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NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms


9 results found for: D



  • de novo mutation  (deh NOH-voh myoo-TAY-shun)
    An alteration in a gene that is present for the first time in one family member as a result of a mutation in a germ cell (egg or sperm) of one of the parents, or a mutation that arises in the fertilized egg itself during early embryogenesis. Also called new mutation.

  • deleterious mutation  (DEH-leh-TEER-ee-us myoo-TAY-shun)
    A mutation that is documented to be associated with risk of disease.

  • deletion  (deh-LEE-shun)
    Absence of a segment of DNA; may be as small as a single base or as large as a whole chromosome.

  • deoxyribonucleic acid  listen  (dee-OK-see-RY-boh-noo-KLAY-ik A-sid)
    The molecular basis of heredity; encodes the genetic information responsible for the development and function of an organism and allows for transmission of that genetic information from one generation to the next. The DNA molecule is structured as a double-stranded helix held together by weak hydrogen bonds between purine-pyrimidine nucleotide base pairs: adenine (A) paired with thymine (T), and guanine (G) paired with cytosine (C). Also called DNA.

  • dirty necrosis  (DIR-tee neh-KROH-sis)
    Presence of necrotic cellular debris within the lumen of the neoplastic glands in the colorectal mucosa.

  • disease-causing mutation  (dih-ZEEZ-KAW-sing myoo-TAY-shun)
    A gene alteration that causes or predisposes an individual to a specific disease.

  • DNA 
    The molecular basis of heredity; encodes the genetic information responsible for the development and function of an organism and allows for transmission of that genetic information from one generation to the next. The DNA molecule is structured as a double-stranded helix held together by weak hydrogen bonds between purine-pyrimidine nucleotide base pairs: adenine (A) paired with thymine (T), and guanine (G) paired with cytosine (C). Also called deoxyribonucleic acid.

  • domain  (doh-MAYN)
    A specific physical region or amino acid sequence in a protein which is associated with a particular function or corresponding segment of DNA.

  • D’Amico criteria  (DEE-uh-MEE-koh kry-TEER-ee-uh)
    A set of clinical criteria that is used to stratify prostate cancers into three risk categories to estimate cancer growth and spread. The criteria include Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen level, and clinical stage at diagnosis.