AML) and is restricted to acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL).[28,104-106] Most AMKL cases with t(1;22) occur in infants, with the median age at presentation (4–7 months) being younger than that for other children with AMKL.[107,108] The translocation is uncommon in children with Down syndrome who develop AMKL.[104,106] In leukemias with t(1;22), the RBM15 (OTT) gene on chromosome 1 is fused to the MKL1 (MAL) gene on chromosome 22.[109,110] Cases with detectable RBM15-MKL1 fusion transcripts in the absence of t(1;22) have also been reported.[106]

    A report of 39 cases of AMKL with t(1;22) described a relatively poor outcome (survival rate of approximately 30%), similar to that of other patients with non–Down syndrome AMKL.[108] Further experience has suggested that within the context of intensive chemotherapy and adequate supportive care, infants with t(1;22) can have a relatively favorable outcome that is superior to that of children with AMKL whose leukemia lacks t(1;22), with only 3 of 16 children with t(1;22) relapsing in two series.[106,107,111]

  • t(8;16) (MYST3-CREBBP): The t(8;16) translocation fuses the MYST3 gene on chromosome 8p11 to CREBBP on chromosome 16p13. t(8;16) AML occurs rarely in children, and in an international Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster AML study of 62 children, presence of this translocation was associated with younger age at diagnosis (median, 1.2 years), FAB M4/M5 phenotype, erythrophagocytosis, leukemia cutis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.[112] Outcome for children with t(8;16) AML appears similar to other types of AML. A substantial proportion of infants diagnosed with t(8;16) AML in the first month of life show spontaneous remission, although AML recurrence may occur months to years later.[112-118] These observations suggest that a watch and wait policy could be considered in cases of t(8;16) AML diagnosed in the neonatal period if close long-term monitoring can be ensured.[112]
  • t(7;12)(q36;p13): The t(7;12)(q36;p13) translocation involves ETV6 on chromosome 12p13 and variable breakpoints on chromosome 7q36 in the region of MNX1 (HLXB9).[119] The translocation may be cryptic by conventional karyotyping and in some cases may be confirmed only by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).[120-122] This alteration occurs virtually exclusively in children younger than 2 years, is mutually exclusive with MLL rearrangement, and is associated with a high risk of treatment failure.[28,29,33,120,121,123]
  • NUP98 gene fusions: NUP98 has been reported to form leukemogenic gene fusions with more than 20 different partners.[124] In the pediatric AML setting, the two most common fusion genes are NUP98-NSD1 and NUP98-JARID1A, with the former observed in one report in approximately 15% of cytogenetically normal pediatric AML and the latter observed in approximately 10% of pediatric AMKL.[80,107] AML cases with either NUP98 fusion gene show high expression of HOXA and HOXB genes, indicative of a stem cell phenotype.[100,107]
    • NUP98-NSD1: The NUP98-NSD1 fusion gene, which is often cytogenetically cryptic, results from the fusion of NUP98 (chromosome 11p15) with NSD1 (chromosome 5q35).[80,100,125-128] This alteration occurs in approximately 4% of pediatric AML cases.[80,100,127] NUP98-NSD1 cases have not been observed in children younger than 2 years,[80,100,125-128] and they present with high white blood cell (WBC) count (median, 147 × 109/L in one study).[80] Most NUP98-NSD1 AML cases do not show cytogenetic aberrations.[80,100,125] A high percentage of NUP98-NSD1 cases (91% in one study) have FLT3-ITD.[80] Presence of NUP98-NSD1 independently predicted for poor prognosis, and children with NUP98-NSD1 AML had a high risk of relapse, with a resulting 4-year EFS of approximately 10%.[80]
    • NUP98-JARID1A:NUP98-JARID1A is a recurrent cryptic translocation in pediatric AMKL, accounting for approximately 10% of AMKL cases and having a median age at presentation of approximately 2 years. Risk of treatment failure appears high for patients with NUP98-JARID1A, although the number of patients studied is small.[107]
  • CBFA2T3-GLIS2: Initial reports have demonstrated that CBFA2T3-GLIS2 is a fusion product present in approximately 2% of pediatric AML; has a predominance in cytogenetically normal AML; and is associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric AML patients, with EFS and OS rates of approximately 30%.[107,129-131] The CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion protein results from a cryptic chromosome 16 inversion (inv(16)(p13.3q24.3)).[130,132] It was initially reported in patients with AMKL and was observed in approximately 30% of pediatric non–Down syndrome AMKL cases but was not observed in adults with AMKL.[130,132] A report of 105 cases of non–Down syndrome AMKL identified CBFA2T3-GLIS2 in 13% of cases.[107] Subsequently, the CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion has been identified in non-AMKL pediatric patients, with 20 patients (10 with AMKL) positive for the fusion of 237 patients with cytogenetically normal AML investigated (8.4%).[129]
  • RAS mutations: Although mutations in RAS have been identified in 20% to 25% of patients with AML, the prognostic significance of these mutations has not been clearly shown.[33,133-135] Mutations in NRAS are observed more commonly than KRAS mutations in pediatric AML cases.[33,34] RAS mutations occur with similar frequency for all Type II alteration subtypes with the exception of APL, for which RAS mutations are seldom observed.[33]
  • KIT mutations: Mutations in KIT occur in approximately 5% of AML, but in 10% to 40% of AML with core-binding factor abnormalities.[33,34,136,137] The presence of activating KIT mutations in adults with this AML subtype appears to be associated with a poorer prognosis compared with core-binding factor AML without KIT mutation.[137-139] The prognostic significance of KIT mutations occurring in pediatric core-binding factor AML remains unclear,[136,140-142] although the largest pediatric study reported to date observed no prognostic significance for KIT mutations.[143]
  • GATA1 mutations: GATA1 mutations are present in most, if not all, Down syndrome children with either transient myeloproliferative disease or AMKL.[144-147] GATA1 mutations are not observed in non-Down syndrome children with AMKL or in Down syndrome children with other types of leukemia.[146,147] GATA1 is a transcription factor that is required for normal development of erythroid cells, megakaryocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells.[148] GATA1 mutations confer increased sensitivity to cytarabine by down-regulating cytidine deaminase expression, possibly providing an explanation for the superior outcome of children with Down syndrome and M7 AML when treated with cytarabine-containing regimens.[149]
  • WT1 mutations: WT1, a zinc-finger protein regulating gene transcription, is mutated in approximately 10% of cytogenetically normal cases of AML in adults.[150-153] The WT1 mutation has been shown in some,[150,151,153] but not all,[152] studies to be an independent predictor of worse disease-free, event-free, and overall survival of adults. In children with AML, WT1 mutations are observed in approximately 10% of cases.[154,155] Cases with WT1 mutations are enriched among children with normal cytogenetics and FLT3-ITD, but are less common among children younger than 3 years.[154,155] AML cases with NUP98-NSD1 are enriched for both FLT3-ITD and WT1 mutations.[80] In univariate analyses, WT1 mutations are predictive of poorer outcome in pediatric patients, but the independent prognostic significance of WT1 mutation status is unclear because of its strong association with FLT3-ITD and its association with NUP98-NSD1.[80,154,155] The largest study of WT1 mutations in children with AML observed that children with WT1 mutations in the absence of FLT3-ITD had outcomes similar to that of children without WT1 mutations, while children with both WT1 mutation and FLT3-ITD had survival rates less than 20%.[154]
  • DNMT3A mutations: Mutations of the DNA cytosine methyltransferase gene (DNMT3A) have been identified in approximately 20% of adult AML patients, being virtually absent in patients with favorable cytogenetics but occurring in one-third of adult patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics.[156] Mutations in this gene are independently associated with poor outcome.[156-158] DNMT3A mutations appear to be very uncommon in children.[159]
  • IDH1 and IDH2 mutations: Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, which code for isocitrate dehydrogenase, occur in approximately 20% of adults with AML,[160-164] and they are enriched in patients with NPM1 mutations.[161,162,165] The specific mutations that occur in IDH1 and IDH2 create a novel enzymatic activity that promotes conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate.[166,167] This novel activity appears to induce a DNA hypermethylation phenotype similar to that observed in AML cases with loss of function mutations in TET2.[165] Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 are uncommon in pediatric AML, occurring in 0% to 4% of cases.[159,168-172] There is no indication of a negative prognostic effect for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in children with AML.[168]

Classification of Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Children

The FAB classification of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) was not completely applicable to children.[173,174] Traditionally, MDS classification systems have been divided into several distinct categories based on the presence of the following:[174-177]

  • Myelodysplasia.
  • Types of cytopenia.
  • Specific chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Percentage of myeloblasts.

A modified classification schema for MDS and myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) was published by the WHO in 2008 and included subsections that focused on pediatric MDS and MPD.[178] The primary WHO classification includes:

WHO classification of MDS

  • Refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia:
    • Refractory anemia.
    • Refractory neutropenia.
    • Refractory thrombocytopenia.
  • Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts.
  • Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia.
  • Refractory anemia with excess blasts.
  • MDS with isolated del (5q).
  • MDS, unclassifiable.
  • Childhood MDS:
    • Provisional entity: Refractory cytopenia of childhood.

      Refractory cytopenia of childhood is noted to be reserved for children with MDS who have less than 2% blasts in their peripheral blood and less than 5% blasts in their bone marrow along with persistent cytopenia(s) and dysplasia. It is also noted in the new WHO classification that refractory cytopenia of childhood, unlike MDS in adults, is usually characterized by bone marrow hypocellularity, making the distinction with aplastic anemia and bone marrow failure syndromes often difficult.

WHO classification of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms

  • Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML).
  • Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL1 negative (aCML).
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML).
  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable.
    • Provisional entity: Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis.

      Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis is notable in that 50% to 60% of cases have JAK2 V617F mutations.[179]

WHO classification of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA (4q12), PDGFRB (5q33.2), or FGFR1 (8p11.2)

  • Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with PDGFRA rearrangement.
  • Myeloid neoplasms with PDGFRB rearrangement.
  • Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 abnormalities.

The peripheral blood and bone marrow findings for the myelodysplastic syndromes according to the 2008 WHO classification schema [178] are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3. World Health Organization (WHO) Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Findings for Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
 RCUD (including RA, RN and RT)RARSRCMDRAEB-1RAEB-2MDS-Udel(5q)
EP = erythroid precursors; MDS-U = myelodysplastic syndromes, unclassifiable; ML = multilineage; RA = refractory anemia; RAEB = refractory anemia with excess blasts; RARS = refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts; RCMD = refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia; RCUD = refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia; RN = refractory neutropenia; RT = refractory thrombocytopenia; UL = unilineage.
aBicytopenia may occasionally be observed. Cases with pancytopenia should be classified as MDS-U.
bWhen accompanied by cytogenetic abnormality considered as presumptive evidence for a diagnosis of MDS.
cCases with Auer rods and <5% myeloblasts in the blood and <10% in the marrow should be classified as RAEB-2.
dIf the marrow myeloblast percentage is <5% but there are 2%–4% myeloblasts in the blood, the diagnostic classification is RAEB-1. Cases of RCUD and RCMD with 1% myeloblasts in the blood should be classified as MDS-U.
Cytopenia(s) Unicytopenia or bicytopeniaa ++++ 
Anemia  +    +
Platelets       Normal to increased
Marrow dysplasia    UL or MLUL or ML  
 erythroid  +     
 myeloid ≥10% in 1 myeloid lineage ≥10% in ≥2 myeloid lineages  <10% in ≥1 myeloid lineageb 
 megakaryocytic       Normal to increased with hypolobulated nuclei
Auer rods (blood and/or bone marrow)   NoneNone±c None
Ringed sideroblasts <15% of EP≥15% of EP± 15%    
Peripheral blasts Rare or none (<1%)dNoneRare or none (<1%)d<5%d5%–19%(≤1%)dRare or none (<1%)
Bone marrow blasts <5%<5%<5%5%–9%d10%–19%<5%<5%
Peripheral monocytes   <1 x 109/L<1 x 109/L<1 x 109/L  
Cytogenetic abnormality       Isolated del(5q)

A pediatric approach to the WHO classification of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative diseases was published in 2003.[10] A retrospective comparison of the WHO classification to the Category, Cytology, and Cytogenetics system (CCC) and to a Pediatric WHO adaptation for MDS/MPD, has shown that the latter two systems appear to effectively classify childhood MDS better than the more general WHO system.[180] For instance, while refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts is rare in children, refractory anemia and refractory anemia with excess blasts are more common. When such refractory cytopenias with excess blasts (5%–20%) are associated with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities usually associated with AML, a diagnosis of the latter should be made and treated accordingly.

The WHO classification schema has a subgroup that includes JMML (formerly juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia), CMML, and Ph chromosome–negative CML. This group can show mixed myeloproliferative and sometimes myelodysplastic features. JMML shares some characteristics with adult CMML [181-183] but is a distinct syndrome (see below). A subgroup of children younger than 4 years at diagnosis with JMML associated with monosomy 7, are considered to have a subtype of JMML characterized by lower WBC, higher percentage of circulating monocytes, higher mean cell volume for red blood cells, a lower bone marrow myeloid to erythroid ratio and often, normal to moderately increased fetal hemoglobin.

The International Prognostic Scoring System is used to determine the risk of progression to AML and the outcome in adult patients with MDS. When this system was applied to children with MDS or JMML, only a blast count of less than 5% and a platelet count of more than 100 x 109/L were associated with a better survival in MDS, and a platelet count of more than 40 x 109/L predicted a better outcome in JMML.[184] These results suggest that MDS and JMML in children may be significantly different disorders than adult-type MDS.

MDS in older children with monosomy 7 and high-grade MDS behaves more like MDS in adults and are best classified as adult MDS, as well as treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.[185,186] The risk group or grade of MDS is defined according to International Prognostic Scoring System guidelines.[187]

Diagnostic Classification of Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

JMML is a rare leukemia that occurs approximately ten times less frequently than AML in children, with an annual incidence of about 1 to 2 cases per 1 million people.[186] JMML typically presents in young children (a median age of approximately 1.8 years) and occurs more commonly in boys (male to female ratio approximately 2.5:1). Common clinical features at diagnosis include hepatosplenomegaly (97%), lymphadenopathy (76%), pallor (64%), fever (54%), and skin rash (36%).[188] In children presenting with clinical features suggestive of JMML, current criteria used for a definitive diagnosis are described in Table 4:[189]

Table 4. Diagnostic Criteria for Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)
Category 1 (all of the following)aCategory 2 (at least one of the following)b,cCategory 3 (two of the following if no category 2 criteria are met)a,d
GM-CSF = granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; NF1 = neurofibromatosis type 1.
aCurrent World Health Organization (WHO) criteria.
bProposed additions to the WHO criteria that were discussed by participants attending the JMML Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia in 2008.[190] CBL mutations were discovered subsequent to the symposium and should be screened for in the workup of a patient with suspected JMML.[191]
cPatients who are found to have a category 2 lesion need to meet the criteria in category 1 but do not need to meet the category 3 criteria.
dPatients who are not found to have a category 2 lesion must meet the category 1 and 3 criteria.
eNote that only 7% of patients with JMML will NOT present with splenomegaly but virtually all patients develop splenomegaly within several weeks to months of initial presentation.
Absence of the BCR-ABL1 fusion geneSomatic mutation in RAS or PTPN11White blood cell count >10 × 109/L
>1 × 109/L circulating monocytesClinical diagnosis of NF1 or NF1 gene mutationCirculating myeloid precursors
<20% blasts in the bone marrowMonosomy 7Increased hemoglobin F for age
Splenomegalyb,e Clonal cytogenetic abnormality excluding monosomy 7b
  GM-CSF hypersensitivity

Characteristics of JMML cells include in vitro hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and activated RAS signaling secondary to mutations in various components of this pathway including NF1, KRAS,NRAS, and PTPN11.[192-194] Mutations of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBL are observed in 10% to 15% of JMML cases,[195,196] with many of these cases occurring in children with germline CBL mutations.[197,198] CBL germline mutations result in an autosomal dominant developmental disorder that is characterized by impaired growth, developmental delay, cryptorchidism, and a predisposition to JMML.[197] Some individuals with CBL germline mutations experience spontaneous regression of their JMML, but develop vasculitis later in life.[197] CBL mutations are mutually exclusive with RAS and PTPN11 mutations.[195] While most children with JMML have no detectable cytogenetic abnormalities, 20% to 25% show loss of chromosome 7 in bone marrow cells.[182,188,197,199,200]

Recurrent mutations in SETBP1 or JAK3 have also been identified in addition to RAS pathway mutations in about 16% of JMML cases. These mutations were generally subclonal and, thus, thought to be secondary mutations. It has been suggested that the presence of these mutations leads to a decreased OS.[201]

Stage Information

There is presently no therapeutically or prognostically meaningful staging system for these myeloid malignancies. Leukemia is considered to be disseminated in the hematopoietic system at diagnosis, even in children with AML who present with isolated chloromas (also called granulocytic sarcomas). If these children do not receive systemic chemotherapy, they invariably develop AML in months or years. AML may invade nonhematopoietic tissue such as meninges, brain parenchyma, testes or ovaries, or skin (leukemia cutis). Extramedullary leukemia is more common in infants than in older children with AML.[202]

Newly diagnosed

Childhood AML is diagnosed when bone marrow has greater than 20% blasts. The blasts have the morphologic and histochemical characteristics of one of the FAB subtypes of AML. It can also be diagnosed by biopsy of a chloroma. For treatment purposes, patients with clonal cytogenetic abnormalities typically associated with AML, such as t(8:21) (RUNX1-RUNX1T1), inv(16)(CBFB-MYH11), t(9;11)(MLL-MLLT3(AF9)) or t(15;17)(PML-RARA) and who have less than 20% bone marrow blasts, are considered to have AML rather than myelodysplastic syndrome.[203]

In remission

Remission is defined in the United States as peripheral blood counts (WBC count, differential, and platelet count) rising toward normal, a mildly hypocellular to normal cellular marrow with fewer than 5% blasts, and no clinical signs or symptoms of the disease, including in the CNS or at other extramedullary sites. Achieving a hypoplastic bone marrow is usually the first step in obtaining remission in AML with the exception of the M3 (acute promyelocytic leukemia [APL]); a hypoplastic marrow phase is often not necessary before the achievement of remission in APL. Additionally, early recovery marrows in any of the subtypes of AML may be difficult to distinguish from persistent leukemia, although the application of flow cytometric immunophenotyping and cytogenetic/molecular testing have made this less problematic. Correlation with blood cell counts and clinical status is imperative in passing final judgment on the results of early bone marrow findings in AML.[204] If the findings are in doubt, the bone marrow aspirate should be repeated in 1 to 2 weeks.[202]

References

  1. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group. Br J Haematol 33 (4): 451-8, 1976. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: Proposed revised criteria for the classification of acute myeloid leukemia. A report of the French-American-British Cooperative Group. Ann Intern Med 103 (4): 620-5, 1985. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: Criteria for the diagnosis of acute leukemia of megakaryocyte lineage (M7). A report of the French-American-British Cooperative Group. Ann Intern Med 103 (3): 460-2, 1985. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: A variant form of hypergranular promyelocytic leukaemia (M3) Br J Haematol 44 (1): 169-70, 1980. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Cheson BD, Bennett JM, Kopecky KJ, et al.: Revised recommendations of the International Working Group for Diagnosis, Standardization of Response Criteria, Treatment Outcomes, and Reporting Standards for Therapeutic Trials in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. J Clin Oncol 21 (24): 4642-9, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: Proposal for the recognition of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-MO) Br J Haematol 78 (3): 325-9, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Kaleem Z, White G: Diagnostic criteria for minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0). Evaluation and a proposal. Am J Clin Pathol 115 (6): 876-84, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Vardiman JW, Harris NL, Brunning RD: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms. Blood 100 (7): 2292-302, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, et al., eds.: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2001. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours, 3.
  10. Hasle H, Niemeyer CM, Chessells JM, et al.: A pediatric approach to the WHO classification of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative diseases. Leukemia 17 (2): 277-82, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Arber DA, Vardiman JW, Brunning RD: Acute myeloid leukaemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al., eds.: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th ed. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008, pp 110-23.
  12. Kuerbitz SJ, Civin CI, Krischer JP, et al.: Expression of myeloid-associated and lymphoid-associated cell-surface antigens in acute myeloid leukemia of childhood: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 10 (9): 1419-29, 1992. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Smith FO, Lampkin BC, Versteeg C, et al.: Expression of lymphoid-associated cell surface antigens by childhood acute myeloid leukemia cells lacks prognostic significance. Blood 79 (9): 2415-22, 1992. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Dinndorf PA, Andrews RG, Benjamin D, et al.: Expression of normal myeloid-associated antigens by acute leukemia cells. Blood 67 (4): 1048-53, 1986. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Orfao A, Chillón MC, Bortoluci AM, et al.: The flow cytometric pattern of CD34, CD15 and CD13 expression in acute myeloblastic leukemia is highly characteristic of the presence of PML-RARalpha gene rearrangements. Haematologica 84 (5): 405-12, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Creutzig U, Ritter J, Schellong G: Identification of two risk groups in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia after therapy intensification in study AML-BFM-83 as compared with study AML-BFM-78. AML-BFM Study Group. Blood 75 (10): 1932-40, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Gerr H, Zimmermann M, Schrappe M, et al.: Acute leukaemias of ambiguous lineage in children: characterization, prognosis and therapy recommendations. Br J Haematol 149 (1): 84-92, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Rubnitz JE, Onciu M, Pounds S, et al.: Acute mixed lineage leukemia in children: the experience of St Jude Children's Research Hospital. Blood 113 (21): 5083-9, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Al-Seraihy AS, Owaidah TM, Ayas M, et al.: Clinical characteristics and outcome of children with biphenotypic acute leukemia. Haematologica 94 (12): 1682-90, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Bene MC, Castoldi G, Knapp W, et al.: Proposals for the immunological classification of acute leukemias. European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL). Leukemia 9 (10): 1783-6, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  21. Vardiman JW, Thiele J, Arber DA, et al.: The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes. Blood 114 (5): 937-51, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Borowitz MJ, Béné MC, Harris NL: Acute leukaemias of ambiguous lineage. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al., eds.: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th ed. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008, pp 150-5.
  23. Béné MC: Biphenotypic, bilineal, ambiguous or mixed lineage: strange leukemias! Haematologica 94 (7): 891-3, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Matutes E, Pickl WF, Van't Veer M, et al.: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: clinical and laboratory features and outcome in 100 patients defined according to the WHO 2008 classification. Blood 117 (11): 3163-71, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Grimwade D, Walker H, Oliver F, et al.: The importance of diagnostic cytogenetics on outcome in AML: analysis of 1,612 patients entered into the MRC AML 10 trial. The Medical Research Council Adult and Children's Leukaemia Working Parties. Blood 92 (7): 2322-33, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Gilliland DG: Targeted therapies in myeloid leukemias. Ann Hematol 83 (Suppl 1): S75-6, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  27. Avivi I, Rowe JM: Prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia. Curr Opin Hematol 12 (1): 62-7, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  28. Harrison CJ, Hills RK, Moorman AV, et al.: Cytogenetics of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: United Kingdom Medical Research Council Treatment trials AML 10 and 12. J Clin Oncol 28 (16): 2674-81, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  29. von Neuhoff C, Reinhardt D, Sander A, et al.: Prognostic impact of specific chromosomal aberrations in a large group of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated uniformly according to trial AML-BFM 98. J Clin Oncol 28 (16): 2682-9, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  30. Grimwade D, Hills RK, Moorman AV, et al.: Refinement of cytogenetic classification in acute myeloid leukemia: determination of prognostic significance of rare recurring chromosomal abnormalities among 5876 younger adult patients treated in the United Kingdom Medical Research Council trials. Blood 116 (3): 354-65, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  31. Rubnitz JE, Look AT: Molecular genetics of childhood leukemias. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20 (1): 1-11, 1998 Jan-Feb. [PUBMED Abstract]
  32. Gilliland DG, Griffin JD: The roles of FLT3 in hematopoiesis and leukemia. Blood 100 (5): 1532-42, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  33. Balgobind BV, Hollink IH, Arentsen-Peters ST, et al.: Integrative analysis of type-I and type-II aberrations underscores the genetic heterogeneity of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Haematologica 96 (10): 1478-87, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  34. Kühn MW, Radtke I, Bullinger L, et al.: High-resolution genomic profiling of adult and pediatric core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia reveals new recurrent genomic alterations. Blood 119 (10): e67-75, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  35. Rubnitz JE, Raimondi SC, Halbert AR, et al.: Characteristics and outcome of t(8;21)-positive childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a single institution's experience. Leukemia 16 (10): 2072-7, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  36. Tallman MS, Hakimian D, Shaw JM, et al.: Granulocytic sarcoma is associated with the 8;21 translocation in acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 11 (4): 690-7, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  37. Mrózek K, Heerema NA, Bloomfield CD: Cytogenetics in acute leukemia. Blood Rev 18 (2): 115-36, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  38. Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Ritter J, et al.: Definition of a standard-risk group in children with AML. Br J Haematol 104 (3): 630-9, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  39. Raimondi SC, Chang MN, Ravindranath Y, et al.: Chromosomal abnormalities in 478 children with acute myeloid leukemia: clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in a cooperative pediatric oncology group study-POG 8821. Blood 94 (11): 3707-16, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  40. Lie SO, Abrahamsson J, Clausen N, et al.: Treatment stratification based on initial in vivo response in acute myeloid leukaemia in children without Down's syndrome: results of NOPHO-AML trials. Br J Haematol 122 (2): 217-25, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  41. Larson RA, Williams SF, Le Beau MM, et al.: Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils and inv(16) or t(16;16) has a favorable prognosis. Blood 68 (6): 1242-9, 1986. [PUBMED Abstract]
  42. Mistry AR, Pedersen EW, Solomon E, et al.: The molecular pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukaemia: implications for the clinical management of the disease. Blood Rev 17 (2): 71-97, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  43. Licht JD, Chomienne C, Goy A, et al.: Clinical and molecular characterization of a rare syndrome of acute promyelocytic leukemia associated with translocation (11;17). Blood 85 (4): 1083-94, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  44. Smith MA, Ries LA, Gurney JG, et al.: Leukemia. In: Ries LA, Smith MA, Gurney JG, et al., eds.: Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, 1999. NIH Pub.No. 99-4649., pp 17-34. Also available online. Last accessed October 26, 2014.
  45. Falini B, Martelli MP, Bolli N, et al.: Immunohistochemistry predicts nucleophosmin (NPM) mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 108 (6): 1999-2005, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  46. Falini B, Mecucci C, Tiacci E, et al.: Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin in acute myelogenous leukemia with a normal karyotype. N Engl J Med 352 (3): 254-66, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  47. Döhner K, Schlenk RF, Habdank M, et al.: Mutant nucleophosmin (NPM1) predicts favorable prognosis in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics: interaction with other gene mutations. Blood 106 (12): 3740-6, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  48. Verhaak RG, Goudswaard CS, van Putten W, et al.: Mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): association with other gene abnormalities and previously established gene expression signatures and their favorable prognostic significance. Blood 106 (12): 3747-54, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  49. Schnittger S, Schoch C, Kern W, et al.: Nucleophosmin gene mutations are predictors of favorable prognosis in acute myelogenous leukemia with a normal karyotype. Blood 106 (12): 3733-9, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  50. Schlenk RF, Döhner K, Krauter J, et al.: Mutations and treatment outcome in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med 358 (18): 1909-18, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  51. Gale RE, Green C, Allen C, et al.: The impact of FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutant level, number, size, and interaction with NPM1 mutations in a large cohort of young adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 111 (5): 2776-84, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  52. Cazzaniga G, Dell'Oro MG, Mecucci C, et al.: Nucleophosmin mutations in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia with normal karyotype. Blood 106 (4): 1419-22, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  53. Brown P, McIntyre E, Rau R, et al.: The incidence and clinical significance of nucleophosmin mutations in childhood AML. Blood 110 (3): 979-85, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  54. Hollink IH, Zwaan CM, Zimmermann M, et al.: Favorable prognostic impact of NPM1 gene mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia, with emphasis on cytogenetically normal AML. Leukemia 23 (2): 262-70, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  55. Staffas A, Kanduri M, Hovland R, et al.: Presence of FLT3-ITD and high BAALC expression are independent prognostic markers in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 118 (22): 5905-13, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  56. Marcucci G, Maharry K, Radmacher MD, et al.: Prognostic significance of, and gene and microRNA expression signatures associated with, CEBPA mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with high-risk molecular features: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. J Clin Oncol 26 (31): 5078-87, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  57. Wouters BJ, Löwenberg B, Erpelinck-Verschueren CA, et al.: Double CEBPA mutations, but not single CEBPA mutations, define a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia with a distinctive gene expression profile that is uniquely associated with a favorable outcome. Blood 113 (13): 3088-91, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  58. Dufour A, Schneider F, Metzeler KH, et al.: Acute myeloid leukemia with biallelic CEBPA gene mutations and normal karyotype represents a distinct genetic entity associated with a favorable clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol 28 (4): 570-7, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  59. Taskesen E, Bullinger L, Corbacioglu A, et al.: Prognostic impact, concurrent genetic mutations, and gene expression features of AML with CEBPA mutations in a cohort of 1182 cytogenetically normal AML patients: further evidence for CEBPA double mutant AML as a distinctive disease entity. Blood 117 (8): 2469-75, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  60. Fasan A, Haferlach C, Alpermann T, et al.: The role of different genetic subtypes of CEBPA mutated AML. Leukemia 28 (4): 794-803, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  61. Ho PA, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, et al.: Prevalence and prognostic implications of CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 113 (26): 6558-66, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  62. Hollink IH, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Arentsen-Peters ST, et al.: Characterization of CEBPA mutations and promoter hypermethylation in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Haematologica 96 (3): 384-92, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  63. Johnston DL, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, et al.: Outcome of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and -5/5q- abnormalities from five pediatric AML treatment protocols: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60 (12): 2073-8, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  64. Stevens RF, Hann IM, Wheatley K, et al.: Marked improvements in outcome with chemotherapy alone in paediatric acute myeloid leukemia: results of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial. MRC Childhood Leukaemia Working Party. Br J Haematol 101 (1): 130-40, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  65. Wells RJ, Arthur DC, Srivastava A, et al.: Prognostic variables in newly diagnosed children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: Children's Cancer Group Study 213. Leukemia 16 (4): 601-7, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  66. Hasle H, Alonzo TA, Auvrignon A, et al.: Monosomy 7 and deletion 7q in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: an international retrospective study. Blood 109 (11): 4641-7, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  67. Swansbury GJ, Lawler SD, Alimena G, et al.: Long-term survival in acute myelogenous leukemia: a second follow-up of the Fourth International Workshop on Chromosomes in Leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 73 (1): 1-7, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  68. Blink M, Zimmermann M, von Neuhoff C, et al.: Normal karyotype is a poor prognostic factor in myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome: a retrospective, international study. Haematologica 99 (2): 299-307, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  69. Lugthart S, Gröschel S, Beverloo HB, et al.: Clinical, molecular, and prognostic significance of WHO type inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and various other 3q abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 28 (24): 3890-8, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  70. Balgobind BV, Lugthart S, Hollink IH, et al.: EVI1 overexpression in distinct subtypes of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 24 (5): 942-9, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  71. Schnittger S, Schoch C, Dugas M, et al.: Analysis of FLT3 length mutations in 1003 patients with acute myeloid leukemia: correlation to cytogenetics, FAB subtype, and prognosis in the AMLCG study and usefulness as a marker for the detection of minimal residual disease. Blood 100 (1): 59-66, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  72. Thiede C, Steudel C, Mohr B, et al.: Analysis of FLT3-activating mutations in 979 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: association with FAB subtypes and identification of subgroups with poor prognosis. Blood 99 (12): 4326-35, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  73. Whitman SP, Archer KJ, Feng L, et al.: Absence of the wild-type allele predicts poor prognosis in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics and the internal tandem duplication of FLT3: a cancer and leukemia group B study. Cancer Res 61 (19): 7233-9, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  74. Iwai T, Yokota S, Nakao M, et al.: Internal tandem duplication of the FLT3 gene and clinical evaluation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. The Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group, Japan. Leukemia 13 (1): 38-43, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  75. Arrigoni P, Beretta C, Silvestri D, et al.: FLT3 internal tandem duplication in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: association with hyperleucocytosis in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 120 (1): 89-92, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  76. Meshinchi S, Stirewalt DL, Alonzo TA, et al.: Activating mutations of RTK/ras signal transduction pathway in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 102 (4): 1474-9, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  77. Zwaan CM, Meshinchi S, Radich JP, et al.: FLT3 internal tandem duplication in 234 children with acute myeloid leukemia: prognostic significance and relation to cellular drug resistance. Blood 102 (7): 2387-94, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  78. Meshinchi S, Alonzo TA, Stirewalt DL, et al.: Clinical implications of FLT3 mutations in pediatric AML. Blood 108 (12): 3654-61, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  79. Chang P, Kang M, Xiao A, et al.: FLT3 mutation incidence and timing of origin in a population case series of pediatric leukemia. BMC Cancer 10: 513, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  80. Hollink IH, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Arentsen-Peters ST, et al.: NUP98/NSD1 characterizes a novel poor prognostic group in acute myeloid leukemia with a distinct HOX gene expression pattern. Blood 118 (13): 3645-56, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  81. Shih LY, Kuo MC, Liang DC, et al.: Internal tandem duplication and Asp835 mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer 98 (6): 1206-16, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  82. Noguera NI, Breccia M, Divona M, et al.: Alterations of the FLT3 gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia: association with diagnostic characteristics and analysis of clinical outcome in patients treated with the Italian AIDA protocol. Leukemia 16 (11): 2185-9, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  83. Gale RE, Hills R, Pizzey AR, et al.: Relationship between FLT3 mutation status, biologic characteristics, and response to targeted therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 106 (12): 3768-76, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  84. Abu-Duhier FM, Goodeve AC, Wilson GA, et al.: Identification of novel FLT-3 Asp835 mutations in adult acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol 113 (4): 983-8, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  85. Tallman MS, Kim HT, Montesinos P, et al.: Does microgranular variant morphology of acute promyelocytic leukemia independently predict a less favorable outcome compared with classical M3 APL? A joint study of the North American Intergroup and the PETHEMA Group. Blood 116 (25): 5650-9, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  86. Sung L, Aplenc R, Alonzo TA, et al.: Predictors and short-term outcomes of hyperleukocytosis in children with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Haematologica 97 (11): 1770-3, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  87. Callens C, Chevret S, Cayuela JM, et al.: Prognostic implication of FLT3 and Ras gene mutations in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): a retrospective study from the European APL Group. Leukemia 19 (7): 1153-60, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  88. Schnittger S, Bacher U, Haferlach C, et al.: Clinical impact of FLT3 mutation load in acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(15;17)/PML-RARA. Haematologica 96 (12): 1799-807, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  89. Pui CH, Relling MV, Rivera GK, et al.: Epipodophyllotoxin-related acute myeloid leukemia: a study of 35 cases. Leukemia 9 (12): 1990-6, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  90. Balgobind BV, Raimondi SC, Harbott J, et al.: Novel prognostic subgroups in childhood 11q23/MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia: results of an international retrospective study. Blood 114 (12): 2489-96, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  91. Swansbury GJ, Slater R, Bain BJ, et al.: Hematological malignancies with t(9;11)(p21-22;q23)--a laboratory and clinical study of 125 cases. European 11q23 Workshop participants. Leukemia 12 (5): 792-800, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  92. Rubnitz JE, Raimondi SC, Tong X, et al.: Favorable impact of the t(9;11) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2302-9, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  93. Mrózek K, Heinonen K, Lawrence D, et al.: Adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia and t(9; 11)(p22; q23) have a superior outcome to patients with other translocations involving band 11q23: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. Blood 90 (11): 4532-8, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  94. Martinez-Climent JA, Espinosa R 3rd, Thirman MJ, et al.: Abnormalities of chromosome band 11q23 and the MLL gene in pediatric myelomonocytic and monoblastic leukemias. Identification of the t(9;11) as an indicator of long survival. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 17 (4): 277-83, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  95. Casillas JN, Woods WG, Hunger SP, et al.: Prognostic implications of t(10;11) translocations in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25 (8): 594-600, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  96. Morerio C, Rosanda C, Rapella A, et al.: Is t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) involving MLL and ABI-1 genes associated with congenital acute monocytic leukemia? Cancer Genet Cytogenet 139 (1): 57-9, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  97. Taki T, Shibuya N, Taniwaki M, et al.: ABI-1, a human homolog to mouse Abl-interactor 1, fuses the MLL gene in acute myeloid leukemia with t(10;11)(p11.2;q23). Blood 92 (4): 1125-30, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  98. Coenen EA, Raimondi SC, Harbott J, et al.: Prognostic significance of additional cytogenetic aberrations in 733 de novo pediatric 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML patients: results of an international study. Blood 117 (26): 7102-11, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  99. Ageberg M, Drott K, Olofsson T, et al.: Identification of a novel and myeloid specific role of the leukemia-associated fusion protein DEK-NUP214 leading to increased protein synthesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 47 (4): 276-87, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  100. Shiba N, Ichikawa H, Taki T, et al.: NUP98-NSD1 gene fusion and its related gene expression signature are strongly associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 52 (7): 683-93, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  101. Slovak ML, Gundacker H, Bloomfield CD, et al.: A retrospective study of 69 patients with t(6;9)(p23;q34) AML emphasizes the need for a prospective, multicenter initiative for rare 'poor prognosis' myeloid malignancies. Leukemia 20 (7): 1295-7, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  102. Alsabeh R, Brynes RK, Slovak ML, et al.: Acute myeloid leukemia with t(6;9) (p23;q34): association with myelodysplasia, basophilia, and initial CD34 negative immunophenotype. Am J Clin Pathol 107 (4): 430-7, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  103. Sandahl JD, Coenen EA, Forestier E, et al.: t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged pediatric myeloid leukemia: an international study of 62 patients. Haematologica 99 (5): 865-72, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  104. Carroll A, Civin C, Schneider N, et al.: The t(1;22) (p13;q13) is nonrandom and restricted to infants with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Blood 78 (3): 748-52, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
  105. Lion T, Haas OA: Acute megakaryocytic leukemia with the t(1;22)(p13;q13). Leuk Lymphoma 11 (1-2): 15-20, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  106. Duchayne E, Fenneteau O, Pages MP, et al.: Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia: a national clinical and biological study of 53 adult and childhood cases by the Groupe Français d'Hématologie Cellulaire (GFHC). Leuk Lymphoma 44 (1): 49-58, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  107. de Rooij JD, Hollink IH, Arentsen-Peters ST, et al.: NUP98/JARID1A is a novel recurrent abnormality in pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with a distinct HOX gene expression pattern. Leukemia 27 (12): 2280-8, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  108. Bernstein J, Dastugue N, Haas OA, et al.: Nineteen cases of the t(1;22)(p13;q13) acute megakaryblastic leukaemia of infants/children and a review of 39 cases: report from a t(1;22) study group. Leukemia 14 (1): 216-8, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  109. Ma Z, Morris SW, Valentine V, et al.: Fusion of two novel genes, RBM15 and MKL1, in the t(1;22)(p13;q13) of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet 28 (3): 220-1, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  110. Mercher T, Coniat MB, Monni R, et al.: Involvement of a human gene related to the Drosophila spen gene in the recurrent t(1;22) translocation of acute megakaryocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (10): 5776-9, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  111. O'Brien MM, Cao X, Pounds S, et al.: Prognostic features in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in children without Down syndrome: a report from the AML02 multicenter trial and the Children's Oncology Group Study POG 9421. Leukemia 27 (3): 731-4, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  112. Coenen EA, Zwaan CM, Reinhardt D, et al.: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: a collaborative study by the International-Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster AML-study group. Blood 122 (15): 2704-13, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  113. Wong KF, Yuen HL, Siu LL, et al.: t(8;16)(p11;p13) predisposes to a transient but potentially recurring neonatal leukemia. Hum Pathol 39 (11): 1702-7, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  114. Wu X, Sulavik D, Roulston D, et al.: Spontaneous remission of congenital acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;13). Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (2): 331-2, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  115. Terui K, Sato T, Sasaki S, et al.: Two novel variants of MOZ-CBP fusion transcripts in spontaneously remitted infant leukemia with t(1;16;8)(p13;p13;p11), a new variant of t(8;16)(p11;p13). Haematologica 93 (10): 1591-3, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  116. Sainati L, Bolcato S, Cocito MG, et al.: Transient acute monoblastic leukemia with reciprocal (8;16)(p11;p13) translocation. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 13 (2): 151-7, 1996 Mar-Apr. [PUBMED Abstract]
  117. Weintraub M, Kaplinsky C, Amariglio N, et al.: Spontaneous regression of congenital leukaemia with an 8;16 translocation. Br J Haematol 111 (2): 641-3, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  118. Classen CF, Behnisch W, Reinhardt D, et al.: Spontaneous complete and sustained remission of a rearrangement CBP (16p13)-positive disseminated congenital myelosarcoma. Ann Hematol 84 (4): 274-5, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  119. Beverloo HB, Panagopoulos I, Isaksson M, et al.: Fusion of the homeobox gene HLXB9 and the ETV6 gene in infant acute myeloid leukemias with the t(7;12)(q36;p13). Cancer Res 61 (14): 5374-7, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  120. Slater RM, von Drunen E, Kroes WG, et al.: t(7;12)(q36;p13) and t(7;12)(q32;p13)--translocations involving ETV6 in children 18 months of age or younger with myeloid disorders. Leukemia 15 (6): 915-20, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  121. von Bergh AR, van Drunen E, van Wering ER, et al.: High incidence of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in infant AML but not in infant ALL, with a dismal outcome and ectopic expression of HLXB9. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 45 (8): 731-9, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  122. Tosi S, Harbott J, Teigler-Schlegel A, et al.: t(7;12)(q36;p13), a new recurrent translocation involving ETV6 in infant leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 29 (4): 325-32, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  123. Park J, Kim M, Lim J, et al.: Three-way complex translocations in infant acute myeloid leukemia with t(7;12)(q36;p13): the incidence and correlation of a HLXB9 overexpression. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 191 (2): 102-5, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  124. Takeda A, Yaseen NR: Nucleoporins and nucleocytoplasmic transport in hematologic malignancies. Semin Cancer Biol 27: 3-10, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  125. Brown J, Jawad M, Twigg SR, et al.: A cryptic t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) in 2 children with acute myeloid leukemia with apparently normal karyotypes, identified by a multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization telomere assay. Blood 99 (7): 2526-31, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  126. Panarello C, Rosanda C, Morerio C: Cryptic translocation t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) with involvement of the NSD1 and NUP98 genes without 5q deletion in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 35 (3): 277-81, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  127. Cerveira N, Correia C, Dória S, et al.: Frequency of NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcript in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. Leukemia 17 (11): 2244-7, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  128. Jaju RJ, Fidler C, Haas OA, et al.: A novel gene, NSD1, is fused to NUP98 in the t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) in de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 98 (4): 1264-7, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  129. Masetti R, Pigazzi M, Togni M, et al.: CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion transcript is a novel common feature in pediatric, cytogenetically normal AML, not restricted to FAB M7 subtype. Blood 121 (17): 3469-72, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  130. Gruber TA, Larson Gedman A, Zhang J, et al.: An Inv(16)(p13.3q24.3)-encoded CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion protein defines an aggressive subtype of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Cancer Cell 22 (5): 683-97, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  131. Masetti R, Rondelli R, Fagioli F, et al.: Infants with acute myeloid leukemia treated according to the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica 2002/01 protocol have an outcome comparable to that of older children. Haematologica 99 (8): e127-9, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  132. Thiollier C, Lopez CK, Gerby B, et al.: Characterization of novel genomic alterations and therapeutic approaches using acute megakaryoblastic leukemia xenograft models. J Exp Med 209 (11): 2017-31, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  133. Radich JP, Kopecky KJ, Willman CL, et al.: N-ras mutations in adult de novo acute myelogenous leukemia: prevalence and clinical significance. Blood 76 (4): 801-7, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
  134. Farr C, Gill R, Katz F, et al.: Analysis of ras gene mutations in childhood myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol 77 (3): 323-7, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
  135. Berman JN, Gerbing RB, Alonzo TA, et al.: Prevalence and clinical implications of NRAS mutations in childhood AML: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Leukemia 25 (6): 1039-42, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  136. Shimada A, Taki T, Tabuchi K, et al.: KIT mutations, and not FLT3 internal tandem duplication, are strongly associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21): a study of the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Blood 107 (5): 1806-9, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  137. Schnittger S, Kohl TM, Haferlach T, et al.: KIT-D816 mutations in AML1-ETO-positive AML are associated with impaired event-free and overall survival. Blood 107 (5): 1791-9, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  138. Cairoli R, Beghini A, Grillo G, et al.: Prognostic impact of c-KIT mutations in core binding factor leukemias: an Italian retrospective study. Blood 107 (9): 3463-8, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  139. Paschka P, Marcucci G, Ruppert AS, et al.: Adverse prognostic significance of KIT mutations in adult acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16) and t(8;21): a Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. J Clin Oncol 24 (24): 3904-11, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  140. Shih LY, Liang DC, Huang CF, et al.: Cooperating mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases and Ras genes in childhood core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples. Leukemia 22 (2): 303-7, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  141. Goemans BF, Zwaan CM, Miller M, et al.: Mutations in KIT and RAS are frequent events in pediatric core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 19 (9): 1536-42, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  142. Boissel N, Leroy H, Brethon B, et al.: Incidence and prognostic impact of c-Kit, FLT3, and Ras gene mutations in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML). Leukemia 20 (6): 965-70, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  143. Pollard JA, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, et al.: Prevalence and prognostic significance of KIT mutations in pediatric patients with core binding factor AML enrolled on serial pediatric cooperative trials for de novo AML. Blood 115 (12): 2372-9, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  144. Groet J, McElwaine S, Spinelli M, et al.: Acquired mutations in GATA1 in neonates with Down's syndrome with transient myeloid disorder. Lancet 361 (9369): 1617-20, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  145. Hitzler JK, Cheung J, Li Y, et al.: GATA1 mutations in transient leukemia and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia of Down syndrome. Blood 101 (11): 4301-4, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  146. Rainis L, Bercovich D, Strehl S, et al.: Mutations in exon 2 of GATA1 are early events in megakaryocytic malignancies associated with trisomy 21. Blood 102 (3): 981-6, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  147. Wechsler J, Greene M, McDevitt MA, et al.: Acquired mutations in GATA1 in the megakaryoblastic leukemia of Down syndrome. Nat Genet 32 (1): 148-52, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  148. Gurbuxani S, Vyas P, Crispino JD: Recent insights into the mechanisms of myeloid leukemogenesis in Down syndrome. Blood 103 (2): 399-406, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  149. Ge Y, Stout ML, Tatman DA, et al.: GATA1, cytidine deaminase, and the high cure rate of Down syndrome children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (3): 226-31, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  150. Paschka P, Marcucci G, Ruppert AS, et al.: Wilms' tumor 1 gene mutations independently predict poor outcome in adults with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a cancer and leukemia group B study. J Clin Oncol 26 (28): 4595-602, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  151. Virappane P, Gale R, Hills R, et al.: Mutation of the Wilms' tumor 1 gene is a poor prognostic factor associated with chemotherapy resistance in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia: the United Kingdom Medical Research Council Adult Leukaemia Working Party. J Clin Oncol 26 (33): 5429-35, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  152. Gaidzik VI, Schlenk RF, Moschny S, et al.: Prognostic impact of WT1 mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a study of the German-Austrian AML Study Group. Blood 113 (19): 4505-11, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  153. Renneville A, Boissel N, Zurawski V, et al.: Wilms tumor 1 gene mutations are associated with a higher risk of recurrence in young adults with acute myeloid leukemia: a study from the Acute Leukemia French Association. Cancer 115 (16): 3719-27, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  154. Ho PA, Zeng R, Alonzo TA, et al.: Prevalence and prognostic implications of WT1 mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 116 (5): 702-10, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  155. Hollink IH, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Zimmermann M, et al.: Clinical relevance of Wilms tumor 1 gene mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 113 (23): 5951-60, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  156. Ley TJ, Ding L, Walter MJ, et al.: DNMT3A mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med 363 (25): 2424-33, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  157. Yan XJ, Xu J, Gu ZH, et al.: Exome sequencing identifies somatic mutations of DNA methyltransferase gene DNMT3A in acute monocytic leukemia. Nat Genet 43 (4): 309-15, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  158. Thol F, Damm F, Lüdeking A, et al.: Incidence and prognostic influence of DNMT3A mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 29 (21): 2889-96, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  159. Ho PA, Kutny MA, Alonzo TA, et al.: Leukemic mutations in the methylation-associated genes DNMT3A and IDH2 are rare events in pediatric AML: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (2): 204-9, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  160. Green CL, Evans CM, Hills RK, et al.: The prognostic significance of IDH1 mutations in younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia is dependent on FLT3/ITD status. Blood 116 (15): 2779-82, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  161. Paschka P, Schlenk RF, Gaidzik VI, et al.: IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia and confer adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation without FLT3 internal tandem duplication. J Clin Oncol 28 (22): 3636-43, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  162. Abbas S, Lugthart S, Kavelaars FG, et al.: Acquired mutations in the genes encoding IDH1 and IDH2 both are recurrent aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia: prevalence and prognostic value. Blood 116 (12): 2122-6, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  163. Marcucci G, Maharry K, Wu YZ, et al.: IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations identify novel molecular subsets within de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. J Clin Oncol 28 (14): 2348-55, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  164. Wagner K, Damm F, Göhring G, et al.: Impact of IDH1 R132 mutations and an IDH1 single nucleotide polymorphism in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: SNP rs11554137 is an adverse prognostic factor. J Clin Oncol 28 (14): 2356-64, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  165. Figueroa ME, Abdel-Wahab O, Lu C, et al.: Leukemic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations result in a hypermethylation phenotype, disrupt TET2 function, and impair hematopoietic differentiation. Cancer Cell 18 (6): 553-67, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  166. Ward PS, Patel J, Wise DR, et al.: The common feature of leukemia-associated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations is a neomorphic enzyme activity converting alpha-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate. Cancer Cell 17 (3): 225-34, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  167. Dang L, White DW, Gross S, et al.: Cancer-associated IDH1 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate. Nature 462 (7274): 739-44, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  168. Damm F, Thol F, Hollink I, et al.: Prevalence and prognostic value of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in childhood AML: a study of the AML-BFM and DCOG study groups. Leukemia 25 (11): 1704-10, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  169. Oki K, Takita J, Hiwatari M, et al.: IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are rare in pediatric myeloid malignancies. Leukemia 25 (2): 382-4, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  170. Pigazzi M, Ferrari G, Masetti R, et al.: Low prevalence of IDH1 gene mutation in childhood AML in Italy. Leukemia 25 (1): 173-4, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  171. Ho PA, Alonzo TA, Kopecky KJ, et al.: Molecular alterations of the IDH1 gene in AML: a Children's Oncology Group and Southwest Oncology Group study. Leukemia 24 (5): 909-13, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  172. Andersson AK, Miller DW, Lynch JA, et al.: IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in pediatric acute leukemia. Leukemia 25 (10): 1570-7, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  173. Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al.: Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 51 (2): 189-99, 1982. [PUBMED Abstract]
  174. Mandel K, Dror Y, Poon A, et al.: A practical, comprehensive classification for pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes: the CCC system. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 24 (7): 596-605, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  175. Bennett JM: World Health Organization classification of the acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome. Int J Hematol 72 (2): 131-3, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  176. Head DR: Proposed changes in the definitions of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: are they helpful? Curr Opin Oncol 14 (1): 19-23, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  177. Nösslinger T, Reisner R, Koller E, et al.: Myelodysplastic syndromes, from French-American-British to World Health Organization: comparison of classifications on 431 unselected patients from a single institution. Blood 98 (10): 2935-41, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  178. Brunning RD, Porwit A, Orazi A, et al.: Myelodysplastic syndromes/neoplasms overview. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al., eds.: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th ed. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008, pp 88-93.
  179. Vardiman JW, Bennett JM, Bain BJ, et al.: Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al., eds.: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th ed. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008, pp 85-6.
  180. Occhipinti E, Correa H, Yu L, et al.: Comparison of two new classifications for pediatric myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44 (3): 240-4, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  181. Aricò M, Biondi A, Pui CH: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood 90 (2): 479-88, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  182. Passmore SJ, Hann IM, Stiller CA, et al.: Pediatric myelodysplasia: a study of 68 children and a new prognostic scoring system. Blood 85 (7): 1742-50, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  183. Luna-Fineman S, Shannon KM, Atwater SK, et al.: Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders of childhood: a study of 167 patients. Blood 93 (2): 459-66, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  184. Hasle H, Baumann I, Bergsträsser E, et al.: The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) for childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Leukemia 18 (12): 2008-14, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  185. Kardos G, Baumann I, Passmore SJ, et al.: Refractory anemia in childhood: a retrospective analysis of 67 patients with particular reference to monosomy 7. Blood 102 (6): 1997-2003, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  186. Passmore SJ, Chessells JM, Kempski H, et al.: Paediatric myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia in the UK: a population-based study of incidence and survival. Br J Haematol 121 (5): 758-67, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  187. Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM, et al.: International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 89 (6): 2079-88, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  188. Niemeyer CM, Arico M, Basso G, et al.: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in childhood: a retrospective analysis of 110 cases. European Working Group on Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Childhood (EWOG-MDS) Blood 89 (10): 3534-43, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  189. Pinkel D: Differentiating juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia from infectious disease. Blood 91 (1): 365-7, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  190. Chan RJ, Cooper T, Kratz CP, et al.: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: a report from the 2nd International JMML Symposium. Leuk Res 33 (3): 355-62, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  191. Loh ML: Recent advances in the pathogenesis and treatment of juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 152 (6): 677-87, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  192. Emanuel PD, Bates LJ, Castleberry RP, et al.: Selective hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia hematopoietic progenitors. Blood 77 (5): 925-9, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
  193. Tartaglia M, Niemeyer CM, Fragale A, et al.: Somatic mutations in PTPN11 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. Nat Genet 34 (2): 148-50, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  194. Loh ML, Vattikuti S, Schubbert S, et al.: Mutations in PTPN11 implicate the SHP-2 phosphatase in leukemogenesis. Blood 103 (6): 2325-31, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  195. Loh ML, Sakai DS, Flotho C, et al.: Mutations in CBL occur frequently in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood 114 (9): 1859-63, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  196. Muramatsu H, Makishima H, Jankowska AM, et al.: Mutations of an E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl but not TET2 mutations are pathogenic in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood 115 (10): 1969-75, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  197. Niemeyer CM, Kang MW, Shin DH, et al.: Germline CBL mutations cause developmental abnormalities and predispose to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Nat Genet 42 (9): 794-800, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  198. Pérez B, Mechinaud F, Galambrun C, et al.: Germline mutations of the CBL gene define a new genetic syndrome with predisposition to juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia. J Med Genet 47 (10): 686-91, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  199. Sieff CA, Chessells JM, Harvey BA, et al.: Monosomy 7 in childhood: a myeloproliferative disorder. Br J Haematol 49 (2): 235-49, 1981. [PUBMED Abstract]
  200. Hasle H, Aricò M, Basso G, et al.: Myelodysplastic syndrome, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia associated with complete or partial monosomy 7. European Working Group on MDS in Childhood (EWOG-MDS). Leukemia 13 (3): 376-85, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  201. Sakaguchi H, Okuno Y, Muramatsu H, et al.: Exome sequencing identifies secondary mutations of SETBP1 and JAK3 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Nat Genet 45 (8): 937-41, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  202. Ebb DH, Weinstein HJ: Diagnosis and treatment of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Clin North Am 44 (4): 847-62, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  203. Chan GC, Wang WC, Raimondi SC, et al.: Myelodysplastic syndrome in children: differentiation from acute myeloid leukemia with a low blast count. Leukemia 11 (2): 206-11, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  204. Konopleva M, Cheng SC, Cortes JE, et al.: Independent prognostic significance of day 21 cytogenetic findings in newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia or refractory anemia with excess blasts. Haematologica 88 (7): 733-6, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  • Updated: October 27, 2014