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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


359 results found for:       E



e-cigarette    listen   (… SIH-guh-ret)
A device that has the shape of a cigarette, cigar, or pen and does not contain tobacco. It uses a battery and contains a solution of nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals, some of which may be harmful. When e-cigarettes are used, the nicotine solution turns into a mist that can be inhaled into the lungs. The amount of nicotine in individual e-cigarettes can vary. It is not yet known whether e-cigarettes are safe or if they can be used to help smokers quit smoking. Also called electronic cigarette.

E7070      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called sulfonamides.

E7389      
A drug used to treat metastatic breast cancer in patients who have already been treated with other chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. E7389 may block cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitubulin agents. Also called eribulin mesylate and Halaven.

early menopause    listen   (... MEH-nuh-pawz)
A condition in which the ovaries stop working and menstrual periods stop before age 40. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn’t had a period for 12 months in a row. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility. Early menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions. Also called premature menopause, premature ovarian failure, and primary ovarian insufficiency.

early-stage breast cancer    listen   (ER-lee-stayj brest KAN-ser)
Breast cancer that has not spread beyond the breast or the axillary lymph nodes. This includes ductal carcinoma in situ and stage I, stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIIA breast cancers.

early-stage cancer    listen   (ER-lee-stayj KAN-ser)
A term used to describe cancer that is early in its growth, and may not have spread to other parts of the body. What is called early stage may differ between cancer types.

Eastern red cedar    listen   (EE-stern red SEE-der)
A type of evergreen tree with hard fragrant wood that is a member of the cypress family. The oil from the wood is used in soaps, shampoos, bath salts, perfumes, aromatherapy, and to keep insects away. The scientific name is Juniperus virginiana. Also called cedarwood and red cedar.

EBV      
A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also called Epstein-Barr virus.

ecchymosis    listen   (EH-kih-MOH-sis)
A small bruise caused by blood leaking from broken blood vessels into the tissues of the skin or mucous membranes.

eccrine gland    listen   (EK-rin ...)
A type of simple sweat gland that is found in almost all regions of the skin. These glands produce sweat that reaches the surface of the skin by way of coiled ducts (tubes). The body is cooled as sweat evaporates from the skin.

ECG      
A line graph that shows changes in the electrical activity of the heart over time. It is made by an instrument called an electrocardiograph. The graph can show that there are abnormal conditions, such as blocked arteries, changes in electrolytes (particles with electrical charges), and changes in the way electrical currents pass through the heart tissue. Also called EKG and electrocardiogram.

echinacea    listen   (EH-kih-NAY-shuh)
An herb native to North America that has been used to prevent and treat the common cold and other respiratory infections. Echinacea may interfere with treatment that uses the immune system to fight cancer. The scientific names are Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Also called purple coneflower.

echocardiography    listen   (EH-koh-KAR-dee-AH-gruh-fee)
A procedure that uses ultrasonic waves directed over the chest wall to obtain a graphic record of the heart's position, motion of the walls, or internal parts such as the valves.

ecologic study    listen   (EE-kuh-LAH-jik STUH-dee)
A study that compares large groups of people instead of individuals for differences in things such as cancer rates. The groups can differ by location (for example, city, county, or country). They can also differ by time (a few days, years, or decades). Groups can be immigrants (compared with people who are native to the country) or people with different types of jobs. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program conducts ecologic studies to collect information on cancer rates over time in certain parts of the United States. Also called ecological study.

ecological study    listen   (EE-kuh-LAH-jih-kul STUH-dee)
A study that compares large groups of people instead of individuals for differences in things such as cancer rates. The groups can differ by location (for example, city, county, or country). They can also differ by time (a few days, years, or decades). Groups can be immigrants (compared with people who are native to the country) or people with different types of jobs. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program conducts ecological studies to collect information on cancer rates over time in certain parts of the United States. Also called ecologic study.

ECT      
A treatment for severe depression and certain mental disorders. A brief seizure is induced by giving electrical stimulation to the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp. Also called electroconvulsive therapy and electroshock therapy.

ecteinascidin 743    listen   (ek-TIH-nuh-SY-din …)
A substance that comes from a type of sea squirt and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to DNA and causes breaks in the DNA. It also blocks the ability of the cell to repair the DNA damage, and may cause cancer cells to die. Ecteinascidin 743 is also made in the laboratory. It is a type of DNA excision repair inhibitor. Also called ET-743 and trabectedin.

ectocervical    listen   (EK-toh-SER-vih-kul)
Having to do with the part of the cervix that protrudes into the vagina and is lined with epithelial cells.

ectomesenchymoma    listen   (EK-toh-MEH-zen-ky-MOH-muh)
A rare, fast-growing tumor of the nervous system or soft tissue that occurs in children and young adults. Ectomesenchymomas may form in the head and neck, abdomen, perineum, scrotum, or limbs. Also called malignant ectomesenchymoma.

ectopic pregnancy    listen   (ek-TAH-pik PREG-nun-see)
A condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside of the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. Symptoms include sharp pain on one side of the abdomen and bleeding from the vagina. Also called extrauterine pregnancy.

eculizumab    listen   (ek-yoo-LIH-zoo-mab)
A drug used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with a rare red blood cell disorder called paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). It is also used to treat another rare disorder called atypical hemolytic urea syndrome (aHUS), in which blood clots form in small blood vessels. Eculizumab binds to an immune system protein called C5. This helps keep red blood cells from breaking down and helps keep blood clots from forming. Eculizumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Soliris.

eczema    listen   (EK-zeh-muh)
A group of conditions in which the skin becomes inflamed, forms blisters, and becomes crusty, thick, and scaly. Eczema causes burning and itching, and may occur over a long period of time. Atopic dermatitis is the most common type of eczema.

edatrexate    listen   (EH-duh-TREK-sayt)
An anticancer drug that belongs to a family of drugs called antimetabolites.

edema    listen   (eh-DEE-muh)
Swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues.

edetic acid    listen   (eh-DEH-tik A-sid)
A chemical that binds certain metal ions, such as calcium, magnesium, lead, and iron. It is used in medicine to prevent blood samples from clotting and to remove calcium and lead from the body. It is also used to keep bacteria from forming a biofilm (thin layer stuck to a surface). It is a type of chelating agent. Also called EDTA and etheylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

edotecarin    listen   (eh-doh-TEH-kar-in)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor. Also called J-107088.

edrecolomab    listen   (EH-dreh-KOH-loh-mab)
A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.

EDTA      
A chemical that binds certain metal ions, such as calcium, magnesium, lead, and iron. It is used in medicine to prevent blood samples from clotting and to remove calcium and lead from the body. It is also used to keep bacteria from forming a biofilm (thin layer stuck to a surface). It is a type of chelating agent. Also called edetic acid and etheylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

EEG      
A recording of electrical activity in the brain. It is made by placing electrodes on the scalp (the skin covering the top of the head), and impulses are sent to a special machine. An EEG may be used to diagnose brain and sleep disorders. Also called electroencephalogram.

EEG biofeedback    listen   (… BY-oh-FEED-bak)
A treatment being studied to improve brain function in certain brain disorders and in patients treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Sensors are placed on a person’s head, which allows brain activity to be shown as patterns on a computer screen. A beep or a tone may be used as a reward to a person for changing certain brain activities. EEG biofeedback may help cancer patients deal with the stress and mental side effects of chemotherapy. Also called neurofeedback.

EF5      
A drug that is used to plan cancer treatment by measuring oxygen levels in tumor cells.

efaproxiral    listen   (eh-fuh-PROK-sih-rul)
A substance being studied in the treatment of brain tumors and some other types of cancer. It increases the amount of oxygen in tumor tissues, which may make the tumor cells easier to kill with radiation therapy. Efaproxiral is a type of radiosensitizing agent. Also called RSR13.

efavirenz    listen   (ee-FAH-vih-renz)
A drug used with other drugs to treat infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It blocks HIV from making copies of itself. It is a type of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a type of antiviral agent. Also called Sustiva.

effector cell    listen   (eh-FEK-ter sel)
A cell that performs a specific function in response to a stimulus; usually used to describe cells in the immune system.

Effexor    listen   (eh-FEK-sor)
A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It may also be used to treat hot flashes in women who are in menopause or are being treated for breast cancer. Effexor increases the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve mood. It is a type of antidepressant and a type of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Also called venlafaxine.

efficacy    listen   (EH-fih-kuh-see)
Effectiveness. In medicine, the ability of an intervention (for example, a drug or surgery) to produce the desired beneficial effect.

effusion    listen   (eh-FYOO-zhun)
An abnormal collection of fluid in hollow spaces or between tissues of the body. For example, a pleural effusion is a collection of fluid between the two layers of membrane covering the lungs.

eflornithine    listen   (eh-FLOR-nih-theen)
A substance that is being studied in the prevention of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiprotozoals.

EFS      
In cancer, the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer ends that the patient remains free of certain complications or events that the treatment was intended to prevent or delay. These events may include the return of the cancer or the onset of certain symptoms, such as bone pain from cancer that has spread to the bone. In a clinical trial, measuring the EFS is one way to see how well a new treatment works. Also called event-free survival.

EFTs      
A group of cancers that includes Ewing tumor of bone (ETB or Ewing sarcoma of bone), extraosseous Ewing (EOE) tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET or peripheral neuroepithelioma), and Askin tumors (PNET of the chest wall). These tumors all come from the same type of stem cell. Also called Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Efudex    listen   (EH-fyoo-dex)
A drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. Efudex stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, 5-FU, Adrucil, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil.

EGb761      
A substance that is being studied in the prevention of cognitive dysfunction (slowed ability to think, reason, concentrate, or remember) in patients receiving chemotherapy. It comes from ginkgo biloba leaves.

EGCG      
A substance found in green tea. It is being studied in the prevention of cancer and some other diseases. It is a type of antioxidant. Also called epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

EGF      
A protein made by many cells in the body and by some types of tumors. It causes cells to grow and differentiate (become more specialized). It is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called epidermal growth factor.

EGFR      
The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also called epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB1, and HER1.

EGFR inhibitor    listen   (... in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks the activity of a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is found on the surface of some normal cells and is involved in cell growth. It may also be found at high levels on some types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow and divide. Blocking EGFR may keep cancer cells from growing. Some EGFR inhibitors are used to treat cancer. Also called EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor    listen   (... TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks the activity of a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is found on the surface of some normal cells and is involved in cell growth. It may also be found at high levels on some types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow and divide. Blocking EGFR may keep cancer cells from growing. Some EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used to treat cancer. Also called EGFR inhibitor, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

egg cryopreservation    listen   (… KRY-oh-PREH-zer-VAY-shun)
The process of freezing one or more unfertilized eggs (eggs that have not been combined with sperm) to save them for future use. The eggs are thawed and fertilized in the laboratory to make embryos that can be placed in a woman’s uterus. Egg cryopreservation is being studied as a type of fertility preservation. It may be useful for women with cancer who want to have children after having radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or certain types of surgery, which can cause infertility. Also called egg freezing.

egg freezing    listen   (… FREE-zing)
The process of freezing one or more unfertilized eggs (eggs that have not been combined with sperm) to save them for future use. The eggs are thawed and fertilized in the laboratory to make embryos that can be placed in a woman’s uterus. Egg freezing is being studied as a type of fertility preservation. It may be useful for women with cancer who want to have children after having radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or certain types of surgery, which can cause infertility. Also called egg cryopreservation.

ejaculation    listen   (eh-JAK-yoo-LAY-shun)
The release of semen through the penis during orgasm.

EKB-569      
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It blocks the action of certain proteins that are part of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of proteins. These proteins may be found in increased amounts on the surface of some types of cancer cells. Blocking the action of these proteins may stop cancer cells from growing and may kill cancer cells. EKB-569 is a type of EGFR inhibitor. Also called pelitinib.

EKG      
A line graph that shows changes in the electrical activity of the heart over time. It is made by an instrument called an electrocardiograph. The graph can show that there are abnormal conditions, such as blocked arteries, changes in electrolytes (particles with electrical charges), and changes in the way electrical currents pass through the heart tissue. Also called ECG and electrocardiogram.

Eklund displacement views    listen   (EH-klund dis-PLAYS-ment vyooz)
A procedure used to do a mammogram (x-ray of the breasts) in women with breast implants. The implant is pushed back against the chest wall and the breast tissue is pulled forward and around it so the tissue can be seen in the mammogram. Also called Eklund views and implant displacement views.

Eklund views    listen   (EH-klund vyooz)
A procedure used to do a mammogram (x-ray of the breasts) in women with breast implants. The implant is pushed back against the chest wall and the breast tissue is pulled forward and around it so the tissue can be seen in the mammogram. Also called Eklund displacement views and implant displacement views.

Elacyt    listen   (EH-luh-SITE)
A drug used to treat advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a form of the anticancer drug cytarabine that may work in patients with leukemia that is resistant to cytarabine. Elacyt blocks cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called CP-4055 and elacytarabine.

elacytarabine    listen   (EH-luh-sy-TAYR-uh-been)
A drug used to treat advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a form of the anticancer drug cytarabine that may work in patients with leukemia that is resistant to cytarabine. Elacytarabine blocks cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called CP-4055 and Elacyt.

electroacupuncture    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-AK-yoo-PUNK-cher)
A procedure in which pulses of weak electrical current are sent through acupuncture needles into acupuncture points in the skin. This procedure is being studied in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

electrocardiogram    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-KAR-dee-oh-gram)
A line graph that shows changes in the electrical activity of the heart over time. It is made by an instrument called an electrocardiograph. The graph can show that there are abnormal conditions, such as blocked arteries, changes in electrolytes (particles with electrical charges), and changes in the way electrical currents pass through the heart tissue. Also called ECG and EKG.

electrocautery    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-KAW-teh-ree)
A procedure that uses heat from an electric current to destroy abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or other lesion. It may also be used to control bleeding during surgery or after an injury. The electric current passes through an electrode that is placed on or near the tissue. The tip of the electrode is heated by the electric current to burn or destroy the tissue. Electrocautery is a type of electrosurgery. Also called electrocoagulation, electrofulguration, and fulguration.

electrocoagulation    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-koh-A-gyuh-LAY-shun)
A procedure that uses heat from an electric current to destroy abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or other lesion. It may also be used to control bleeding during surgery or after an injury. The electric current passes through an electrode that is placed on or near the tissue. The tip of the electrode is heated by the electric current to burn or destroy the tissue. Electrocoagulation is a type of electrosurgery. Also called electrocautery, electrofulguration, and fulguration.

electroconvulsive therapy    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-kun-VUL-siv THAYR-uh-pee)
A treatment for severe depression and certain mental disorders. A brief seizure is induced by giving electrical stimulation to the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp. Also called ECT and electroshock therapy.

electrode    listen   (ee-LEK-trode)
In medicine, a device such as a small metal plate or needle that carries electricity from an instrument to a patient for treatment or surgery. Electrodes can also carry electrical signals from muscles, brain, heart, skin, or other body parts to recording devices to help diagnose certain conditions.

electrodermal response    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-DER-mul reh-SPONTS)
A change in the heat and electricity passed through the skin by nerves and sweat. Electrodermal response increases in certain emotional states and during hot flashes that happen with menopause. Also called galvanic skin response and skin conduction.

electrodesiccation    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-deh-sih-KAY-shun)
The drying of tissue by a high-frequency electric current applied with a needle-shaped electrode.

electrodiathermy    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-DY-uh-THER-mee)
A procedure in which tissue is heated to destroy abnormal cells. The heat may come from electric currents, microwaves, radio waves, or ultrasound. Electrodiathermy is a type of hyperthermia therapy. Also called diathermy.

electroencephalogram    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-en-SEH-fuh-loh-gram)
A recording of electrical activity in the brain. It is made by placing electrodes on the scalp (the skin covering the top of the head), and impulses are sent to a special machine. An EEG may be used to diagnose brain and sleep disorders. Also called EEG.

electrofulguration    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-ful-guh-RAY-shun)
A procedure that uses heat from an electric current to destroy abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or other lesion. It may also be used to control bleeding during surgery or after an injury. The electric current passes through an electrode that is placed on or near the tissue. The tip of the electrode is heated by the electric current to burn or destroy the tissue. Electrofulguration is a type of electrosurgery. Also called electrocautery, electrocoagulation, and fulguration.

electrolarynx    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-LAYR-inx)
A battery-operated device that makes a humming sound. It is used to help a person talk after removal of the larynx (voice box).

electrolyte    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-lite)
A substance that breaks up into ions (particles with electrical charges) when it is dissolved in water or body fluids. Some examples of ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate. These ions help move nutrients into cells, help move waste out of cells, and help nerves, muscles, the heart, and the brain work the way they should.

electromagnetic field    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-mag-NEH-tik feeld)
An area of electric and magnetic forces caused by electromagnetic radiation. Researchers are studying whether the electromagnetic fields from power lines, electrical appliances, and wireless and cellular telephones can cause cancer or other harmful health effects. Also called EMF.

electromagnetic radiation    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-mag-NEH-tik ray-dee-AY-shun)
Radiation that has both electric and magnetic fields and travels in waves. It comes from natural and man-made sources. Electromagnetic radiation can vary in strength from low energy to high energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Also called EMR.

electron    listen   (ee-LEK-tron)
A small particle with a negative charge that is found in all atoms. Streams of electrons made by special equipment can be used for radiation treatment.

electron beam    listen   (ee-LEK-tron beem)
A stream of electrons (small negatively charged particles found in atoms) that can be used for radiation therapy.

electron microscope    listen   (ee-LEK-tron MY-kroh-SKOPE)
A microscope (device used to magnify small objects) that uses electrons (instead of light) to produce an enlarged image. An electron microscope shows tiny details better than any other type of microscope.

electronic cigarette    listen   (eh-lek-TRAH-nik SIH-guh-ret)
A device that has the shape of a cigarette, cigar, or pen and does not contain tobacco. It uses a battery and contains a solution of nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals, some of which may be harmful. When electronic cigarettes are used, the nicotine solution turns into a mist that can be inhaled into the lungs. The amount of nicotine in individual e-cigarettes can vary. It is not yet known whether electronic cigarettes are safe or if they can be used to help smokers quit smoking. Also called e-cigarette.

electronic medical record    listen   (eh-lek-TRAH-nik MEH-dih-kul REH-kurd)
A collection of a patient’s medical information in a digital (electronic) form that can be viewed on a computer and easily shared by people taking care of the patient.

electrophoresis    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-for-EE-sis)
A laboratory technique that uses an electric current to separate substances, such as proteins or nucleic acids. The size and electrical charge (either positive or negative) of a substance determines how far it moves with the current. Electrophoresis may be used to help diagnosis certain diseases. There are many different types of electrophoresis.

electroporation therapy    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-por-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that generates electrical pulses through an electrode placed in a tumor to enhance the ability of anticancer drugs to enter tumor cells. Also called EPT.

electroshock therapy    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-shok THAYR-uh-pee)
A treatment for severe depression and certain mental disorders. A brief seizure is induced by giving electrical stimulation to the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp. Also called ECT and electroconvulsive therapy.

electrosurgery    listen   (ee-LEK-troh-SER-juh-ree)
A procedure that uses an electric current to cut, remove, or destroy tissue and control bleeding. The current is carried through an electrode that is placed on or near the tissue. Electrosurgery may be used to treat basal cell skin cancer or other types of skin problems, such as actinic keratoses, warts, and moles. It may also be used to remove abnormal cells from the cervix and to treat abnormal tissue of the vagina, vulva, penis, and anus that might become cancer. Examples of electrosurgery are electrodesiccation and fulguration.

element    listen   (EH-leh-ment)
A basic part of a whole. In chemistry, refers to a simple substance that cannot be broken down into smaller parts or changed into another substance. The basic part of an element is an atom, which contains protons, neutrons, and electrons. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons. Examples of elements are hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and calcium.

elesclomol sodium    listen   (eh-les-KLOH-mol SOH-dee-um)
A drug used in the treatment of skin cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It increases the amount of harmful oxygen molecules in cells and may kill cancer cells. It may also help other drugs kill cancer cells. It is a type of oxidative stress inducer.

Eligard    listen   (EH-lih-gard)
A drug used to treat advanced prostate cancer. Under the brand name Lupron, it is also used to treat early puberty in children and certain gynecologic conditions. Eligard is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the testicles from making testosterone (a male hormone) and the ovaries from making estrogen and progesterone (female hormones). It may stop the growth of prostate cancer cells that need testosterone to grow. Eligard is a type of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Also called leuprolide acetate, Lupron, and Viadur.

eligibility criteria    listen   (EH-lih-jih-BIH-lih-tee kry-TEER-ee-uh)
In clinical trials, requirements that must be met for an individual to be included in a study. These requirements help make sure that patients in a trial are similar to each other in terms of specific factors such as age, type and stage of cancer, general health, and previous treatment. When all participants meet the same eligibility criteria, it gives researchers greater confidence that results of the study are caused by the intervention being tested and not by other factors.

ELISA    listen   (ee-LY-suh)
A laboratory technique that uses antibodies linked to enzymes to detect and measure the amount of a substance in a solution, such as serum. The test is done using a solid surface to which the antibodies and other molecules stick. In the final step, an enzyme reaction takes place that causes a color change that can be read using a special machine. There are many different ways that an ELISA can be done. ELISAs may be used to help diagnose certain diseases. Also called enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Elitek    listen   (EH-lih-tek)
A drug used to treat high blood levels of uric acid in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and other types of cancer who are receiving certain types of cancer treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other medical conditions. Elitek is a type of recombinant enzyme and a type of urate-lowering drug. Also called rasburicase and recombinant urate oxidase.

Ellence    listen   (eh-LENTS)
A drug used together with other drugs to treat early breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ellence is a type of anthracycline antibiotic. Also called epirubicin and epirubicin hydrochloride.

Elocon    listen   (EH-loh-kon)
A drug that is used in a cream to treat certain skin conditions and in a nasal spray to treat sinus problems caused by allergies. It is being studied as a way to treat inflammation of the skin caused by radiation therapy. Elocon is a type of corticosteroid. Also called mometasone, mometasone furoate, and Nasonex.

Eloxatin    listen   (eh-LOK-sah-tin)
A drug used with other drugs to treat colorectal cancer that is advanced or has come back. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Eloxatin attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of platinum compound. Also called oxaliplatin.

Elspar    listen   (EL-spar)
A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer. It is an enzyme taken from the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. Also called asparaginase and L-asparaginase.

eltrombopag    listen   (el-TROM-boh-pag)
The active ingredient in a drug used to treat chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (a condition in which platelets are destroyed by the immune system). It causes more platelets to be made in the bone marrow. It is also being studied in the treatment of low platelet counts caused by chemotherapy. It is a type of thrombopoietin receptor agonist.

eltrombopag olamine    listen   (el-TROM-boh-pag OH-luh-meen)
A drug used to treat chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (a condition in which platelets are destroyed by the immune system). It causes more platelets to be made in the bone marrow. It is also being studied in the treatment of low platelet counts caused by chemotherapy. It is a type of thrombopoietin receptor agonist. Also called Promacta.

EM-1421      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks proteins needed for cancer growth. It is a type of transcriptional inhibitor. Also called tetra-O-methyl NDGA and tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid.

embalmer    listen   (em-BAL-mer)
A person who treats dead bodies with embalming fluid (a chemical like formaldehyde) to keep them from decaying.

embolism    listen   (EM-boh-lih-zum)
A block in an artery caused by blood clots or other substances, such as fat globules, infected tissue, or cancer cells.

embolization    listen   (EM-boh-lih-ZAY-shun)
A procedure that uses particles, such as tiny gelatin sponges or beads, to block a blood vessel. Embolization may be used to stop bleeding or to block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal area of tissue. It may be used to treat some types of liver cancer, kidney cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors. It may also be used to treat uterine fibroids, aneurysms, and other conditions. Types of embolization are arterial embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization.

embryo    listen   (EM-bree-oh)
Early stage in the development of a plant or an animal. In vertebrate animals (have a backbone or spinal column), this stage lasts from shortly after fertilization until all major body parts appear. In particular, in humans, this stage lasts from about 2 weeks after fertilization until the end of the seventh or eighth week of pregnancy.

embryo cryopreservation    listen   (EM-bree-oh KRY-oh-PREH-zer-VAY-shun)
The process of freezing one or more embryos to save them for future use. Embryo cryopreservation involves in vitro fertilization, a procedure in which eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary and combined with sperm in the laboratory to form embryos. The embryos are frozen and can later be thawed and placed in a woman’s uterus. Embryo cryopreservation is a type of fertility preservation. It may be useful for women with cancer who want to have children after having radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or certain types of surgery, which can cause infertility. Also called embryo freezing.

embryo freezing    listen   (EM-bree-oh FREE-zing)
The process of freezing one or more embryos to save them for future use. Embryo freezing involves in vitro fertilization, a procedure in which eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary and combined with sperm in the laboratory to form embryos. The embryos are frozen and can later be thawed and placed in a woman’s uterus. Embryo freezing is a type of fertility preservation. It may be useful for women with cancer who want to have children after having radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or certain types of surgery, which can cause infertility. Also called embryo cryopreservation.

embryoma    listen   (EM-bree-OH-muh)
A mass of rapidly growing cells that begins in embryonic (fetal) tissue. Embryomas may be benign or malignant, and include neuroblastomas and Wilms tumors. Also called embryonal tumor.

embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma    listen   (em-BRY-uh-nul RAB-doh-MY-oh-sar-KOH-muh)
A soft tissue tumor that is most common in infants and young children. It begins in muscles, usually in the head, neck, or genitourinary tract. Also called ERMS.

embryonal tumor    listen   (em-BRY-uh-nul TOO-mer)
A mass of rapidly growing cells that begins in embryonic (fetal) tissue. Embryonal tumors may be benign or malignant, and include neuroblastomas and Wilms tumors. Also called embryoma.

embryonic    listen   (EM-bree-AH-nik)
Having to do with an embryo, which is an early stage in the development of a plant or animal.

EMD 121974      
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer and antiangiogenesis drug. Also called cilengitide.

Emend    listen   (ee-MEND)
A drug used together with other drugs to prevent and control the nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment. It is also used to treat nausea and vomiting after surgery. It is a type of antiemetic and a type of substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. Also called aprepitant.

Emend for Injection    listen   (ee-MEND ... in-JEK-shun)
A drug used together with other drugs to prevent and control nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment. It is given in a vein. It is a type of antiemetic and a type of substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. Also called fosaprepitant dimeglumine.

emesis    listen   (EH-meh-sis)
Vomiting.

emetic    listen   (eh-MEH-tik)
Describes a substance that causes vomiting. Also called emetogenic.

emetogenic    listen   (eh-MEH-toh-JEH-nik)
Describes a substance that causes vomiting. Also called emetic.

EMF      
An area of electric and magnetic forces caused by electromagnetic radiation. Researchers are studying whether the EMFs from power lines, electrical appliances, and wireless and cellular telephones can cause cancer or other harmful health effects. Also called electromagnetic field.

emitefur    listen   (eh-MIH-teh-fur)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

emodin    listen   (EH-moh-din)
A substance found in certain plants, including rhubarb. It belongs to a family of compounds called anthraquinones, which have shown anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects.

emphysema    listen   (EMP-fuh-ZEE-muh)
A disorder affecting the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs. The transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs takes place in the walls of the alveoli. In emphysema, the alveoli become abnormally inflated, damaging their walls and making it harder to breathe. People who smoke or have chronic bronchitis have an increased risk of emphysema. Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

EMR      
Radiation that has both electric and magnetic fields and travels in waves. It comes from natural and man-made sources. EMR can vary in strength from low energy to high energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Also called electromagnetic radiation.

enalapril    listen   (eh-NA-luh-pril)
An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.

encapsulated    listen   (en-KAP-soo-lay-ted)
Confined to a specific, localized area and surrounded by a thin layer of tissue.

encephalopathy    listen   (en-SEH-fuh-LAH-puh-thee)
A disorder of the brain that can be caused by disease, injury, drugs, or chemicals.

enchondroma    listen   (en-kon-DROH-muh)
A benign (not cancer) growth of cartilage in bones or in other areas where cartilage is not normally found.

Endo-Pat 2000    listen   (EN-doh-pat...)
A medical device that tests to see if endothelial cells are damaged. Endothelial cells line the inner walls of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart, and damage to them may be an early sign of heart disease. Endo-Pat 2000 looks for heart disease by using sensors that measure blood flow through a patient’s fingers. It is also being used to check blood vessels in patients treated for breast cancer. Also called EndoPat.

endocarditis    listen   (EN-doh-kar-DY-tis)
A condition in which the tissues lining the inside of the heart and the heart valves become inflamed (red and swollen). Endocarditis may be caused by infection with microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi.

endocervical curettage    listen   (en-doh-SER-vih-kul kyoo-reh-TAZH)
A procedure in which a sample of abnormal tissue is removed from the cervix using a small, spoon-shaped instrument called a curette. The tissue is then checked under a microscope for signs of cervical cancer. This procedure may be done if abnormal cells are found during a Pap test.

endocervix    listen   (EN-doh-SER-vix)
The inner part of the cervix that forms a canal that connects the vagina to the uterus. The endocervix is lined with cells that make mucus. During a pelvic exam, cells may be scraped from the endocervix. The cells are checked under a microscope for infection, inflammation, and cancer or changes that may become cancer.

endocrine    listen   (EN-doh-krin)
Refers to tissue that makes and releases hormones that travel in the bloodstream and control the actions of other cells or organs. Some examples of endocrine tissues are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.

endocrine cancer    listen   (EN-doh-krin KAN-ser)
Cancer that occurs in endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones.

endocrine pancreas cell    listen   (EN-doh-krin PAN-kree-us sel)
A pancreatic cell that produces hormones (e.g., insulin and glucagon) that are secreted into the bloodstream. These hormones help control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Also called islet cell and islet of Langerhans cell.

endocrine system    listen   (EN-doh-krin SIS-tem)
A system of glands and cells that make hormones that are released directly into the blood and travel to tissues and organs all over the body. The endocrine system controls growth, sexual development, sleep, hunger, and the way the body uses food.

endocrine therapy    listen   (EN-doh-krin THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that adds, blocks, or removes hormones. For certain conditions (such as diabetes or menopause), hormones are given to adjust low hormone levels. To slow or stop the growth of certain cancers (such as prostate and breast cancer), synthetic hormones or other drugs may be given to block the body’s natural hormones. Sometimes surgery is needed to remove the gland that makes a certain hormone. Also called hormonal therapy, hormone therapy, and hormone treatment.

endocrine-inactive tumor    listen   (EN-doh-krin-in-AK-tiv TOO-mer)
A tumor that is found in endocrine tissue but does not make extra hormones. Endocrine-inactive tumors usually do not cause symptoms until they grow large or spread to other parts of the body. Also called nonfunctioning tumor.

endocrinologist    listen   (en-doh-krih-NAH-loh-jist)
A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system (the glands and organs that make hormones). These disorders include diabetes, infertility, and thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary gland problems.

endocrinology    listen   (EN-doh-krih-NAH-loh-jee)
A branch of medicine that specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the endocrine system, which includes the glands and organs that make hormones. These disorders include diabetes, infertility, and thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary gland problems.

endogenous    listen   (en-DAH-jeh-nus)
Produced inside an organism or cell. The opposite is external (exogenous) production.

endometrial    listen   (EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul)
Having to do with the endometrium (the layer of tissue that lines the uterus).

endometrial biopsy    listen   (EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a sample of tissue is taken from the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) for examination under a microscope. A thin tube is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and gentle scraping and suction are used to remove the sample.

endometrial cancer    listen   (EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in the tissue lining the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis in which a fetus develops). Most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

endometrial disorder    listen   (EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul dis-OR-der)
Abnormal cell growth in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus).

endometrial hyperplasia    listen   (EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul HY-per-PLAY-zhuh)
An abnormal overgrowth of the endometrium (the layer of cells that lines the uterus). There are four types of endometrial hyperplasia: simple endometrial hyperplasia, complex endometrial hyperplasia, simple endometrial hyperplasia with atypia, and complex endometrial hyperplasia with atypia. These differ in terms of how abnormal the cells are and how likely it is that the condition will become cancer.

endometriosis    listen   (EN-doh-MEE-tree-OH-sis)
A benign condition in which tissue that looks like endometrial tissue grows in abnormal places in the abdomen.

endometrium    listen   (en-doh-MEE-tree-um)
The layer of tissue that lines the uterus.

EndoPat    listen   (EN-doh-pat)
A medical device that tests to see if endothelial cells are damaged. Endothelial cells line the inner walls of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart, and damage to them may be an early sign of heart disease. EndoPat looks for heart disease by using sensors that measure blood flow through a patient’s fingers. It is also being used to check blood vessels in patients treated for breast cancer. Also called Endo-Pat 2000.

endorectal ultrasound    listen   (en-doh-REK-tul UL-truh-sownd)
A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. Endorectal ultrasound is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called ERUS, transrectal ultrasound, and TRUS.

endorphin    listen   (en-DOR-fin)
One of several substances made in the body that can relieve pain and give a feeling of well-being. Endorphins are peptides (small proteins) that bind to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. An endorphin is a type of neurotransmitter.

endoscope    listen   (EN-doh-SKOPE)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to look at tissues inside the body. An endoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography    listen   (en-doh-SKAH-pik REH-troh-grayd koh-LAN-jee-oh-PAN-kree-uh-TAH-gruh-fee)
A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine and x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. The endoscope is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter into the ducts, and an x-ray is taken. Also called ERCP.

endoscopic ultrasound    listen   (en-doh-SKAH-pik UL-truh-sownd)
A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument that has a light and a lens for viewing. A probe at the end of the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal organs to make a picture (sonogram). Also called endosonography and EUS.

endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration    listen   (en-doh-SKAH-pik UL-truh-sownd-GY-ded … NEE-dul AS-pih-RAY-shun)
A procedure to take a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. An endoscope with an ultrasound probe and a biopsy needle at the end is inserted through the mouth into the esophagus. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument that has a light and a lens for viewing. The ultrasound probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make a picture on a monitor. This picture helps the doctor see where to place the biopsy needle. Also called EUS-FNA.

endoscopy    listen   (en-DOS-koh-pee)
A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine the inside of the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

endosonography    listen   (EN-doh-soh-NAH-gruh-fee)
A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument that has a light and a lens for viewing. A probe at the end of the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal organs to make a picture (sonogram). Also called endoscopic ultrasound and EUS.

endostatin    listen   (EN-doh-STA-tin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. Endostatin is made from a type of collagen (a protein found in cartilage and other connective tissue). It may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Endostatin is a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called COL18A1.

endothelial cell    listen   (EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul sel)
The main type of cell found in the inside lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart.

endothelin receptor antagonist    listen   (EN-doh-THEE-lin reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A drug that blocks the hormone endothelin and may prevent prostate cancer from spreading to the bones. It may also prevent the growth and spread of other types of cancer, including colorectal cancer.

endothelin-1 protein receptor antagonist    listen   (EN-doh-THEE-lin-1 PROH-teen reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A substance that blocks the binding of the endothelin-1 protein to its receptor. Endothelin-1 is a small molecule that causes changes in blood vessels and helps regulate blood pressure. It can also stimulate the growth of some types of cells.

endpoint    listen   (END-poynt)
In clinical trials, an event or outcome that can be measured objectively to determine whether the intervention being studied is beneficial. The endpoints of a clinical trial are usually included in the study objectives. Some examples of endpoints are survival, improvements in quality of life, relief of symptoms, and disappearance of the tumor.

enema    listen   (EH-neh-muh)
The injection of a liquid through the anus into the large bowel.

energy balance    listen   (EH-ner-jee BA-lunts)
In biology, the state at which the number of calories eaten equals the number of calories used. Energy balance is affected by physical activity, body size, amount of body fat and muscle, and genetics.

energy healing    listen   (EH-ner-jee HEEL-ing)
A form of complementary and alternative medicine based on the belief that a vital energy flows through the human body. The goal of energy healing is to balance the energy flow in the patient. It is used to reduce stress and anxiety and promote well-being. Energy healing is being studied in patients receiving cancer therapy, to find out if it can improve quality of life, boost the immune system, or reduce side effects. Also called energy therapy.

energy therapy    listen   (EH-ner-jee THAYR-uh-pee)
A form of complementary and alternative medicine based on the belief that a vital energy flows through the human body. The goal of energy therapy is to balance the energy flow in the patient. It is used to reduce stress and anxiety and promote well-being. Energy therapy is being studied in patients receiving cancer therapy, to find out if it can improve quality of life, boost the immune system, or reduce side effects. Also called energy healing.

English chamomile    listen   (... KA-muh-mile)
A type of chamomile plant with daisy-like white flowers that is found in Europe, North America, and Argentina. The dried flowers are used in teas to calm and relax, to improve sleep, and to help with stomach problems. Its essential oil (scented liquid taken from plants) is used in perfumes, shampoos, face creams, lotions, and aromatherapy. The scientific names are Chamaemelum nobile and Anthemis nobilis. Also called Roman chamomile.

English lavender    listen   (ING-lish LA-ven-der)
A plant with aromatic leaves and flowers that is a member of the mint family. Oil from the flowers has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, to keep insects away, and to wash in. It is also used in aromatherapy. Perillyl alcohol, a substance found in English lavender, is being studied in cancer prevention and treatment. The scientific name is Lavandula angustifolia. Also called lavender and true lavender.

eniluracil    listen   (EH-nil-YOOR-uh-sil)
An anticancer drug that increases the effectiveness of fluorouracil. Also called ethynyluracil.

enoxaparin    listen   (ee-NOK-suh-PAYR-in)
A drug used to prevent blood clots. It belongs to the family of drugs called anticoagulants.

enriched food    listen   (in-RICHT…)
A food that has nutrients added back that were lost during processing. Examples are bread, pasta, and other products made from white flour that have B vitamins added back.

Ensure    listen   (en-SHER)
A type of nutrition drink that may help people who cannot get all the nutrients they need from foods and other drinks. Ensure has vitamins, minerals, protein, and fats. It may be added to a person’s diet to help build strong bones, rebuild muscle and strength, and help the body heal after injury or surgery. Ensure may be taken by mouth or given through tube feeding. Ensure is a type of polymeric enteral nutrition formula and a type of dietary supplement.

ENT doctor    listen   (… DOK-ter)
A doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Also called otolaryngologist.

enteral nutrition    listen   (EN-teh-rul noo-TRIH-shun)
A form of nutrition that is delivered into the digestive system as a liquid. Drinking nutrition beverages or formulas and tubefeeding are forms of enteral nutrition. People who are unable to meet their needs with food and beverages alone, and who do not have vomiting or uncontrollable diarrhea may be given tubefeedings. Tubefeeding can be used to add to what a person is able to eat or can be the only source of nutrition. A small feeding tube may be placed through the nose into the stomach or the small intestine, or it may be surgically placed into the stomach or the intestinal tract through an opening made on the outside of the abdomen, depending on how long it will be used.

enterostomal therapist    listen   (EN-teh-roh-STOH-mul THAYR-uh-pist)
A health professional trained in the care of persons with stomas, such as colostomies or urostomies.

entinostat    listen   (en-tih-NOH-stat)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It blocks enzymes needed for cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Also called HDAC inhibitor SNDX-275 and SNDX-275.

enucleation    listen   (ee-NOO-klee-AY-shun)
In medicine, the removal of an organ or tumor in such a way that it comes out clean and whole, like a nut from its shell.

enveloped virus    listen   (EN-veh-lupt VY-rus)
A virus that has an outer wrapping or envelope. This envelope comes from the infected cell, or host, in a process called "budding off." During the budding process, newly formed virus particles become "enveloped" or wrapped in an outer coat that is made from a small piece of the cell's plasma membrane. The envelope may play a role in helping a virus survive and infect other cells.

environmental tobacco smoke    listen   (en-VY-run-MEN-tul tuh-BA-koh ...)
Smoke that comes from the burning of a tobacco product and smoke that is exhaled by smokers. Inhaling environmental tobacco smoke is called involuntary or passive smoking. Also called ETS and secondhand smoke.

enzalutamide    listen   (EN-zuh-LOO-tuh-mide)
A drug used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and did not get better with other treatment, including docetaxel. Enzalutamide binds to proteins called androgen receptors, which are found in some prostate cancer cells. These proteins bind to androgens (male hormones) and may cause cancer cells to grow. Blocking these proteins may keep cancer cells from growing. Enzalutamide is a type of antiandrogen. Also called Xtandi.

enzastaurin    listen   (en-zuh-STAW-rin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, colon, lung, ovarian, and prostate. Enzastaurin blocks certain cell signaling pathways, and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of serine threonine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called enzastaurin hydrochloride and LY317615.

enzastaurin hydrochloride    listen   (en-zuh-STAW-rin HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, colon, lung, ovarian, and prostate. Enzastaurin hydrochloride blocks certain cell signaling pathways, and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of serine threonine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called enzastaurin and LY317615.

enzyme    listen   (EN-zime)
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay    listen   (EN-zime-linkt IH-myoo-noh-SOR-bent A-say)
A laboratory technique that uses antibodies linked to enzymes to detect and measure the amount of a substance in a solution, such as serum. The test is done using a solid surface to which the antibodies and other molecules stick. In the final step, an enzyme reaction takes place that causes a color change that can be read using a special machine. There are many different ways that an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be done. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays may be used to help diagnose certain diseases. Also called ELISA.

eosinophil    listen   (EE-oh-SIH-noh-FIL)
A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell and a type of granulocyte.

eosinophilia    listen   (EE-oh-SIH-noh-FIH-lee-uh)
A condition in which the number of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood is greatly increased. Eosinophilia is often a response to infection or allergens (substances that cause an allergic response).

EP-2101      
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called cancer vaccines.

ependyma    listen   (eh-PEN-dih-muh)
A thin membrane that lines the fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord. It is made up of a type of glial cell called an ependymal cell.

ependymal cell    listen   (eh-PEN-dih-mul sel)
A cell that forms the lining of the fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord. It is a type of glial cell.

ependymal tumor    listen   (eh-PEN-dih-mul TOO-mer)
A type of brain tumor that begins in cells lining the spinal cord central canal (fluid-filled space down the center) or the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces of the brain). Ependymal tumors may also form in the choroid plexus (tissue in the ventricles that makes cerebrospinal fluid). Also called ependymoma.

ependymoma    listen   (eh-PEN-dih-MOH-muh)
A type of brain tumor that begins in cells lining the spinal cord central canal (fluid-filled space down the center) or the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces of the brain). Ependymomas may also form in the choroid plexus (tissue in the ventricles that makes cerebrospinal fluid). Also called ependymal tumor.

ephedra    listen   (eh-FEH-druh)
A shrub native to China and India. The stems and roots are used in traditional medicine as a diuretic and for asthma, bronchitis, and cough. It has also been promoted as a decongestant, a weight loss aid, and as a supplement to increase energy. Ephedra may cause high blood pressure, increased heart rate, or death if used with certain drugs, and may reduce the effects of certain drugs used to treat cancer and other diseases. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale of dietary supplements that contain ephedra. The scientific name is Ephedra sinica. Also called ma huang.

epidemiologist    listen   (EH-pih-DEE-mee-AH-loh-jist)
A scientist who studies the patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups of people.

epidemiology    listen   (EH-pih-dee-mee-AH-loh-jee)
The study of the patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups of people.

epidermal growth factor    listen   (eh-pih-DER-mul grothe FAK-ter)
A protein made by many cells in the body and by some types of tumors. It causes cells to grow and differentiate (become more specialized). It is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called EGF.

epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor    listen   (eh-pih-DER-mul grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks the activity of a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is found on the surface of some normal cells and is involved in cell growth. It may also be found at high levels on some types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow and divide. Blocking EGFR may keep cancer cells from growing. Some epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are used to treat cancer. Also called EGFR inhibitor, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor    listen   (eh-pih-DER-mul grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks the activity of a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is found on the surface of some normal cells and is involved in cell growth. It may also be found at high levels on some types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow and divide. Blocking EGFR may keep cancer cells from growing. Some epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used to treat cancer. Also called EGFR inhibitor, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor.

epidermal growth factor receptor    listen   (eh-pih-DER-mul grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter)
The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also called EGFR, ErbB1, and HER1.

epidermis    listen   (EH-pih-DER-mis)
The outer layer of the two main layers of the skin.

epidermoid carcinoma    listen   (EH-pih-DER-moyd KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer that begins in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Most cancers of the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are epidermoid carcinomas. Also called squamous cell carcinoma.

epidermolysis bullosa    listen   (EH-pih-der-MAH-lih-sis buh-LOH-suh)
A group of chronic skin disorders in which fluid-filled blisters form on the skin and mucosa (the moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities). Epidermolysis bullosa is inherited and usually starts at birth. Patients with epidermolysis bullosa may be at increased risk of squamous cell cancer of the skin.

epididymis    listen   (eh-pih-DIH-dih-mis)
A narrow, tightly-coiled tube that is attached to each of the testicles (the male sex glands that produce sperm). Sperm cells (male reproductive cells) move from the testicles into the epididymis, where they finish maturing and are stored.

epidural    listen   (EH-pih-DER-ul)
Having to do with the space between the wall of the spinal canal and the covering of the spinal cord. An epidural injection is given into this space.

epidural block    listen   (EH-pih-DER-ul blok)
An injection of an anesthetic drug into the space between the wall of the spinal canal and the covering of the spinal cord.

epigallocatechin-3-gallate    listen   (EH-pih-ga-loh-KA-teh-kin-3-GA-layt)
A substance found in green tea. It is being studied in the prevention of cancer and some other diseases. It is a type of antioxidant. Also called EGCG.

epigastric    listen   (EH-pih-GAS-trik)
Having to do with the upper middle area of the abdomen.

epigenetics    listen   (EH-pih-jeh-NEH-tix)
The study of how age and exposure to environmental factors, such as diet, exercise, drugs, and chemicals, may cause changes in the way genes are switched on and off without changing the actual DNA sequence. These changes can affect a person’s risk of disease and may be passed from parents to their children.

epigenomics    listen   (EH-pih-jeh-NOH-mix)
The study of all of the epigenetic changes in a cell. Epigenetic changes are changes in the way genes are switched on and off without changing the actual DNA sequence. They may be caused by age and exposure to environmental factors, such as diet, exercise, drugs, and chemicals. Epigenetic changes can affect a person’s risk of disease and may be passed from parents to their children.

epiglottis    listen   (eh-pih-GLAH-tis)
The flap that covers the trachea during swallowing so that food does not enter the lungs.

epilepsy    listen   (EH-pih-LEP-see)
A group of disorders marked by problems in the normal functioning of the brain. These problems can produce seizures, unusual body movements, a loss of consciousness or changes in consciousness, as well as mental problems or problems with the senses.

epinephrine    listen   (eh-pih-NEH-frin)
A hormone and neurotransmitter. Also called adrenaline.

epipodophyllotoxin    listen   (EH-pih-POH-doh-FIH-loh-TOK-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Epipodophyllotoxin is extracted from the mandrake root Podophyllum peltatum. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.

epirubicin    listen   (EH-pih-ROO-bih-sin)
A drug used together with other drugs to treat early breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Epirubicin is a type of anthracycline antibiotic. Also called Ellence and epirubicin hydrochloride.

epirubicin hydrochloride    listen   (EH-pih-ROO-bih-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used together with other drugs to treat early breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Epirubicin hydrochloride is a type of anthracycline antibiotic. Also called Ellence and epirubicin.

episodic breathlessness    listen   (EH-pih-SAH-dik BRETH-les-nes)
A medical condition in which patients have periods of trouble breathing that are followed by periods with no trouble breathing. Episodic breathlessness is seen in patients with lung cancer or other lung diseases, and in some heart conditions.

epithelial    listen   (eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul)
Refers to the cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body.

epithelial carcinoma    listen   (eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer that begins in the cells that line an organ.

epithelial ovarian cancer    listen   (eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul oh-VAYR-ee-un KAN-ser)
Cancer that occurs in the cells on the surface of the ovary. Also called ovarian epithelial cancer.

epithelium    listen   (eh-pih-THEE-lee-um)
A thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body.

epitope    listen   (EH-pih-tope)
A part of a molecule that an antibody will recognize and bind to.

EPO906      
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called epothilones. Also called epothilone B.

EPOCH    listen  
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including mantle cell lymphoma. It includes the drugs etoposide phosphate, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin). Also called EPOCH regimen.

EPOCH regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including mantle cell lymphoma. It includes the drugs etoposide phosphate, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin). Also called EPOCH.

epoetin alfa    listen   (ee-POH-eh-tin AL-fuh)
A substance that is made in the laboratory and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. It is a type of antianemic and a type of recombinant human erythropoietin.

epoetin beta    listen   (ee-POH-eh-tin BAY-tuh)
A substance that is made in the laboratory and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. It is a type of antianemic and a type of recombinant human erythropoietin.

epothilone    listen   (eh-POTH-ih-lone)
A substance obtained from bacteria that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones are being studied as treatments for cancer.

epothilone B    listen   (eh-POTH-ih-lone ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of epothilone. Also called EPO906.

epothilone D    listen   (eh-POTH-ih-lone ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and epothilone. Also called KOS-862.

epothilone ZK219477    listen   (eh-POTH-ih-lone ...)
A form of the substance epothilone that is made in the laboratory. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Epothilone ZK2219477 stops the growth of tumor cells by blocking cell division. It is a type of antimitotic agent.

epratuzumab    listen   (EH-pruh-TOO-zoo-mab)
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies.

Epstein-Barr virus    listen   (ep-stine-BAR VY-rus)
A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also called EBV.

EPT      
Treatment that generates electrical pulses through an electrode placed in a tumor to enhance the ability of anticancer drugs to enter tumor cells. Also called electroporation therapy.

ER      
A protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. The hormone estrogen will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow. Also called estrogen receptor.

ER+    listen  
Describes cells that have a receptor protein that binds the hormone estrogen. Cancer cells that are ER+ may need estrogen to grow, and may stop growing or die when treated with substances that block the binding and actions of estrogen. Also called estrogen receptor positive.

ER-    listen  
Describes cells that do not have a protein to which the hormone estrogen will bind. Cancer cells that are ER- do not need estrogen to grow, and usually do not stop growing when treated with hormones that block estrogen from binding. Also called estrogen receptor negative.

ER-negative PR-negative HER2/neu-negative breast cancer    listen   (... NEH-guh-tiv ... NEH-guh-tiv ... NEH-guh-tiv brest KAN-ser)
Describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. Also called triple-negative breast cancer.

ERA-923      
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to a family of drugs called antiestrogens.

erb-38 immunotoxin    listen   (... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.

ErbB1      
The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also called EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor, and HER1.

Erbitux    listen   (ER-bih-tux)
A drug used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer, and a certain type of colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erbitux binds to a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is on the surface of some types of cancer cells. This may stop cancer cells from growing. Erbitux is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called cetuximab.

ERCP      
A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine and x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. The endoscope is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter into the ducts, and an x-ray is taken. Also called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

erectile dysfunction    listen   (eh-REK-tile dis-FUNK-shun)
An inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Also called impotence.

erection    listen   (eh-REK-shun)
In medicine, the swelling of the penis with blood, causing it to become firm.

ergocalciferol    listen   (ER-goh-kal-SIH-feh-rol)
A form of vitamin D that helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in plants and yeast. It can be made in the body from another form of vitamin D when the body is exposed to the sun. Ergocalciferol is also made in the laboratory. It is used to prevent and to treat vitamin D deficiency. It is a type of dietary supplement. Also called vitamin D2.

eribulin mesylate    listen   (er-eh-BYOO-lin MEH-zih-layt)
A drug used to treat metastatic breast cancer in patients who have already been treated with other chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Eribulin mesylate may block cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitubulin agents. Also called E7389 and Halaven.

Erivedge    listen   (AYR-ih-vej)
A drug used to treat advanced basal cell carcinoma that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after surgery. It is also used in patients who cannot be treated with surgery or radiation therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erivedge blocks a type of protein involved in tissue growth and repair and may block the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of Hedgehog signaling pathway antagonist. Also called GDC-0449 and vismodegib.

erlotinib hydrochloride    listen   (er-LOH-tih-nib HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erlotinib hydrochloride blocks a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called CP-358,774, OSI-774, and Tarceva.

ERMS      
A soft tissue tumor that is most common in infants and young children. It begins in muscles, usually in the head, neck, or genitourinary tract. Also called embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.

ERT      
Treatment with the hormone estrogen to increase the amount of estrogen in the body. It is given to women who have gone through menopause or to women who have early menopause caused by cancer treatment or by having their ovaries removed by surgery. ERT may help relieve symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and sleep problems. It may also help protect against osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) and lower the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Also called estrogen replacement therapy.

ERUS      
A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. ERUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound, and TRUS.

Erwinaze    listen   (ER-wih-nayz)
A drug used with other anticancer drugs to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is an enzyme that comes from the Erwinia chrysanthemi bacterium. It is used in patients who cannot take a similar drug that comes from the E. coli bacterium. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of cancer cells that need asparagine to grow. It may also kill cancer cells. Also called asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi.

erythema    listen   (AYR-ih-THEE-muh)
Redness of the skin.

erythrocyte    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-site)
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Erythrocytes contain a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of erythrocytes in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It may be used to look for conditions such as anemia, dehydration, malnutrition, and leukemia. Also called RBC and red blood cell.

erythrocyte sedimentation rate    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-site SEH-dih-men-TAY-shun ...)
The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called ESR and sedimentation rate.

erythrodysplasia    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-dis-PLAY-zhuh)
A condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythrodysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythroid dysplasia.

erythrogenesis imperfecta    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-JEH-neh-sis IM-per-FEK-tuh)
A very rare disorder in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough red blood cells. It is usually seen in the first year of life. Patients may have deformed thumbs and other physical problems. They also have an increased risk of leukemia and sarcoma, especially osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Patients with erythrogenesis imperfecta may have a mutation (change) in one of the genes that make proteins found in the cell’s ribosomes. Also called Blackfan–Diamond anemia, congenital hypoplastic anemia, congenital pure red cell aplasia, DBA, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and inherited erythroblastopenia.

erythroid dysplasia    listen   (eh-RITH-royd dis-PLAY-zhuh)
A condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythroid dysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythrodysplasia.

erythroleukemia    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-loo-KEE-mee-uh)
Cancer of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.

erythroleukoplakia    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-LOO-koh-PLAY-kee-uh)
An abnormal patch of red and white tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.

erythroplakia    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-PLAY-kee-uh)
An abnormal patch of red tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroplakia.

erythropoiesis    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-poy-EE-sis)
The formation of red blood cells in blood-forming tissue. In the early development of a fetus, erythropoiesis takes place in the yolk sac, spleen, and liver. After birth, all erythropoiesis occurs in the bone marrow.

erythropoiesis-stimulating agent    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-poy-EE-sis-STIM-yoo-LAY-ting AY-jent)
A substance that stimulates the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are used to treat anemia caused by chronic kidney failure, some anticancer drugs, and certain treatments for HIV. They may also be used to lower the number of blood transfusions needed during and after certain major surgeries. Examples of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) and darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp). Also called ESA.

erythropoietin    listen   (eh-RITH-roh-POY-eh-tin)
A substance that is naturally produced by the kidneys, and that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. When erythropoietin is made in the laboratory, it is called epoetin alfa or epoetin beta.

ESA      
A substance that stimulates the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. ESAs are used to treat anemia caused by chronic kidney failure, some anticancer drugs, and certain treatments for HIV. They may also be used to lower the number of blood transfusions needed during and after certain major surgeries. Examples of ESAs are epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) and darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp). Also called erythropoiesis-stimulating agent.

escitalopram    listen   (es-sy-TA-loh-pram)
A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It belongs to the family of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Also called Lexapro.

esomeprazole    listen   (EH-soh-MEH-pruh-zole)
A drug that blocks acid from being made in the stomach. It is used to treat acid reflux disease and to prevent certain types of gastrointestinal ulcers. Esomeprazole is being studied in the prevention of esophageal cancer and in the treatment of other conditions, including side effects of chemotherapy. It is a type of anti-ulcer agent. Also called esomeprazole magnesium and Nexium.

esomeprazole magnesium    listen   (EH-soh-MEH-pruh-zole mag-NEE-zee-um)
A drug that blocks acid from being made in the stomach. It is used to treat acid reflux disease and to prevent certain types of gastrointestinal ulcers. Esomeprazole magnesium is being studied in the prevention of esophageal cancer and in the treatment of other conditions, including side effects of chemotherapy. It is a type of anti-ulcer agent. Also called esomeprazole and Nexium.

esophageal    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul)
Having to do with the esophagus, the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach.

esophageal cancer    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach). Two types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the esophagus) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

esophageal reflux    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul REE-flux)
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called gastric reflux and gastroesophageal reflux.

esophageal speech    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul...)
Speech produced by trapping air in the esophagus and forcing it out again. It is used after removal of a person's larynx (voice box).

esophageal stent    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul stent)
A tube placed in the esophagus to keep a blocked area open so the patient can swallow soft food and liquids. Esophageal stents are made of metal mesh, plastic, or silicone, and may be used in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

esophagectomy    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove a portion of the esophagus.

esophagitis    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-JY-tis)
Inflammation of the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach).

esophagoscopy    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-GOS-koh-pee)
Examination of the esophagus using an esophagoscope. An esophagoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

esophagram    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-gram)
A series of x-ray pictures of the esophagus taken after a patient drinks a liquid containing barium sulfate (a form of the silver-white metallic element barium). The barium sulfate coats and outlines the inner wall of the esophagus so that it can be seen on the x-ray pictures. Also called contrast esophagram.

esophagus    listen   (ee-SAH-fuh-gus)
The muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach.

ESR      
The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called erythrocyte sedimentation rate and sedimentation rate.

essential oil    listen   (eh-SENT-shul oyl)
The scented liquid taken from certain plants using steam or pressure. Essential oils contain the natural chemicals that give the plant its “essence” (specific odor and flavor). Essential oils are used in perfumes, food flavorings, medicine, and aromatherapy.

essential thrombocythemia    listen   (eh-SENT-shul THROM-boh-sy-THEE-mee-uh)
An increased number of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood, without a known cause. Also called essential thrombocytosis.

essential thrombocytosis    listen   (eh-SENT-shul THROM-boh-sy-TOH-sis)
An increased number of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood, without a known cause. Also called essential thrombocythemia.

Essiac    listen   (EH-see-ak)
An herbal tea mixture that contains burdock root, Indian rhubarb root, sheep sorrel, and slippery elm bark. It has been claimed to remove toxins from the body, make the immune system stronger, relieve pain, control diabetes, treat AIDS, reduce tumor size, increase cancer survival, and improve quality of life. No clinical trial using Essiac in humans has been reported in a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, and the FDA has not approved the use of Essiac for the treatment of any medical conditions.

ester    listen   (EH-ster)
A chemical substance made when an acid and an alcohol combine and water is removed. Esters are found in essential oils (scented oils that come from plants).

esterified estrogen    listen   (eh-STAYR-ih-fide ES-truh-jin)
A form of estrogen that may have fewer side effects than other forms. Esterified estrogens are used to treat some types of cancer, including prostate cancer. They are also used to treat the symptoms of menopause, (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, or heavy and painful bleeding) and osteoporosis (loss of bone mass). It is a type of drug called hormone therapy.

estradiol    listen   (es-truh-DY-ol)
A form of the hormone estrogen.

estramustine    listen   (ES-truh-MUS-teen)
A combination of the hormone estradiol (an estrogen) and nitrogen mustard (an anticancer drug). Used in the palliative therapy of prostate cancer.

estrogen    listen   (ES-truh-jin)
A type of hormone made by the body that helps develop and maintain female sex characteristics and the growth of long bones. Estrogens can also be made in the laboratory. They may be used as a type of birth control and to treat symptoms of menopause, menstrual disorders, osteoporosis, and other conditions.

estrogen blocker    listen   (ES-truh-jin BLAH-ker)
A substance that keeps cells from making or using estrogen (a hormone that plays a role in female sex characteristics, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy). Estrogen blockers may stop some cancer cells from growing and are used to prevent and treat breast cancer. They are also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. An estrogen blocker is a type of hormone antagonist. Also called antiestrogen.

estrogen cream    listen   (ES-truh-jin creem)
A cream that contains the hormone estrogen. It is used to treat some symptoms of menopause, such as vaginal dryness and painful intercourse. It may also be used to treat certain types of urinary incontinence (inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder). Estrogen cream is usually applied to the vagina, vulva, or opening of the urethra. It may also be applied to the cervix in some women who have certain abnormal cell changes caused by low hormone levels. Treatment with estrogen cream usually helps make these abnormal cells go away.

estrogen receptor    listen   (ES-truh-jin reh-SEP-ter)
A protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. The hormone estrogen will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow. Also called ER.

estrogen receptor negative    listen   (ES-truh-jin reh-SEP-ter NEH-guh-tiv)
Describes cells that do not have a protein to which the hormone estrogen will bind. Cancer cells that are estrogen receptor negative do not need estrogen to grow, and usually do not stop growing when treated with hormones that block estrogen from binding. Also called ER-.

estrogen receptor positive    listen   (ES-truh-jin reh-SEP-ter PAH-zih-tiv)
Describes cells that have a receptor protein that binds the hormone estrogen. Cancer cells that are estrogen receptor positive may need estrogen to grow, and may stop growing or die when treated with substances that block the binding and actions of estrogen. Also called ER+.

estrogen receptor test    listen   (ES-truh-jin reh-SEP-ter test)
A lab test to find out if cancer cells have estrogen receptors (proteins to which estrogen will bind). If the cells have estrogen receptors, they may need estrogen to grow, and this may affect how the cancer is treated.

estrogen replacement therapy    listen   (ES-truh-jin reh-PLAYS-ment THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with the hormone estrogen to increase the amount of estrogen in the body. It is given to women who have gone through menopause or to women who have early menopause caused by cancer treatment or by having their ovaries removed by surgery. Estrogen replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and sleep problems. It may also help protect against osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) and lower the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Also called ERT.

ET-743      
A substance that comes from a type of sea squirt and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to DNA and causes breaks in the DNA. It also blocks the ability of the cell to repair the DNA damage, and may cause cancer cells to die. ET-743 is also made in the laboratory. It is a type of DNA excision repair inhibitor. Also called ecteinascidin 743 and trabectedin.

etanercept    listen   (ee-TA-ner-cept)
A drug that is commonly used to treat arthritis. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer, and as a treatment for loss of appetite and weight loss in cancer patients. It belongs to the family of drugs called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists.

etaracizumab    listen   (eh-TAR-uh-SIH-zoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Etaracizumab binds to a protein on the surface of blood vessels and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It may also prevent the spread of cancer. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent, a type of metastasis inhibitor, and a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Abegrin, humanized monoclonal antibody MEDI-522, and MEDI-522.

ethanol ablation    listen   (EH-thuh-nol a-BLAY-shun)
An injection of ethanol (alcohol) through the skin directly into a tumor to kill cancer cells. Ultrasound or a CT scan is used to guide the needle into the tumor. Also called alcohol ablation, PEI, and percutaneous ethanol injection.

etheylenediaminetetraacetic acid    listen   (EH-thih-leen-DY-uh-meen-TEH-truh-uh-SEE-tik A-sid)
A chemical that binds certain metal ions, such as calcium, magnesium, lead, and iron. It is used in medicine to prevent blood samples from clotting and to remove calcium and lead from the body. It is also used to keep bacteria from forming a biofilm (thin layer stuck to a surface). It is a type of chelating agent. Also called edetic acid and EDTA.

ethical    listen   (EH-thih-kul)
Having to do with beliefs about what is right and wrong in terms of how people behave. Also called moral.

ethical will    listen   (EH-thih-kul …)
A final personal message or document in which a person shares his or her thoughts, values, memories, life lessons, advice, and hopes for the future. The person may also ask for forgiveness and forgive others. An ethical will is not a legal document.

ethiodized oil    listen   (eh-THY-oh-dized oyl)
A form of poppy seed oil that contains iodine. Ethiodized oil is given by injection and builds up in the blood and lymph vessels in tumors. It is used for imaging (taking pictures) of the salivary glands and the lymph system. It is also being studied in the imaging of other organs such as the liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. It is a type of diagnostic imaging agent. Also called Ethiodol, iodized oil, and Lipiodol.

Ethiodol    listen   (eh-THY-oh-dol)
A form of poppy seed oil that contains iodine. Ethiodol is given by injection and builds up in the blood and lymph vessels in tumors. It is used for imaging (taking pictures) of the salivary glands and the lymph system. It is also being studied in the imaging of other organs such as the liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. It is a type of diagnostic imaging agent. Also called ethiodized oil, iodized oil, and Lipiodol.

ethmoid sinus    listen   (ETH-moyd SY-nus)
A type of paranasal sinus (a hollow space in the bones around the nose). Ethmoid sinuses are found in the spongy ethmoid bone in the upper part of the nose between the eyes. They are lined with cells that make mucus to keep the nose from drying out.

ethylene oxide    listen   (EH-thuh-leen OK-side)
A chemical used to make antifreeze, to clean medical equipment, and as a pesticide. It is also found in tobacco smoke. Being exposed to ethylene oxide can cause lung damage, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and shortness of breath. Being exposed over a long time may increase the risk of certain types of cancer.

ethynyluracil    listen   (eh-THY-nil-YOOR-uh-sil)
An anticancer drug that increases the effectiveness of fluorouracil. Also called eniluracil.

etidronate    listen   (ee-tih-DROH-nayt)
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates are used as treatment for hypercalcemia (abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood) and for cancer that has spread to the bone (bone metastases).

etiology    listen   (EE-tee-AH-loh-jee)
The cause or origin of disease.

Etopophos    listen   (ee-toh-POH-fos)
A drug used to treat testicular and small cell lung cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. Etopophos blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of podophyllotoxin derivative and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called etoposide phosphate.

etoposide    listen   (ee-toh-POH-side)
A drug used to treat testicular and small cell lung cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. Etoposide blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of podophyllotoxin derivative and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Toposar and Vepesid.

etoposide phosphate    listen   (ee-toh-POH-side FOS-fayt)
A drug used to treat testicular and small cell lung cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. Etoposide phosphate blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of podophyllotoxin derivative and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Etopophos.

ETS      
Smoke that comes from the burning of a tobacco product and smoke that is exhaled by smokers. Inhaling ETS is called involuntary or passive smoking. Also called environmental tobacco smoke and secondhand smoke.

eucalyptus    listen   (YOO-kuh-LIP-tus)
A type of evergreen tree that is a member of the myrtle family. Oil from the leaves is used in very small amounts in mouthwash and in medicines and candy used to treat and soothe sore throats and coughs. It has also been used in some cultures to treat many other medical problems. The scientific name is Eucalyptus globulus.

Eulexin    listen   (yoo-LEK-sin)
A drug used with another drug to treat certain types of prostate cancer. Eulexin binds to proteins called androgen receptors, which are found in some prostate cancer cells, and keeps androgens (male hormones) from binding to the receptors. This blocks the ability of androgens to cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Eulexin is a type of antiandrogen. Also called flutamide.

euphoria    listen   (yoo-FOR-ee-uh)
A feeling of great happiness or well-being. Euphoria may be a side effect of certain drugs.

EUS      
A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument that has a light and a lens for viewing. A probe at the end of the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal organs to make a picture (sonogram). Also called endoscopic ultrasound and endosonography.

EUS-FNA      
A procedure to take a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. An endoscope with an ultrasound probe and a biopsy needle at the end is inserted through the mouth into the esophagus. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument that has a light and a lens for viewing. The ultrasound probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make a picture on a monitor. This picture helps the doctor see where to place the biopsy needle. Also called endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

euthanasia    listen   (YOO-thuh-NAY-zhuh)
An easy or painless death, or the intentional ending of the life of a person suffering from an incurable or painful disease at his or her request. Also called mercy killing.

Evacet    listen   (EH-vuh-set)
A form of the anticancer drug doxorubicin that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than doxorubicin. Evacet is used to treat ovarian cancer, AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma, and multiple myeloma in patients whose disease has not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It may be used together with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Evacet is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic. Also called Dox-SL, Doxil, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome, LipoDox, and liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride.

evaluable disease    listen   (ee-VAL-yoo-uh-bul dih-ZEEZ)
Disease that cannot be measured directly by the size of the tumor but can be evaluated by other methods specific to a particular clinical trial.

evaluable patients    listen   (ee-VAL-yoo-uh-bul PAY-shunts)
Patients whose response to a treatment can be measured because enough information has been collected.

event-free survival    listen   (eh-VENT … ser-VY-vul)
In cancer, the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer ends that the patient remains free of certain complications or events that the treatment was intended to prevent or delay. These events may include the return of the cancer or the onset of certain symptoms, such as bone pain from cancer that has spread to the bone. In a clinical trial, measuring the event-free survival is one way to see how well a new treatment works. Also called EFS.

everolimus    listen   (eh-veh-ROH-lih-mus)
A drug used with another drug to treat some postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that is hormone-receptor positive and HER2 negative. It is also used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer, a type of advanced kidney cancer, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in some patients, including children. Everolimus is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It also lowers the body’s immune response. It is a type of kinase inhibitor, a type of angiogenesis inhibitor, and a type of immunosuppressant. Also called Afinitor, Afinitor Disperz, and RAD001.

Evista    listen   (ee-VIS-tuh)
A drug used to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of the disease or who have osteoporosis. It is also used to prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the prevention of breast cancer in certain premenopausal women and in the prevention and treatment of other conditions. Evista blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast and increases the amount of calcium in bone. It is a type of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Also called raloxifene hydrochloride.

Evoxac    listen   (EE-voh-ZAK)
A drug used to treat certain disorders of the salivary gland. It is also being studied as a treatment for dry mouth caused by radiation therapy to the head and neck. It increases the amount of saliva and sweat made by saliva and sweat glands. Evoxac is a type of cholinergic agonist. Also called cevimeline hydrochloride.

Ewing sarcoma    listen   (YOO-ing sar-KOH-muh)
A type of cancer that forms in bone or soft tissue. Also called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor and pPNET.

Ewing sarcoma family of tumors    listen   (YOO-ing sar-KOH-muh FA-mih-lee ... TOO-mers)
A group of cancers that includes Ewing tumor of bone (ETB or Ewing sarcoma of bone), extraosseous Ewing (EOE) tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET or peripheral neuroepithelioma), and Askin tumors (PNET of the chest wall). These tumors all come from the same type of stem cell. Also called EFTs.

ex vivo    listen   (ex VEE-voh)
Outside of the living body. Refers to a medical procedure in which an organ, cells, or tissue are taken from a living body for a treatment or procedure, and then returned to the living body.

Exalgo    listen   (eg-ZAL-goh)
A drug used to treat moderate to severe pain. It may also be used to treat certain types of cough. Exalgo is made from morphine and binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. It is a type of opioid and a type of analgesic agent. Also called Dilaudid, hydromorphone hydrochloride, and Hydrostat IR.

exatecan mesylate    listen   (EK-suh-TEE-kan MEH-zih-layt)
An anticancer drug that is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called DX-8951f.

excision    listen   (ek-SIH-zhun)
Removal by surgery.

excisional biopsy    listen   (ek-SIH-zhuh-nul BY-op-see)
A surgical procedure in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed for diagnosis. The tissue is then examined under a microscope.

excisional skin surgery    listen   (ek-SIH-zhuh-nul … SER-juh-ree)
A surgical procedure used to remove moles, cysts, skin cancer, and other skin growths using local anesthesia. To treat skin cancer, the doctor uses a scalpel to remove the entire tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it.

excrete    listen   (ek-SKREET)
To get rid of waste material from the blood, tissues, or organs by a normal discharge (such as sweat, urine, or stool).

exemestane    listen   (EK-seh-MEH-stayn)
A drug used to treat advanced breast cancer and to prevent recurrent breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have already been treated with tamoxifen. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Exemestane causes a decrease in the amount of estrogen made by the body. It is a type of aromatase inhibitor. Also called Aromasin.

exenteration    listen   (eg-ZEN-teh-RAY-shun)
Surgery to remove organs within a body cavity.

exisulind    listen   (ek-sih-SOO-lind)
A drug being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It has been shown to cause apoptosis (cell death) in cells that are malignant (cancer) and in cells that may become cancer. It acts through a group of cellular enzymes called cGMP phosphodiesterases.

Exjade    listen   (EX-jayd)
A drug used to treat too much iron in the blood caused by blood transfusions. It is being studied in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (a group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells) and other conditions. Exjade binds to extra iron in the blood. The drug and the iron are passed from the body in urine. It is a type of chelating agent. Also called deferasirox.

exocrine cancer    listen   (EK-soh-krin KAN-ser)
A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas. Also called pancreatic cancer.

exocrine pancreas cell    listen   (EK-soh-krin PAN-kree-us sel)
A pancreatic cell that produces enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. These enzymes help digest food as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract.

expanded access trial    listen   (ek-SPAN-ded AK-ses TRY-ul)
A way to provide an investigational therapy to a patient who is not eligible to receive that therapy in a clinical trial, but who has a serious or life-threatening illness for which other treatments are not available. Expanded access allows a patient to receive promising but not yet fully studied or approved cancer therapies when no other treatment option exists. Also called compassionate use trial.

expectant management    listen   (ek-SPEK-tunt MA-nij-ment)
Closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving treatment unless symptoms appear or change, or there are changes in test results. Expectant management avoids problems that may be caused by treatments such as radiation or surgery. It is used to find early signs that the condition is getting worse. During expectant management, patients may be given certain exams and tests. It is sometimes used in prostate cancer. Also called deferred therapy.

experimental    listen   (ek-SPAYR-ih-men-tul)
In clinical trials, refers to a drug (including a new drug, dose, combination, or route of administration) or procedure that has undergone basic laboratory testing and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be tested in human subjects. A drug or procedure may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition, but be considered experimental in other diseases or conditions. Also called investigational.

experimental drug    listen   (ek-SPAYR-ih-men-tul ...)
A substance that has been tested in the laboratory and has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testing in people. Clinical trials test how well experimental drugs work and whether they are safe to use. An experimental drug may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition but still be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. Also called IND, investigational agent, investigational drug, and investigational new drug.

exploratory surgery    listen   (ek-SPLOR-uh-TOR-ee SER-juh-ree)
Surgery to look inside the body to help make a diagnosis.

extensive-stage small cell lung cancer    listen   (ek-STEN-siv-stayj ... sel lung KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread outside of the lung in which it began or to other parts of the body.

external radiation therapy    listen   (...RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy that uses a machine to aim high-energy rays at the cancer from outside of the body. Also called external-beam radiation therapy.

external right atrial catheter    listen   (ek-STER-nul rite AY-tree-ul KA-theh-ter)
A thin, flexible tube that is inserted into a vein in the neck or below the collar bone and guided (threaded) into the right atrium of the heart. It is used to give intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, and chemotherapy and other drugs, and for taking blood samples. It avoids the need for repeated needle sticks. An external right atrial catheter is a type of central venous access device.

external-beam radiation therapy    listen   (...RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy that uses a machine to aim high-energy rays at the cancer from outside of the body. Also called external radiation therapy.

extracorporeal photopheresis    listen   (EK-struh-kor-POR-ee-ul FOH-toh-feh-REE-sis)
A procedure in which blood is removed from the body and treated with ultraviolet light and drugs that become active when exposed to light. The blood is then returned to the body. It is being studied in the treatment of some blood and bone marrow diseases and graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). Also called photopheresis.

extracranial    listen   (EK-struh-KRAY-nee-ul)
Outside of the cranium (bones that surround the brain).

extracranial germ cell tumor    listen   (EK-struh-KRAY-nee-ul jerm sel TOO-mer)
A rare cancer that forms in germ cells in the testicle or ovary, or in germ cells that have traveled to areas of the body other than the brain (such as the chest, abdomen, or tailbone). Germ cells are reproductive cells that develop into sperm in males and eggs in females.

extract    listen   (EK-strakt)
In medicine, a preparation of a substance obtained from plants, animals, or bacteria and used as a drug or in drugs.

extragonadal    listen   (EK-struh-goh-NA-dul)
An area of the body other than the ovaries or testes.

extragonadal germ cell tumor    listen   (EK-struh-goh-NA-dul jerm sel TOO-mer)
A rare cancer that develops in germ cells that are found in areas of the body other than the ovary or testicle (such as the brain, chest, abdomen, or tailbone). Germ cells are reproductive cells that develop into sperm in males and eggs in females.

extrahepatic    listen   (EK-struh-heh-PA-tik)
Located or occurring outside the liver.

extrahepatic bile duct    listen   (EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt)
The part of the common hepatic bile duct (tube that collects bile from the liver) that is outside the liver. This duct joins a duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which carries bile into the small intestine when food is being digested.

extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
A rare cancer that forms in the part of the bile duct that is outside the liver. The bile duct is the tube that collects bile from the liver and joins a duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which carries bile into the small intestine when food is being digested.

extranodal    listen   (EK-struh-NOH-dul)
Refers to an area or organ outside of the lymph nodes.

extraocular    listen   (EK-struh-AH-kyoo-ler)
Located outside the eye.

extraosseous    listen   (EK-struh-AH-see-us)
Located or occurring outside of the bone. Also called extraskeletal.

extrapleural pneumonectomy    listen   (EK-struh-PLOOR-ul NOO-moh-NEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove a diseased lung, part of the pericardium (membrane covering the heart), part of the diaphragm (muscle between the lungs and the abdomen), and part of the parietal pleura (membrane lining the chest). This type of surgery is used most often to treat malignant mesothelioma.

extraskeletal    listen   (EK-struh-SKEH-leh-tul)
Located or occurring outside of the bone. Also called extraosseous.

extrauterine pregnancy    listen   (EK-struh-YOO-teh-rin PREG-nun-see)
A condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside of the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. Symptoms include sharp pain on one side of the abdomen and bleeding from the vagina. Also called ectopic pregnancy.

extravasation    listen   (ek-STRA-vuh-SAY-shun)
The leakage of blood, lymph, or other fluid, such as an anticancer drug, from a blood vessel or tube into the tissue around it. It is also used to describe the movement of cells out of a blood vessel into tissue during inflammation or metastasis (the spread of cancer).

extravasation injury    listen   (ek-STRA-vuh-SAY-shun IN-jer-ee)
Blistering and tissue damage caused by certain drugs when they leak out of a vein into the tissue around it. The damage is sometimes severe and can lead to tissue necrosis (tissue death).

extremity    listen   (ek-STREH-mih-tee)
A limb of the body, such as the arm or leg.

eye cancer    listen   (i KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of and around the eye. Some of the cancers that may affect the eye include melanoma (a rare cancer that begins in cells that make the pigment melanin in the eye), carcinoma (cancer that begins in tissues that cover structures in the eye), lymphoma (cancer that begins in immune system cells), and retinoblastoma (cancer that begins in the retina and usually occurs in children younger than 5 years).

EZN-2285      
A drug used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is a form of the anticancer drug PEG-asparaginase that stays in the body longer. EZN-2285 is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. It is a type of protein synthesis inhibitor. Also called Oncaspar-IV and SC-PEG E. coli L-asparaginase.

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