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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


66 results found for:       [0-9]



1-(2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro-ß-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil    listen   (1-(2'-dee-OK-see-2'-FLOOR-oh-BAY-tuh-D-uh-RA-bih-noh-fyoor-A-noh-sil) YOOR-uh-sil)
A substance being studied in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. It blocks the growth of cells and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of uracil analog. Also called FAU.

1-methyl-d-tryptophan    listen   (1-MEH-thul-d-TRIP-toh-fan)
A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma and many other types of cancer. 1-methyl-d-tryptophan blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells. Giving 1-methyl-d-tryptophan to patients who have received chemotherapy for cancer may help kill more tumor cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor and immunosuppressant. Also called D-1MT.

10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin    listen   (10-proh-PAR-jil-10-dee-AY-zuh-a-mih-NOP-teh-rin)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.

11C topotecan    listen   (... toh-poh-TEE-kan)
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and lung cancer. 11C topotecan is a radioactive form of the anticancer drug topotecan. It builds up in tumor tissues and is detected by positron emission tomography (PET). It may be used to help determine whether treatment with topotecan will work. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate    listen   (12-O-TEH-truh-DEH-kuh-noyl-FOR-bol-13-A-seh-tayt)
A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and TPA.

123I-MIBG      
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. 123I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called AdreView, iobenguane I 123, and iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

126–F      
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126–F have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126–F is not available in the United States. Also called Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–101, JS–114, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.

13-cis retinoic acid    listen   (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid)
A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.

131I-MIBG      
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 131 that is used to find or treat certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. It is also used to relieve pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Radiation from the I 131 may help kill cancer cells or show where they are in the body. 131I-MIBG is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called iobenguane I 131 and iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

1572 form    listen   (… form)
A form that must be filed by an investigator running a clinical trial to study a new drug or agent. The investigator agrees to follow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Code of Federal Regulations for the clinical trial. The investigator verifies that he or she has the experience and background needed to conduct the trial and that it will be done in a way that is ethical and scientifically sound. Also called Form FDA 1572-Statement of Investigator.

17-AAG      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-AAG helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and tanespimycin.

17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin    listen   (17-dy-MEH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-EH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-17-dee-meh-THOK-see-gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin)
17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.

17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin    listen   (17-N-A-lul-uh-MEE-noh-17-DEE-meh-THOK-see-gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and tanespimycin.

18F-choline    listen   (... KOH-leen)
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-choline gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-choline. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromethylcholine, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-EF5      
A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.

18F-FLT      
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 18F-FLT is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine and fluorothymidine F 18.

18F-fluoromethylcholine    listen   (… FLOOR-oh-MEH-thul-KOH-leen)
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-fluoromethylcholine gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-fluoromethylcholine. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-fluoromisonidazole    listen   (… FLOOR-oh-MY-soh-NIH-duh-zole)
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-fluoromisonidazole is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-fluoromisonidazole in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-fluoromisonidazole is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-MISO and FMISO.

18F-FMCH      
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-FMCH gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-FMCH. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-fluoromethylcholine, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.

18F-MISO      
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-MISO is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-MISO in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-MISO is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromisonidazole and FMISO.

1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging    listen   (... NOO-klee-er mag-NEH-tik REH-zuh-nunts SPEK-troh-SKAH-pik IH-muh-jing)
A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spatial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, MRSI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

2-methoxyestradiol    listen   (2-meh-THOK-see-es-truh-DY-ol)
2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.

21-gene signature    listen   (… jeen SIG-nuh-cher)
A test that is used to help predict whether breast cancer will spread to other parts of the body or come back. The test looks at the activity of 21 different genes in breast cancer tissue of women who have early-stage breast cancer that is estrogen receptor positive and has not spread to the lymph nodes. If there is a high risk that the cancer will spread or come back, it may be used to help plan treatment with anticancer drugs. Also called Oncotype DX breast cancer assay.

2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170    listen   (… MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee …)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking a monoclonal antibody called 170, which binds to a protein called MUC-1, to a substance called 2IT-BAD, which binds radioactive substances. 2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 may be used to detect cancer cells and kill them. It is a type of immunoconjugate.

3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging    listen   (3 TES-luh mag-NEH-tik REH-zuh-nunts IH-muh-jing)
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla MRI and 3T MRI.

3 Tesla MRI    listen   (3 TES-luh …)
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3T MRI.

3,4-benzpyrene    listen   (... benz-PY-reen)
A chemical that comes from certain substances when they are not burned completely. It is found in car exhaust, smoke from wood fires, tobacco, oil and gas products, charred or grilled foods, and other sources. It may also be found in water and soil. 3,4-Benzpyrene can cause a skin rash, a burning feeling, skin color changes, warts, and bronchitis. It may also cause cancer. It is a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Also called benzo(a)pyrene.

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone    listen   (3-uh-MEE-noh-PEER-ih-deen-2-KAR-bok-SAL-deh-hide THY-oh-SEH-mee KAR-buh-ZONE)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-AP and Triapine.

3-AP      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and Triapine.

3-D      
A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-dimensional.

3-dimensional    listen   (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul)
A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-D.

3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy    listen   (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul kun-FOR-mul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional radiation therapy and 3D-CRT.

3-dimensional radiation therapy    listen   (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and 3D-CRT.

3D-CRT      
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and 3-dimensional radiation therapy.

3F8      
A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.

3T MRI      
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3T MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3 Tesla MRI.

3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine    listen   (… dee-OK-see … FLOOR-oh-THY-mih-DEEN)
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 18F-FLT and fluorothymidine F 18.

4-demethoxydaunorubicin    listen   (4-DEE-meh-THOK-see-DAW-noh-ROO-bih-sin)
A drug used with other drugs to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 4-demethoxydaunorubicin blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Idamycin and idarubicin hydrochloride.

4-hydroxytamoxifen    listen   (4-hy-DROK-see-tuh-MOK-sih-FEN)
A form of the drug tamoxifen that is made by the body after taking tamoxifen. It can also be made in the laboratory, and may help decrease breast density. A topical form of 4-hydroxytamoxifen is being studied in breast cancer screening.

4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide    listen   (4-NY-troh-KWIH-noh-leen 1-OK-side)
A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-NQO.

4-NQO      
A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

45 CFR 46      
Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.

45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46    listen   (... FEH-drul REH-gyoo-LAY-shunz ...)
Laws set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to protect a person from risks in research studies that any federal agency or department has a part in. Also called 45 CFR 46, human participant protection regulations, and Protection of Human Subjects.

5-alpha reductase inhibitor    listen   (5-AL-fuh ree-DUK-tays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks an enzyme needed by the body to make dihydrotestosterone (a male sex hormone made from testosterone). Dihydrotestosterone can cause the prostate to grow. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are used to shrink an enlarged prostate gland and to improve the flow of urine in a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor.

5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine    listen   (5-FLOOR-oh-2-dee-OK-see-SY-tih-deen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may prevent the growth of tumors by stopping cancer cells from dividing and by killing them. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called FdCyd.

5-fluorouracil    listen   (5-FLOOR-oh-YOOR-uh-sil)
A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. 5-fluorouracil stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-FU, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil.

5-FU      
A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. 5-FU stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil.

5-HT3 receptor antagonist    listen   (… reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid    listen   (5-hy-DROK-see-IN-dole-uh-SEE-tik A-sid)
5HIAA. A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

5-hydroxytryptamine    listen   (5-hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen)
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called serotonin.

5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist    listen   (5-hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen 3 reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist.

504 plan    listen   (… plan)
An education plan for students with disabilities or certain health conditions, such as cancer. By law, these students must have the same access to school programs and activities as students without disabilities. A 504 plan may include extra help in the classroom, such as allowing the student more time to take a test or finish an assignment, or to use a computer or tape recorder. It may also include tutoring and other services, such as speech therapy and physical therapy. It is covered under the U.S. law, Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

506U78      
A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called Arranon and nelarabine.

5FU/LV      
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat colorectal cancer. It is also used with radiation therapy to treat esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Also called FU-LV and FU-LV regimen.

5Q minus syndrome    listen   (...MY-nus SIN-drome)
A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q- syndrome.

5Q- syndrome    listen   (...SIN-drome)
A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q minus syndrome.

6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene    listen   (6-hy-DROK-see-MEH-thul-AY-sel-FUL-veen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene attaches to the cell's DNA and may block cancer cell growth. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called irofulven.

70-gene signature    listen   (… jeen SIG-nuh-cher)
A test that is used to help predict whether breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body or come back. The test looks at the activity of 70 different genes in breast cancer tissue of women who have early-stage breast cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes. If there is a high risk that the cancer will spread or come back, it may be used to help plan treatment with anticancer drugs. Also called MammaPrint.

852A      
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain adult and childhood blood cancers and other types of cancer. 852A may help the patient's immune system block tumor growth. It is a type of immune system modulator.

9-cis retinoic acid    listen   (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid)
A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of retinoid.

90Y-DOTA-biotin    listen   (… BY-oh-tin)
A compound that contains the radioisotope yttrium Y 90 linked to the chemical biotin. Biotin is a molecule that binds strongly to the chemical streptavidin. 90Y-DOTA-biotin will find tumor cells in the body that have been targeted by an antibody linked to streptavidin and kill them. It is being studied together with CC49-streptavidin in the treatment of cancer. Also called yttrium Y 90 DOTA-biotin.

99m-Tc-Dx      
A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have 99m-Tc-Dx in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc-99m Dextran and technetium Tc 99m dextran.

9cUAB30      
A substance being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It blocks an enzyme that keeps cells alive by adding material to the ends of chromosomes. Blocking this enzyme may cause the cancer cells to die. 9cUAB30 is a type of retinoic acid and a type of telomerase inhibitor.

9p21      
A specific part of chromosome 9 called p21, which has a gene that may be involved in stopping tumor cell growth. In some types of cancer cells, including bladder cancer cells, this small part of chromosome 9 may be missing. This may cause cancer cell growth. Checking for 9p21 may help diagnose cancer or find out if cancer has come back. 9p21 is a type of tumor marker.

[18F]-labeled substance P antagonist receptor quantifier    listen   (… LAY-buld SUB-stunts P an-TA-guh-nist reh-SEP-ter KWAN-tih-FY-er)
A radiolabeled substance being studied in PET imaging of the brain. It is also being studied as a way to find where cancer cells have spread in patients with pancreatic cancer. It binds to cell receptors for substance P, also known as neurokinin-1, which is found on nerve cells and on some types of cancer cells, such as pancreatic cancer cells. [18F]-labeled substance P antagonist receptor quantifier is a type of PET radioligand and a type of radiolabeled neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist.

[18F]SPA-RQ      
A radiolabeled substance being studied in PET imaging of the brain. It is also being studied as a way to find where cancer cells have spread in patients with pancreatic cancer. It binds to cell receptors for substance P.

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