Cancer-associated mutations, whether somatic or germline, whether point mutations or large deletions, alter key proteins and their functions in the human biosystem. A wide variety of mutations seems to be involved. Even mutations in noncoding regions, such as in promoters, enhancers, or negative regulatory regions, can result in under- or overexpression of proteins needed for normalcy. Other mutations may cause production of important checkpoint proteins to malfunction. Collectively, these mutations conspire to change a genome from normal to cancerous.