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Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®)

  • Updated: 10/24/2014

Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a

aReprinted with permission from AJCC: Retinoblastoma. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 562–63.
TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.
T0No evidence of primary tumor.
T1Tumors no more than 2/3 the volume of the eye with no vitreous or subretinal seeding.
T1aNo tumor in the either eye is greater than 3 mm in largest dimension or located closer than 1.5 mm to the optic nerve or fovea.
T1bAt least one tumor is greater than 3 mm in largest dimension or located closer than 1.5 mm to the optic nerve or fovea. No retinal detachment or subretinal fluid beyond 5 mm from above the base of the tumor.
T1cAt least one tumor is greater than 3 mm in largest dimension or located closer than 1.5 mm to the optic nerve or fovea, with retinal detachment or subretinal fluid beyond 5 mm from the base of the tumor.
T2Tumors no more than 2/3 the volume of the eye with vitreous or subretinal seeding. Can have retinal detachment.
T2aFocal vitreous and/or subretinal seeding of fine aggregates of tumor cells is present, but no large clumps or "snowballs" of tumor cells.
T2bMassive vitreous and/or subretinal seeding is present, defined as diffuse clumps or "snowballs" of tumor cells.
T3Severe intraocular disease.
T3aTumor fills more than 2/3 of the eye.
T3bOne or more complications present, which may include tumor-associated neovascular or angle closure glaucoma, tumor extension into the anterior segment, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, or orbital cellulitis.
T4Extraocular disease detected by imaging studies.
T4aInvasion of optic nerve.
T4bInvasion of the orbit.
T4cIntracranial extension not past chiasm.
T4dIntracranial extension past chiasm.