A Snapshot of Pancreatic Cancer
Incidence and Mortality
Pancreatic cancer, the 12th most common cancer in the United States, is relatively rare; however, it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States. In 2014, it is estimated that more than 46,000 people in the United States will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and nearly 40,000 will die of this disease. Because pancreatic cancer usually is diagnosed at an advanced stage, the survival rate is extremely low compared with that of many other cancer types. The overall pancreatic cancer incidence rate has not significantly changed since 2002, but the mortality rate has increased an average of 0.4% annually from 2002-2011.
African Americans have higher rates of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality than whites or other racial/ethnic groups. Pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality rates also are higher in men than in women.
Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Additional risk factors include personal history of diabetes or chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), obesity, certain hereditary conditions, and a family history of the disease or pancreatitis. Early-stage pancreatic cancer is often asymptomatic, and there is no routine screening test for pancreatic cancer. Standard treatments for pancreatic cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, chemoradiation, and targeted therapy.
Assuming that incidence and survival rates follow recent trends, it is estimated that $2.6 billion1 will be spent on pancreatic cancer care in the United States in 2014.
Examples of NCI Activities Relevant to Pancreatic Cancer
- The Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology Consortia are three research consortia that bring together scientists from diverse biomedical disciplines to improve our understanding of the causes and natural history of pancreatic cancer.
- NCI’s Pilot Studies in Pancreatic Cancer funds efforts to support small, innovative research projects that focus on the biology, etiology, detection, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
- The Pancreatic Cancer Interest Group promotes the exchange of information, enhances interactions, and fosters collaborations among scientists working on various aspects of pancreatic cancer.
- The Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers bring together researchers from multiple disciplines to address major questions and barriers in cancer research. One center is studying the process of mass transport across physical and biological barriers in several primary cancers, including pancreatic cancer, and their relationship to liver metastasis to better understand tumorigenesis and to improve drug delivery.
- The phase I Regional Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: RECLAP Trial is studying the safety and effectiveness of slowly infusing the standard chemotherapy drug for pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine, directly into the pancreas in patients with nonresectable pancreatic cancer that has not spread to other organs.
- Three pancreatic-cancer-specific Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs) are conducting research to facilitate early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Selected Advances in Pancreatic Cancer Research
- Overexpression of the transcription factor forkhead box L1 (FOXL1) in human pancreatic cancer cells in culture suppressed their growth and invasion and also inhibited tumor growth in a mouse model. Low expression of FOXL1 in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was associated with poor prognosis. These findings suggest that FOXL1 is a candidate tumor suppressor. Published June 2013. [PubMed Abstract]
- Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) drive the transformation of pancreatic acinar cells into the duct-like cells that contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that MMP inhibitors may be efficiently applied to block this early event. Published August 2013. [PubMed Abstract]
- In a clinical trial of intraoperative gemcitabine infusion during curative resection of patients with PDAC, researchers developed, validated, and applied methods to quantify drug delivery and response for individual tumors by using measurements of transport phenomena from CT scans, suggesting that an approach that uses biophysical markers obtained from CT scans may help direct cancer treatment and improve the survival of patients with PDAC. Published March 2014. [PubMed Abstract]
- A genome-wide association study identified several chromosomal regions associated with increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Published August 2014. [PubMed Abstract]
Trends in NCI Funding for Pancreatic Cancer Research
NCI’s investment2 in pancreatic cancer research was $101.9 million in fiscal year (FY) 2013. In addition to the funding described in the graph, NCI supported $14.3 million in pancreatic cancer research in FYs 2009 and 2010 using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
Additional Resources for Pancreatic Cancer
- What You Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Pancreas
Describes possible risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment for someone recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.
- NCI Pancreatic Cancer Home Page
NCI's gateway for information about pancreatic cancer.
- Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)
Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
- Clinical Trials for Pancreatic Cancer
- 1 Cancer Prevalence and Cost of Care Projections, in 2010 dollars.
- 2 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For additional information on research planning and budgeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), see About NIH.