- A drug that comes from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius and is used alone or with other drugs to treat many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, sarcoma, Wilms tumor, and certain cancers of the lung, breast, stomach, ovary, thyroid, and bladder. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Doxorubicin hydrochloride damages the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells. It also blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Doxorubicin is the active ingredient of doxorubicin hydrochloride. Also called Adriamycin and hydroxydaunorubicin.