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Fred Hutchinson Cancer Institute develops nomogram to determine individualized estimates of screen-detected prostate cancer overdiagnosis
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/13/2014) - Fred Hutchinson Cancer Institute researchers have developed a nomogram that incorporates age, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis, so that an individual's risk that a screen-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed can be estimated.

Researchers develop tool to determine individual risk of prostate cancer overdiagnosis
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/10/2014) - Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington have developed a personalized tool that can predict the likelihood of prostate cancer overdiagnosis. They announced their findings this week in the online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The researchers created a nomogram, a graphical calculating device, that incorporates a patient’s age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score – which grades prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope – to determine the likelihood that screening-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed.

Antipsychotic drug exhibits cancer-fighting properties
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/10/2014) - In a prime example of finding new uses for older drugs, studies in zebrafish show that a 50-year-old antipsychotic medication called perphenazine can actively combat the cells of a difficult-to-treat form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The drug works by turning on a cancer-suppressing enzyme called PP2A and causing malignant tumor cells to self-destruct.The findings, by a team from the Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Brigham and Women's Hospital suggest that developing medications that activate PP2A, while avoiding perphenazine's psychotropic effects, could help clinicians make much-needed headway against T-cell ALL, and perhaps other tumors as well.

Study shows promise for preventing therapy resistance in tumor cells
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/10/2014) - A new study led by University of Kentucky researchers suggests that activating the tumor suppressor p53 in normal cells causes them to secrete Par-4, another potent tumor suppressor protein that induces cell death in cancer cells. This finding may help researchers decipher how to inhibit the growth of tumors that have become resistant to other treatments. The University of Kentucky is home to the UK Markey Cancer Center.

Researchers at Case Comprehensive Cancer Center discover ovarian cancer biomarker
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/09/2014) - Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have identified a microRNA biomarker that shows promise in predicting treatment response in the most common form of ovarian cancer. A team at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center found that the biomarker miR-181a is a molecular driver of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The research team also found that elevated levels of miR-181a in ovarian tumors are associated with chemotherapy resistance and disease progression.

Mutation takes ‘brakes’ off neck and head cancers
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/08/2014) - The increased activation of a key oncogene in head and neck cancers could be the result of mutation and dysfunction of regulatory proteins that are supposed to keep the gene, which has the potential to cause cancer, in check, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (home of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute). The findings, published in the early online version of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest a new target for drugs to treat head and neck tumors, as well as other cancers.

Nano-capsules show potential for more potent chemoprevention
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/08/2014) - Researchers at the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University have discovered a more effective drug delivery system using nanotechnology that could one day significantly affect cancer prevention. The study, published today in Cancer Prevention Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, involved the use of microscopic amounts of the naturally occurring antioxidant, luteolin, that were encapsulated in a water-soluble polymer. When injected into mice the nano-luteolin inhibited growth of lung cancer and head and neck cancer cells.

Recurrent ovarian cancers respond to cancer vaccine after “reprogramming” with decitabine
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/06/2014) - Treatment with the drug decitabine prior to administration of chemotherapy and a cancer vaccine yielded clinical benefit for women with recurrent ovarian cancer, suggesting that this combinatorial chemoimmunotherapy may provide a new treatment option for patients with this disease, according to a Roswell Park Cancer Institute study published in Cancer Immunology Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

New cell mechanism discovery key to stopping breast cancer metastasis
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 01/06/2014) - Researchers from Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah discovered a cellular mechanism that drives the spread of breast cancer to other parts of the body (metastasis), as well as a therapy which blocks that mechanism. The research results were published online in the journal Cell Reports on January 2.

Surgery beats chemotherapy for tongue cancer
NCI Cancer Center News
(Posted: 12/27/2013) - Patients with tongue cancer who started their treatment with a course of chemotherapy fared significantly worse than patients who received surgery first, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. This is contrary to protocols for larynx cancer, in which a single dose of chemotherapy helps determine which patients fare better with chemotherapy and radiation and which patients should elect for surgery. In larynx cancer, this approach, which was pioneered and extensively researched at U-M, has led to better patient survival and functional outcomes. But this new study, which appears in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, describes a clear failure.

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