NCI Drug Dictionary

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The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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antibiotic SQ109
An orally available, acid-stable diamine antibiotic, with potential antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). As an ethambutol analogue with asymmetric structure, SQ109 does not act on the same target as ethambutol. However, this agent interferes with cell wall synthesis, thereby causing weakening of the cell wall and ultimately cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate ABBV-085
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of ABBV-085 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action.
antibody-drug conjugate ABBV-176
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against the prolactin receptor (PRLR) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of ABBV-176 targets and binds to PRLR expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the PRLR-expressing tumor cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. PRLR, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate ADCT-402
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of an anti-CD19 humanized monoclonal antibody conjugated, via a cleavable linker comprised of valine-alanine and maleimide, to a cytotoxic, cross-linking agent pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, which targets DNA minor grooves, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody portion of anti-CD19-PBD conjugate ADCT-402 targets the cell surface antigen CD19 on various cancer cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the cytotoxic PBD moiety is released. The imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces interstrand cross-links in the minor groove of DNA and inhibits DNA replication, which inhibits the proliferation of CD19-overexpressing tumor cells. CD19, a transmembrane receptor and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is expressed on a number of B-cell-derived cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate anti-TIM-1-vcMMAE CDX-014
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting the extracellular domain of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-1 (TIM-1) (clone CR014) and linked, via a valine-citrulline (vc) peptide linker, to the potent cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of ADC Anti-TIM-1-vcMMAE CDX-014, the monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to TIM-1. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE is released into the cytosol of TIM-1-expressing tumor cells, binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. TIM-1 is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types while only minimally expressed in healthy tissue. The linkage system in CDX-014 is highly stable in plasma, resulting in cytotoxic specificity for TIM-1-positive cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate BAY79-4620
A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the MN protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of BAY79-4620, this MoAb may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and an antibody mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against MN-expressing tumor cells. MN, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in some human carcinomas and appears to be involved in cancer cell proliferation and transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate DFRF4539A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against a specific myeloma antigen and conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of DFRF4539A selectively binds to a specific protein expressed on the surface of myeloma cells. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate MEDI7247
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against an unnamed tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of MEDI7247 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate PF-06647020
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against an unnamed tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of PF-06647020 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate SC-002
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of an as of yet publicly unknown monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of SC-002 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate SC-003
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of SC-003 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate SC-004
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to a currently undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of SC-004 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an unknown mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-drug conjugate SC-006
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a proprietary monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of SC-006 targets and binds to the TAA expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the TAA-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antibody-like CD95 receptor/Fc-fusion protein CAN-008
A human, soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the CD95 receptor fused to the Fc-domain of the human IgG antibody, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, antibody-like CD95 receptor/Fc-fusion protein CAN-008 binds to the CD95 ligand (CD95L) and blocks the binding of CD95L to the CD95 receptor. In tumor cells, blockage of CD95L-mediated signaling pathways may prevent cell migration and invasive cell growth; in healthy cells, blockage of CD95L-mediated signaling pathways may prevent apoptosis and may protect cell damage. Activation of the CD95 receptor plays an important role in the initiation of apoptosis in healthy cells or the invasive growth of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-C4.4a antibody-drug conjugate BAY1129980
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of an antibody against a structural homolog of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and tumor-associated antigen, C4.4a, and conjugated with a cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, anti-C4.4a antibody-drug conjugate BAY1129980 targets and binds to C4.4a-expressing tumor cells. Upon binding and cell entry, the cytotoxic agent kills the tumor cell. C4.4a, a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein and a member of the Ly-6 family, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types whereas it is minimally expressed on healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody 5B1
A human monoclonal antibody against the carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Lewis A (carbohydrate antigen 19-9; CA19-9), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, monoclonal antibody 5B1 binds to CA19-9 and kills CA19-9-expressing tumor cells, possibly through the induction of both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). CA19-9 is overexpressed on a number of different tumor cell types, and plays a key role in tumor cell survival and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CA6-DM4 immunoconjugate SAR566658
An immunoconjugate consisting of a humanized monoclonal antibody against the tumor-associated sialoglycotope CA6 (huDS6) conjugated to the cytotoxic maytansinoid DM4, with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-CA6 monoclonal antibody moiety of SAR566658 targets and binds to the cell surface antigen CA6. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the immunoconjugate releases DM4, which binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of CA6-expressing tumor cells. The CA6 epitope is found on a variety of solid tumors, including breast, ovarian, cervical, lung and pancreatic tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anticachexia agent MT-102
A small molecule with potential anticachexia activity. The anticachexia agent MT-102 may increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown. This may result in improved body weight, muscle mass and may improve weakness and fatigue associated with cancer-related cachexia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody PRO 140
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 monoclonal antibody against CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5; CD195), with potential activity as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry blocker and potential protective activity against graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Upon administration, PRO 140 targets and binds to CCR5 expressed on T cells. This blocks HIV cell entry, which prevents HIV infection and/or reduces HIV viral load. In addition, blocking CCR5 by PRO 140 decreases CCR5-mediated signaling and the CCR5-induced migration of donor cells into tissues after an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Blocking CCR5 may therefore prevent or reduce GvHD. CCR5, a co-receptor needed for HIV cell entry, plays a key role in immunomodulation. Expressed on monocytes, activated T cells and dendritic cells (DCs), CCR5 can regulate chemotaxis. Lymphocyte trafficking via chemokine receptors, such as CCR5, and recruitment to target organs, plays a critical role in alloreactive responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD123 monoclonal antibody KHK2823
A fully humanized monoclonal antibody against CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD123 monoclonal antibody KHK2823 binds to and neutralizes CD123, which is upregulated on leukemic stem cells (LSC) found in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This agent may inhibit IL-3-dependent signaling and proliferation and may prevent the uncontrolled growth and differentiation of mutated LSC. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD123 x anti-CD3 bispecific antibody XmAb14045
An anti-CD123/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody, in which most of the naturally-occurring Fc domain is maintained, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD123/CD3 monoclonal antibody XmAb14045 possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD123, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Upon administration of XmAb14045, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T cells and CD123-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking CD123-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated cell lysis of CD123-expressing tumor cells. CD123, the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain, is overexpressed in a variety of hematological malignancies; its expression is low or absent in normal hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. The Fc domain on the antibody prolongs the half-life of the bispecific antibody and enhances T-cell-mediated tumor cell killing through its binding to the Fc receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD123/CD3 bispecific antibody JNJ-63709178
A humanized anti-CD123/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD123/CD3 bispecific antibody JNJ-63709178 possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD123, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Upon administration of JNJ-63709178, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T cells and CD123-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking CD123-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated cell lysis of CD123-expressing tumor cells. CD123, the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers; its expression is low or absent in normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD123/CD3 monoclonal antibody MGD006
An anti-CD123/anti-CD3 bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD123/CD3 monoclonal antibody MGD006 possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD123, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Upon administration of MGD006, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T-cells and CD123-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking CD123-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated cell lysis of CD123-expressing tumor cells. CD123, the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain, is overexpressed in a variety of hematological malignancies; its expression is low or absent in normal hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD123-pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer antibody drug conjugate SGN-CD123A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of an anti-CD123 humanized monoclonal antibody conjugated, via a stable maleimidocaproyl-valine-alanine dipeptide protease-cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic, DNA minor-groove crosslinking agent pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-CD123 ADC SGN-CD123A, the antibody moiety targets the cell surface antigen CD123. Upon antibody/antigen binding, internalization, and lysosome uptake, the cytotoxic PBD moiety is released. In turn, the imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces DNA strand breaks, inhibits DNA replication, leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest, induces cell death, and inhibits the proliferation of CD123-overexpressing tumor cells. CD123, the alpha subunit of the IL-3 receptor, regulates the proliferation, survival and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. CD123 is overexpressed on a variety of cancers, including myeloid leukemia, and increased expression of CD123 on leukemic stem cells is associated with poor prognosis. Cysteine engineering of the monoclonal antibody (EC-mAb) allows for a site-specific, stable conjugation and uniform loading of the PBD agent to the antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD133-CAR vector-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes
A preparation of allogeneic peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the chimeric CD (cluster of differentiation) 133 antigen receptor, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CD133-CAR vector-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes specifically recognize and kill CD133-expressing tumor cells. CD133, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD133-PE38-KDEL fusion protein
A fusion protein consisting of an anti-single-chain variable fragment (scFv) peptide sequence targeting the extracellular domain of human CD133 (prominin-1) (anti-CD133scFV) and a deimmunized truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (38-kDa derivative of PE; PE38) where the five C-terminal amino acid residues have been replaced with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, KDEL, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the anti-CD133-PE38-KDEL fusion protein, the anti-CD133 scFV moiety targets and binds to CD133, which is expressed on a variety of tumor cells. Upon internalization of the receptor-fusion protein complex, the KDEL sequence targets the fusion protein to the ER, where the PE38 exotoxin portion then inhibits protein synthesis, which results in a reduction of proliferation of CD133-expressing tumor cells. CD133, a glycoprotein expressed by a variety of cancers and especially by cancer stem cells (CSCs), plays a key role in tumor initiation, proliferation and progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD157 monoclonal antibody MEN1112
A humanized, Fc-engineered, de-fucosylated monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody directed against the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST1/CD157), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, anti-CD157 monoclonal antibody MEN1112 specifically binds to and induces an antibody-dependent cell cytotoxic (ADCC) response against CD157-expressing tumor cells. CD157, also known as ADP-ribosyl cyclase 2, is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored transmembrane protein belonging to the ADP-ribosyl-cyclase family and is overexpressed on certain cancer cell types. Fc-optimization of MEN1112, which involves the removal of fucose residues from its Fc domain, allows for enhanced Fc-gamma receptor binding on effector cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, and further enhances tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD166 probody-drug conjugate CX-2009
A probody drug conjugate (PDC) composed of a recombinant antibody targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD166, which is masked by a cleavable masking peptide, and conjugated to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid DM4, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of CX-2009 and migration to the tumor microenvironment (TME), the cleavable masking peptide, which prevent anti-CD166 antibody binding to the CD166 expressed on both normal cells and tumor cells, is proteolytically cleaved by tumor-associated proteases that are specifically present in the TME. This enables the anti-CD166 antibody moiety of CX-2009 to selectively bind to, be internalized by, and deliver DM4 into CD166-expressing tumor cells. Following internalization, DM4 is released, binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of CD166-expressing tumor cells. The masking peptide prevents binding of the anti-CD166 antibody to CD166 in normal tissues, thereby minimizing toxicities. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19 fully human monoclonal antibody MDX-1342
A fully human anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell-specific membrane protein CD-19 with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody MDX-1342 binds to CD19, depleting and eliminating CD19-expressing B-cells. CD19 is widely expressed during B-cell development, from pro-B-cell to early plasma cell stages. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody DI-B4
A low-fucosylated, humanized, IgG1 isotype, monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell-specific membrane protein CD19 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody DI-B4 binds to CD19, which may result in a strong antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed at CD19-expressing B-cells but with minimal complement dependent cytotoxicity. DI-B4 contains low levels of fucose, which contributes to its enhanced ADCC activity. CD19 is a B-cell specific membrane antigen that is widely expressed during B-cell development and in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody MEDI-551
A humanized immunoglobulin IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell-specific membrane protein CD-19 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody MEDI-551 binds to CD19, which may result in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to CD19-expressing B-cells. The Fc portion of MEDI-551 does not contain a fucose sugar moiety, which may contribute to its enhanced ADCC activity. CD19 is a membrane antigen that is widely expressed during B-cell development, from pro-B-cell to early plasma cell stages. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody XmAb5574
An Fc engineered, humanized anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell-specific membrane protein CD19 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody XmAb5574 targets and binds to CD19, thereby depleting and eliminating CD19-expressing B-cells. The modified Fc region of XmAb5574 increases binding affinity to Fc-gamma receptors of effector cells and thereby enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP). CD19 is widely expressed during B-cell development, from pro-B-cell to early plasma cell stages. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19/CD22 bispecific ligand-directed toxin DT2219ARL
An immunotoxin consisting of two scFv ligands recognizing human CD19 and CD22 linked to the first 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT), DT 390, with potential antineoplastic activity. The VH and VL regions of anti-CD22 (sFv) and anti-CD19 are reversed and linked by an aggregration stabilizing linker (ARL) consisting of a 20 amino acid segment of human muscle aldolase (hma) and an Xho1 -compatible restriction site; the CDR3 region of the VH of anti-CD22 sFv is mutated to enhance its affinity. The anti-CD19 and anti CD-22 portions of the immunotoxin specifically bind to CD19 and CD22 receptors on tumor B cells. Upon internalization, DT catalyzes ADP ribosylation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) which may result in the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death in CD19- and CD22-expressing tumor cells. CD19 and CD22 transmembrane proteins upregulated on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19/CD3 tetravalent antibody AFM11
An anti-CD19/anti-CD3 bispecific tetravalent antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD19/CD3 tetravalent antibody AFM11 possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD19, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of B-cells. Upon bolus infusion of AFM11, this bispecific antibody binds to CD3-expressing T-cells and CD19-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking CD19-expressing tumor B-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in a potent CTL-mediated cell lysis of CD19-expressing B-lymphocytes. CD19, a B-cell specific membrane antigen, is expressed during both B-cell development and B-cell malignant growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19-CAR FMC63-28Z retroviral vector-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes
Allogeneic T-lymphocytes derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of both the light and heavy chain variable regions of anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody FMC63, coupled to the molecule CD28 and the signaling domain of the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR) (FMC63-28Z), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the anti-CD19-CAR FMC63-28Z retroviral vector-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes specifically recognize and kill CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen, which is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies and normal B-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous T cells
A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment); an extracellular portion of human CD28 and the entire transmembrane and cytoplasmic portion of human CD28; and the cytoplasmic portion of the human TCR-[zeta] molecule with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CD19-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous T cells may stimulate host cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against CD19-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3 zeta is one of several membrane-bound polypeptides found in the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex and regulates the assembly of complete TCR complexes and their expression on the cell surface. CD28 is essential for CD4+ T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and T-helper type-2 (Th2) development. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19-CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing natural killer cells
Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells transduced with an mRNA expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. NK cells from haploidentical donors are expanded in culture and electroporated with the CAR mRNA. Upon transfusion of the transduced cultured cells, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic NK cells bind to and induce selective cytotoxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. Its inclusion may also increase antitumor activity, when compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19-CD28-zeta modified CAR CD3+ T lymphocytes JCAR015
Genetically modified CD3-positive-enriched autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a replication incompetent gamma retroviral vector expressing a chimeric T-cell antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv), fused to the extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains of the T-cell co-stimulatory receptor CD28 and the cytoplasmic signaling domain of the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta) (CAR19-28z), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD19-28z CAR-expressing CD3+ T lymphocytes are directed to CD19-expressing tumor cells, and, upon binding to the T cells, induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. The CD28 co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. The inclusion of the CD28 signaling domain may increase proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD19-DM4 immunoconjugate SAR3419
An immunoconjugate consisting of an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the maytansinoid DM4, a derivative of the cytotoxic agent maytansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD19-DM4 conjugate SAR3419 targets the cell surface antigen CD19, found on a number of B-cell-derived cancers. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the immunoconjugate releases DM4, which binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of CD19-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20 B9E9 scFv-streptavidin fusion protein
An Escherichia coli periplasm-expressed tetrameric fusion protein composed of four single-chain variable regions (scFv) of the murine immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody B9E9 fused to the streptavidin (SA) gene of Streptomyces avidinii (scFv-SA), with potential use in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT). Upon intravenous administration of the anti-CD20 B9E9 scFv-SA fusion protein, this agent targets and binds to CD20-expressing tumor cells. Subsequently, a biotinylated N-acetylgalactosamine-containing clearing agent is administered, which binds to the streptavidin moiety of the unbound fusion protein and promotes its hepatic excretion. In turn, radiolabeled DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid)-biotin is administered and, due to its small size, quickly distributes. The biotin moiety efficiently binds to the SA moiety of the bound fusion protein, which localizes the biotin-conjugated radionuclide to the tumor site. CD20, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on B-cell malignancies. PRIT increases both tumor uptake and renal elimination of the radionuclide conjugate as compared to conventional radioimmunotherapy (RIT), where the radioisotope is bound to the antibody before administration; this increases the dose of radionuclide delivered to the tumor while limiting radiation exposure for normal, healthy tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody SCT400
A chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against human CD20, with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody SCT400 binds to the B cell-specific cell surface antigen CD20, which triggers an immune response against CD20-positive B-cells, leading to apoptosis. CD20, a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein, is exclusively expressed on B-cells during most stages of B-cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody TL011
A monoclonal antibody directed against human CD20 with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody TL011 specifically binds to the B cell-specific cell surface antigen CD20 antigen (MS4A1; membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 1), thereby potentially triggering an immune response against CD20-positive B cells, leading to B cell apoptosis. CD20 is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody-interferon alpha fusion protein IGN002
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human B-cell-specific cell surface antigen CD20 and fused to the recombinant cytokine, interferon-alpha (IFN-a), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody-interferon alpha fusion protein IGN002, the antibody moiety specifically targets and binds to CD20. In turn, the IFN-a moiety binds to the IFN receptor, and activates IFN-mediated signal transduction, which induces the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate anticancer effects. This results in the induction of both G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD20-expressing tumor cells. In addition, IGN002 causes the induction of complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CD20-expressing B-cells, which leads to B-cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. CD20, a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B-cells during most stages of B-cell development, is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20/CD3 monoclonal antibody REGN1979
A bispecific, human monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD20/CD3 monoclonal antibody REGN1979 contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T cell surface antigen, and one for human CD20, a tumor-associated antigen that is exclusively expressed on B-cells during most stages of B-cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Upon administration, REGN1979 binds to both T-cells and CD20-expressing tumor B-cells, which cross-links the T-cells to tumor cells, and may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD20-expressing tumor B-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20/CD3 monoclonal antibody XmAb13676
A bispecific, Fc domain-containing, monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD20/CD3 monoclonal antibody XmAb13676 contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and one for human CD20, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B-cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Upon administration, XmAb13676 binds to both T cells and CD20-expressing B-lineage tumor cells. The resulting cross-linkage may trigger a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the CD20-expressing tumor B-cells. Inclusion of an Fc domain on the antibody prolongs the half-life of the bispecific antibody and enhances T-cell-mediated tumor cell killing because the agent is able to bind to Fc receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD20-CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous blood T-lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD20 scFv (single chain variable fragment); the cytoplasmic portion of the human TCR-[zeta] molecule; and the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, anti-CD20-CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T-lymphocyte cells direct T-cells to CD20-expressing tumor cells. This results in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against CD20-expressing tumor cells, causing tumor cell lysis. The CD20 antigen, a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein, is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3 zeta is one of several membrane-bound polypeptides found in the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex and regulates the assembly of complete TCR complexes and their expression on the cell surface. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD20; the inclusion of this signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone.
anti-CD20-engineered toxin body MT-3724
An engineered toxin body (ETB) composed of the single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) from an antibody targeting CD20 that is linked to a modified form of the ribosome-inactivating alpha subunit of Shiga-like toxin 1 (Shiga-like Toxin-1 A or SLT-1A), with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the ScFv moiety of anti-CD20-engineered toxin body MT-3724 targets and binds to the CD20 antigen expressed on tumor cells. Upon internalization, the SLT-1A moiety is released and acts as an N-glycosidase, which binds to and cleaves an adenine nucleobase in the 28S RNA component of the 60S subunit of ribosomes and prevents ribosome activity. This inhibits protein synthesis and eventually leads to apoptosis of CD20-expressing tumor cells. CD20, a B-cell specific transmembrane protein and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is expressed during most stages of B-cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD22 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of human T lymphocytes transduced with a recombinant viral vector encoding a chimeric T-cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) consisting of one or more binding domains targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD22 and fused to one or more co-stimulatory, TCR-signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-CD22 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes, express anti-CD22-CAR on their cell surfaces and bind to the CD22 antigen on tumor cell surfaces. Subsequently, CD22-expressing B cells are lysed. CD22, a B-lineage-restricted, transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein, is expressed on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody-MMAE conjugate DCDT2980S
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of MCDT2219A , a humanized IgG1 anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody covalently linked, via a protease-cleavable peptide linker, to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule disrupting agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of DCDT2980S binds to B-cell-specific CD22 receptors and is rapidly internalized, thereby delivering MMAE intracellularly. Upon proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. CD22, a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on mature B-cells and on most malignant B-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD22 scFv TCRz:41BB-CAR lentiviral vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous human T lymphocytes transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector encoding a chimeric T cell receptor consisting of an anti-CD22 single chain variable fragment (scFv) and the co-stimulatory domain 4-1BB (CD137) coupled to the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from a patient with CD22-positive cancer are transduced with this lentiviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for CD22. After isolation, transduction, expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-CD22 scFv TCRz:41BB-CAR lentiviral vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes express anti-CD22-CAR on their cell surfaces and bind to the CD22 antigen on tumor cell surfaces. Subsequently, CD22-expressing tumor cells are lysed. CD22, a B-lineage-restricted, transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein, is expressed on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD22-CAR m971-BBz lentiviral vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous human T-lymphocytes transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector encoding a chimeric T-cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) consisting of an anti-CD22 single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the monoclonal antibody (moAb) 971 (m971), and the co-stimulatory domain 4-1BB (CD137) coupled to the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from a patient with CD22-positive cancer are transduced with this lentiviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for CD22. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-CD22-CAR m971-BBz lentiviral vector-transduced autologous T-lymphocytes express anti-CD22-CAR on their cell surfaces and bind to the CD22 antigen on tumor cell surfaces. Subsequently, CD22-expressing tumor cells are lysed. CD22, a B-lineage-restricted, transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein, is expressed on malignant B-cells. m971 binds to a membrane proximal epitope on CD22 and has a higher binding affinity compared to any other anti-CD22 moAb. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD25-PBD antibody-drug conjugate ADCT-301
An immunoconjugate consisting of a human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R alpha or CD25) and conjugated, via a cleavable linker, to a synthetic, cross-linking agent pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer that targets DNA minor grooves, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody portion of the anti-CD25 antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) ADCT-301 specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD25. This causes the internalization of ADCT-301 and the subsequent release of the cytotoxic PBD moiety. The imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces interstrand cross-links in the minor groove of DNA and inhibits DNA replication, which inhibits the proliferation of CD25-overexpressing tumor cells. CD25, a transmembrane receptor and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is expressed on certain cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD27L antibody-drug conjugate AMG 172
An immunoconjugate consisting of a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against CD27L conjugated, via a non-cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid DM1, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of this immunoconjugate binds to CD27L on tumor cell surfaces. After internalization, the DM1 moiety binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics and inhibiting both cell division and proliferation of cancer cells that express CD27L. CD27L, a type II transmembrane protein and member of the tumor necrosis factor family, is a co-stimulatory molecule constitutively expressed on a subset of activated T-cells, B-cells, and dendritic cells, which is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD3 immunotoxin A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1)
A bivalent recombinant fusion protein immunotoxin derived from the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody UCHT1 with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD3 immunotoxin A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1) consists of 1-390 amino acid residues of chain A diphtheria toxin (DT) joined via a spacer to the Fv fragment of UCHT1, which is connected to a second UCHT1 Fv fragment via a disulfide bond (hence the "bisFv" designation); the addition of the second Fv fragment overcomes the steric hindrance of immunotoxin binding due to the large N-terminal DT domain. Once inside target T cells, the DT moiety catalyzes the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to diphthamide, a posttranslationally modified histidine residue found in elongation factor 2 (EF-2); inactivation of EF-2, disruption of polypeptide chain elongation, and cell death ensue. CD3 is a complex of five cell-surface polypeptides associated with the T cell receptor (TCR) complex. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD3 x anti-CD20 bispecific antibody-armed activated T cells
Autologous activated T cells that have been coated with bispecific antibodies (BiAb), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. In vitro, T cells are activated through exposure to the anti-CD3 murine monoclonal antibody OKT3 and low-dose interleukin 2 (Il-2) for 6-14 days and then armed with anti-CD3 x anti-CD20 bispecific antibody (CD20Bi). Upon administration, anti-CD3 x anti-CD20 bispecific antibody-armed activated T cells (AATC) attach to CD3-expressing T cells and CD20-expressing tumor cells, selectively cross-linking T cells and tumor cells. This may result in the recruitment and activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTLs), CTL-mediated specific tumor cell lysis, and the secretion of antitumor cytokines and chemokines. CD20, a cell surface phosphoprotein, is found on normal B cells and most B-cell tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD3/anti-BCMA bispecific monoclonal antibody JNJ-64007957
A bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody against human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; TNFRSF17), a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on plasma cells, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CD3/anti-BCMA bispecific monoclonal antibody JNJ-64007957 binds to both CD3 on T cells and BCMA expressed on malignant plasma cells. This results in the cross-linking of T cells and tumor cells, and induces a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against BCMA-expressing plasma cells. BCMA, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member that is specifically overexpressed on malignant plasma cells, plays a key role in promoting plasma cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD3/anti-CD20 trifunctional bispecific monoclonal antibody FBTA05
A trifunctional bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. FBTA05 contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T cell surface antigen; and one for human CD20, a tumor-associated antigen that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B-cell development and often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. In addition, the modified Fc portion of this antibody binds Fc receptors on antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). FBTA05 brings T cells, CD20-expressing tumor B-cells and APCs together into tricellular complexes, which may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD20-expressing tumor B-cells. Fc-mediated binding of APCs in the tricellular complex potentiates CD20 antigen presentation to T cells and the activation of anti-tumor cytotoxic T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD3/humanized 3F8 bispecific antibody-activated T lymphocytes
Autologous activated T cells that have been coated with bispecific antibodies (BiAb) comprised of anti-CD3 murine monoclonal antibody OKT3 heteroconjugated to anti-GD2 humanized monoclonal antibody 3F8 (hu3F8), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. In vitro, T cells are exposed to OKT3, which binds to the T cell receptor-CD3 complex on the T cell surface, crosslinks the CD3 receptors and leads to T cell activation. In turn, the hu3F8 monoclonal antibody is heteroconjugated to OKT3. Upon administration, anti-CD3 x anti-GD2 bispecific antibody-armed activated T cells attach to GD2-expressing tumor cells, thereby selectively cross-linking T cells and tumor cells. This results in selective cytotoxicity towards the GD2-expressing tumor cells. In addition, cytokine and chemokine secretion by the T cells further activates the immune system, which leads to the recruitment and activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and additional CTL-mediated tumor-specific cell lysis. GD2, a disialoganglioside and tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types. CD3 is part of the functional T cell receptor (TCR) complex, which is necessary for antigen recognition by T cells, and is required for signal transduction. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody MDX-1401
A fully human, second-generation, nonfucosylated monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface receptor CD30 with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody MDX-1401 specifically binds to the CD30 antigen, which may result in a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD30-expressing tumor cells. CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on activated lymphocytes transiently and is constitutively expressed in hematologic malignancies including Hodgkin's disease and some T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Compared to conventional antibodies, deletion of fucose molecules on the antibody backbone, as is done in MDX-1401, may result in an increased affinity for Fc receptors and an enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody XmAb2513
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface receptor CD30 with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody XmAb2513 specifically binds to the CD30 antigen, which may result in a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD30-expressing tumor cells. CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on activated lymphocytes transiently and is constitutively expressed in hematologic malignancies including Hodgkin's disease and some T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD30/CD16A monoclonal antibody AFM13
A tetravalent bispecific antibody directed against human CD30 and the human low affinity IgG Fc region receptor (FCGR3A; CD16A), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD30/CD16A monoclonal antibody AFM13 binds to the CD16A expressed on natural killer (NK) cells with two of its binding sites and to CD30 on CD30-expressing tumor cells with the other two binding sites, thereby selectively cross-linking tumor and NK cells. This may result in NK cell activation, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and eventually tumor cell lysis. CD30, a cell surface receptor and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is overexpressed in hematologic malignancies; CD16A is specifically expressed on the surface of NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD33 antigen/CD3 receptor bispecific monoclonal antibody AMV564
An anti-CD33/anti-CD3 bispecific tetravalent antibody, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CD33/CD3 tetravalent bispecific monoclonal antibody AMV564 possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD33, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of a variety of tumor cell types. Upon infusion of AMV564, this bispecific antibody binds to CD3-expressing T cells and CD33-expressing tumor cells, thereby crosslinking CD33-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in a potent CTL-mediated cell lysis of CD33-expressing cells. CD33, a glycoprotein expressed by a variety of cancers, including the majority of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), and normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, plays a key role in tumor initiation, proliferation and progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody BI 836858
An engineered, fully human, immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody BI 836858 induces an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CD33-expressing tumor cells, leading to cell death. CD33, a cell surface antigen expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, is overexpressed on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody-DM4 conjugate AVE9633
An immunoconjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody huMy9-6 conjugated to the cytotoxic maytansinoid DM4 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody portion of anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody-DM4 conjugate AVE9633 specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 expressed on myeloid leukemia cells; upon internalization, the DM4 moiety is released, binds tubulin, and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in the inhibition of cell division and cell growth in myeloid leukemia cells that express CD33. CD33 is expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells as well as on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD33/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 330
A proprietary recombinant bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD33 fused to one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T-lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-CD33/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 330, this bispecific antibody binds to both the CD3 antigen on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and the CD33 antigen found on CD33-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to CD33-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of CD33-expressing tumor cells. CD33, a myeloid differentiation antigen, is expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and overexpressed on neoplastic cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD352 antibody-drug conjugate SGN-CD352A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of an engineered cysteine humanized monoclonal antibody (EC-mAb) targeting CD352 (SLAM family member 6; SLAM6) that is conjugated to the cytotoxic, DNA minor-groove crosslinking agent pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-CD352 ADC SGN-CD352A, the antibody moiety targets the cell surface antigen CD352. Upon antibody/antigen binding, internalization, and lysosome uptake, the cytotoxic PBD moiety is released. In turn, the imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces DNA strand breaks, inhibits DNA replication, leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest, induces cell death, and inhibits the proliferation of CD352-overexpressing tumor cells. CD352, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on a variety of cancers. Cysteine engineering of the monoclonal antibody allows for a site-specific, stable conjugation and uniform loading of the PBD agent to the antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD37 antibody-drug conjugate IMGN529
An immunoconjugate that consists of a humanized IgG1 antibody K7153A against the cell-surface antigen CD37 that is covalently linked via the uncleavable, maleimide-derived thioether-based linker SMCC to the maytansinoid DM1, with potential pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic activities. The antibody moiety of IMGN529 binds to CD37 on tumor B cells and induces an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), thereby showing pro-apoptotic activity. In addition, after the internalization of this agent and lysosomal degradation, the DM1 moiety binds to tubulin and inhibits tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly, resulting in a disruption of microtubule activity and cell division, and eventually causing cell death in CD37-positive B cells. CD37, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Compared to reducible, cleavable linkers, the non-reducible SMCC linker shows increased stability in plasma.
anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody BI 836826
An Fc-engineered, chimeric immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD37, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody BI 836826 both activates the immune system to induce an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CD37-overexpressing tumor cells and induces apoptosis in these tumor cells. BI 836826 is Fc-engineered to improve ADCC activity and enhance affinity for the receptor Fc-gamma-RIIIa, which is expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells. CD37, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of cell surface antigens, is overexpressed on a variety of cancer cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody MOR03087
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD-38 with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody MOR03087 specifically binds to CD38 on CD38-positive tumor cells. This may trigger antitumoral antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and may eventually lead to cell lysis in CD38-expressing tumor cells. CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and hematologic malignancies, and its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD38-targeted IgG4-attenuated IFNa TAK-573
A proprietary preparation composed of an immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD-38 (CD38) that is fused to an attenuated form of human interferon alpha (IFN alpha; IFNa), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the IgG4 moiety of the anti-CD38-targeted IgG4-attenuated IFNa TAK-573 specifically targets and binds to CD38 on CD38-positive tumor cells. In turn, the IFNa moiety binds to cell-surface IFN receptors, and activates IFN-mediated signal transduction pathways, which results in the transcription and translation of genes whose products may cause antiproliferative effects in CD38-positive tumor cells. CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and hematologic malignancies, and its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis.
anti-CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody ABBV-927
An agonistic monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell surface antigen CD40, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ABBV-927 binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types. This induces CD40-dependent signaling pathways, triggers the proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and activates T cells. This results in an enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. CD40, a cell surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on various immune cells and plays a key role in the activation of the immune system.
anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody Chi Lob 7/4
An IgG1 chimeric monoclonal antibody agonist of the cell surface receptor CD40 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody Chi Lob 7/4 binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types, triggering the cellular proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), activating B cells and T cells, and enhancing the immune response; in addition, this agent binds to the CD40 antigen present on the surfaces of some solid tumor cells, resulting in complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) eventually resulting in decreased tumor growth. CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on various immune cells, many B-cell malignancies, and many solid tumors, mediating both indirect tumor cell death through the activation of the immune system and direct tumor cell apoptosis.
anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody SEA-CD40
A proprietary, non-fucosylated monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface receptor CD40 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody SEA-CD40 binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types, triggering both cellular proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which activates B-cells and T-cells, and enhances the immune response against tumor cells. In addition, this agent binds to the CD40 antigen present on the surfaces of tumor cells, which induces antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), and eventually inhibits the proliferation of CD40-expressing tumor cells. CD40, a stimulatory receptor and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on various immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells and various tumor cell types; it plays a key role in the activation of the immune system. The non-fucosylated antibody shows increased efficacy as compared to its fucosylated counterpart. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD40L Fc-fusion protein BMS-986004
A dimeric fusion protein composed of the C-terminus of the domain antibody (dAb) BMS2h-572-633 targeting the CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154) linked to a modified Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), with potential immunomodulatory activity. Upon intravenous administration, the peptide moiety of anti-CD40L antibody BMS-986004 specifically targets and binds to CD40L expressed on T lymphocytes. This prevents the binding of CD40L to its cognate receptor CD40 expressed on B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). This prevents T-cell mediated proliferation and differentiation of B cells, and prevents the production of antibodies. By inhibiting both the production of anti-glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antibodies by B cells and GPIIb/IIIa-dependent T-cell proliferation, BMS-986004 may prevent platelet destruction and may increase platelet counts in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The direct binding of BMS-986004 to CD40L on platelets further prevents CD40L/CD40-mediated destruction by macrophages and DCs in ITP. The modified Fc domain prevents the binding of BMS-986004 to the Fc receptor FcgammaRIIA on platelets, thereby preventing FcgammaRIIA-dependent platelet activation and anti-CD40L-induced thromboembolism. CD40L, a transmembrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, is primarily expressed on activated T cells, but is also expressed on eosinophils, basophils, natural killer (NK) cells, mast cells, platelets and activated endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody RO5429083
A recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the cancer stem cell (CSC) antigen CD44, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, RO5429083 binds to the constant region of the extracellular domain of CD44, thereby preventing the activation of various CD44-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may lead to a reduction in the proliferation of CD44-expressing tumor stem cells. CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein and hyaluronic acid receptor, is expressed in healthy tissue and overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types; it plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, migration and survival.
anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody
A monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor-like leukocyte cell surface glycoprotein CD45 with leukocyte-depleting activity. Upon administration, anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody binds to leukocyte surface-expressed CD45, which may result in the transient depletion of circulating leukocytes including circulating T cell depletion (TCD). CD45, a receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase that consists of several isoforms, is present on all differentiated hematopoietic cells except erythrocytes and plasma cells and is essential for T cell development and lymphocyte activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody AHN-12
A high affinity IgG1 monoclonal antibody with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody AHN-12 recognizes CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed on the surface of normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8
A murine IgG1 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) with immunotherapeutic activity. CD45 antigen, a receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase essential for T cell development and lymphocyte activation, is expressed on virtually all leukocytes. MoAb BC8 has specificity for hematopoietic tissues and may be used in targeted immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8-streptavidin conjugate
An immunoconjugate containing a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD45 antigen BC8, conjugated to streptavidin, a nonglycosylated homotetrameric protein that has four high affinity binding sites for biotin. Anti-CD45 BC8 antibody-streptavidin conjugate binds to CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is expressed on the surface of normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. Upon administration of a biotin-based radioconjugate, the biotin moiety of the radioconjugate binds to the streptavidin moiety of anti-CD45 BC8 antibody-streptavidin conjugate and, upon cellular internalization, specifically delivers cytotoxic radiation to CD45-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody CC-90002
A monoclonal antibody targeting the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody CC-90002 selectively binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and blocks the interaction of CD47 with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa), a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. This prevents CD47/SIRPa-mediated signaling and abrogates the CD47/SIRPa-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis. This induces pro-phagocytic signaling mediated by the binding of calreticulin (CRT), which is specifically expressed on the surface of tumor cells, to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP), expressed on macrophages. This results in macrophage activation and the specific phagocytosis of tumor cells. In addition, blocking CD47 signaling activates both an anti-tumor T-lymphocyte immune response and T cell-mediated killing of CD47-expressing tumor cells. CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRPa, leads to the inhibition of macrophage activation and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis, which allows cancer cells to proliferate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody Hu5F9-G4
A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody Hu5F9-G4 selectively binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and blocks the interaction of CD47 with its ligand signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa), a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. This prevents CD47/SIRPa-mediated signaling, allows the activation of macrophages, through the induction of pro-phagocytic signaling mediated by calreticulin, which is specifically expressed on the surface of tumor cells, and results in specific tumor cell phagocytosis. In addition, blocking CD47 signaling activates an anti-tumor T-lymphocyte immune response and T-cell mediated cell killing. CD47, a tumor associated antigen expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), is overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRP-alpha, leads to inhibition of macrophages and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis thereby allowing cancer cells to proliferate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugate MDX-1203
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing a fully human monoclonal antibody, directed against the extracellular domain of the human CD70 molecule, conjugated to a prodrug of a CC-1065 (rachelmycin) analogue via a stable peptide-based linker, with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-CD70 antibody moiety of the anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugate MDX-1203 selectively binds to the extracellular domain of CD70 on tumor cell surfaces. Upon internalization, the prodrug moiety is released and activated and binds to double-stranded B-DNA within the minor groove, thereby alkylating the –3 position of adenine, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress CD70. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27 and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is found on the surfaces of various types of cancer cells. The antitumor antibiotic CC-1065, a DNA minor-groove-binding alkylating agent, was originally isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces zelensis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugate SGN-CD70A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing an engineered cysteine monoclonal antibody (EC-mAb), directed against the extracellular domain of the human CD70 molecule, conjugated to the synthetic, cytotoxic, DNA minor-groove crosslinking agent, pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, via a stable, protease-cleavable, peptide-based linker, with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-CD70 antibody moiety of the anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugate SGN-CD70A selectively binds to the extracellular domain of CD70 on tumor cell surfaces. Upon internalization, the PBD dimer moiety is released and covalently binds, through its imine moieties, to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces DNA double strand breaks and inhibits DNA replication, which lead to the inhibition of cell growth of tumor cells that overexpress CD70. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27 and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is found on the surfaces of various types of cancer cells. The cysteine moiety of the EC-mAb allows for the stable conjugation of the PBD to the antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD70 monoclonal antibody ARGX-110
A defucosylated, humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of the human CD70 molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CD70 monoclonal antibody ARGX-110 selectively binds to, and neutralizes the activity of CD70, which may also induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response against CD70-expressing tumor cells. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27 and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is found on a number of solid and hematological tumors. Its overexpression may play an important role in evasion of immune surveillance.
anti-CD70 monoclonal antibody MDX-1411
A glycoengineered, fully humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of the human CD70 molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD70 fully human monoclonal antibody MDX-1411 selectivity binds to the extracellular domain of CD70, which may induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response against CD70-expressing tumor cells. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27 and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is found on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells among other cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody BMS-986179
A monoclonal antibody targeting the ectoenzyme 5'-ecto-nucleotidase (cluster of differentiation 73; CD73; 5'-NT; ecto-5'-nucleotidase; NT5E), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody BMS-986179 targets and binds to CD73, leading to clustering and internalization of CD73. This prevents CD73-mediated conversion of extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine and decreases the amount of free adenosine. This prevents adenosine-mediated suppression of lymphocyte activity and increases the activity of CD8-positive effector cells. This also activates macrophages, and reduces the activity of both myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T lymphocytes. By abrogating the inhibitory effect on the immune system and enhancing the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells, tumor cell growth is decreased. CD73, a plasma membrane protein belonging to the 5'-nucleotidase (NTase) family, is upregulated on a number of cancer cell types and catalyzes the conversion of extracellular nucleotides, such as AMP, to membrane-permeable nucleosides, such as adenosine; it plays a key role in adenosine-mediated immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody MEDI9447
A monoclonal antibody against the ectoenzyme CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), also known as 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT; ecto-5'-nucleotidase) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody MEDI9447 targets and binds to CD73, leading to clustering of and internalization of CD73. This prevents CD73-mediated conversion of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine and decreases the amount of free adenosine. This prevents adenosine-mediated lymphocyte suppression and increases the activity of CD8-positive effector cells. This also activates macrophages, and reduces both myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T-lymphocytes. By abrogating the inhibitory effect on the immune system and enhancing the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells, tumor cell growth decreases. In addition, clustering and internalization of CD73 decreases the migration of cancer cells and prevents metastasis. CD73, a plasma membrane protein upregulated on a number of cancer cell types, catalyzes the conversion of extracellular nucleotides, such as AMP, to membrane-permeable nucleosides, such as adenosine; it plays a key role in adenosine-mediated immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CD98 monoclonal antibody IGN523
A humanized, monoclonal antibody targeting the CD98 (gp125) antigen, with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, IGN523 binds to CD98 expressed on the tumor cell surface and elicits both natural killer (NK)-cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity towards CD98-expressing tumor cells. In addition, IGN523 inhibits essential amino acid uptake by rapidly proliferating tumor cells. CD98, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is involved in both integrin signaling and amino acid transport processes; it is overexpressed in certain cancer cells and plays a key role in the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CDH6 antibody-drug conjugate HKT288
An immunoconjugate consisting of a human monoclonal antibody directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) cadherin-6 (CDH6; CDH-6) conjugated to a maytansine-based cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of HKT288 targets and binds to CDH6 located on tumor cell surfaces. After internalization, the maytansine moiety binds to tubulin, which disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics and inhibits both division and proliferation of CDH6-expressing tumor cells. CDH6, a member of the cadherin family and overexpressed by a variety of cancers, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA BiTE monoclonal antibody AMG211
A recombinant, proprietary bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTE) antibody directed against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-CEA BiTE monoclonal antibody MEDI-565 possesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for CEA and one for the CD3 complex, a group of T cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T cell receptor (TCR). This bispecific monoclonal antibody brings CEA-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) together, which may result in the CTL- and HTL-mediated cell death of CEA-expressing cells. CEA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in many cancer types, including gastrointestinal, breast, non-small cell lung, and thyroid cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA IgCD28TCR-transduced autologous T cells
A population of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding the chimeric gene IgCD28TCR with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The chimeric IgCD28TCR gene consists of portions of CD28, the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCRzeta), and a single chain antibody domain (sFv) specific for the tumor-associated antigen CEA. Upon administration, these gene-modified TIL bind to tumor cells expressing CEA, which may result in activation and proliferation of TIL and an enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA may be overexpressed in various gastrointestinal and breast cancers. CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, is required for full T-cell activation, proliferation, and survival; expression of the CD28 fragment in this chimeric gene construct may impede activation-induced cell death (AICD) of TIL. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA TCR retroviral vector-transduced autologous lymphocytes
Autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), transduced with a retroviral vector encoding both the alpha and beta chains of a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. After transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, anti-CEA TCR retroviral vector-transduced autologous lymphocytes bind to tumor cells expressing CEA, which may result in cytokine expression, activation and proliferation of T-cells, and a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CEA is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, including those of the gastrointestinal tract, lung , and breast. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA/anti-DTPA-In (F6-734) bispecific antibody
A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb) consisting of the Fab fragment of an anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (F6) coupled to the Fab fragment of an anti-DTPA-In monoclonal antibody (734) with potential radioimmunotherapeutic activity. In a two-step "pretargeted" radioimmunotherapeutic approach, this BsMAb, localizing to CEA-expressing tumor cells via the F6 Fab fragment, is introduced into patient first, followed by injection of indium 131-radiolabeled DTPA, which is recognized by the 734 Fab fragment of the BsMAb. Accordingly, a potentially lethal dose of indium 131 is delivered specifically to CEA-expressing tumor cells while minimizing radiotoxicity to normal tissues. CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a tumor antigen overexpressed in many cancer types, including gastrointestinal, breast, non-small cell lung, and thyroid cancers. DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a bivalent hapten. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA/anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody TF2
A tri-Fab bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiMoAb) divalent for the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and monovalent for histamine-succinyl-glycine (HSG) peptide-hapten. Anti-CEA/anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody TF2 binds to the tumor associated antigen (TAA) CEA on CEA-expressing tumor cells. Subsequently, an HSG peptide-hapten carrying a radionuclide is administered, binding to the anti-HSG binding fragment on the BiMoAb. Depending on the characteristics of the radionuclide used, CEA-expressing tumor cells may then be radioimaged and/or treated radioimmunotherapeutically. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA/CD3 bispecific antibody RO6958688
An anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CEA/CD3 monoclonal antibody RO6958688 contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and one for human CEA, a tumor-associated antigen that is specifically expressed on certain tumor cells. Upon intravenous administration, RO6958688 binds to both T-cells and CEA-expressing tumor cells, which cross-links the T-cells with the tumor cells. This may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA is overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEACAM1 monoclonal antibody CM-24
A humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibody targeting the anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-CEACAM1 monoclonal antibody CM-24, this agent binds to CEACAM1 on cancer cells and certain immune cells. This blocks the binding of CEACAM1-expressing cancer cells to CEACAM1-expressing immune cells and abrogates CEACAM1-mediated immunosuppression. This enhances the activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells and increases CTL- and NK-mediated killing of CEACAM1-overexpressing cancer cells. CEACAM1, a member of the CEA family of proteins that plays a key role in cell migration, cell invasion, and cell adhesion, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Its overexpression is correlated with both immunosuppression and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEACAM5 antibody-drug conjugate SAR408701
An immunoconjugate consisting of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) conjugated to a cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-CEACAM5 antibody-drug conjugate SAR408701, the antibody moiety targets CEACAM5 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the immunoconjugate releases the cytotoxic agent, which results in tumor cell death. CEACAM5, a member of the CEA family of proteins that plays a key role in cell migration, cell invasion, and cell adhesion, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEACAM6 AFAIKL2 antibody fragment/Jack Bean urease immunoconjugate L-DOS47
A lyophilized formulation of DOS47, an immunoconjugate composed of AFAIKL2, a recombinant camelid single-domain antibody which recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6), and the enzyme urease derived from the plant Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the AFAIKL2 antibody fragment moiety of L-DOS47 specifically targets and binds to CEACAM6 expressed on certain tumor cells. In turn, the urease moiety of L-DOS47 catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia, which is further hydrolyzed to produce hydroxyl ions, and causes a locally increased concentration of the toxic waste product ammonia, which under normal conditions is converted into the nontoxic substance urea via the urea cycle. This increases the pH of the tumor microenvironment and alkalinizes the highly acidic environment that is needed for cancer cell survival and proliferation. In addition, the ammonia diffuses into cancer cells and exerts a cytotoxic effect. Altogether, this leads to cell death of CEACAM6-expressing cancer cells. The naturally-occurring enzyme urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. CEACAM6, a tumor-associated antigen and CEA family member, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CEA-CAR autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-CEA-CAR autologous T-lymphocytes target and bind to tumor cells expressing CEA, which results in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cell killing of CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-fms monoclonal antibody AMG 820
A fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody against the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 or M-CSF) receptor c-fms (or CSFR1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-c-fms monoclonal antibody AMG 820 binds to and blocks c-fms, thereby blocking CSF-1 binding to its receptor and suppressing CSF-1-induced c-fms signaling. This results in the suppression of recruitment and activation of tumor associated macrophages (TAM) within the tumor microenvironment. This eventually leads to a decrease in tumor growth. c-fms, a transmembrane protein belonging to the tyrosine kinase family, is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and plays an essential role in macrophage differentiation and regulation of cell proliferation. The presence of TAM is correlated with tumor proliferation, invasion and a poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-KIT monoclonal antibody KTN0158
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody against the stem cell factor receptor c-Kit (SCFR; KIT; CD117), with potential antineoplastic and anti-allergic activities. Upon administration, the anti-c-KIT monoclonal antibody KTN0158 binds to and inhibits the activation of the cell surface antigen c-Kit. This leads to an inhibition of the activation of c-KIT-mediated signal transduction pathways and inhibits cell proliferation in cancer cells expressing c-Kit. In mast cells, inhibition of c-KIT and c-KIT-mediated signaling prevents mast cell activation, degranulation and subsequent cytokine release. c-Kit, a transmembrane protein and receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in various cell types, including certain cancer cells and mast cells; it plays a key role in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CLDN6 monoclonal antibody IMAB027
A monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface protein claudin 6 (CLDN6), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-CLDN6 monoclonal antibody IMAB027 binds to CLDN-6 and may stimulate the immune system to exert both an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and a complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC)-mediated immune response against CLDN-6-expressing tumor cells. This may inhibit tumor cell growth. CLDN-6, a tight-junction protein and embryonic antigen, is expressed on a variety of tumor cells but is not expressed on normal, healthy adult cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ABT-700
A monoclonal antibody directed against human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ABT-700 binds to c-Met, thereby preventing c-Met binding to its ligand, HGF and the subsequent activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. This may cause cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ARGX-111
A human monoclonal antibody targeting c-Met, with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ARGX-111 binds to c-Met, and blocks both ligand-dependent and -independent activation of c-Met-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, this agent enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This leads to a reduction in cell proliferation of c-Met-expressing cancer cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in certain cancer cell types, is involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis in multiple solid tumors. Compared to other c-Met targeting monoclonal antibodies, ARGX-111 shows increased antibody circulation time, enhanced tissue distribution and increased efficacy. ARGX-111 is obtained through active immunization with C-met antigen in Camelids and utilizes the Camelid V-domains fused with human antibody backbones. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-MET monoclonal antibody LY2875358
A humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-MET) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-MET monoclonal antibody LY2875358 binds to c-MET, thereby preventing the binding of HGF to its receptor c-Met and subsequent activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. This may result in cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-C-met monoclonal antibody SAIT301
A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the alpha chain of the extracellular domain of human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody SAIT301 binds to c-Met, thereby preventing both binding of its ligand, HGF, and the subsequent activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. In addition, SAIT301 induces c-Met internalization and subsequent degradation, which further inhibits c-Met-mediated signaling. This leads to a reduction in the proliferation of c-Met-expressing cancer cells. c-Met, a proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in certain cancer cell types, is involved in various tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CSF1 monoclonal antibody PD-0360324
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the cytokine colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1; CSF-1; macrophage colony-stimulating factor; M-CSF), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CSF1 monoclonal antibody PD-0360324 targets, binds to and neutralizes CSF1. This prevents the binding of CSF1 to its receptor CSF1R (CD115; M-CSFR), which is expressed on various immune cells, such as monocytes and macrophages. This prevents CSF1R activation and CSF1R-mediated signaling in these cells, leading to inhibition of monocyte differentiation, blocking the activity of macrophages, and reducing their production of inflammatory mediators, which reduces inflammation. By blocking the activity and proliferation of CSF1R-dependent tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment, PD-0360324 reduces TAM-mediated immune suppression, decreases regulatory T cells (Tregs), re-activates the immune system, and improves anti-tumor cell responses mediated by increasing infiltration by cytotoxic T cells. TAMs play key roles in immune suppression, and tumor cell proliferation and survival. CSF-1 plays a key role in the regulation of the proliferation, differentiation and survival of monocytes and macrophages. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CSF1R monoclonal antibody FPA008
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the tyrosine kinase receptor colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R; CSF-1R), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and CD115 (cluster of differentiation 115), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CSF1R monoclonal antibody FPA008 binds to CSF1R expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and osteoclasts and inhibits the binding of the CSF1R ligands colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34), to CSF1R. This prevents CSF1R activation and CSF1R-mediated signaling in these cells. This blocks the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages and monocytes and reduces inflammation. By blocking the recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and activity of CSF1R-dependent tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), FPA008 enhances T-cell infiltration and antitumor T-cell immune responses, which inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells. Additionally, FPA008 prevents the activation of osteoclasts and blocks bone destruction. TAMs play key roles in immune suppression and promoting inflammation, tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CSF-1R monoclonal antibody IMC-CS4
A monoclonal antibody directed against colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. CSF1R monoclonal antibody IMC-CS4 binds to CSF1R which may trigger antitumoral antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in tumor cells overexpressing CSF1R. CSF1R, also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and CD115 (cluster of differentiation 115), is a cell-surface receptor for its ligand colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1); this receptor is overexpressed or mutated in certain tumor cell types and plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis.
anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody FG-3019
A human monoclonal antibody targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) with potential anti-fibrotic and antineoplastic activities. FG-3019 binds to CTGF thereby preventing the binding of the ligand to the receptor and subsequent receptor activation. As CTGF enhances the production of collagen and fibronectin, FG-319 may prevent and reverse fibrosis. In addition, FG-3019 may prevent tumor cell proliferation in CTGF-expressing tumor cells. CTGF, a member of the CCN family (CTGF, CYR61/CEF and NOV), is expressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, cell migration, cell adhesion, differentiation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA4 mAb RNA/GITRL RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulatory activity. Anti-CTLA4 MoAb RNA/GITRL RNA-transfected DC vaccine is prepared by transfecting DCs with RNAs encoding humanized heavy and light chains of the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4) monoclonal antibody and tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 18 (TNFSF18 or GlTRL); expression of anti-CTLA4 blocks the inhibitory effect of CTLA4 on the activation of T-lymphocytes, while expression of GlTRL modulates T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. Co-vaccination of this vaccine with melanoma antigen specific vaccine may eliminate the adverse effects associated with systemic administration of immune modulators, while also enhancing vaccine-induced immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA-4 mAb RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulatory activity. Anti-CTLA4 MoAb RNA-transfected autologous DC vaccine is prepared by transfecting DCs with RNAs encoding humanized heavy and light chains of the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4); expression of anti-CTLA4 blocks the inhibitory effect of CTLA4 on the activation of T-lymphocytes. Co-vaccination of this vaccine with melanoma antigen specific vaccine may eliminate the adverse effects associated with systemic administration of immune modulators, while also enhancing vaccine-induced immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody AGEN1884
A recombinant human monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody AGEN1884 binds to CTLA4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody BMS-986218
A Fc-modified monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody BMS-986218 targets and binds to CTLA4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system. Removal of the fucose sugar units from the antibody's Fc region, enhances its activity and decreases the toxicity of BMS-986218. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody PF-06747143
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) against C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CXCR4 mAb PF-06747143 binds to CXCR4, thereby preventing the binding of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to CXCR4 and inhibiting CXCR4 activation. This results in decreased proliferation and migration of CXCR4-expressing tumor cells. In addition, PF-06747143 promotes cell death through the induction of both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is upregulated in several tumor cell types and plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, survival, and chemotaxis, and in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-denatured collagen recombinant monoclonal antibody TRC093
A humanized, affinity-matured IgG1k antibody directed against denatured collagens (I-IV) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-denatured collagen recombinant monoclonal antibody TRC093 binds to multiple epitopes on denatured collagens, inhibiting proteolytic collagen-mediated signaling in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is important to tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. The epitopes on denatured collagen bound by this antibody are considered "cryptic" because, in vivo, they are accessible only on the subendothelial basement membrane of tumors or in normal tissues undergoing neovascularization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody BHQ880
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. Anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody BHQ880 binds to and inhibits DKK1, enhancing signaling through the Wnt pathway, which may result in osteoblast differentiation and activation within the bone matrix and the reversal of tumor-induced osteolytic disease. DKK! is a potent Wnt signaling pathway antagonist. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DKK-1 monoclonal antibody LY2812176
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the WNT antagonist dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1), with potential anti-osteolytic activity. Anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody LY2812176 binds to and inhibits DKK1, thereby restoring signaling through the WNT pathway, which may result in osteoblast differentiation and activation within the bone matrix and the reversal of tumor-induced osteolytic disease. DKK1, overexpressed by myeloma cells, is an inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway and prevents the mediated formation of bone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody MEDI0639
An immunoglobulin G1 lambda monoclonal antibody directed against the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody MEDI0639 specifically binds to DLL4 and prevents its interaction with Notch receptors, thereby inhibiting Notch-mediated signaling and gene transcription, which may block tumor angiogenesis and eventually the inhibition of tumor cell growth. Activation of Notch receptors by DLL4 stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD); after cleavage, NICD is translocated to the nucleus and mediates the transcriptional regulation of a variety of genes involved in vascular development. The expression of DLL4 is highly restricted to the vascular endothelium; DLL4/Notch signaling is required for the development of functional tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody REGN421
A human monoclonal antibody directed against Delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody REGN421 specifically binds to human DLL4, preventing its binding to Notch receptors and inhibiting Notch signaling, which may result in defective tumor vascularization and, so, the inhibition of tumor cell growth. DLL4 is the only Notch ligand selectively expressed on endothelial cells; DLL4/Notch signaling is required for the development of functional tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL4/VEGF bispecific monoclonal antibody OMP-305B83
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) and the human tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. The anti-DLL4 moiety of anti-DLL4/VEGF monoclonal antibody OMP-305B83 specifically binds to DLL4, prevents its interaction with Notch receptors, and inhibits Notch-mediated signaling and gene transcription, which may both block tumor angiogenesis and inhibit tumor cell growth. The anti-VEGF moiety binds to VEGF and prevents the binding of VEGF to its receptor, which blocks VEGF-mediated signaling and further inhibits the growth and maintenance of tumor blood vessels. The expression of DLL4 is highly restricted to the vascular endothelium; DLL4/Notch signaling is required for the development of functional tumor blood vessels. The expression of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF is associated with tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DR5 agonist monoclonal antibody TRA-8
An agonist mouse monoclonal antibody directed against TRAIL death receptor type 5 (DR5) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-DR5 agonist monoclonal antibody TRA-8 binds DR5, which may induce apoptosis in DR5-expressing tumor cells. DR5 is a tumor cell surface ligand that crosslinks with death receptor type 4 (DR4) when bound by TRAIL [Tumor necrosis (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand], triggering apoptosis via a death receptor signaling pathway. The apoptotic activity of this antibody may not require DR4/DR5 crosslinking. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFL7 monoclonal antibody MEGF0444A
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFL7 monoclonal antibody MEGF0444A binds to EGFL7, thereby preventing the activities of EGFL7 on endothelial cells and inhibiting the survival and migration of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. EGFL7, a vascular-restricted extracellular matrix protein which is upregulated during angiogenesis and which regulates vascular development, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR fluorescence imaging agent ABY-029
A fluorescence imaging and contrast agent composed of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting affibody tracer molecule and labeled, through maleimide, with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe, IRDye 800CW, with potential use in the imaging of EGFR-overexpressing cells. Upon administration, ABY-029 targets and binds to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. Upon fluorescent imaging, the fluorescent dye can be visualized and EGFR-positive tumor cells can be detected. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ABT-806
A humanized monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with antineoplastic activity. MoAb ABT-806 targets the EGFR deletion variant, de2-7 EGFR as well as wild-type EGFR expressed in cells overexpressing the receptor, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization result in an inhibition in signal transduction and anti-proliferative effects. This MoAb targets cells expressing aberrant EGFR, hence making it an ideal candidate for generation of radioisotope or toxin conjugates. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody GC1118
A recombinant, human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, GC1118 binds to and blocks the ligand binding site of EGFR, which prevents receptor dimerization and activation. This may lead to an inhibition of both EGFR-dependent downstream pathways and EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, may be overexpressed on the surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture MM-151
An oligoclonal therapeutic composed of three fully human monoclonal antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of MM-151, the three antibodies bind to distinct, non-overlapping epitopes of EGFR, thereby preventing the binding of a full range of both high and low affinity EGFR ligands and inhibiting EGFR-ERK-mediated signaling. This eventually inhibits tumor cell proliferation in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. Furthermore, multi antibody-antigen bindings cause crosslinking of EGFR and downregulate receptor signalings that are mediated via heterodimerization of EGFR with other members of the EGFR family. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, is a key regulator of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis.
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture sym004
A mixture of two recombinant IgG1 antibodies directed against different epitopes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) extracellular domain III, with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture Sym004 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, thereby preventing ligand binding. This may prevent activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation may result in an inhibition of downstream ERK and JNK signaling pathways and thus inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, binding of Sym004 to EGFRs causes EGFR internalization and degradation. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, often is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody RO5083945
A glycoengineered monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody RO5083945 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization may result in an inhibition of downstream ERK and JNK signaling pathways and so inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody SYN004
A glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody SYN004 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, which prevents ligand binding and the subsequent activation and dimerization of the receptor. This inhibits the activation of EGFR-mediated signaling pathways and inhibits EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation. EGFR, a member of the EGFR receptor tyrosine kinase family, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR TAP antibody-drug conjugate IMGN289
A targeted antibody payload (TAP)-based immunoconjugate consisting of a human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) conjugated, via a nonreducible thioether linker (succinimidyl trans-4-(maleimidylmethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate or SMCC), to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid mertansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of immunoconjugate IMGN289 binds to and inhibits EGFR on tumor cell surfaces. Inhibition of EGFR prevents EGFR-mediated signaling and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. After internalization, the mertansine moiety binds to tubulin and interferes with microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. This inhibits both cell division and the proliferation of cancer cells that express EGFR. EGFR, overexpressed by a variety of cancers, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Linkage of the antibody and drug, through a nonreducible linker, appears to contribute to the improved efficacy and reduced toxicity of this antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) compared to similar ADCs constructed with reducible linkers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/c-Met bispecific antibody JNJ-61186372
A human bispecific antibody targeting both epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR; cMet), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EGFR/c-Met bispecific antibody JNJ-61186372 simultaneously targets and binds to wild-type or certain mutant forms of both EGFR and cMet expressed on cancer cells, thereby preventing receptor phosphorylation. This prevents the activation of both EGFR- and cMet-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, binding results in receptor degradation, which further inhibits EGFR- and cMet-mediated signaling. JNJ-61186372 also causes antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Altogether, this results in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. EGFR and cMet, both upregulated or mutated in a variety of tumor cell types, play key roles in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/HER2/HER3 monoclonal antibody mixture Sym013
An antibody mixture composed of six humanized, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibodies directed against three members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; HER) family: EGFR (HER1; ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2) and HER3 (ErbB3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-EGFR/HER2/HER3 monoclonal antibody mixture Sym013, the six antibodies bind to non-overlapping epitopes on EGFR, HER2 and HER3, which prevents both ligand binding and receptor activation, and induce simultaneous down-modulation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3. This inhibits the activation of HER-dependent signaling pathways and HER-dependent tumor cell proliferation. Overexpression of the HER family plays a key role in many cancers; targeting multiple HER family members simultaneously may increase therapeutic efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/HER3 monoclonal antibody MEHD7945A
An immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody directed against both human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3 or ERBB3) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFR/HER3 Monoclonal Antibody MEHD7945A binds to both EGFR and HER3 and inhibits their activation. This may prevent EGFR/HER3-mediated signaling and inhibit EGFR/HER3-dependent tumor cell proliferation. In addition, MEHD7945A induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against EGR/HER3-expressing tumor cells. EGFR and HER3, members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are frequently overexpressed in tumors; their expression is associated with both poor prognosis and drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII antibody drug conjugate AMG 595
An immunoconjugate consisting of a human monoclonal antibody directed against the deletion-mutant of epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, conjugated via a non-cleavable linker to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid DM1, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of this immunoconjugate binds to EGFRvIII on tumor cell surfaces. After internalization, the DM1 moiety binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics and inhibiting cell division and the proliferation of cancer cells that express the EGFRvIII mutant. EGFRvIII, a deletion mutation of exons 2-7 in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, is overexpressed by a variety of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII CAR-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes
Allogeneic human T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variant III (EGFRvIII) mutant chimeric T-cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) gene coupled to the signaling domains from CD8, CD28, 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3 zeta, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-EGFRvIII CAR-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes bind to the EGFRvIII antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells may be lysed. EGFRvIII, an in-frame deletion of exons 2-7 in the EGFR gene, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and absent in normal, healthy cells; it plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and radio- and chemoresistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII immunotoxin MR1-1
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of single-chain variable domain fragment antibody directed against the tumor-specific antigen EGFRvIII (MR1scFv) fused to domains II and III of the Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38KDEL), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of anti-EGFRvIII immunotoxin MR1-1 binds to EGFRvIII; upon internalization, the exotoxin portion inhibits protein synthesis, resulting in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation of EGFRvIII- expressing tumor cells. EGFRvIII, a type III in-frame deletion mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, is expressed by a variety of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme, non-small lung carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Compared to intact IgG antibodies, single-chain antibodies such as MR1scFv are smaller and may penetrate tumors better. Pseudomonas exotoxin PE38KDEL was modified to remove the natural cell binding domain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGP-2 immunotoxin MOC31-PE
An immunotoxin consisting of a monoclonal antibody directed against epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EP-2, or epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)) conjugated to the bacterial toxin Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-EGP-2 immunotoxin MOC31-PE, the monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to EP-2. Upon internalization, the Pseudomonas exotoxin A moiety then inactivates elongation factor 2 (EF-2) through ADP ribosylation, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis in EP-2-expressing cells. EP-2, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-endoglin monoclonal antibody TRC105
A human/murine chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against endoglin (CD105) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-endoglin monoclonal antibody TRC105 binds to endoglin, which may result in inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and decreased tumor cell proliferation. The glycoprotein endoglin is a transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta-1) accessory receptor that is highly expressed on tumor vessel endothelial cells and appears to be essential for angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-endosialin/TEM1 monoclonal antibody MORAb-004
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against human endosialin/TEM1 (tumor endothelial marker;CD248) with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-endosialin/TEM1 monoclonal antibody MORAb-004 binds to and inhibits the activity of cell surface protein endosialin/TEM1, which may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Endosialin/TEM1 plays a key role in angiogenesis and may be overexpressed on tumor stromal cells and endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ENPP3 antibody-drug conjugate AGS-16C3F
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing a fully human monoclonal antibody (AGS-16C) directed to the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 3 (ENPP3), conjugated via a non-cleavable linker to monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, that has potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of ADC AGS-16C3F, the monoclonal antibody moiety of this conjugate selectively binds to ENPP3 then is internalized and undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release MMAF. MMAF binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. While normally expressed at low levels in the proximal tubules of the kidney, the type II transmembrane glycoprotein ENPP3 has been found to be overexpressed in renal neoplasms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Ep-CAM monoclonal antibody ING-1
An engineered monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM; EpCAM; CD326), with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, anti-Ep-CAM monoclonal antibody ING-1 binds to Ep-CAM, which may result in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against Ep-CAM-expressing tumor cells. Ep-CAM, a cell surface protein upregulated on many tumor cell types, promotes the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA2 antibody-directed liposomal docetaxel prodrug MM-310
A formulation containing nanoparticles composed of liposomes that are conjugated to scFv antibody fragments directed against the ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2; Ephrin A2) and a proprietary prodrug of docetaxel, a poorly water-soluble, second-generation taxane analog, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of the anti-EphA2 antibody-directed liposomal docetaxel prodrug MM-310, the anti-EphA2 moiety selectively targets and binds to cells expressing EphI3:I12A2. Following accumulation of MM-310, docetaxel is slowly released from MM-310 and accumulates at the tumor site due to the unique characteristics of the tumor vasculature. In turn, docetaxel is taken up by tumor cells, where it binds to and stabilizes the beta-subunit of tubulin, thereby stabilizing microtubules and inhibiting microtubule disassembly. This results in cell cycle arrest and the induction of cell death. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in tumor growth; its expression is associated with poor prognosis. Compared to free docetaxel, MM-310 increases docetaxel's half-life, and provides enhanced and specific accumulation in EphA2-expressing tumors, thereby increasing docetaxel's efficacy while lowering its systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody DS-8895a
A monoclonal antibody directed against the ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody DS-8895a selectively binds to cells expressing the EphA2 receptor. This blocks EphA2 activation and EphA2-mediated signaling. In addition, DS-8895a may activate an immune response against EphA2-expressing tumor cells. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody-MMAF immunoconjugate MEDI-547
An auristatin analogue immunoconjugate directed against Eph receptor A2 (EphA2)-positive cancer cells with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody-MMAF immunoconjugate MEDI-547 is generated by conjugating the fully human IgG1 anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1) to the small-molecule microtubule inhibitor monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine (MMAF) via the stable linker maleimidocaproyl (mc) (1C1-mcMMAF). The monoclonal antibody moiety of this agent selectively binds to cells expressing the EphA2 receptor. After internalization and enzymatic cleavage of the immunoconjugate within the tumor cell cytosol, free MMAF binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which may result in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of different cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA3 monoclonal antibody KB004
A non-fucosylated monoclonal antibody directed against the ephrin receptor A3 (EphA3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EphA3 monoclonal antibody KB004 selectively binds to tumor cells expressing EphA3. This blocks both EphA3 activation and EphA3-mediated signaling, and induces apoptosis in EphA3-expressing tumor cells. In addition, KB004 can stimulate antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against EphA3-expressing tumor cells. This agent also prevents tumor cell proliferation by inhibiting both EphA3 signaling and proliferation of endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. The cell-surface receptor EphA3, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of tumor types but is not expressed in normal healthy adult tissues. It plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation. Non-fucosylation of the antibody enhances its ADCC activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-epidermal growth factor receptor 2 antibody expressing pluripotent killer T lymphocytes
A specific population of pluripotent killer (PIK) T cells that have been induced to express high levels of antibodies against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; HER2), with potential antitumor activity. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action through which PIK-HER2 cells exert their effects has yet to be elucidated, upon infusion, these cells secrete antibodies targeting HER2 expressed on the surface of tumor cells. This may inhibit HER2-dependent signaling, which may lead to inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, these cells may stimulate the host immune system to mount both a highly-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against HER2-overexpressing tumors, which leads to tumor cell lysis. HER2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB2/anti-ErbB3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-111
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptors ErbB2 (Her2) and ErbB3 (Her3) with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-ErB2 targeting arm of anti-ErbB2/anti-ErbB3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-111 binds to ErbB2 on tumor cells with high affinity while the anti-Erb3 therapeutic arm binds to ErbB3, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation in ErbB2-overexpressing tumor cells via inhibition of ErbB3-dependent signal transduction pathways. ErbB2 and ErB3 are members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and are frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody AV-203
A humanized monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the human receptor tyrosine-protein kinase ErbB-3 (HER3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-ErbB3 MoAb AV-203 binds to and inhibits both ligand neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)-dependent and ligand-independent ErbB3 activation, which may result in inhibition of ErbB3-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling and may lead to inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance; it has no active kinase domain itself but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family that do. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody KTN3379
A monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB3 (Her3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody KTN3379 binds to and prevents ligand binding to ErbB3, which may inhibit ErbB3-dependent phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and may lead to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody REGN1400
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB3 (Her3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-ErbB3 receptor monoclonal antibody REGN1400 binds to ErbB3 and prevents neuregulin 1 ligand binding to ErbB3, which may result in an inhibition of ErbB3-dependent phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. This eventually leads to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3/anti-IGF-1R bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-141
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB3 (Her3) and the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-IGF-1R targeting arm of anti-IGF-1R/anti-ErbB3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-141 binds to IGF-1R on tumor cells thereby preventing the binding of the natural ligands IGF-1, 2 and heregulin (HRG) to IGF-1R; the anti-ErbB3 therapeutic arm prevents the binding of neuregulin (NRG) to ErbB3. This prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway and may result in both the induction of apoptosis and a decrease in cellular proliferation in IGF-1R and ErbB3-overexpressing tumor cells. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily, and ErB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FAP/interleukin-2 fusion protein RO6874281
A recombinant fusion protein comprised of a human monoclonal antibody directed against fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) linked to an engineered, variant form of interleukin-2 (IL-2v), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of RO6874281, the monoclonal antibody moiety recognizes and binds to FAP, thereby concentrating IL-2 in FAP-expressing tumor tissue. Subsequently, the IL-2 moiety of this fusion protein may stimulate a local immune response and activate natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-cells. FAP is a cell surface protein that is expressed on a wide variety of cancer cells. IL-2v cannot bind to IL-2 receptor-alpha (CD25, IL2Ra) and does not activate regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FCRH5/CD3 BiTE antibody BFCR4350A
A proprietary recombinant bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Fc receptor-like protein 5 (FCRH5; CD307; FCRL5; IRTA2; BXMAS1) and one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-FCRH5/CD3 BiTE antibody BFCR4350A, the bispecific antibody binds to both the CD3 antigen on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and FCRH5 found on FCRH5-expressing tumor cells. This activates and crosslinks CTLs with FCRH5-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of FCRH5-expressing tumor cells. FCRH5, an immune receptor translocation-associated protein/Fc receptor homolog (IRTA/FCRH) family member and a B-cell lineage marker, is overexpressed on myeloma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FcRn monoclonal antibody SYNT001
A monoclonal antibody that targets the neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn), with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, SYNT001 targets and binds to FcRn at the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding site, thereby preventing the interaction between FcRn and the serum protein IgG. By preventing FcRn/IgG binding, SYNT001 blocks the FcRn-mediated rescue of IgG, enables IgG degradation and prevents IgG-mediated inflammation. IgG plays a key role in many autoimmune diseases and is an important factor in inflammatory processes.
anti-FGF23 IgG1 monoclonal antibody KRN23
An orally bioavailable recombinant human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody directed against human fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), that can be used to increase serum phosphate levels. Upon subcutaneous administration, anti-FGF23 IgG1 monoclonal antibody KRN23 binds to and inhibits FGF23, thereby interfering with FGF23 signaling. This increases tubular phosphate reabsorption, decreases excretion of phosphate, and increases serum phosphate levels, resulting in enhanced bone mineralization. FGF23, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family produced by osteocytes, plays a key role in hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia, such as X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia. Increased FGF23 levels lead to decreased expression of the sodium-phosphate co-transporters in the proximal tubules, reduced renal phosphate reabsorption, increased excretion by the kidneys, and low serum phosphate concentration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR2 antibody BAY1179470
An antibody against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2 (FGFR2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-FGFR2 antibody BAY1179470 binds to and inhibits FGFR2, which may result in the inhibition of both FGFR2 phosphorylation and FGFR2-mediated signal transduction pathways. This results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell death of FGFR2-expressing tumor cells. FGFR2, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is essential to tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR2 antibody-drug conjugate BAY1187982
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) directed against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2 (FGFR2) and conjugated to an as of yet unidentified toxin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the anti-FGFR2 ADC BAY1187982 binds to FGFR2. Upon binding, the toxin selectively induces cell death, through an as of yet undisclosed mechanism of action, in FGFR2-expressing tumor cells. FGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays an essential role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR2 monoclonal antibody FPA144
A glycoengineered, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2b (FGFR2b), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-FGFR2 antibody FPA144 specifically binds to and inhibits FGFR2b on tumor cell surfaces, which prevents FGFR2 from binding to its ligands, FGFR2b activation and the activation of FGFR2b-mediated signal transduction pathways. The binding of FPA144 to FGFR2b protein also induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against FGFR2b-expressing tumor cells. This results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell death of FGFR2-expressing tumor cells. FGFR2b, a specific isoform of the receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR2 upregulated in many tumor cell types, is essential to tumor proliferation, differentiation and survival. Glycoengineering enhances the FPA144-mediated ADCC. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR3 antibody-drug conjugate LY3076226
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a human monoclonal antibody against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) and conjugated to an as of yet not publicly known cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of anti-FGFR3 ADC LY3076226 binds to FGFR3. Upon internalization, the cytotoxic moiety causes cell death in FGFR3-expressing tumor cells. FGFR3, a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR3 monoclonal antibody B-701
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the anti-FGFR3 monoclonal antibody B-701 specifically binds to and inhibits both wild-type and mutated forms of FGFR3. This may result in the inhibition of FGFR3 phosphorylation, thereby preventing its activation and FGFR3-mediated signal transduction pathways. This results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell death in FGFR3-expressing tumor cells. FGFR3, a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR3 monoclonal antibody MFGR1877S
A human monoclonal antibody against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-FGFR3 antibody MFGR1877S binds to and inhibits FGFR3, which may result in the inhibition of both FGFR3 phosphorylation and FGFR3-mediated signal transduction pathways. This results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell death in FGFR3-expressing tumor cells. FGFR3, upregulated or mutated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.
anti-FGFR4 monoclonal antibody U3-1784
A human monoclonal antibody against human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, U3-1784 specifically binds to and blocks FGFR4. This prevents the activation of FGFR4, inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of cell proliferation in FGFR4-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR4, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed by certain tumor cell types, is involved in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FLT-1 ribozyme
A nuclease-stabilized synthetic ribozyme (ribonucleic acid enzyme) with potential anti-angiogenesis activity. Ribozyme RPI.4610 specifically recognizes the mRNA for FLT1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1; VEGFR1), and hydrolyzes the mRNA, thereby preventing VEGFR1 proteins from being made. This may prevent VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis in cancerous tissue and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody 4G8-SDIEM
A human, Fc-optimized, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the FLT3 tyrosine kinase receptor (CD135), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon binding to FLT3, anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody 4G8-SDIEM blocks FLT3 ligand binding to FLT3 and subsequent phosphorylation of FLT3, which may result in the inhibition of FLT3-mediated signal transduction pathways. In addition, this agent may stimulate an anti-FLT3 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against FLT3-expressing tumor cells, which may lead to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and decreased survival in FLT3-expressing cells. FLT3 (FLK2), a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10
A fully human, IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the FLT3 tyrosine kinase receptor (CD135) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon binding to FLT3, anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10 blocks FLT3 ligand binding to FLT3 and subsequent FLT3 phosphorylation, which may result in the inhibition of FLT3-mediated signal transduction pathways. In addition, this agent may stimulate an anti-FLT3 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against FLT3-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and survival in FLT3-expressing cells. FLT3 (FLK2), a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-fucosyl-GM1 monoclonal antibody BMS-986012
A monoclonal antibody directed against the ganglioside fucosyl-GM1, with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, anti-fucosyl-GM1 monoclonal antibody BMS-986012 binds to fucosyl-GM1 on cancer cells and may activate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against the bound tumor cells. This may inhibit the proliferation of GM1-expressing tumor cells. Fucosyl-GM1, a sphingolipid monosialoganglioside and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells while its expression is minimal or non-existent in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antifungal agent F901318
A systemic antifungal agent that can potentially be used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody BIW-8962
A humanized anti-ganglioside GM2 (GM2) monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, anti-ganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody BIW-8962 may activate an antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against GM2-expressing tumor cells. GM2 is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells, such as multiple myeloma (MM) cells and neuroblastoma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GCC antibody-drug conjugate MLN0264
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing a monoclonal antibody directed against guanylyl cyclase C (GCC or GUCY2C) conjugated to monomethylauristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of MLN0264 selectively binds to GCC, a transmembrane receptor normally found on intestinal cells and dopamine neurons in the brain, but is also overexpressed on the surface of gastrointestinal cancers. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis in GCC-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu14.18K322A
A monoclonal antibody directed against human glycosphingolipid GD2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon binding to the GD2 antigen, anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu14.18K322A triggers a host immune response against GD2-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. GD2, an O-acetylated disialoganglioside with expression in normal tissues restricted primarily to the cerebellum and peripheral nerves, is commonly expressed at high levels on tumors of neuroectodermal origins such as melanomas and neuroblastomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody MORAb-028
A human IgM monoclonal antibody directed against disialoganglioside GD2 with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody MORAb-028 may stimulate the immune system to exert a complement-mediated cytotoxic response against GD2-expressing tumor cells. The glycosphingolipid GD2 is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GD3 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06688992
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against the ganglioside GD3, a surface antigen expressed on many malignant melanoma cells, and linked to an as of yet not fully elucidated chemotherapeutic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the ADC PF-06688992, the antibody moiety targets and binds to GD3 expressed on melanoma cells. Upon internalization, the chemotherapeutic agent specifically kills the GD3-positive cells. GD3 represents a major surface marker on most human melanoma cells and is not expressed on most other types of normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antigen-targeted personalized breast cancer vaccine
An individualized, therapeutic cancer vaccine (IVAC) composed of liposomes containing RNA encoding two or three tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are specifically expressed in the patient's individual cancer selected from a warehouse (“off the shelf”) and p53 RNA, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the antigen-targeted personalized breast cancer vaccines are translated by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the expressed protein is presented via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of the APCs. This leads to an induction of both cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and memory T-cell immune responses against the TAAs. The RNAs in the vaccine are specifically selected for an individual patient after RNA profiling of the patient’s tumor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR agonistic monoclonal antibody INCAGN01876
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 18; TNFRSF18; GITR; CD357) agonistic humanized monoclonal antibody, with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Anti-GITR antibody INCAGN01876 binds to and activates GITRs found on multiple types of T cells. This stimulates the immune system, induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific T-effector cells (Teffs), and suppresses the function of activated T-regulatory cells (Tregs). This leads to tumor cell eradication. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress Teffs and suppress T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR agonistic monoclonal MS-986156
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR; tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 18; TNFRSF18; CD357) agonistic monoclonal antibody, with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Anti-GITR antibody BMS-986156 binds to and activates GITR, which is expressed on the cell surface of multiple types of T cells. This stimulates the immune system, induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor antigen-specific T-effector cells (Teffs), and suppresses the function of activated T-regulatory cells (Tregs). This leads to tumor cell eradication. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress both Teffs and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR monoclonal antibody GWN 323
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 18; TNFRSF18; GITR; CD357) agonistic monoclonal antibody, with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Anti-GITR antibody GWN 323 binds to and activates GITRs found on multiple types of T-cells. This stimulates the immune system, induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific T effector cells (Teff), and suppresses the function of activated T regulatory cells (Tregs). This leads to tumor cell eradication. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor-co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress both Teffs and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR monoclonal antibody MK-4166
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) agonistic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) with potential immunomodulating activity. Anti-GITR monoclonal antibody MK-4166 binds to and activates GITRs found on multiple types of T-cells. This stimulates the immune system and induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific T effector cells, and suppresses the function of activated T regulatory cells. This leads to tumor cell eradication. Also, this agent is shown to act synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs in multiple cancer models. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is expressed on the surface of multiple types of immune cells, including regulatory T-cells, effector T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.
anti-glypican 3-scFvGC33-CAR-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the anti-glypican-3 (GPC3) monoclonal antibody GC33 (scFvGC33), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-GPC3-scFvGC33-CAR autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and bind to GPC3-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. GPC3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and a member of the glypican family, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types while minimally expressed in normal, healthy cells.. GPC3 plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GnRH vaccine PEP223
A peptide vaccine derived from the synthetic peptide pyroEHWSYGLRPG, corresponding to amino acids 22-31 of mouse gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), with potential immunocastration activity. PEP223 is dimerized and contains a D-lysine (k) substitution at position 6 (pyroEHWSYkLRPG) to increase its immunogenicity. Anti-GnRH vaccine PEP223 may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against GnRH, neutralizing its activity. In turn, testosterone production and tumor cell growth may be inhibited in testosterone-sensitive tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-gpA33/CD3 monoclonal antibody MGD007
An anti-glycoprotein A33 (gpA33)/anti-CD3 bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-gpA33/CD3 monoclonal antibody MGD007 possesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for gpA33, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Upon administration of MGD007, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T-cells and gpA33-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) to gpA33-expressing tumor cells. This may result in CTL-mediated cell lysis of the crosslinked tumor cells. The gpA33 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in certain malignancies, including colon and gastrointestinal cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GPC3 monoclonal antibody GC33
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface oncofetal protein glypican-3 (GPC3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-GPC3 monoclonal antibody GC33 binds to GPC3 and triggers a host immune response against GPC3-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. GPC3, a heparin sulfate proteoglycan, is frequently upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and mesoderm-derived organs such as the liver, lungs, and kidney. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GPC3-CAR autologous T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for glypican-3 (GPC3), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-GPC3-CAR autologous T-lymphocytes specifically target and bind to GPC3-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. GPC3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and a member of the glypican family, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types while minimally expressed in normal, healthy cells; GPC3 plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GRP78 monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6
A IgM monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78; also called BiP or HSPA5), with potential proapoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration of the anti-GRP78 monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6, the MoAb strongly binds to GRP78, thereby preventing the activation of multiple GRP78-mediated pathways and blocking the GRP78-induced suppression of apoptotic pathways. This eventually leads to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. GRP78, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone and unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator, is overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cell types; its expression is associated with increased tumor cell survival and proliferation, as well as angiogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HA epitope monoclonal antibody MEDI8852
A human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 kappa monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting a unique epitope in the stalk of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) protein, with broad influenza A virus neutralization activity. MEDI8852 was derived from an antibody isolated from human memory B cells from patients previously infected with influenza caused by type A strains that was further optimized to increase neutralization potential. Upon infusion, MEDI8852 targets and binds to a region within the stalk of the HA protein that is highly conserved amongst all influenza A virus subtypes. This neutralizes and prevents essential steps of the viral lifecycle, thereby blocking infectivity of all influenza A virus subtypes. HA, a glycoprotein found on the surface of the influenza virus, plays a key role in viral attachment and cell entry. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody KHK2866
A proprietary fucose-free monoclonal antibody directed against human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody KHK2866 binds to HBEGF, thereby blocking its binding to the EGF receptors. This prevents EGF receptor activation and the subsequent induction of cell growth signaling. HBEGF is mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle and may be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation. The fucose-free monoclonal antibodies enhance antigen dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increase binding affinity to the Fc receptor to overcome genetic polymorphism. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HBEGF monoclonal antibody U3-1565
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HBEGF monoclonal antibody U3-1565 binds to HBEGF and blocks the binding of HBEGF to the EGF receptors. This prevents EGF receptor activation and the subsequent induction of cell growth signaling. HBEGF is mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle and may be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-hCD70-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous PBLs
A preparation of autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding for a T-cell chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene specific for the human cluster of differentiation 70 (CD70), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous PBLs from a patient with CD70-positive cancer are transduced with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for CD70. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, anti-hCD70-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous PBLs bind to the CD70 antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, CD70-expressing tumor cells are lysed. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27, is overexpressed on the surfaces of various cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HCV E2 monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1
A neutralizing, human monoclonal antibody against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein, with potential immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against HCV. Upon administration, anti-HCV E2 monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 recognizes and binds to the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. This suppresses HCV load and provides passive immunization against HCV. This may prevent both infection by HCV in immunocompromised patients and hepatitis C-related liver disease. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antihemophilic factor, human recombinant
The recombinant form of human antihemophilic factor (AH) (Factor VIII) with coagulation promoting activity. Antihemophilic factor binds to factor IXa in the coagulation cascade along with calcium and phospholipid. This complex converts factor X to the activated form, factor Xa. In turn, factor Xa/Va complex activates thrombin, which cleaves fibrinogen into fibrin, eventually resulting in blood clot formation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 ADC DS-8201a
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; EGFR2; HER2) conjugated to a derivative of the camptothecin analog exatecan (DXd; DX-8951 derivative), a DNA topoisomerase 1 (topoisomerase I; Top1) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC conjugate DS-8201a, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the DX-8951 derivative moiety binds to and inhibits Top1-DNA complexes, which results in an inhibition of DNA replication, cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. In addition, DS-8201a induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and causes a bystander killing effect, thereby killing neighboring HER2-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate ARX788
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2) site-specifically conjugated, via the non-natural amino acid linker para-acetyl-phenylalanine (pAcF), to the auristatin analog and potent microtubule inhibitor monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC ARX788, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, MMAF binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. The site-specific conjugation of the cytotoxic agent to the antibody improves the biophysical properties of ARX788, increases payload stability and optimizes its efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate MEDI4276
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a bispecific antibody against the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ERBB2) comprised of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, which binds to domain IV of HER2, fused to the heavy chains of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody 39S, which binds to domain II of HER2, and conjugated, via a cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic anti-microtubule agent tubulysin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of MEDI4276, the anti-HER2 bispecific antibody specifically targets and binds to HER2 on the surface of certain cancer cells. Upon binding, crosslinking and internalization of antibody-HER2 complexes occurs and MEDI4276 is transported to the lysosome where the linker is cleaved, thereby delivering tubulysin inside HER2-expressing cancer cells. Tubulysin binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization, which blocks cell division. This results in G2/M phase arrest, tumor cell apoptosis, and decreased proliferation of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate RC48
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2) and conjugated to an as-of-yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC RC48, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent induces tumor cell apoptosis, through an as of yet not publicly known mechanism. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 bi-specific monoclonal antibody ZW25
An engineered bi-specific monoclonal antibody that targets two different epitopes of the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After binding to HER2 on the tumor cell surface, anti-HER2 bispecific monoclonal antibody ZW25 induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells that overexpress HER2. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) is also induced and further stimulates the immune system to kill HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, binding of ZW25 to HER2 induces receptor internalization, which inhibits HER2 activation, HER2-mediated signaling and HER2-mediated tumor cell growth. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody CT-P6
A monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. After binding to HER2 on the tumor cell surface, anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody CT-P6 may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as well as an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells that overexpress HER2. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2/auristatin payload antibody-drug conjugate XMT-1522
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of HT-19, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; HER2), conjugated, via a proprietary biodegradable, hydrophilic polymer backbone and various linkers, to proprietary auristatin-derived payload molecules (about 15 per antibody), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2/auristatin payload ADC XMT-1522, the antibody moiety targets and binds to a unique epitope in the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER2. Upon internalization, cleavage and release of the cytotoxic molecules, the auristatin-derived molecules bind to tubulin and inhibit its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and induces apoptosis of HER2-expressing tumor cells. The attachment of multiple auristatin molecules to the backbone enables XMT-1522 to effectively kill tumors that express relatively low amounts of the HER2 protein; therefore, this agent shows increased therapeutic potential in tumors with low HER2 expression compared to other anti-HER2 antibody-based therapies. The polymer-based proprietary platform optimizes delivery of the cytotoxic drug payload and improves drug solubility. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2-CAR autologous CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Autologous human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a human anti-HER2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2) chimeric T cell receptor (CAR) gene with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous CTLs from a patient with HER2- and CMV-positive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are genetically modified to express CAR gene specific for HER2 on their cell surfaces. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-HER2-CAR autologous CMV-specific CTLs bind to HER2 antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, HER2-positive tumor cells and stem cells may be lysed. HER2 (ErbB2), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. CMV is present in the majority of GBM tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Her-2-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding an anti-Her-2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2) chimeric T cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) gene with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous PBLs from a patient with Her-2-positive cancer are pulsed with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for Her-2. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, anti-Her-2-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes, expressing anti-Her-2-CAR on their cell surfaces, bind to Her-2 antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, Her-2-expressing tumor cells may be lysed. Her-2 (ErbB-2), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, belongs to the EGFR superfamily and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER3 antibody-drug conjugate U3 1402
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of patritumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3),linked to the topoisomerase I inhibitor DX 8951, a semisynthetic, water-soluble derivative of camptothecin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the anti-HER3 ADC U3 1402, the patritumab moiety targets and binds to HER3. After internalization, DX 8951 inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the complex between topoisomerase I and DNA and inhibiting religation of DNA breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)