A Snapshot of Melanoma
Incidence and Mortality
Melanoma of the skin, the most deadly form of skin cancer, is the fifth most common type of new cancer diagnosis in American men and the seventh most common type in American women. The incidence and mortality rates for invasive melanoma are highest in whites, who have a much higher risk of developing melanoma than African Americans. Among people younger than 45 years, incidence rates are higher in women than in men. By age 60 years, melanoma incidence rates in men are more than twice those of women; by age 80 years, men are nearly three times more likely to develop melanoma than women. The annual incidence rate of melanoma among whites increased by more than 60 percent from 1991 to 2011. The incidence of melanoma has been increasing more rapidly among whites aged 65 and older than among any other group.
Risk factors for melanoma include having fair skin that burns easily, high lifetime exposure to natural or artificial sunlight, a history of blistering sunburns (particularly at a young age), many common moles, a personal or family history of dysplastic nevi or melanoma, and being white. Avoiding sun exposure and using a broad-spectrum sunscreen lotion that filters both UVB and UVA radiation may reduce the risk of melanoma. Visual skin examinations are sometimes used to screen for melanoma. Standard treatments for melanoma include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and biological therapy.
Assuming that incidence and survival rates follow recent trends, it is estimated that $2.9 billion1 will be spent on melanoma care in the United States in 2014.
Examples of NCI Activities Relevant to Melanoma
- The Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network (CITN) conducts multicenter clinical trials of promising new agents that boost patients’ own immune systems to fight cancer. Several CITN clinical trials are focusing on advanced melanoma.
- The Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) Consortium and Melanoma Genetics (GenoMEL) Consortium explore how sun exposure and genetic factors contribute to the development and progression of melanoma.
- NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics is conducting population and multidisciplinary research to discover the genetic and environmental causes of cancer, including several studies on melanoma.
- The Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) is exploring the role of the microenvironment in tumor initiation and progression. One TMEN center is identifying alterations in the tumor microenvironment that confer resistance to therapy in some melanomas and studying the role of the immune system in the development of melanoma and its response to treatment.
- The Phase II Prospective Randomized Study of Cell Transfer Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma Using Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Plus IL-2 Comparing Two Different Chemotherapy Preparative Regimens trial is comparing two doses of a chemotherapy preparative regimen followed by adoptive cellular therapy and biological response modifier therapy in metastatic melanoma patients to see whether the lower chemotherapy dose is as effective and less toxic than the higher dose.
- Four skin-specific Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs) that focus on melanoma research are developing new therapies for melanoma that target metastasis and inflammation and are creating risk models for progression.
Selected Advances in Melanoma Research
- The loss of the kinase PDK1, a protein that is highly expressed in primary and metastatic melanoma, delayed the development and reduced invasion and metastasis in a mouse model of melanoma; identifying a potential pathway to target in future melanoma treatments. Published September 2013. [PubMed Abstract]
- A unique RNA counting technology identified seven potential protein targets for immunotherapy that are overexpressed, or highly active, in melanoma cells, but have limited expression in normal tissue. Published September 2013. [PubMed Abstract]
- Melanoma patients who had a large expansion of a specific subset of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in their peripheral blood after one cycle of standard immunotherapy had worse clinical outcomes than patients who had low levels of these cells, suggesting that monitoring this Treg population in patients may predict which patients might benefit from treatment. Published January 2014. [PubMed Abstract]
- The final results of a randomized phase III trial showed that, among patients with an intermediate-thickness primary melanoma, those who had minimally invasive sentinel lymph node biopsy, followed by immediate regional lymphadenectomy if the biopsy detected metastases, lived longer than patients who had regional lymphadenectomy only after clinically detected metastasis. Published February 2014. [PubMed Abstract]
Trends in NCI Funding for Melanoma Research
NCI’s investment2 in melanoma research was $122.5 million in fiscal year (FY) 2013. In addition to the funding described in the graph, NCI supported $25.2 million in melanoma research in FYs 2009 and 2010 using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
Additional Resources for Melanoma
- What You Need To Know About™ Skin Cancer
Describes possible risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment for someone recently diagnosed with melanoma.
- Melanoma Home Page
NCI's gateway for information about melanoma.
- Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma
A fact sheet about moles and how some moles may be related to melanoma, which is the most serious type of skin cancer. The fact sheet includes photos of differences between moles and cancer and discusses risk factors for melanoma.
- Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool
An interactive tool to help estimate a person's risk of developing invasive melanoma.
- What Does Melanoma Look Like?
Several photographs of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.
- Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)
Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of melanoma.
- Clinical Trials for Melanoma
- 1 Cancer Prevalence and Cost of Care Projections, in 2010 dollars.
- 2 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For additional information on research planning and budgeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), see About NIH.