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Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)

  • Updated: 06/06/2014

Table 5. Standard Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors (GCTs)

Histology Standard Treatment Options 
Mature teratoma (nonsacrococcygeal)Surgery and observation
Immature teratoma (nonsacrococcygeal)Surgery and observation (stage I)
Surgery and chemotherapy (stages II–IV) (refer to the Childhood Malignant Ovarian GCTs section of this summary for specific information about the treatment of ovarian immature teratoma)
Mature and immature teratomas (sacrococcygeal)Surgery and observation
Malignant gonadal GCTs in children:
Childhood malignant testicular GCTs:
Malignant testicular GCTs in prepubertal malesSurgery and observation (stage I)
Surgery and chemotherapy (PEB) (stages II–IV)
Malignant testicular GCTs in postpubertal malesRefer to the PDQ summary on Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information.
Childhood malignant ovarian GCTs:
Dysgerminomas of the ovarySurgery and observation (stage I)
Surgery and chemotherapy (PEB) (stages II–IV)
Malignant nongerminomatous ovarian GCTs (yolk sac and mixed GCTs)Surgery and observation (stage I) (refer to the Childhood Malignant Ovarian GCTs section of this summary for specific information about the treatment of ovarian immature teratoma)
Surgery and chemotherapy (PEB) (stage I and stages II–IV)
Biopsy followed by chemotherapy (PEB) and surgery (initially unresectable tumors)
Malignant extragonadal extracranial GCTs in childrenSurgery and chemotherapy (PEB)
Biopsy followed by chemotherapy (PEB) and possibly surgery
Recurrent malignant GCTs in childrenRefer to the Treatment of Recurrent Malignant GCTs in Children section of this summary for more information.

JEB = carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin; PEB = cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin.