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Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)

  • Updated: 07/31/2014

Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a

aReprinted with permission from AJCC: Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 69-78.
TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.
T0No evidence of primary tumor.
TisCarcinoma in situ.
Maxillary Sinus
T1Tumor limited to maxillary sinus mucosa with no erosion or destruction of bone.
T2Tumor causing bone erosion or destruction including extension into the hard palate and/or middle nasal meatus, except extension to posterior wall of maxillary sinus and pterygoid plates.
T3Tumor invades any of the following: bone of the posterior wall of maxillary sinus, subcutaneous tissues, floor or medial wall of orbit, pterygoid fossa, or ethmoid sinuses.
T4aModerately advanced local disease.
Tumor invades anterior orbital contents, skin of cheek, pterygoid plates, infratemporal fossa, cribriform plate, or sphenoid or frontal sinuses.
T4bVery advanced local disease.
Tumor invades any of the following: orbital apex, dura, brain, middle cranial fossa, cranial nerves other than maxillary division of trigeminal nerve (V2), nasopharynx, or clivus.
Nasal Cavity and Ethmoid Sinus
T1Tumor restricted to any one subsite, with or without bony invasion.
T2Tumor invading two subsites in a single region or extending to involve an adjacent region within the nasoethmoidal complex, with or without bony invasion.
T3Tumor extends to invade the medial wall or floor of the orbit, maxillary sinus, palate, or cribriform plate.
T4aModerately advanced local disease.
Tumor invades any of the following: anterior orbital contents, skin of nose or cheek, minimal extension to anterior cranial fossa, pterygoid plates, or sphenoid or frontal sinuses.
T4bVery advanced local disease.
Tumor invades any of the following: orbital apex, dura, brain, middle cranial fossa, cranial nerves other than (V2), nasopharynx, or clivus.