NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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anti-c-Met antibody-drug conjugate TR1801
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a non-agonizing anti-c-Met humanized monoclonal antibody that is linked in a site-specific manner to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD) toxin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to the c-Met protein, which is overexpressed in certain tumor types. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of tumor cell DNA. This induces interstrand cross-links in the minor groove of DNA and inhibits DNA replication, which inhibits the proliferation of c-Met-expressing cells. c-Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis.
anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ABT-700
A monoclonal antibody directed against human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ABT-700 binds to c-Met, thereby preventing c-Met binding to its ligand, HGF and the subsequent activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. This may cause cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ARGX-111
A human monoclonal antibody targeting c-Met, with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody ARGX-111 binds to c-Met, and blocks both ligand-dependent and -independent activation of c-Met-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, this agent enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This leads to a reduction in cell proliferation of c-Met-expressing cancer cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in certain cancer cell types, is involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis in multiple solid tumors. Compared to other c-Met targeting monoclonal antibodies, ARGX-111 shows increased antibody circulation time, enhanced tissue distribution and increased efficacy. ARGX-111 is obtained through active immunization with C-met antigen in Camelids and utilizes the Camelid V-domains fused with human antibody backbones. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-c-MET monoclonal antibody LY2875358
A humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-MET) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-MET monoclonal antibody LY2875358 binds to c-MET, thereby preventing the binding of HGF to its receptor c-Met and subsequent activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. This may result in cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-C-met monoclonal antibody SAIT301
A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the alpha chain of the extracellular domain of human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-c-Met monoclonal antibody SAIT301 binds to c-Met, thereby preventing both binding of its ligand, HGF, and the subsequent activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. In addition, SAIT301 induces c-Met internalization and subsequent degradation, which further inhibits c-Met-mediated signaling. This leads to a reduction in the proliferation of c-Met-expressing cancer cells. c-Met, a proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in certain cancer cell types, is involved in various tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CSF1 monoclonal antibody PD-0360324
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the cytokine colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1; CSF-1; macrophage colony-stimulating factor; M-CSF), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CSF1 monoclonal antibody PD-0360324 targets, binds to and neutralizes CSF1. This prevents the binding of CSF1 to its receptor CSF1R (CD115; M-CSFR), which is expressed on various immune cells, such as monocytes and macrophages. This prevents CSF1R activation and CSF1R-mediated signaling in these cells, leading to inhibition of monocyte differentiation, blocking the activity of macrophages, and reducing their production of inflammatory mediators, which reduces inflammation. By blocking the activity and proliferation of CSF1R-dependent tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment, PD-0360324 reduces TAM-mediated immune suppression, decreases regulatory T cells (Tregs), re-activates the immune system, and improves anti-tumor cell responses mediated by increasing infiltration by cytotoxic T cells. TAMs play key roles in immune suppression, and tumor cell proliferation and survival. CSF-1 plays a key role in the regulation of the proliferation, differentiation and survival of monocytes and macrophages. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CSF-1R monoclonal antibody IMC-CS4
A monoclonal antibody directed against colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. CSF1R monoclonal antibody IMC-CS4 binds to CSF1R which may trigger antitumoral antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in tumor cells overexpressing CSF1R. CSF1R, also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and CD115 (cluster of differentiation 115), is a cell-surface receptor for its ligand colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1); this receptor is overexpressed or mutated in certain tumor cell types and plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis.
anti-CSF-1R monoclonal antibody SNDX-6352
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 monoclonal antibody directed against colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, anti-CSF1R monoclonal antibody SNDX-6352 binds to the ligand binding domain of CSF-1R, preventing binding and consequent activation by its natural ligands, IL-34 and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1). Inhibition of CSF-1R activation may disrupt the activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which promote initiation and metastasis of tumor cells, inhibit T-cell responses, and stimulate tumor angiogenesis and disease progression. CSF-1R, also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and cluster of differentiation 115 (CD115), is a tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the regulation, proliferation, survival and differentiation of tissue macrophages as well as TAMs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTGF monoclonal antibody FG-3019
A human monoclonal antibody targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) with potential anti-fibrotic and antineoplastic activities. FG-3019 binds to CTGF thereby preventing the binding of the ligand to the receptor and subsequent receptor activation. As CTGF enhances the production of collagen and fibronectin, FG-319 may prevent and reverse fibrosis. In addition, FG-3019 may prevent tumor cell proliferation in CTGF-expressing tumor cells. CTGF, a member of the CCN family (CTGF, CYR61/CEF and NOV), is expressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, cell migration, cell adhesion, differentiation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA4 mAb RNA/GITRL RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulatory activity. Anti-CTLA4 MoAb RNA/GITRL RNA-transfected DC vaccine is prepared by transfecting DCs with RNAs encoding humanized heavy and light chains of the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4) monoclonal antibody and tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 18 (TNFSF18 or GlTRL); expression of anti-CTLA4 blocks the inhibitory effect of CTLA4 on the activation of T-lymphocytes, while expression of GlTRL modulates T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. Co-vaccination of this vaccine with melanoma antigen specific vaccine may eliminate the adverse effects associated with systemic administration of immune modulators, while also enhancing vaccine-induced immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA-4 mAb RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulatory activity. Anti-CTLA4 MoAb RNA-transfected autologous DC vaccine is prepared by transfecting DCs with RNAs encoding humanized heavy and light chains of the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4); expression of anti-CTLA4 blocks the inhibitory effect of CTLA4 on the activation of T-lymphocytes. Co-vaccination of this vaccine with melanoma antigen specific vaccine may eliminate the adverse effects associated with systemic administration of immune modulators, while also enhancing vaccine-induced immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody AGEN1181
An Fc-engineered recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody AGEN1181 binds to CTLA-4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA-4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA-4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system. The engineered Fc domain increases the stability and half-life of the antibody.
anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody AGEN1884
A recombinant human monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody AGEN1884 binds to CTLA4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody BMS-986218
A Fc-modified monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody BMS-986218 targets and binds to CTLA4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system. Removal of the fucose sugar units from the antibody's Fc region, enhances its activity and decreases the toxicity of BMS-986218. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody MK-1308
A monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell-expressed receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody MK-1308 targets and binds to CTLA4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody REGN4659
A fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody directed against the human T-cell-expressed receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody REGN4659 targets and binds to CTLA-4 expressed on T cells and inhibits the CTLA-4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation. This leads to a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA-4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), plays a key role in the downregulation of the immune system.
anti-CTLA-4/LAG-3 bispecific antibody XmAb22841
An Fc-engineered bispecific antibody directed against the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4) and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3; LAG-3; CD223), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA-4/LAG-3 bispecific antibody XmAb22841 targets and binds to both CTLA-4 and LAG-3 expressed on T cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Both CTLA-4 and LAG-3 are inhibitory receptors and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF); they are overexpressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the TME where they downregulate T-cell activation and proliferation. Dual checkpoint blockade of CTLA-4 and LAG-3 with XmAb22841 may enhance T-cell activation and proliferation more than the blockade of either immune checkpoint receptor alone. The engineered Fc domain increases the stability and half-life of the antibody.
anti-CTLA-4/OX40 bispecific antibody ATOR-1015
A bispecific antibody consisting of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitory protein fused to an OX40 agonistic human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-CTLA-4/OX40 bispecific antibody ATOR-1015 simultaneously binds to CTLA-4 and OX40, which may inhibit CTLA-4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and induce proliferation of memory and effector T lymphocytes via OX40 activation. Both CTLA-4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), and OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), are overexpressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment. ATOR-1015 may reduce the number of Tregs and promote the activation of effector T cells, thereby enhancing the immune-mediated anti-tumor response.
anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody PF-06747143
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) against C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-CXCR4 mAb PF-06747143 binds to CXCR4, thereby preventing the binding of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to CXCR4 and inhibiting CXCR4 activation. This results in decreased proliferation and migration of CXCR4-expressing tumor cells. In addition, PF-06747143 promotes cell death through the induction of both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is upregulated in several tumor cell types and plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, survival, and chemotaxis, and in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-denatured collagen recombinant monoclonal antibody TRC093
A humanized, affinity-matured IgG1k antibody directed against denatured collagens (I-IV) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-denatured collagen recombinant monoclonal antibody TRC093 binds to multiple epitopes on denatured collagens, inhibiting proteolytic collagen-mediated signaling in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is important to tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. The epitopes on denatured collagen bound by this antibody are considered "cryptic" because, in vivo, they are accessible only on the subendothelial basement membrane of tumors or in normal tissues undergoing neovascularization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody BHQ880
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. Anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody BHQ880 binds to and inhibits DKK1, enhancing signaling through the Wnt pathway, which may result in osteoblast differentiation and activation within the bone matrix and the reversal of tumor-induced osteolytic disease. DKK! is a potent Wnt signaling pathway antagonist. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DKK-1 monoclonal antibody LY2812176
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the WNT antagonist dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1), with potential anti-osteolytic activity. Anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody LY2812176 binds to and inhibits DKK1, thereby restoring signaling through the WNT pathway, which may result in osteoblast differentiation and activation within the bone matrix and the reversal of tumor-induced osteolytic disease. DKK1, overexpressed by myeloma cells, is an inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway and prevents the mediated formation of bone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL3/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 757
A bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) delta-like protein 3 (DLL3) fused to one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-DLL3/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 757, this bispecific antibody binds to both the CD3 antigen on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and the DLL3 antigen found on DLL3-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to DLL3-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of DLL3-expressing tumor cells. DLL3, a Notch pathway protein, is overexpressed on a variety of cancer cell types. It plays a key role in embryonic development and in tumor initiation and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody MEDI0639
An immunoglobulin G1 lambda monoclonal antibody directed against the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody MEDI0639 specifically binds to DLL4 and prevents its interaction with Notch receptors, thereby inhibiting Notch-mediated signaling and gene transcription, which may block tumor angiogenesis and eventually the inhibition of tumor cell growth. Activation of Notch receptors by DLL4 stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD); after cleavage, NICD is translocated to the nucleus and mediates the transcriptional regulation of a variety of genes involved in vascular development. The expression of DLL4 is highly restricted to the vascular endothelium; DLL4/Notch signaling is required for the development of functional tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody REGN421
A human monoclonal antibody directed against Delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody REGN421 specifically binds to human DLL4, preventing its binding to Notch receptors and inhibiting Notch signaling, which may result in defective tumor vascularization and, so, the inhibition of tumor cell growth. DLL4 is the only Notch ligand selectively expressed on endothelial cells; DLL4/Notch signaling is required for the development of functional tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DLL4/VEGF bispecific monoclonal antibody OMP-305B83
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) and the human tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. The anti-DLL4 moiety of anti-DLL4/VEGF monoclonal antibody OMP-305B83 specifically binds to DLL4, prevents its interaction with Notch receptors, and inhibits Notch-mediated signaling and gene transcription, which may both block tumor angiogenesis and inhibit tumor cell growth. The anti-VEGF moiety binds to VEGF and prevents the binding of VEGF to its receptor, which blocks VEGF-mediated signaling and further inhibits the growth and maintenance of tumor blood vessels. The expression of DLL4 is highly restricted to the vascular endothelium; DLL4/Notch signaling is required for the development of functional tumor blood vessels. The expression of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF is associated with tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DR5 agonist monoclonal antibody TRA-8
An agonist mouse monoclonal antibody directed against TRAIL death receptor type 5 (DR5) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-DR5 agonist monoclonal antibody TRA-8 binds DR5, which may induce apoptosis in DR5-expressing tumor cells. DR5 is a tumor cell surface ligand that crosslinks with death receptor type 4 (DR4) when bound by TRAIL [Tumor necrosis (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand], triggering apoptosis via a death receptor signaling pathway. The apoptotic activity of this antibody may not require DR4/DR5 crosslinking. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-DR5 agonistic monoclonal antibody INBRX-109
A recombinant, humanized, agonistic, tetravalent monoclonal antibody directed against human death receptor type 5 (DR5), also called tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor 2 (TRAILR2), with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, INBRX-109 specifically binds to exactly four DR5 receptors per molecule, which mimics the interaction of DR5 with its natural ligand TRAIL. This activates DR5 and the death receptor signaling pathway, which results in the activation of caspase cascades, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in proliferation of DR5-expressing tumor cells. Utilizing a tetravalent monoclonal antibody may overcome the challenge of generating effective DR5 clustering while avoiding toxicities associated with anti-drug antibody (ADA) hyper-clustering. DR5, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on the surfaces of a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFL7 monoclonal antibody MEGF0444A
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFL7 monoclonal antibody MEGF0444A binds to EGFL7, thereby preventing the activities of EGFL7 on endothelial cells and inhibiting the survival and migration of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. EGFL7, a vascular-restricted extracellular matrix protein which is upregulated during angiogenesis and which regulates vascular development, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR CAR-transduced IL-12-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of human T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene coupled to the signaling domains from CD28, 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3 zeta, and modified to express the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-EGFR CAR-transduced IL-12-expressing T lymphocytes target and bind to the EGFR antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, EGFR-expressing tumor cells may be lysed. IL-12 expression activates the immune system by promoting the secretion of interferon-gamma (IFNg), activating natural killer cells (NKs), and inducing cytotoxic T-cell responses, which may result in both decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death for the EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. EGFR, overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and radio- and chemoresistance.
anti-EGFR fluorescence imaging agent ABY-029
A fluorescence imaging and contrast agent composed of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting affibody tracer molecule and labeled, through maleimide, with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe, IRDye 800CW, with potential use in the imaging of EGFR-overexpressing cells. Upon administration, ABY-029 targets and binds to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. Upon fluorescent imaging, the fluorescent dye can be visualized and EGFR-positive tumor cells can be detected. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ABT-806
A humanized monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with antineoplastic activity. MoAb ABT-806 targets the EGFR deletion variant, de2-7 EGFR as well as wild-type EGFR expressed in cells overexpressing the receptor, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization result in an inhibition in signal transduction and anti-proliferative effects. This MoAb targets cells expressing aberrant EGFR, hence making it an ideal candidate for generation of radioisotope or toxin conjugates. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody CPGJ 602
A recombinant, human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody CPGJ 602 targets and binds to EGFR, which prevents receptor dimerization and activation. This leads to an inhibition of EGFR-dependent downstream pathways and EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, may be overexpressed on the surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody GC1118
A recombinant, human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, GC1118 binds to and blocks the ligand binding site of EGFR, which prevents receptor dimerization and activation. This may lead to an inhibition of both EGFR-dependent downstream pathways and EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, may be overexpressed on the surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture MM-151
An oligoclonal therapeutic composed of three fully human monoclonal antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of MM-151, the three antibodies bind to distinct, non-overlapping epitopes of EGFR, thereby preventing the binding of a full range of both high and low affinity EGFR ligands and inhibiting EGFR-ERK-mediated signaling. This eventually inhibits tumor cell proliferation in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. Furthermore, multi antibody-antigen bindings cause crosslinking of EGFR and downregulate receptor signalings that are mediated via heterodimerization of EGFR with other members of the EGFR family. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, is a key regulator of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis.
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture sym004
A mixture of two recombinant IgG1 antibodies directed against different epitopes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) extracellular domain III, with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture Sym004 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, thereby preventing ligand binding. This may prevent activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation may result in an inhibition of downstream ERK and JNK signaling pathways and thus inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, binding of Sym004 to EGFRs causes EGFR internalization and degradation. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, often is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody RO5083945
A glycoengineered monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody RO5083945 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization may result in an inhibition of downstream ERK and JNK signaling pathways and so inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody SYN004
A glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody SYN004 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, which prevents ligand binding and the subsequent activation and dimerization of the receptor. This inhibits the activation of EGFR-mediated signaling pathways and inhibits EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation. EGFR, a member of the EGFR receptor tyrosine kinase family, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR TAP antibody-drug conjugate IMGN289
A targeted antibody payload (TAP)-based immunoconjugate consisting of a human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) conjugated, via a nonreducible thioether linker (succinimidyl trans-4-(maleimidylmethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate or SMCC), to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid mertansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of immunoconjugate IMGN289 binds to and inhibits EGFR on tumor cell surfaces. Inhibition of EGFR prevents EGFR-mediated signaling and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. After internalization, the mertansine moiety binds to tubulin and interferes with microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. This inhibits both cell division and the proliferation of cancer cells that express EGFR. EGFR, overexpressed by a variety of cancers, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Linkage of the antibody and drug, through a nonreducible linker, appears to contribute to the improved efficacy and reduced toxicity of this antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) compared to similar ADCs constructed with reducible linkers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/c-Met bispecific antibody EMB-01
A human, Fabs-in-tandem immunoglobulin (FIT-Ig)-based, tetravalent, bispecific antibody targeting both the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR; c-Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition; cMet; c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EGFR/c-Met bispecific antibody EMB-01 simultaneously targets and binds to wild-type or certain mutant forms of both EGFR and c-Met expressed on cancer cells, thereby preventing receptor phosphorylation. This prevents the activation of both EGFR- and c-Met-mediated signaling pathways and results in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. EGFR and c-Met, both upregulated or mutated in a variety of tumor cell types, play key roles in tumor cell proliferation. In EMB-01, the two antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) are fused directly in a crisscross orientation resulting in four active and independent antigen binding sites.
anti-EGFR/c-Met bispecific antibody JNJ-61186372
A human bispecific antibody targeting both epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR; cMet), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EGFR/c-Met bispecific antibody JNJ-61186372 simultaneously targets and binds to wild-type or certain mutant forms of both EGFR and cMet expressed on cancer cells, thereby preventing receptor phosphorylation. This prevents the activation of both EGFR- and cMet-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, binding results in receptor degradation, which further inhibits EGFR- and cMet-mediated signaling. JNJ-61186372 also causes antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Altogether, this results in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. EGFR and cMet, both upregulated or mutated in a variety of tumor cell types, play key roles in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/DM1 antibody-drug conjugate AVID100
A targeted antibody drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) conjugated to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid mertansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of AVID100 binds to and inhibits EGFR on tumor cell surfaces. Inhibition of EGFR prevents EGFR-mediated signaling and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Following receptor internalization, the mertansine moiety binds to tubulin and interferes with microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. This inhibits both cell division and proliferation of cancer cells that express EGFR. EGFR, overexpressed by a variety of cancers, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/HER2/HER3 monoclonal antibody mixture Sym013
An antibody mixture composed of six humanized, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibodies directed against three members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; HER) family: EGFR (HER1; ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2) and HER3 (ErbB3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-EGFR/HER2/HER3 monoclonal antibody mixture Sym013, the six antibodies bind to non-overlapping epitopes on EGFR, HER2 and HER3, which prevents both ligand binding and receptor activation, and induce simultaneous down-modulation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3. This inhibits the activation of HER-dependent signaling pathways and HER-dependent tumor cell proliferation. Overexpression of the HER family plays a key role in many cancers; targeting multiple HER family members simultaneously may increase therapeutic efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/HER3 monoclonal antibody MEHD7945A
An immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody directed against both human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3 or ERBB3) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFR/HER3 Monoclonal Antibody MEHD7945A binds to both EGFR and HER3 and inhibits their activation. This may prevent EGFR/HER3-mediated signaling and inhibit EGFR/HER3-dependent tumor cell proliferation. In addition, MEHD7945A induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against EGR/HER3-expressing tumor cells. EGFR and HER3, members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are frequently overexpressed in tumors; their expression is associated with both poor prognosis and drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFR/PBD antibody-drug conjugate ABBV-321
An antibody drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of ABT-806 AM1, an affinity-matured humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and conjugated to the cytotoxic, DNA minor groove crosslinking agent, pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of anti-EGFR/PBD ADC ABBV-321, the monoclonal antibody moiety of ABBV-321 targets and binds to EGFR on tumor cell surfaces. Following receptor internalization and lysosome-mediated cleavage, the cytotoxic PBD moiety is released. In turn, the imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces DNA strand breaks, inhibits DNA replication, leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest, induces cell death and inhibits the proliferation of EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is overexpressed by a variety of cancers, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII antibody drug conjugate AMG 595
An immunoconjugate consisting of a human monoclonal antibody directed against the deletion-mutant of epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, conjugated via a non-cleavable linker to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid DM1, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of this immunoconjugate binds to EGFRvIII on tumor cell surfaces. After internalization, the DM1 moiety binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics and inhibiting cell division and the proliferation of cancer cells that express the EGFRvIII mutant. EGFRvIII, a deletion mutation of exons 2-7 in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, is overexpressed by a variety of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII CAR-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes
Allogeneic human T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variant III (EGFRvIII) mutant chimeric T-cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) gene coupled to the signaling domains from CD8, CD28, 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3 zeta, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-EGFRvIII CAR-transduced allogeneic T lymphocytes bind to the EGFRvIII antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells may be lysed. EGFRvIII, an in-frame deletion of exons 2-7 in the EGFR gene, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and absent in normal, healthy cells; it plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and radio- and chemoresistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII immunotoxin MR1-1
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of single-chain variable domain fragment antibody directed against the tumor-specific antigen EGFRvIII (MR1scFv) fused to domains II and III of the Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38KDEL), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of anti-EGFRvIII immunotoxin MR1-1 binds to EGFRvIII; upon internalization, the exotoxin portion inhibits protein synthesis, resulting in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation of EGFRvIII- expressing tumor cells. EGFRvIII, a type III in-frame deletion mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, is expressed by a variety of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme, non-small lung carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Compared to intact IgG antibodies, single-chain antibodies such as MR1scFv are smaller and may penetrate tumors better. Pseudomonas exotoxin PE38KDEL was modified to remove the natural cell binding domain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGFRvIII/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 596
A proprietary recombinant bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one that is directed against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) deletion-mutant form, EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), and one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-EGFRvIII/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 596, the bispecific antibody binds to both the CD3 antigen on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and EGFRvIII found on EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells. This activates and crosslinks CTLs with EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells. EGFRvIII, a mutation in the EGFR gene where exons 2-7 have been deleted, is overexpressed by a variety of cancers, but is absent in normal, healthy cells. It plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EGP-2 immunotoxin MOC31-PE
An immunotoxin consisting of a monoclonal antibody directed against epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EP-2, or epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)) conjugated to the bacterial toxin Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-EGP-2 immunotoxin MOC31-PE, the monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to EP-2. Upon internalization, the Pseudomonas exotoxin A moiety then inactivates elongation factor 2 (EF-2) through ADP ribosylation, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis in EP-2-expressing cells. EP-2, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-endosialin/TEM1 monoclonal antibody MORAb-004
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against human endosialin/TEM1 (tumor endothelial marker;CD248) with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-endosialin/TEM1 monoclonal antibody MORAb-004 binds to and inhibits the activity of cell surface protein endosialin/TEM1, which may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Endosialin/TEM1 plays a key role in angiogenesis and may be overexpressed on tumor stromal cells and endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ENPP3 antibody-drug conjugate AGS-16C3F
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing a fully human monoclonal antibody (AGS-16C) directed to the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 3 (ENPP3), conjugated via a non-cleavable linker to monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, that has potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of ADC AGS-16C3F, the monoclonal antibody moiety of this conjugate selectively binds to ENPP3 then is internalized and undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release MMAF. MMAF binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. While normally expressed at low levels in the proximal tubules of the kidney, the type II transmembrane glycoprotein ENPP3 has been found to be overexpressed in renal neoplasms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Ep-CAM monoclonal antibody ING-1
An engineered monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM; EpCAM; CD326), with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, anti-Ep-CAM monoclonal antibody ING-1 binds to Ep-CAM, which may result in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against Ep-CAM-expressing tumor cells. Ep-CAM, a cell surface protein upregulated on many tumor cell types, promotes the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA2 antibody-directed liposomal docetaxel prodrug MM-310
A formulation containing nanoparticles composed of liposomes that are conjugated to scFv antibody fragments directed against the ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2; Ephrin A2) and a proprietary prodrug of docetaxel, a poorly water-soluble, second-generation taxane analog, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of the anti-EphA2 antibody-directed liposomal docetaxel prodrug MM-310, the anti-EphA2 moiety selectively targets and binds to cells expressing EphI3:I12A2. Following accumulation of MM-310, docetaxel is slowly released from MM-310 and accumulates at the tumor site due to the unique characteristics of the tumor vasculature. In turn, docetaxel is taken up by tumor cells, where it binds to and stabilizes the beta-subunit of tubulin, thereby stabilizing microtubules and inhibiting microtubule disassembly. This results in cell cycle arrest and the induction of cell death. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in tumor growth; its expression is associated with poor prognosis. Compared to free docetaxel, MM-310 increases docetaxel's half-life, and provides enhanced and specific accumulation in EphA2-expressing tumors, thereby increasing docetaxel's efficacy while lowering its systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody DS-8895a
A monoclonal antibody directed against the ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody DS-8895a selectively binds to cells expressing the EphA2 receptor. This blocks EphA2 activation and EphA2-mediated signaling. In addition, DS-8895a may activate an immune response against EphA2-expressing tumor cells. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody-MMAF immunoconjugate MEDI-547
An auristatin analogue immunoconjugate directed against Eph receptor A2 (EphA2)-positive cancer cells with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody-MMAF immunoconjugate MEDI-547 is generated by conjugating the fully human IgG1 anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1) to the small-molecule microtubule inhibitor monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine (MMAF) via the stable linker maleimidocaproyl (mc) (1C1-mcMMAF). The monoclonal antibody moiety of this agent selectively binds to cells expressing the EphA2 receptor. After internalization and enzymatic cleavage of the immunoconjugate within the tumor cell cytosol, free MMAF binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which may result in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of different cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-EphA3 monoclonal antibody KB004
A non-fucosylated monoclonal antibody directed against the ephrin receptor A3 (EphA3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-EphA3 monoclonal antibody KB004 selectively binds to tumor cells expressing EphA3. This blocks both EphA3 activation and EphA3-mediated signaling, and induces apoptosis in EphA3-expressing tumor cells. In addition, KB004 can stimulate antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against EphA3-expressing tumor cells. This agent also prevents tumor cell proliferation by inhibiting both EphA3 signaling and proliferation of endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. The cell-surface receptor EphA3, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of tumor types but is not expressed in normal healthy adult tissues. It plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation. Non-fucosylation of the antibody enhances its ADCC activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-epidermal growth factor receptor 2 antibody expressing pluripotent killer T lymphocytes
A specific population of pluripotent killer (PIK) T cells that have been induced to express high levels of antibodies against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; HER2), with potential antitumor activity. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action through which PIK-HER2 cells exert their effects has yet to be elucidated, upon infusion, these cells secrete antibodies targeting HER2 expressed on the surface of tumor cells. This may inhibit HER2-dependent signaling, which may lead to inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, these cells may stimulate the host immune system to mount both a highly-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against HER2-overexpressing tumors, which leads to tumor cell lysis. HER2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB2/anti-ErbB3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-111
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptors ErbB2 (Her2) and ErbB3 (Her3) with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-ErB2 targeting arm of anti-ErbB2/anti-ErbB3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-111 binds to ErbB2 on tumor cells with high affinity while the anti-Erb3 therapeutic arm binds to ErbB3, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation in ErbB2-overexpressing tumor cells via inhibition of ErbB3-dependent signal transduction pathways. ErbB2 and ErB3 are members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and are frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3 antibody ISU104
A fully human antibody directed against the receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 (ErbB3; HER3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, anti-ErbB3 antibody ISU104 targets and binds to domain 3 and weakly interacts with domain 1 of ErbB3. This prevents heregulin (HRG) binding and blocks dimerization of ErbB3, thereby inactivating ErbB3 downstream signaling. ISU104 may also elicit the internalization of ErbB3 from the plasma membrane and downregulate ErbB3 expression. This inhibits cellular proliferation and survival of ErbB3-expressing tumor cells. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance.
anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody AV-203
A humanized monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the human receptor tyrosine-protein kinase ErbB-3 (HER3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-ErbB3 MoAb AV-203 binds to and inhibits both ligand neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)-dependent and ligand-independent ErbB3 activation, which may result in inhibition of ErbB3-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling and may lead to inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance; it has no active kinase domain itself but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family that do. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody CDX-3379
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB3 (HER3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody CDX-3379 targets and binds to a unique epitope on ErbB3, thereby preventing ErbB3 phosphorylation and both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent ErbB3 signaling. This inhibits cellular proliferation and survival of ErbB3-expressing tumor cells. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3 monoclonal antibody REGN1400
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB3 (Her3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-ErbB3 receptor monoclonal antibody REGN1400 binds to ErbB3 and prevents neuregulin 1 ligand binding to ErbB3, which may result in an inhibition of ErbB3-dependent phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. This eventually leads to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors and its overexpression generally correlates with poor prognosis and tumor resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ErbB3/anti-IGF-1R bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-141
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB3 (Her3) and the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-IGF-1R targeting arm of anti-IGF-1R/anti-ErbB3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MM-141 binds to IGF-1R on tumor cells thereby preventing the binding of the natural ligands IGF-1, 2 and heregulin (HRG) to IGF-1R; the anti-ErbB3 therapeutic arm prevents the binding of neuregulin (NRG) to ErbB3. This prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway and may result in both the induction of apoptosis and a decrease in cellular proliferation in IGF-1R and ErbB3-overexpressing tumor cells. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily, and ErB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FAP/interleukin-2 fusion protein RO6874281
A recombinant fusion protein comprised of a human monoclonal antibody directed against fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) linked to an engineered, variant form of interleukin-2 (IL-2v), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of RO6874281, the monoclonal antibody moiety recognizes and binds to FAP, thereby concentrating IL-2 in FAP-expressing tumor tissue. Subsequently, the IL-2 moiety of this fusion protein may stimulate a local immune response and activate natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-cells. FAP is a cell surface protein that is expressed on a wide variety of cancer cells. IL-2v cannot bind to IL-2 receptor-alpha (CD25, IL2Ra) and does not activate regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FCRH5/CD3 BiTE antibody BFCR4350A
A proprietary recombinant bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Fc receptor-like protein 5 (FCRH5; CD307; FCRL5; IRTA2; BXMAS1) and one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-FCRH5/CD3 BiTE antibody BFCR4350A, the bispecific antibody binds to both the CD3 antigen on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and FCRH5 found on FCRH5-expressing tumor cells. This activates and crosslinks CTLs with FCRH5-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of FCRH5-expressing tumor cells. FCRH5, an immune receptor translocation-associated protein/Fc receptor homolog (IRTA/FCRH) family member and a B-cell lineage marker, is overexpressed on myeloma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FcRn monoclonal antibody SYNT001
A monoclonal antibody that targets the neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn), with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, SYNT001 targets and binds to FcRn at the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding site, thereby preventing the interaction between FcRn and the serum protein IgG. By preventing FcRn/IgG binding, SYNT001 blocks the FcRn-mediated rescue of IgG, enables IgG degradation and prevents IgG-mediated inflammation. IgG plays a key role in many autoimmune diseases and is an important factor in inflammatory processes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR2 antibody BAY1179470
An antibody against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2 (FGFR2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-FGFR2 antibody BAY1179470 binds to and inhibits FGFR2, which may result in the inhibition of both FGFR2 phosphorylation and FGFR2-mediated signal transduction pathways. This results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell death of FGFR2-expressing tumor cells. FGFR2, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is essential to tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR3 antibody-drug conjugate LY3076226
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a human monoclonal antibody against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) and conjugated to an as of yet not publicly known cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of anti-FGFR3 ADC LY3076226 binds to FGFR3. Upon internalization, the cytotoxic moiety causes cell death in FGFR3-expressing tumor cells. FGFR3, a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FGFR3 monoclonal antibody MFGR1877S
A human monoclonal antibody against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-FGFR3 antibody MFGR1877S binds to and inhibits FGFR3, which may result in the inhibition of both FGFR3 phosphorylation and FGFR3-mediated signal transduction pathways. This results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell death in FGFR3-expressing tumor cells. FGFR3, upregulated or mutated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.
anti-FGFR4 monoclonal antibody U3-1784
A human monoclonal antibody against human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, U3-1784 specifically binds to and blocks FGFR4. This prevents the activation of FGFR4, inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of cell proliferation in FGFR4-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR4, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed by certain tumor cell types, is involved in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FL(FITC-E2) CAR-T cells
A preparation of genetically modified T cells transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector expressing a second generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-fluorescein (anti-FL) fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-E2 single chain variable fragment (scFv), that is coupled, via an immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) hinge-CH2(L295D)-CH3 spacer, to the costimulatory signaling molecules CD28, CD137 (4-1BB), and CD3 zeta, and linked to a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Prior to the administration of anti-FL(FITC-E2) CAR-T cells, the CAR-T adaptor molecule (CAM) EC17 is administered. EC17 is a bispecific molecule that is composed of folic acid conjugated to FITC (folate-FITC). EC17 targets and binds with its folate moiety with high affinity to folate receptor (FR)-expressing tumor cells. Upon administration of the anti-FL(FITC-E2) CAR-T cells, these cells are attracted by and bind to the FITC antigen moiety of EC17. Upon binding to EC17, the T cells induce specific tumor cell lysis, cytokine secretion, and proliferation, and activate a robust immune response against the EC17-bound, FR-expressing tumor cells. FR is overexpressed in various tumor cell types and is associated with increased leukemic cell proliferation and aggressiveness. The co-stimulatory molecules are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. EGFRt both facilitates detection of the administered T cells in vivo and can promote elimination of those cells following a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The reactivity of the anti-FL(FITC-E2) CAR-T cells is dependent on dosing of EC17, and therefore allows CAR-T-cell activity to be controlled by dosing of EC17.
anti-FLT-1 ribozyme
A nuclease-stabilized synthetic ribozyme (ribonucleic acid enzyme) with potential anti-angiogenesis activity. Ribozyme RPI.4610 specifically recognizes the mRNA for FLT1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1; VEGFR1), and hydrolyzes the mRNA, thereby preventing VEGFR1 proteins from being made. This may prevent VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis in cancerous tissue and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody 4G8-SDIEM
A human, Fc-optimized, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the FLT3 tyrosine kinase receptor (CD135), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon binding to FLT3, anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody 4G8-SDIEM blocks FLT3 ligand binding to FLT3 and subsequent phosphorylation of FLT3, which may result in the inhibition of FLT3-mediated signal transduction pathways. In addition, this agent may stimulate an anti-FLT3 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against FLT3-expressing tumor cells, which may lead to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and decreased survival in FLT3-expressing cells. FLT3 (FLK2), a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10
A fully human, IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the FLT3 tyrosine kinase receptor (CD135) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon binding to FLT3, anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10 blocks FLT3 ligand binding to FLT3 and subsequent FLT3 phosphorylation, which may result in the inhibition of FLT3-mediated signal transduction pathways. In addition, this agent may stimulate an anti-FLT3 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against FLT3-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and survival in FLT3-expressing cells. FLT3 (FLK2), a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-FLT3/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 427
A bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) FLT3 tyrosine kinase receptor (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3; FLT3; FLT-3; CD135; fetal liver kinase-2; FLK2), fused to one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-FLT3/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 427, this bispecific antibody binds to both CD3 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and FLT3 found on FLT3-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to FLT3-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of FLT3-expressing tumor cells. FLT3, a cytokine receptor belonging to the class III tyrosine kinase receptors, is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage and acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-folate receptor-alpha antibody drug conjugate STRO-002
An antibody drug conjugate (ADC) composed of SP8166 (H01), an anti-folate receptor alpha (FolRa; FOLR1) human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody, conjugated to a proprietary cleavable drug linker, SC239, containing a tubulin-targeting 3-aminophenyl hemiasterlin warhead, SC209, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the SP8166 antibody moiety targets and binds to FolRa expressed on certain tumor cells. Upon binding, internalization, and enzymatic cleavage, the cytotoxic SC209 moiety induces tumor cell death in FolRa-expressing cells. FolRa is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linked cell-surface glycoprotein that is widely expressed in certain cancers including serous and epithelial ovarian cancer, endometrial adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer and triple negative breast cancer. In contrast, FolRa expression is limited in normal tissues.
anti-fucosyl-GM1 monoclonal antibody BMS-986012
A monoclonal antibody directed against the ganglioside fucosyl-GM1, with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, anti-fucosyl-GM1 monoclonal antibody BMS-986012 binds to fucosyl-GM1 on cancer cells and may activate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against the bound tumor cells. This may inhibit the proliferation of GM1-expressing tumor cells. Fucosyl-GM1, a sphingolipid monosialoganglioside and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells while its expression is minimal or non-existent in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antifungal agent F901318
A systemic antifungal agent that can potentially be used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antifungal agent VL-2397
A cyclic hexapeptide and natural compound isolated from the Malaysian leaf litter fungus, Acremonium persicinium MF-347833, with potential antifungal activity against various invasive fungal infections including invasive aspergillosis (IA). Upon administration, VL-2397, by resembling the siderophore ferrichrome, is specifically taken up by fungal cells through the membrane-bound transporter siderophore iron transporter 1 (Sit; Sit1). Upon fungal cell entry, VL-2397 targets and binds to an as of yet undisclosed intracellular site, thereby killing fungal cells. Since mammalian cells lack the Sit1 transporter, VL-2397 is not taken up by human cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antifungal PC945
A synthetic triazole antifungal agent, with activity against a variety of pathogenic fungi that can potentially be used against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Upon inhalation of the antifungal PC945 by nebulizer, PC945 is delivered in high concentrations to the lungs and resides in the lung tissues for a long period of time with minimal systemic exposure. PC945 selectively binds to and inhibits the CYP450-dependent 14-alpha-sterol demethylase in fungi, thereby preventing the production of ergosterol, which is an essential constituent of the fungal cell membrane. This results in fungal cell lysis and inhibits fungal infection in the lungs.
anti-ganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody BIW-8962
A humanized anti-ganglioside GM2 (GM2) monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, anti-ganglioside GM2 monoclonal antibody BIW-8962 may activate an antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against GM2-expressing tumor cells. GM2 is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells, such as multiple myeloma (MM) cells and neuroblastoma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GCC antibody-drug conjugate MLN0264
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing a monoclonal antibody directed against guanylyl cyclase C (GCC or GUCY2C) conjugated to monomethylauristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of MLN0264 selectively binds to GCC, a transmembrane receptor normally found on intestinal cells and dopamine neurons in the brain, but is also overexpressed on the surface of gastrointestinal cancers. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis in GCC-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GCC antibody-drug conjugate TAK-164
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) comprised of a full-length, fully-human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the extracellular domain of guanylyl cyclase C (GCC; GUCY2C), conjugated using the peptide-linked indolino-benzodiazepine DNA alkylator DGN549 (IGN-P1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of TAK-164, the antibody moiety selectively binds to GCC-expressing cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the cytotoxic DGN549 payload is released and binds to guanine residues on opposing strands of DNA. This induces DNA strand breaks, inhibits DNA replication, leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest, induces cell death, and inhibits the proliferation of GCC-expressing cells. GCC, a transmembrane receptor normally found on intestinal cells and dopamine neurons in the brain, is overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu14.18K322A
A monoclonal antibody directed against human glycosphingolipid GD2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon binding to the GD2 antigen, anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody hu14.18K322A triggers a host immune response against GD2-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. GD2, an O-acetylated disialoganglioside with expression in normal tissues restricted primarily to the cerebellum and peripheral nerves, is commonly expressed at high levels on tumors of neuroectodermal origins such as melanomas and neuroblastomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody MORAb-028
A human IgM monoclonal antibody directed against disialoganglioside GD2 with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody MORAb-028 may stimulate the immune system to exert a complement-mediated cytotoxic response against GD2-expressing tumor cells. The glycosphingolipid GD2 is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GD3 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06688992
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against the ganglioside GD3, a surface antigen expressed on many malignant melanoma cells, and linked to an as of yet not fully elucidated chemotherapeutic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the ADC PF-06688992, the antibody moiety targets and binds to GD3 expressed on melanoma cells. Upon internalization, the chemotherapeutic agent specifically kills the GD3-positive cells. GD3 represents a major surface marker on most human melanoma cells and is not expressed on most other types of normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antigen-targeted personalized breast cancer vaccine
An individualized, therapeutic cancer vaccine (IVAC) composed of liposomes containing RNA encoding two or three tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are specifically expressed in the patient's individual cancer selected from a warehouse (“off the shelf”) and p53 RNA, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the antigen-targeted personalized breast cancer vaccines are translated by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the expressed protein is presented via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of the APCs. This leads to an induction of both cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and memory T-cell immune responses against the TAAs. The RNAs in the vaccine are specifically selected for an individual patient after RNA profiling of the patient’s tumor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR agonistic monoclonal antibody ASP1951
A human, high-affinity, tetravalent monospecific agonistic monoclonal antibody targeting glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR; tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 18; TNFRSF18; CD357), with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Upon administration, anti-GITR agonistic monoclonal antibody ASP1951 binds to and activates GITR, which is expressed on the cell surface of multiple types of T lymphocytes. This induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor antigen-specific T-effector cells (Teffs), and suppresses the function of activated T-regulatory cells (Tregs), which may promote the elimination of tumor cells. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress both Teffs and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling.
anti-GITR agonistic monoclonal antibody INCAGN01876
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 18; TNFRSF18; GITR; CD357) agonistic humanized monoclonal antibody, with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Anti-GITR antibody INCAGN01876 binds to and activates GITRs found on multiple types of T cells. This stimulates the immune system, induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific T-effector cells (Teffs), and suppresses the function of activated T-regulatory cells (Tregs). This leads to tumor cell eradication. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress Teffs and suppress T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR agonistic monoclonal MS-986156
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR; tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 18; TNFRSF18; CD357) agonistic monoclonal antibody, with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Anti-GITR antibody BMS-986156 binds to and activates GITR, which is expressed on the cell surface of multiple types of T cells. This stimulates the immune system, induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor antigen-specific T-effector cells (Teffs), and suppresses the function of activated T-regulatory cells (Tregs). This leads to tumor cell eradication. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress both Teffs and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR monoclonal antibody GWN 323
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 18; TNFRSF18; GITR; CD357) agonistic monoclonal antibody, with potential immune checkpoint modulating activity. Anti-GITR antibody GWN 323 binds to and activates GITRs found on multiple types of T-cells. This stimulates the immune system, induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific T effector cells (Teff), and suppresses the function of activated T regulatory cells (Tregs). This leads to tumor cell eradication. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and T-cell receptor-co-stimulator, is expressed on the surface of multiple immune cell types, including Tregs, Teffs, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Inappropriately activated Tregs suppress both Teffs and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GITR monoclonal antibody MK-4166
An anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) agonistic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) with potential immunomodulating activity. Anti-GITR monoclonal antibody MK-4166 binds to and activates GITRs found on multiple types of T-cells. This stimulates the immune system and induces both the activation and proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific T effector cells, and suppresses the function of activated T regulatory cells. This leads to tumor cell eradication. Also, this agent is shown to act synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs in multiple cancer models. GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is expressed on the surface of multiple types of immune cells, including regulatory T-cells, effector T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.
anti-globo H monoclonal antibody OBI-888
A monoclonal antibody targeting the hexasaccharide glycosphingolipid antigen Globo H with potential immunostimulating, anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon infusion, anti-Globo H monoclonal antibody OBI-888 may induce tumor cell destruction via the activation of antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and may reduce immunosuppression. Globo H is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on the surface of various types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-glypican 3-scFvGC33-CAR-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the anti-glypican-3 (GPC3) monoclonal antibody GC33 (scFvGC33), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-GPC3-scFvGC33-CAR autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and bind to GPC3-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. GPC3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and a member of the glypican family, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types while minimally expressed in normal, healthy cells.. GPC3 plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GnRH vaccine PEP223
A peptide vaccine derived from the synthetic peptide pyroEHWSYGLRPG, corresponding to amino acids 22-31 of mouse gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), with potential immunocastration activity. PEP223 is dimerized and contains a D-lysine (k) substitution at position 6 (pyroEHWSYkLRPG) to increase its immunogenicity. Anti-GnRH vaccine PEP223 may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against GnRH, neutralizing its activity. In turn, testosterone production and tumor cell growth may be inhibited in testosterone-sensitive tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-gpA33/CD3 monoclonal antibody MGD007
An anti-glycoprotein A33 (gpA33)/anti-CD3 bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-gpA33/CD3 monoclonal antibody MGD007 possesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for gpA33, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Upon administration of MGD007, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T-cells and gpA33-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) to gpA33-expressing tumor cells. This may result in CTL-mediated cell lysis of the crosslinked tumor cells. The gpA33 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in certain malignancies, including colon and gastrointestinal cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GPC3 monoclonal antibody GC33
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface oncofetal protein glypican-3 (GPC3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-GPC3 monoclonal antibody GC33 binds to GPC3 and triggers a host immune response against GPC3-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. GPC3, a heparin sulfate proteoglycan, is frequently upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and mesoderm-derived organs such as the liver, lungs, and kidney. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GPC3-CAR autologous T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for glypican-3 (GPC3), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-GPC3-CAR autologous T-lymphocytes specifically target and bind to GPC3-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. GPC3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and a member of the glypican family, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types while minimally expressed in normal, healthy cells; GPC3 plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-GRP78 monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6
A IgM monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78; also called BiP or HSPA5), with potential proapoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration of the anti-GRP78 monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6, the MoAb strongly binds to GRP78, thereby preventing the activation of multiple GRP78-mediated pathways and blocking the GRP78-induced suppression of apoptotic pathways. This eventually leads to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. GRP78, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone and unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator, is overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cell types; its expression is associated with increased tumor cell survival and proliferation, as well as angiogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HA epitope monoclonal antibody MEDI8852
A human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 kappa monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting a unique epitope in the stalk of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) protein, with broad influenza A virus neutralization activity. MEDI8852 was derived from an antibody isolated from human memory B cells from patients previously infected with influenza caused by type A strains that was further optimized to increase neutralization potential. Upon infusion, MEDI8852 targets and binds to a region within the stalk of the HA protein that is highly conserved amongst all influenza A virus subtypes. This neutralizes and prevents essential steps of the viral lifecycle, thereby blocking infectivity of all influenza A virus subtypes. HA, a glycoprotein found on the surface of the influenza virus, plays a key role in viral attachment and cell entry. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody KHK2866
A proprietary fucose-free monoclonal antibody directed against human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody KHK2866 binds to HBEGF, thereby blocking its binding to the EGF receptors. This prevents EGF receptor activation and the subsequent induction of cell growth signaling. HBEGF is mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle and may be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation. The fucose-free monoclonal antibodies enhance antigen dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increase binding affinity to the Fc receptor to overcome genetic polymorphism. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HBEGF monoclonal antibody U3-1565
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HBEGF monoclonal antibody U3-1565 binds to HBEGF and blocks the binding of HBEGF to the EGF receptors. This prevents EGF receptor activation and the subsequent induction of cell growth signaling. HBEGF is mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle and may be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-hCD70-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous PBLs
A preparation of autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding for a T-cell chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene specific for the human cluster of differentiation 70 (CD70), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous PBLs from a patient with CD70-positive cancer are transduced with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for CD70. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, anti-hCD70-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous PBLs bind to the CD70 antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, CD70-expressing tumor cells are lysed. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27, is overexpressed on the surfaces of various cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HCV E2 monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1
A neutralizing, human monoclonal antibody against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein, with potential immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against HCV. Upon administration, anti-HCV E2 monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 recognizes and binds to the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. This suppresses HCV load and provides passive immunization against HCV. This may prevent both infection by HCV in immunocompromised patients and hepatitis C-related liver disease. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antihemophilic factor, human recombinant
The recombinant form of human antihemophilic factor (AH) (Factor VIII) with coagulation promoting activity. Antihemophilic factor binds to factor IXa in the coagulation cascade along with calcium and phospholipid. This complex converts factor X to the activated form, factor Xa. In turn, factor Xa/Va complex activates thrombin, which cleaves fibrinogen into fibrin, eventually resulting in blood clot formation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 ADC DS-8201a
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; EGFR2; HER2) conjugated to a derivative of the camptothecin analog exatecan (DXd; DX-8951 derivative), a DNA topoisomerase 1 (topoisomerase I; Top1) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC conjugate DS-8201a, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the DX-8951 derivative moiety binds to and inhibits Top1-DNA complexes, which results in an inhibition of DNA replication, cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. In addition, DS-8201a induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and causes a bystander killing effect, thereby killing neighboring HER2-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate A166
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2; ErbB2) and conjugated to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC A166, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent induces tumor cell apoptosis, through an as of yet not publicly known mechanism. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate ARX788
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2) site-specifically conjugated, via the non-natural amino acid linker para-acetyl-phenylalanine (pAcF), to the auristatin analog and potent microtubule inhibitor monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC ARX788, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, MMAF binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. The site-specific conjugation of the cytotoxic agent to the antibody improves the biophysical properties of ARX788, increases payload stability and optimizes its efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate MEDI4276
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a bispecific antibody against the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ERBB2) comprised of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, which binds to domain IV of HER2, fused to the heavy chains of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody 39S, which binds to domain II of HER2, and conjugated, via a cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic anti-microtubule agent tubulysin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of MEDI4276, the anti-HER2 bispecific antibody specifically targets and binds to HER2 on the surface of certain cancer cells. Upon binding, crosslinking and internalization of antibody-HER2 complexes occurs and MEDI4276 is transported to the lysosome where the linker is cleaved, thereby delivering tubulysin inside HER2-expressing cancer cells. Tubulysin binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization, which blocks cell division. This results in G2/M phase arrest, tumor cell apoptosis, and decreased proliferation of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate RC48
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2) and conjugated to an as-of-yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2 ADC RC48, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent induces tumor cell apoptosis, through an as of yet not publicly known mechanism. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 bi-specific monoclonal antibody ZW25
An engineered bi-specific monoclonal antibody that targets two different epitopes of the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After binding to HER2 on the tumor cell surface, anti-HER2 bispecific monoclonal antibody ZW25 induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells that overexpress HER2. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) is also induced and further stimulates the immune system to kill HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, binding of ZW25 to HER2 induces receptor internalization, which inhibits HER2 activation, HER2-mediated signaling and HER2-mediated tumor cell growth. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 immune stimulator-antibody conjugate NJH395
An immune stimulator-antibody conjugate (ISAC) composed of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2; ErbB2) conjugated to a not yet disclosed immune stimulator, with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulating activities. Upon administration of the anti-HER2 immune stimulator-antibody conjugate NJH395, the antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 expressed on tumor cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding, the immune-stimulating moiety may, through an as of yet undisclosed mechanism, enhance the immune-mediated killing of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in many cancer types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization.
anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody CT-P6
A monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. After binding to HER2 on the tumor cell surface, anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody CT-P6 may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as well as an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells that overexpress HER2. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody/anti-CD137 anticalin bispecific fusion protein PRS-343
A bivalent, bispecific fusion protein comprised of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) monoclonal antibody linked to a CD137-targeting anticalin with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody/anti-CD137 anticalin bispecific fusion protein PRS-343, CD137 clustering is promoted by bridging CD137-positive T cells with HER2-positive tumor cells, leading to the recruitment of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated lysis of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2 plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. CD137 is a costimulatory immunoreceptor and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). Anticalins are synthetic antigen-binding proteins derived from lipocalins. Structurally dissimilar to antibodies, anticalins are able to bind to smaller antigens and exhibit improved tissue penetration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2/Anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody BTRC 4017A
An anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/anti-CD3 T-cell-dependent bispecific (TDB) monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-HER2/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody BTRC4017A possesses two antigen recognition sites, one for HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor overexpressed by many cancer cell types, and one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that interact with the T-cell receptor (TCR). Upon administration of BTRC4017A, this bispecific monoclonal antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T cells and HER2-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking HER2-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated lysis of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2 plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Anti-HER2/Anti-CD3 Bispecific Monoclonal Antibody GBR 1302
An anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-HER2/Anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody GBR 1302 possesses two antigen recognition sites, one for HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor overexpressed by many cancer cell types, and one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that interact with the T-cell receptor (TCR). Upon administration of GBR 1302, this bispecific monoclonal antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T cells and HER2-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking HER2-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated lysis of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2 plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2/Anti-HER3 bispecific monoclonal antibody MCLA-128
A full-length IgG1 bispecific antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; EGFR2, ERBB2) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3; ErbB3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the bispecific antibody docks on HER2, and subsequently blocks heregulin-stimulated proliferation of tumor cells by binding HER3. In addition to inhibiting HER3-dependent signaling, simultaneous targeting of HER2 and HER3 by MCLA-128 may overcome a common resistance mechanism driven by heregulin-mediated dimerization of HER2 and HER3. MCLA-128 is expected to eliminate tumor cells by recruiting natural killer (NK) cells to tumor cells coated with the bispecific antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2/auristatin payload antibody-drug conjugate XMT-1522
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of HT-19, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; HER2), conjugated, via a proprietary biodegradable, hydrophilic polymer backbone and various linkers, to proprietary auristatin-derived payload molecules (about 15 per antibody), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-HER2/auristatin payload ADC XMT-1522, the antibody moiety targets and binds to a unique epitope in the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER2. Upon internalization, cleavage and release of the cytotoxic molecules, the auristatin-derived molecules bind to tubulin and inhibit its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and induces apoptosis of HER2-expressing tumor cells. The attachment of multiple auristatin molecules to the backbone enables XMT-1522 to effectively kill tumors that express relatively low amounts of the HER2 protein; therefore, this agent shows increased therapeutic potential in tumors with low HER2 expression compared to other anti-HER2 antibody-based therapies. The polymer-based proprietary platform optimizes delivery of the cytotoxic drug payload and improves drug solubility. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2/PBD-MA antibody-drug conjugate DHES0815A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2; EGFR2; HER2) linked to a DNA minor groove crosslinking agent pyrrolo[2,1- c][1,4]benzodiazepine monoamide (PBD-MA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of ADC DHES0815A, the monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to HER2 expressed on tumor cells. Following receptor internalization and lysosome-mediated cleavage, the cytotoxic PBD-MA moiety is released. In turn, the imine groups of the PBD-MA moiety bind to and crosslink specific sites of DNA, resulting in DNA strand breaks, cell cycle arrest, and cell death in HER2 expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2-CAR autologous CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Autologous human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a human anti-HER2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2) chimeric T cell receptor (CAR) gene with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous CTLs from a patient with HER2- and CMV-positive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are genetically modified to express CAR gene specific for HER2 on their cell surfaces. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-HER2-CAR autologous CMV-specific CTLs bind to HER2 antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, HER2-positive tumor cells and stem cells may be lysed. HER2 (ErbB2), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. CMV is present in the majority of GBM tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Her-2-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding an anti-Her-2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2) chimeric T cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) gene with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous PBLs from a patient with Her-2-positive cancer are pulsed with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for Her-2. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, anti-Her-2-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes, expressing anti-Her-2-CAR on their cell surfaces, bind to Her-2 antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, Her-2-expressing tumor cells may be lysed. Her-2 (ErbB-2), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, belongs to the EGFR superfamily and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER2-vc0101 ADC PF-06804103
A proprietary antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) site-specifically linked, via a protease cleavable linker, to an analog of dolastatin 10, Auristatin-0101, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-HER2-vc0101 ADC PF-06804103 targets HER2 expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding, internalization and cleavage, Auristatin-0101 binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER3 antibody-drug conjugate U3 1402
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of patritumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3),linked to the topoisomerase I inhibitor DX 8951, a semisynthetic, water-soluble derivative of camptothecin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the anti-HER3 ADC U3 1402, the patritumab moiety targets and binds to HER3. After internalization, DX 8951 inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the complex between topoisomerase I and DNA and inhibiting religation of DNA breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody GSK2849330
A monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3; ERBB3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody GSK2849330 binds to HER3 and inhibits its activation. This may prevent HER3-mediated signaling and inhibit HER3-dependent tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors and is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance; it has no active kinase domain but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family, such as HER2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 possesses a novel mechanism of action; LJM716 binds to and locks HER3 in the inactive conformation and does not interfere with its interaction with neuregulin (NRG). The inactivated form of HER3 blocks the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting cellular proliferation in HER2 or NRG expressing tumor cells. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors; it has no active kinase domain but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family, such as HER2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HGF monoclonal antibody TAK-701
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HGF monoclonal antibody TAK-701 binds to the soluble ligand HGF, preventing HGF binding to and activation of the HGF receptor c-Met and so the activation of the c-Met signaling pathway; this may result in the induction of cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in a variety of tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HIF-1alpha LNA antisense oligonucleotide EZN-2968
A synthetic antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-HIF-1alpha LNA antisense oligonucleotide EZN-2968 hybridizes with HIF-1alpha mRNA and blocks t HIF-1 alpha protein expression, which may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and apoptosis. HIF-1alpha, normally activated in response to hypoxia-induced stress, is a key transcription regulator of a large number of genes important in cellular adaptation to low-oxygen conditions, including angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HLA-A2/NY-ESO-1 TCR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous human peripheral blood T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral or retroviral vector encoding a human leukocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted anti-cancer-testis antigen 1 (NY-ESO-1) T-cell receptor (TCR) gene, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following leukapheresis, isolation of lymphocytes, expansion ex vivo, transduction, and re-introduction into the patient, the anti-HLA-A2/NY-ESO-1 TCR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes recognize and bind to NY-ESO-1/HLA-A2-positive tumor cells. This results in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of NY-ESO-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody IMMU-114
A humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody that targets the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody IMMU-114 binds to HLA-DR on HLA-DR-expressing tumor cells and, although the exact mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated, appears to induce hyperactivation of ERK- and JNK-dependent mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways. This may lead to mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This eventually leads to an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. IMMU-14 may be beneficial in the treatment of graft versus host disease (GVHD) as it appears to suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activation. As the Fc region of the orgnial IgG1 MoAb was replaced with the IgG4 isotype, IMMU-114 does not induce a complement cytotoxicity (CDC) or an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) . HLA-DR, a MHC class II molecule, is found on various B-cell hematologic malignancies and in autoimmune diseases as well as on normal cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-human chorionic gonadotropin vaccine
A peptide vaccine consisting of the whole or partial beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG), linked to an adjuvant carrier of bacterial or viral origin, with anti-fertility activity. Anti-human chorionic gonadotropin vaccine blocks the activity of hCG which is naturally produced by the trophectoderm of the pre-implantation embryo within a few days of fertilization. hCG is required for the maintenance of the corpus luteum in the ovary thus ensuring its continued production of progesterone, which is required for the successful completion of implantation of the blastocyst. Without progesterone, the corpus luteum regresses, and menstruation is initiated. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-human GITR monoclonal antibody TRX518
A humanized, Fc disabled anti-human glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) with immunomodulating activity. Anti-human GITR MoAb TRX518 blocks the interaction of GITR, found on multiple types of T cells, with its ligand, thereby inducing both the activation of tumor-antigen-specific T effector cells, as well as abrogating the suppression induced by inappropriately activated T regulatory cells. This agent is shown to act synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs in multiple cancer models. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-human integrin alpha v subunit monoclonal antibody EMD 525797
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human alpha v integrin subunit with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-human integrin alpha v subunit monoclonal antibody EMD 525797, a chimeric antibody which includes the antigen binding sites of the anti-integrin mouse antibody 17E6, binds to and inhibits the activity of alphavbeta3 integrin (vitronectin receptor); this may result in the inhibition of endothelial cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, and integrin-mediated tumor angiogenesis and metastasis in alphavbeta3-expressing tumor cells. Alphavbeta3 integrin, a cell adhesion and signaling receptor, is expressed on the surface of tumor vessel endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody BI-505
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 or CD54), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody BI-505 selectively binds to the adhesion protein ICAM-1, which may result in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), hyper-cross-linking-induced apoptosis, and a decrease in cellular proliferation of ICAM-1-expressing tumor cells. ICAM-1, normally expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells, may be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ICOS agonist antibody GSK3359609
An agonistic antibody for the inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS; CD278), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-ICOS agonist antibody GSK3359609 targets and binds to ICOS expressed on tumor infiltrating CD4-positive T cells. This stimulates ICOS-positive T-cell proliferation, enhances cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) survival and increases CTL-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. ICOS, a T-cell specific, CD28-superfamily costimulatory molecule and immune checkpoint protein, is normally expressed on certain activated T cells and plays a key role in the proliferation and activation of T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ICOS agonist monoclonal antibody BMS-986226
An agonistic monoclonal antibody that recognizes inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS; CD278), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-ICOS agonist monoclonal antibody BMS-986226 targets and binds to ICOS expressed on certain T cells. This stimulates ICOS-mediated signaling, induces proliferation of ICOS-positive T cells, enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) survival and augments the CTL-mediated immune response against tumor cells. ICOS, a T-cell-specific, CD28-superfamily co-stimulatory molecule and immune checkpoint protein, is normally expressed on certain activated T cells and plays a key role in the proliferation and activation of T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ICOS agonist monoclonal antibody JTX-2011
An agonistic humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS; CD278), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-ICOS agonist monoclonal antibody JTX-2011 targets and binds to ICOS expressed on certain T cells. This stimulates ICOS-mediated signaling, induces proliferation of ICOS-positive T cells, enhances cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) survival and augments the CTL-mediated immune response against tumor cells. ICOS, a T-cell specific, CD28-superfamily co-stimulatory molecule and immune checkpoint protein, is normally expressed on certain activated T cells and plays a key role in the proliferation and activation of T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody MEDI-570
An Fc-optimized humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS, CD278), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-ICOS MoAb MEDI-570 targets and binds to ICOS expressed on tumor infiltrating CD4-positive T-cells. This prevents the interaction between ICOS-positive T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which express the ICOS ligand (ICOSL). Blocking ICOS activation prevents the pDC-induced proliferation and accumulation of regulatory ICOS-positive T-cells (ICOS+ Tregs) and inhibits interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion by CD4+ infiltrating T-cells. This may abrogate Treg-mediated immune suppression and may enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. Fc optimization enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ICOS, a T-cell specific, CD28-superfamily costimulatory molecule and immune checkpoint protein, plays a key role in the proliferation and activation of T-cells. It is normally expressed on both activated CD4+ T-cells, which is a subset of memory T-cells (Tm), and follicular helper T-cells (Tfh). ICOS is highly expressed on Tregs infiltrating various tumors and its expression is associated with a poor prognosis; ICOS-positive Tregs play a key role in immune suppression and tumor immune evasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IGF1/2 monoclonal antibody MEDI-573
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IGF1/2 monoclonal antibody MEDI-573 inhibits IGF1- and IGF2-stimulated activation of membrane-bound IGF receptors and the subsequent triggering of proliferation and survival signaling pathways. This may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF1/2 ligands stimulate cell proliferation, enable oncogenic transformation, and suppress apoptosis; IGF1/2 signaling has been highly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody AVE1642
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R/CD221) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody AVE1642 specifically binds to and blocks membrane-bound IGF-1R, preventing the binding of the natural ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT signal transduction, which may result in the induction of apoptosis and a decrease in cellular proliferation. Activation of IGF-1R , a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily overexpressed by various cancer cell types, stimulates cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IGF-1R recombinant monoclonal antibody BIIB022
A recombinant, human monoclonal antibody directed against the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IGF-1R recombinant monoclonal antibody BIIB022 binds to membrane-bound IGF-1R, preventing binding of the ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent triggering of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of this survival signaling pathway may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R, a tyrosine kinase and a member of the insulin receptor family, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF-1R signaling has been highly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-1 alpha monoclonal antibody CA-18C3
A "true human" (cloned from human B lymphocytes) monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IL-1 alpha monoclonal antibody CA-18C3 binds to IL1a and may block the activity of IL1a. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator, plays a key role in interleukin-mediated tumor cell activity such as angiogenesis, tissue matrix remodeling, metastasis and tumor cell invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-13 humanized monoclonal antibody TNX-650
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-13 (IL-13) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IL-13 humanized monoclonal antibody TNX-650 binds to and blocks the activity of IL-13, which may result in the inhibition of Hodkin lympoma cell proliferation. IL-13 cytokine, an important mediator in allergic inflammation, may be an autocrine growth factor for Hodgkin lymphoma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody AMG 714
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody AMG 714 binds to and neutralizes IL-15, thereby preventing IL-15-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling. By inhibiting IL-15-mediated immune responses, AMG 714 decreases natural killer (NK) cell activation and proliferation, reduces T-cell infiltration, increases T-cell apoptosis, and may prevent the growth of IL-15-driven cancer cells. IL-15 plays a key role in inflammation and is associated with a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders as well as with cell proliferation in certain cancer types, such as T-cell lymphomas. IL-15 is required for the proliferation of certain T-cells and NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody CJM112
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody against the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 17A (IL-17A; IL-17), with potential anti-inflammatory activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody CJM112 selectively targets and binds to IL-17A, thereby neutralizing the IL-17A protein. This prevents binding of IL-17A to the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R), and inhibits IL-17A/IL-17R-mediated signaling and inflammation mediated by this pathway. IL-17A is mainly produced by inflammatory T helper 17 cells (Th17), and certain lymphocytes. IL-17A production is upregulated in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and multiple sclerosis (MS), and plays a key role in the development of inflammation and the immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-4/IL-13 combination agent QBX258
A combination agent composed of the two human monoclonal antibodies VAK694 (VAK296), targeting interleukin-4 (IL-4), and dectrekumab, targeting IL-13, that can potentially be used to block signaling mediated by IL-4 and IL-13. Upon intravenous administration of the anti-IL-4/IL-13 combination agent QBX258, the two antibodies VAK694 and dectrekumab target and block the activity of the two cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, respectively, which prevents IL-4/IL-13-mediated signaling. In patients with breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL), this agent may prevent lymphedema-associated effects, such as fibrosis, hyperkeratosis, the deposition of fibroadipose tissue, fluid accumulation, limb swelling, reduction of skin elasticity, and pain. By reducing the excess volume, QBX258 may improve lymphatic and arm functions. The development of lymphedema after lymphatic injury is associated with tissue inflammation, the infiltration of CD4-positive cells and their differentiation to the type 2 helper T-cell (Th2) phenotype. Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-13 that play a key role in the development of lymphedema-associated symptoms as well as other Th2-mediated diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-8 monoclonal antibody HuMax-IL8
A human monoclonal antibody against the pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin-8 (IL-8; CXCL8), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, HuMax-IL8 directly binds to IL-8, thereby inhibiting the binding of IL-8 to its receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. This inhibits activation of IL-8-mediated signaling transduction pathways, which decreases proliferation of susceptible tumor cells. Also, HuMax-IL8 effectively blocks binding of IL-8 to neutrophils and inhibits neutrophil activation and recruitment towards sites of inflammation, which reduces inflammation. IL-8, a member of the CXC chemokine family, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and inflammatory diseases; it plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, endothelial cell proliferation, and cancer stem cell (CSC) renewal. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ILDR2 monoclonal antibody BAY 1905254
A mouse/human cross-reactive immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) monoclonal antibody against the immune checkpoint immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 2 (ILDR2; Chromosome 1 Open Reading Frame 32; C1orf32), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, BAY 1905254 targets, binds to and inhibits ILDR2, thereby blocking the immunosuppressive activity of ILDR2. This prevents ILDR2-mediated inhibition of T-cell activities and induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells. ILDR2, a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the B7 family of immunomodulatory receptors, negatively regulates T-cell responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ILT4 monoclonal antibody MK-4830
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory immune checkpoint receptor immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4; leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 2; LILRB2; lymphocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 2; LIR2; monocyte/macrophage immunoglobulin-like receptor 10; MIR-10; CD85d), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-ILT4 monoclonal antibody MK-4830 targets and binds to ILT4. This prevents the binding of ILT4 ligands to their receptor and prevents ILT4-mediated signaling. This abrogates the immunosuppressive activities of ILT4 in the tumor microenvironment (TME), activates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and enhances a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response. ILT4, plays a key role in tumor immune evasion. ILT4, a transmembrane protein and inhibitory member of the immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) family of proteins, is expressed primarily by myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and granulocytes, and certain tumor cells.
anti-inflammatory antibody ALXN1007
A proprietary antibody that targets the complement inflammatory pathway with potential immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-inflammatory antibody ALXN1007 modulates the complement inflammatory pathway through binding to an as of yet undisclosed target. This may help in the treatment of certain inflammatory-mediated disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This agent may also influence the progression of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-inflammatory/antimicrobial/analgesic aqueous mouth rinse
A water-based proprietary mouthwash with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic activities. Upon rinsing with this mouthwash, the unspecified ingredients may help prevent or reduce the symptoms and severity of mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-integrin monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate IMGN388
An immunoconjugate consisting of an anti-integrin monoclonal antibody covalently attached to the maytansinoid DM4, a derivative of the cytotoxic agent maytansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-integrin monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate IMGN388 binds to tumor cell surface integrins; upon internalization, the DM4 moiety is released from the immunoconjugate, binding to tubulin and disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, which may result in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of integrin-expressing tumor cells. Integrins, a class of transmembrane cell surface receptors, link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to intracellular signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibody ALD518
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (Il-6) with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibody ALD518 binds to and blocks the activity of IL-6, which may mitigate the catabolic effects of IL-6. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-interleukin-1 alpha monoclonal antibody MABp1
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic, anti-cachectic and anti-angiogenic activities. Anti-IL1a monoclonal antibody MABp1 targets and binds to IL1a and prevents IL1a activity. This prevents IL1a-mediated tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. In addition, MABp1 abrogates IL1a-mediated cachexia. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator expressed on monocytes, platelets and overexpressed by certain tumors, plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, metastasis and invasion. In addition, IL1a stimulates metabolic activity in the central nervous system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-KIR monoclonal antibody IHP 2101
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the human inhibitory killer IgG-like receptor (KIR) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-KIR monoclonal antibody IPH 2101 binds to the KIR receptor expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells, which may prevent KIR-mediated inhibition of NK cells and permit NK cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity. KIRs are surface glycoproteins that bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I subtypes on target cells; binding of KIRs inhibits NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-KIR3DL2 monoclonal antibody IPH4102
A humanized monoclonal antibody against the immune receptor human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 2 (KIR3DL2), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-KIR3DL2 monoclonal antibody IPH4102 binds to KIR3DL2 expressed on certain tumor cells. This recruits natural killer (NK) cells and leads to lysis of KIR3DL2-expressing tumor cells. In addition, IPH4102 induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), thereby further eliminating tumor cells. KIR3DL2, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and inhibitory receptor of the KIR family, is specifically expressed in most subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) and expressed only on a fraction of normal NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-K-RAS G12D mTCR-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding for an HLA class I histocompatibility antigen A*11:01 (HLA-A1101)-restricted murine T-cell receptor (mTCR) that recognizes the glycine (Gly, G) to aspartic acid (Asp, D) point mutation at position 12 (G12D) variant of K-RAS (KRAS), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. HLA-A1101-positive PBLs are harvested from a K-RAS G12D-expressing cancer patient and transfected with a retroviral vector that encodes anti-K-RAS G12D mTCR. The transduced PBLs are then expanded in culture. When reintroduced to the patient, these anti-K-RAS G12D mTCR-expressing PBLs target and bind to K-RAS G12D-overexpressing tumor cells, which results in both cytokine secretion, including interferon-gamma (IFN-g), and tumor cell lysis. K-RAS, a member of the RAS family of oncogenes, serves an important role in cell signaling, division and differentiation. Mutation of K-RAS may induce constitutive signal transduction leading to tumor cell growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-K-RAS G12V mTCR-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with an HLA class I histocompatibility antigen A*11:01 (HLA-A1101)-restricted murine T-cell receptor (mTCR) that recognizes the glycine to valine point mutation at position 12 (G12V) variant of K-RAS, with potential antineoplastic activity. HLA-A1101 positive PBLs are harvested from a K-RAS G12V-expressing cancer patient and transfected with a retroviral vector that encodes anti-K-RAS G12V mTCR. The transduced PBLs are then expanded in culture. When reintroduced to the patient, these anti-K-RAS G12V mTCR-expressing PBLs target and bind to K-RAS G12V-overexpressing tumor cells, which results in both cytokine secretion and tumor cell lysis. K-RAS, a member of the RAS family of oncogenes, serves an important role in cell signaling, division and differentiation. Mutation of K-RAS may induce constitutive signal transduction leading to tumor cell growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody BI 754111
A monoclonal antibody directed against the antigen lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; CD223). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody LAG525
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody LAG525 binds to LAG-3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and expressed on various immune cells, negatively regulates cellular proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody MK-4280
A humanized, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein (LAG3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody MK-4280 binds to LAG3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells, and negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody REGN3767
A monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein (LAG-3; LAG3; CD223), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody REGN3767 binds to LAG-3 expressed by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks LAG-3 binding to tumor cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. This may activate antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells; its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression and the negative regulation of both cellular proliferation and T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody Sym022
A recombinant, human Fc-inert monoclonal antibody targeting lymphocyte-activation gene 3 protein (LAG-3; LAG3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, monoclonal antibody Sym022 binds to human LAG-3 and blocks the interaction between LAG-3 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and tumor cells. This prevents the negative regulation of T-cell activity that occurs via LAG-3-MHCII binding and enhances a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. Additionally, Sym022 decreases LAG-3 surface levels through internalization and shredding. LAG-3 plays a key role in the activation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody TSR-033
A humanized, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3; LAG-3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody TSR-033 binds to LAG3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells, and negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3/PD-L1 bispecific antibody FS118
A bispecific antibody directed against two immune checkpoint proteins, the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3; LAG-3) and the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. FS118 is generated by incorporating an anti-LAG-3 Fc-region with antigen binding (Fcab) into a PD-L1-specific antibody. Upon administration, FS118 simultaneously targets and binds to LAG3 expressed on T-cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. This prevents LAG3- and PD-L1-mediated signaling, reverses T-cell inactivation, activates the immune system and enhances cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune responses against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells, which together lead to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) on activated T-cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T-cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAMP1 antibody-drug conjugate SAR428926
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a monoclonal antibody against lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) conjugated, via the disulfide-containing cleavable linker N-succinimidyl-4-(2-pyridyldithio)butyrate (SPDB), to the cytotoxic maytansinoid DM4, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-LAMP1 ADC SAR428926, the anti-LAMP1 monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to the cell surface antigen LAMP1. After antibody-antigen interaction and internalization, the SPDB linker is selectively cleaved by proteases in the cytosol and the DM4 moiety is released. DM4 binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, thereby inhibiting both cell division and cell growth of LAMP1-expressing tumor cells. LAMP1, overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells, plays a key role in cell-cell adhesion and migration. The SPDB linker is resistant to cleavage in the bloodstream, which may increase stability and reduce toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LeY-CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Lewis-Y (LeY), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-LeY-CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and induce selective toxicity in LeY-expressing tumor cells. LeY, a difucosylated carbohydrate antigen, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LGR5 monoclonal antibody BNC101
A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-LGR5 humanized monoclonal antibody BNC101 targets and binds to LGR5, thereby inhibiting LGR5-mediated signal transduction pathways. This prevents proliferation of LGR5-expressing tumor cells. LGR5, a member of the Wnt signaling pathway, is a cancer stem cell (CSC) receptor overexpressed on certain cancer cells; it plays a key role in CSC proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LIF monoclonal antibody MSC-1
A humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody against leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, monoclonal antibody MSC-1 binds to LIF and inhibits LIF signaling by blocking the recruitment of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) to the LIF-LIF receptor (LIFR)-gp130 signaling complex. This inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and inhibits tumor cell growth. In addition, the inhibition of LIF signaling abrogates the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) by decreasing immunosuppressive M2 macrophages and allows for the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumor cells. LIF, a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, is involved in many physiological and pathological processes and plays an important role in both creating the TME and promoting the activity of cancer-initiating cells (CICs). LIF is overexpressed in many tumor cell types and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LIV-1 monoclonal antibody-MMAE conjugate SGN-LIV1A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the anti-solute carrier family 39 zinc transporter member 6 (SLC39A6; LIV-1; ZIP6) protein that is conjugated, via a protease-cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and internalization by LIV-1-positive tumor cells, anti-LIV-1 antibody-drug conjugate SGN-LIV1A undergoes enzymatic cleavage to release MMAE into the cytosol. In turn, MMAE binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization, which may result in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in LIV-1-expressing tumor cells. LIV-1, a member of the zinc transporter family, is expressed in several types of solid tumors and plays a key role in tumor cell progression and metastasis. The linkage system in SGN-LIV1A is highly stable in plasma, resulting in cytotoxic specificity against LIV-1-positive cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LOXL2 monoclonal antibody GS-6634
A humanized monoclonal antibody against lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-LOXL2 monoclonal antibody AB0024 targets and specifically binds to the scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain 4 (SRCR-4) on LOXL2, thereby preventing the crosslinking of collagen and inhibiting the recruitment and activation of fibroblasts. Inhibiting fibroblast activation and the subsequent production of growth factors and chemokines may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LOXL2, a member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family, is an extracellular, copper-dependent enzyme overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, and contributes to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Ly6E antibody-drug conjugate DLYE5953A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of an antibody against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus E (Ly6E) and linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the antibody moiety of DLYE5953A targets and binds to Ly6E expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action, the Ly6E-expressing cancer cells. Ly6E, an interferon (IFN)-inducible glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell membrane protein, is expressed on a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MASP-2 monoclonal antibody OMS721
A monoclonal antibody against mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), with potential anti-thrombotic and immunomodulating activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, OMS721 binds to and inhibits MASP-2. This prevents the activation of MASP-2, the cleavage of certain complement components, and the activation of the complement lectin pathway. This inhibits complement deposition and complement-induced thrombus formation. MASP-2, a pro-inflammatory protein, plays a key role in the activation of the lectin complement pathway, which is a key component in the immune system, and is associated with complement-mediated diseases, such as thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), which includes hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)-related TMA, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Anti-M-CSF monoclonal antibody MCS110
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. Anti-M-CSF monoclonal antibody MCS110 binds to M-CSF and blocks M-CSF-mediated signaling through the M-CSF receptor CD116 expressed on osteoclasts, which may result in inhibition of M-CSF-induced osteoclast differentiation and so osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts are derived through the fusion of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoblasts and stromal cells may react to bone metastases by producing M-CSF and its osteoclastogenic cofactor RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin antibody-drug conjugate BMS-986148
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein mesothelin and conjugated to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic drug, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of anti-mesothelin ADC BMS-986148 targets and binds to the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin. Upon internalization, the cytotoxic agent kills or prevents cellular proliferation of mesothelin-expressing tumor cells through an as of yet undescribed mechanism of action. Mesothelin is overexpressed by all mesotheliomas and a variety of other cancers, while it is minimally expressed in normal tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin CAR vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mesothelin single chain variable fragment (scFv), the intracellular CD3 zeta T-cell receptor domain and the 4-1BB (cd137) costimulatory domain, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After isolation, transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-mesothelin CAR vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and kill mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin cytolytic fusion protein LMB-100
An anti-mesothelin (MSLN) recombinant cytolytic fusion protein (cFP) composed of a humanized Fab fragment of anti-MSLN monoclonal antibody SS1 linked to a truncated and de-immunized 24 kDa fragment of the Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) (PE24), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of anti-MSLN-PE24 cFP LMB-100, the anti-MSLN moiety targets and binds to MSLN-expressing tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization through endocytosis, the toxin moiety ADP-ribosylates and inactivates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), preventing the elongation step of protein synthesis and leading to both an inhibition of protein synthesis and an induction of MSLN-expressing tumor cell apoptosis. MSLN, a tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and migration. The engineered PE24 portion of LMB-100 does contain the targeting domain and furin cleavage site, which are needed for cytotoxicity, but most of the translocation domain II is deleted and the catalytic domain III contains point mutations, which result in the deletion and silencing of most T- and B-cell epitopes; therefore, the immunogenicity and toxicity is reduced compared to non-engineered PE toxin, which allows for the administration of larger doses of LMB-100. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin iCasp9M28z CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for mesothelin linked to the signaling domains for the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD3 zeta, as well as the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9 or iC9), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-mesothelin iCasp9M28z CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and kill mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If administration of the T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, a dimerizing agent can be administered which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug-binding domain and activates caspase 9, resulting in the apoptosis of the administered T-cells. Mesothelin, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin-CAR mRNA-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous chimeric immune receptor (CIR) T cells transfected with anti-mesothelin chimeric T cell receptor mRNA, with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-mesothelin mRNA encodes a single chain antibody variable fragment (ScFv), the intracellular CD 3 zeta T cell receptor domain and the 4-1BB (cd137) costimulatory domain. Upon intravenous administration, the anti-mesothelin-CAR mRNA-transduced autologous T lymphocytes may attach to cancer cells expressing mesothelin. This may stimulate the secretion of multiple cytokines and may result in cell lysis of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells. Mesothelin is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion and is overexpressed in many epithelial-derived cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Met monoclonal antibody mixture Sym015
A mixture of two humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibodies, Hu9006 and Hu9338, which recognize non-overlapping epitopes in the extracellular domain of the human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET; HGFR; c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MET monoclonal antibody mixture Sym015 targets and binds to the extracellular domain of MET, thereby preventing the binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This may prevent activation of the receptor and MET-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits MET-dependent tumor cell proliferation. MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types; it plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Met/EGFR monoclonal antibody LY3164530
A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-Met/EGFR MoAb LY3164530 targets and prevents the activation of EGFR and c-Met. This leads to a downstream inhibition of EGFR/c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways, and prevents cellular proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing EGFR and c-Met. EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surface of various solid tumor cell types. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antimetabolite FF-10502
An antimetabolite with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, FF-10502 is able to enter the nucleus where it inhibits DNA polymerases, thereby preventing DNA synthesis and halting tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-minor histocompatibility complex donor T lymphocytes
A preparation of allogeneic, donor-derived T lymphocytes that are specific for a unique set of minor histocompatibility complex antigens (MiHA) exclusively found on the surface of malignant cells, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. T lymphocytes are derived from an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) donor. Ex vivo, these T cells are exposed to and primed against a select set of host-specific hematopoietic tissue-restricted MiHAs that are expressed on leukemic cells. Then the cells are subsequently expanded. After AHCT and infusion of the anti-MiHA T lymphocytes, these cells target and bind to MiHA antigens expressed on the host's leukemia cells, thereby killing these cancer cells. MiHA are small, cell-surface peptides that are associated with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The selected set of MiHAs is expressed mainly, or only, by hematopoietic cells, and overexpressed on leukemic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MMP-9 monoclonal antibody GS-5745
A humanized monoclonal antibody against matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MMP-9 monoclonal antibody GS-5745 binds to MMP-9 and inhibits its enzymatic activity. This results in an inhibition of extracellular matrix protein degradation and, potentially, the inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. MMP-9, a protein belonging to the MMP family, plays a key role in the degradation of collagens and proteoglycans; increased activity of MMP-9 has been associated with increased invasion and metastasis of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC1 CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) against the human tumor-associated epithelial antigen mucin 1 (MUC1), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous PBLs from a patient with MUC1-positive cancer are transduced with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for MUC1. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, anti-MUC1 CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes target and induce selective toxicity in MUC1-expressing tumor cells. MUC-1 is a human, hypoglycosylated tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC16/CD3 BiTE antibody REGN4018
A human bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human mucin 16 (MUC16; cancer antigen 125; CA125; FLJ14303), and one directed against human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MUC16/CD3 BiTE antibody REGN4018 binds to both CD3 on T cells and MUC16 expressed on tumor cells. This results in the cross-linking of T cells and tumor cells, and induces a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against MUC16-expressing tumor cells. MUC16, a member of the mucin family of glycoproteins, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC16/MMAE antibody-drug conjugate DMUC4064A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against human mucin 16 (MUC16; cancer antigen 125; CA125; FLJ14303) conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and potent microtubule disrupting agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MUC16/MMAE ADC DMUC4064A binds to MUC16 located on the tumor cell surface. After internalization of the agent, the MMAE moiety is released and binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. MUC16, a member of the mucin family glycoproteins, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-myeloma monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate BT-062
An immunoconjugate consisting of a monoclonal antibody directed against a highly-expressed myleoma cell surface antigen covalently attached to the maytansinoid DM4, a derivative of the cytotoxic agent maytansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-myeloma monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate BT-062 binds to an unspecified cell surface antigen highly expressed on myeloma cells; upon internaliization the DM4 moiety is released, binding to tubulin and disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, which may result in the inhibition of cell division and cell growth of myeloma tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-myostatin monoclonal antibody LY2495655
A monoclonal antibody against myostatin (MSTN) with potential anti-cachexia activity. Upon administration, anti-myostatin monoclonal antibody LY2495655 binds to and neutralizes the MSTN protein, thereby blocking the MSTN signalling pathway. This may help decrease muscle protein breakdown and muscle weakness and may attenuate cancer cachexia. MSTN, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, is a negative regulator of muscle growth and development.
anti-NaPi2b monoclonal antibody XMT-1535
A proprietary humanized monoclonal antibody against human sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2B (SLC34A2; NaPi2b), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of XMT-1535, the antibody targets and binds to NaPi2b expressed on tumor cells. Although the tumor cell killing effects of XMT-1535 are not established, this binding may induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediated immune response against NaPi2b-expressing tumor cells, and/or may inhibit NaPi2b-mediated sodium and phosphate ion cotransport activity and ion-dependent tumor cell signaling. NaPi2b, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on a variety of tumor cells. It plays a key role in the transport of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-NaPi2b/MMAE antibody-drug conjugate DNIB0600A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against the sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2B (NaPi2b), and covalently linked to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule disrupting agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of DNIB0600A binds to NaPi2b-expressing tumor cells and is internalized, thereby delivering MMAE intracellularly. Proteolytic cleavage releases MMAE, which then binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. NaPi2b, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in transport of inorganic phosphate and the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Nectin-4 monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate AGS-22M6E
An antibody drug conjugate (ADC) containing a fully human monoclonal antibody AGS-22 targeting the cell adhesion molecule nectin-4 and conjugated, via a proprietary enzyme-cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) (AGS-22M6E), with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of AGS-22M6E selectively binds to nectin-4. After internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and induces apoptosis in nectin-4 overexpressing tumor cells. Nectin-4, a tumor associated antigen belonging to the nectin family, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including breast, bladder, lung and pancreatic cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplastic agent combination SM-88
An orally bioavailable, proprietary combination of four agents with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the four agents and their exact mechanisms of action are not publicly known, the components of SM-88 appear, upon oral administration, to work synergistically to increase the amount of free radicals in cancer cells, thereby inducing oxidative stress and selective killing of the cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplastic agent TRX-818
An orally bioavailable agent with potential antineoplastic and anti-vasculogenic mimicry (VM) activities. Although the exact multiple mechanisms of action through which this agent exerts its effects have yet to be fully elucidated, TRX-818, upon oral administration appears to induce cancer cell apoptosis and inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This agent also prevents tumor cell VM by blocking the formation of vasculogenic-like tubular structures through an as of yet undetermined mechanism of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplaston A10
A piperidinedione antineoplaston with potential antineoplastic activity. Antineoplaston A10 was originally isolated from human urine but is now synthetically derived. This agent intercalates into DNA, resulting in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, reduction of mitosis, and decreased protein synthesis. Antineoplaston A10 may also inhibit ras-oncogene expression and activate tumor suppressor gene p53, leading to cell differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplaston AS2-1
A 4:1 mixture of phenylacetate and phenylacetylgluatmine, degradation products of the antineoplaston agent A10. Antineoplaston AS2-1 inhibits the incorporation of L-glutamine into tumor-cell proteins, leading to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and inhibition of mitosis. This agent may also inhibit RAS oncogene expression and activate tumor suppressor gene p53, resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-neuropilin-1 monoclonal antibody MNRP1685A
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against neuropilin-1 (NRP1), with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, MNRP1685A specifically targets and binds to NRP1; the antibody-NRP1 complex prevents the subsequent coupling of NRP1 to VEGFR2, thereby potentially inhibiting VEGF-mediated signaling and potentially preventing angiogenesis. In combination with other anti-VEGF therapies, MNRP1685A may enhance their anti-angiogenic effect. NRP1 is a membrane-bound co-receptor normally expressed by endothelial cells and overexpressed by certain tumor cells, and plays a role in angiogenesis, cell survival, migration, and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-nf-P2X7 antibody ointment BIL-010t
An ointment formulation composed of a purified sheep immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody against the non-functional form of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (nf-P2X7), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon topical application of the anti-nf-P2X7 antibody ointment BIL-010t, the antibody binds to nf-P2X7 and inhibits its antiapoptotic activity. This may induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of nf-P2X7-overexpressing cancer cells. P2X7, an ATP-gated cation-selective channel, plays a role in the induction of apoptosis; nf-P2X7, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types while not expressed on normal, healthy cells and is unable to form a large transmembrane, apoptotic pore upon exposure to ATP and prevents apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-nucleolin aptamer AS1411
A 26-base guanine-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer with potential apoptotic induction activity. Upon administration, anti-nucleolin aptamer AS1411 targets and binds to nucleolin, a nucleolar phosphoprotein which is overexpressed on the surface of certain cancer cells. Via binding to cell surface nucleolin, AS1411 is internalized and may prevent nucleolin from binding to and stabilizing mRNA of the anti-apoptotic BCL2, thereby destabilizing BCL2 mRNA, leading to a reduction in BCL2 protein synthesis. This may lead to the induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR LV-transduced autologous T cells TAEST16001
A preparation of human autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced with a lentiviral vector (LV) encoding an affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR LV-transduced autologous T cells TAEST16001 recognize and bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of NY-ESO-1-positive tumor cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types, and is not, or is minimally, expressed in normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)