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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


264 results found for:       G



G-CSF      
A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called filgrastim and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

G6PD deficiency    listen   (… deh-FIH-shun-see)
An inherited disorder in which a person doesn’t have enough of an enzyme called G6PD that helps red blood cells work the way they should. In G6PD deficiency, the red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to infection, severe stress, or certain drugs, chemicals, or foods. This may lead to a condition called hemolytic anemia. This disorder is most common in African-American men and in men of Middle Eastern or Mediterranean descent. Also called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

gabapentin    listen   (GA-buh-PEN-tin)
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for relieving hot flashes in women with breast cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called anticonvulsants.

GAD      
A condition marked by excessive worry and feelings of fear, dread, and uneasiness that last six months or longer. Other symptoms of GAD include being restless, being tired or irritable, muscle tension, not being able to concentrate or sleep well, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, sweating, and dizziness. Also called generalized anxiety disorder.

gadobenate dimeglumine    listen   (GA-doh-BEH-nayt dy-MEG-loo-meen)
A drug used in MRI to help make clear pictures of blood vessels in the brain, spine, and nearby tissues. It is also being studied as a way to find abnormal areas in the liver and other organs and to help diagnose cancer. Gadobenate dimeglumine is a type of contrast agent. Also called MultiHance.

gadolinium    listen   (GA-duh-LIH-nee-um)
A metal element that is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other imaging methods. It is a contrast agent, which helps show abnormal tissue in the body during imaging with a special machine.

gadolinium texaphyrin    listen   (GA-doh-LIH-nee-um tek-SA-fih-rin)
A substance being studied in the treatment and diagnosis of some types of cancer. It builds up in some cancer cells, which may make them easier to kill with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Gadolinium texaphyrin is also used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help find cancer cells in the body. It is a type of radiosensitizing agent, a type of chemosensitizing agent, and a type of contrast agent. Also called motexafin gadolinium.

gadopentetate dimeglumine    listen   (GA-doh-PEN-teh-tayt dy-MEG-loo-meen)
A substance used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help make clear pictures of the brain, spine, heart, soft tissue of joints, and inside bones. Gadopentetate dimeglumine is being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. It is a type of contrast agent. Also called Gd-DTPA and Magnevist.

Gail model    listen   (... MAH-dul)
A computer program that uses personal and family medical history information to estimate a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer. Also called Gail risk model.

Gail risk model    listen   (... MAH-dul)
A computer program that uses personal and family medical history information to estimate a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer. Also called Gail model.

galiximab    listen   (guh-LIK-sih-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It binds to the protein CD80, which is found on certain normal white blood cells and on white blood cells that are cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

gallbladder    listen   (GAWL-bla-der)
The pear-shaped organ found below the liver. Bile is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder.

gallbladder cancer    listen   (GAWL-bla-der KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ below the liver that collects and stores bile (a fluid made by the liver to digest fat). Gallbladder cancer begins in the innermost layer of tissue and spreads through the outer layers as it grows.

gallium nitrate    listen   (GA-lee-um NY-trayt)
A drug that lowers blood calcium. Used as treatment for hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood) and for cancer that has spread to the bone (bone metastases).

gallium scan    listen   (GA-lee-um skan)
A procedure to detect areas of the body where cells are dividing rapidly. It is used to locate cancer cells or areas of inflammation. A very small amount of radioactive gallium is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The gallium is taken up by rapidly dividing cells in the bones, tissues, and organs and is detected by a scanner.

gallstone    listen   (GAWL-stone)
Solid material that forms in the gallbladder or common bile duct. Gallstones are made of cholesterol or other substances found in the gallbladder. They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand. Also called cholelith.

galvanic skin response    listen   (gal-VA-nik ... reh-SPONTS)
A change in the heat and electricity passed through the skin by nerves and sweat. Galvanic skin response increases in certain emotional states and during hot flashes that happen with menopause. Also called electrodermal response and skin conduction.

gamma irradiation    listen   (GA-muh ih-RAY-dee-AY-shun)
A type of radiation therapy that uses gamma radiation. Gamma radiation is a type of high-energy radiation that is different from x-rays.

Gamma Knife therapy    listen   (GA-muh nife THAYR-uh-pee)
A treatment using gamma rays, a type of high-energy radiation that can be tightly focused on small tumors or other lesions in the head or neck, so very little normal tissue receives radiation. The gamma rays are aimed at the tumor from many different angles at once, and deliver a large dose of radiation exactly to the tumor in one treatment session. This procedure is a type of stereotactic radiosurgery. Gamma Knife therapy is not a knife and is not surgery. Gamma Knife is a registered trademark of Elekta Instruments, Inc.

gamma ray    listen   (GA-muh ...)
A type of high-energy radiation that is different from an x-ray.

ganciclovir    listen   (gan-SY-kloh-veer)
An antiviral agent used to prevent or treat cytomegalovirus infections that may occur when the body's immune system is suppressed. In gene therapy, ganciclovir is used with an altered herpes simplex virus-1 gene to kill advanced melanoma cells and brain tumor cells.

ganglioside    listen   (GANG-glee-oh-side)
A complex molecule that contains both lipids (fats) and carbohydrates (sugars) and is found in the plasma (outer) membrane of many kinds of cells. Several different types of gangliosides have been identified.

Gardasil    listen   (GAR-duh-sil)
A vaccine used to prevent anal, cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 and genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11. Gardasil is approved for use in males and females aged 9 to 26 years. It is a type of quadrivalent vaccine (a vaccine that works against four different viruses or other microorganisms). Also called recombinant human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine.

garden heliotrope    listen   (GAR-den HEE-lee-oh-TROPE)
A plant whose roots are used as a sedative and to treat certain medical conditions. It is being studied as a way to improve sleep in cancer patients undergoing treatment. Also called garden valerian, Indian valerian, Mexican valerian, Pacific valerian, valerian, Valeriana officinalis, and Valerianae radix.

garden valerian    listen   (GAR-den vuh-LEER-ee-un)
A plant whose roots are used as a sedative and to treat certain medical conditions. It is being studied as a way to improve sleep in cancer patients undergoing treatment. Also called garden heliotrope, Indian valerian, Mexican valerian, Pacific valerian, valerian, Valeriana officinalis, and Valerianae radix.

garlic    listen   (GAR-lik)
A European plant that has a bulb used to flavor food. It has also been used in some cultures to treat certain medical conditions including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, infections, and cancer. The scientific name is Allium sativum.

gastrectomy    listen   (ga-STREK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove all or part of the stomach.

gastric    listen   (GAS-trik)
Having to do with the stomach.

gastric acid    listen   (GAS-trik A-sid)
Acid that is released into the stomach from glands in the stomach wall. It helps digest food. Gastric acid is made of hydrochloric acid.

gastric acid secretion test    listen   (GAS-trik A-sid seh-KREE-shun …)
A test used to measure the amount of gastric acid made by the stomach. The patient receives an injection of the hormone gastrin or insulin. A tube is put through the nose or throat into the stomach and samples are taken from the stomach and sent to a laboratory for testing. Also called stomach acid stimulation test and stomach acid test.

gastric atrophy    listen   (GAS-trik A-troh-fee)
A condition marked by thinning of the inner lining of the stomach wall and the loss of gland cells in the lining that release substances that help with digestion. It may be caused by infection with the bacterium H. pylori or by certain autoimmune conditions. Gastric atrophy may increase the risk of stomach cancer.

gastric cancer    listen   (GAS-trik KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Also called stomach cancer.

gastric feeding tube    listen   (GAS-trik FEE-ding toob)
A tube that is inserted through the nose, down the throat and esophagus, and into the stomach. It can be used to give drugs, liquids, and liquid food, or used to remove substances from the stomach. Giving food through a gastric feeding tube is a type of enteral nutrition. Also called nasogastric tube and NG tube.

gastric mucosal hypertrophy    listen   (GAS-trik myoo-KOH-sul hy-PER-troh-fee)
A condition marked by inflammation and ulcers (breaks on the skin or on the surface of an organ) of the mucosa (inner lining) of the stomach and by overgrowth of the cells that make up the mucosa. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Patients with gastric mucosal hypertrophy may be at a higher risk of stomach cancer. Also called giant hypertrophic gastritis and Ménétrier disease.

gastric reflux    listen   (GAS-trik REE-flux)
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called esophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux.

gastric scirrhous carcinoma    listen   (GAS-trik SKIR-us KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A rare type of stomach cancer that begins in the lining of the stomach and spreads to the muscles of the stomach wall. This causes the wall of the stomach to become thick, hard, and rubbery, which leads to trouble digesting food. Also called linitis plastica.

gastrin    listen   (GAS-trin)
A hormone released from special cells in the lining of the stomach after eating. Gastrin causes the stomach to release an acid that helps digest food.

gastrinoma    listen   (gas-trih-NOH-muh)
A tumor that causes overproduction of gastric acid. It usually begins in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine that connects to the stomach) or the islet cells of the pancreas. Rarely, it may also begin in other organs, including the stomach, liver, jejunum (the middle part of the small intestine), biliary tract (organs and ducts that make and store bile), mesentery, or heart. It is a type of neuroendocrine tumor, and it may metastasize (spread) to the liver and the lymph nodes.

gastritis    listen   (gas-TRY-tis)
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

gastroenteritis    listen   (GAS-troh-EN-teh-RY-tis)
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps (dull or sharp pains). Gastroenteritis may be caused by infection with bacteria, parasites, or viruses. It may also be caused by food poisoning, allergic reactions, or reactions to certain medicines or foods.

gastroenterologist    listen   (GAS-troh-EN-teh-RAH-loh-jist)
A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the digestive system.

gastroesophageal junction    listen   (GAS-troh-ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul JUNK-shun)
The place where the esophagus is connected to the stomach.

gastroesophageal reflux    listen   (GAS-troh-ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul REE-flux)
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called esophageal reflux and gastric reflux.

gastrointestinal    listen   (GAS-troh-in-TES-tih-nul)
Refers to the stomach and intestines. Also called GI.

gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor    listen   (GAS-troh-in-TES-tih-nul KAR-sih-noyd TOO-mer)
An indolent (slow-growing) cancer that forms in cells that make hormones in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract (the stomach and intestines). It usually occurs in the appendix (a small fingerlike pouch of the large intestine), small intestine, or rectum. Having gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor increases the risk of forming other cancers of the digestive system.

gastrointestinal stromal tumor    listen   (GAS-troh-in-TES-tih-nul STROH-mul TOO-mer)
A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant. Also called GIST.

gastrointestinal tract    listen   (GAS-troh-in-TES-tih-nul trakt)
The stomach and intestines. The gastrointestinal tract is part of the digestive system, which also includes the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and rectum.

gastroscope    listen   (GAS-troh-SKOPE)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the stomach. A gastroscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

gastroscopy    listen   (gas-TROS-koh-pee)
Examination of the inside of the stomach using a gastroscope passed through the mouth and esophagus. A gastroscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called upper endoscopy.

gastrostomy tube    listen   (gas-TROS-toh-mee toob)
A tube inserted through the wall of the abdomen directly into the stomach. It allows air and fluid to leave the stomach and can be used to give drugs and liquids, including liquid food, to the patient. Giving food through a gastrostomy tube is a type of enteral nutrition. Also called PEG tube and percutaneous endoscopic tube.

gavage    listen   (guh-VAZH)
A way of giving medicines and liquids, including liquid foods, through a small tube placed through the nose or mouth into the stomach or small intestine. Sometimes the tube is placed into the stomach or small intestine through an incision (cut) made on the outside of the abdomen. Gavage may be added to what a person is able to eat and drink, or it may be the only source of nutrition. It is a type of enteral nutrition. Also called tubefeeding.

Gazyva    listen   (guh-ZY-vuh)
A drug used with another drug to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that has not already been treated. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Gazyva binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of white blood cell) and some types of leukemia cells. This may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Gazyva is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called obinutuzumab.

GBM      
A fast-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain and spinal cord and has cells that look very different from normal cells. GBM usually occurs in adults and affects the brain more often than the spinal cord. Also called glioblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and grade IV astrocytoma.

GC1008      
A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other cancers and conditions. GC1008 binds to a protein called transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which is found on some cancer cells. GC1008 may help keep cancer cells from growing and prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody GC1008 and fresolimumab.

GCP      
An international set of guidelines that helps make sure that the results of a clinical trial are reliable and that the patients are protected. GCP covers the way a clinical trial is designed, conducted, performed, monitored, audited, recorded, analyzed, and reported. Also called Good Clinical Practice.

GCT      
A rare tumor that usually forms in bone, but may also form in cartilage, muscle, fat, blood vessels, or other supportive tissue in the body. Most GCTs occur at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs, near a joint (such as the knee, wrist, hip, or shoulder). Most are benign (not cancer) but some are malignant (cancer). GCTs usually occur in young and middle-aged adults. Also called giant cell tumor.

Gd-DTPA      
A substance used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help make clear pictures of the brain, spine, heart, soft tissue of joints, and inside bones. Gd-DTPA is being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. It is a type of contrast agent. Also called gadopentetate dimeglumine and Magnevist.

GDC-0449      
A drug used to treat advanced basal cell carcinoma that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after surgery. It is also used in patients who cannot be treated with surgery or radiation therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. GDC-0449 blocks a type of protein involved in tissue growth and repair and may block the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of Hedgehog signaling pathway antagonist. Also called Erivedge and vismodegib.

gefitinib    listen   (geh-FIH-tih-nib)
A drug that is used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Iressa and ZD1839.

gel electrode    listen   (jel ee-LEK-trode)
A device that uses a gel to carry an electric current from the skin to a measuring instrument. A sticky patch may hold the gel electrode on the skin so that the electrical activity of the heart or brain can be measured.

Gelclair    listen   (JEL-klayr)
A gel used to lessen pain from mouth sores caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, oral surgery, braces, or disease. Gelclair is being studied in the treatment of pain caused by mouth sores in children receiving cancer treatment. It forms a thin layer over the surface of the mouth and throat to prevent irritation while eating, drinking, and talking. Also called polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate gel.

geldanamycin analog    listen   (gel-DA-nuh-MY-sin A-nuh-log)
An antineoplastic antibiotic drug that belongs to the family of drugs called ansamycins.

GEM 231      
A drug that may inhibit the growth of malignant tumors.

GEM640      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. GEM640 may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of a protein called XIAP that helps cells live longer. It also makes cancer cells more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide, and a type of chemosensitizing agent. Also called AEG35156.

gemcitabine    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been)
The active ingredient in a drug that is used to treat pancreatic cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also used with other drugs to treat breast cancer that has spread, advanced ovarian cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Gemcitabine blocks the cell from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite

gemcitabine hydrochloride    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat pancreatic cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also used with other drugs to treat breast cancer that has spread, advanced ovarian cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Gemcitabine hydrochloride blocks the cell from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. Also called Gemzar.

gemcitabine-cisplatin    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been-sis-PLA-tin)
A chemotherapy combination used to treat malignant mesothelioma, advanced non-small cell lung cancer, advanced bladder cancer, advanced cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and epithelial ovarian cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and cisplatin. Also called gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen.

gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been-sis-PLA-tin REH-jih-men)
A chemotherapy combination used to treat malignant mesothelioma, advanced non-small cell lung cancer, advanced bladder cancer, advanced cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and epithelial ovarian cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and cisplatin. Also called gemcitabine-cisplatin.

gemcitabine-erlotinib regimen    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been-er-LOH-tih-nib REH-jih-men)
A chemotherapy combination used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and erlotinib hydrochloride. Also called gemcitabine-Tarceva regimen.

gemcitabine-oxaliplatin    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been-ok-SA-lih-pla-tin)
A chemotherapy combination used to treat pancreatic cancer and some other types of cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin. Also called gemcitabine-oxaliplatin regimen and GEMOX.

gemcitabine-oxaliplatin regimen    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been-ok-SA-lih-pla-tin REH-jih-men)
A chemotherapy combination used to treat pancreatic cancer and some other types of cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin. Also called gemcitabine-oxaliplatin and GEMOX.

gemcitabine-Tarceva regimen    listen   (jem-SY-tuh-been-tar-SEE-vuh REH-jih-men)
A chemotherapy combination used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and erlotinib hydrochloride. Also called gemcitabine-erlotinib regimen.

GEMOX      
A chemotherapy combination used to treat pancreatic cancer and some other types of cancer. It includes the drugs gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin. Also called gemcitabine-oxaliplatin and gemcitabine-oxaliplatin regimen.

gemtuzumab ozogamicin    listen   (gem-TOO-zoo-mab OH-zoh-ga-MIH-sin)
A drug that was used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that recurred (came back). It was used in older patients who were not able to take other anticancer drugs. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin was taken off the market but continues to be studied in clinical trials for the treatment of certain types of leukemia. It contains a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called CD33, which is found on some leukemia cells. It also contains a toxic substance, which may help kill cancer cells. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. Also called Mylotarg.

Gemzar    listen   (JEM-zar)
A drug used to treat pancreatic cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also used with other drugs to treat breast cancer that has spread, advanced ovarian cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Gemzar blocks the cell from making DNA and may kill cancer cells. Also called gemcitabine hydrochloride.

Genasense    listen   (JEH-nuh-sents)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may kill cancer cells by blocking the production of a protein that makes cancer cells live longer and by making them more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide. Also called augmerosen, bcl-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide G3139, and oblimersen sodium.

gene    listen   (jeen)
The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

gene amplification    listen   (jeen AM-plih-fih-KAY-shun)
An increase in the number of copies of a gene. There may also be an increase in the RNA and protein made from that gene. Gene amplification is common in cancer cells, and some amplified genes may cause cancer cells to grow or become resistant to anticancer drugs. Genes may also be amplified in the laboratory for research purposes.

gene deletion    listen   (jeen deh-LEE-shun)
The loss of all or a part of a gene. There may also be a change in the RNA and protein made from that gene. Certain gene deletions are found in cancer and in other genetic diseases and abnormalities.

gene expression    listen   (jeen ek-SPREH-shun)
The process by which a gene gets turned on in a cell to make RNA and proteins. Gene expression may be measured by looking at the RNA, or the protein made from the RNA, or what the protein does in a cell.

gene expression profile    listen   (jeen ek-SPREH-shun PROH-file)
Information about all messenger RNAs that are made in various cell types. A gene expression profile may be used to find and diagnose a disease or condition and to see how well the body responds to treatment. Gene expression profiles may be used in precision medicine.

gene therapy    listen   (jeen THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of experimental treatment in which foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA) is inserted into a person's cells to prevent or fight disease. Gene therapy is being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer.

gene transfer    listen   (jeen TRANZ-fer)
The insertion of genetic material into a cell.

gene-modified    listen   (jeen-MAH-dih-FIDE)
Cells that have been altered to contain different genetic material than they originally contained.

general anesthesia    listen   (JEH-neh-rul A-nes-THEE-zhuh)
A temporary loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep. It is caused by special drugs or other substances called anesthetics. General anesthesia keeps patients from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures.

general surgery    listen   (JEH-neh-rul SER-juh-ree)
The branch of surgery that covers the main areas of surgical treatment. General surgeons treat diseases of the abdomen, breast, head and neck, blood vessels, and digestive tract. They also manage care of patients who have been injured or who have deformities or other conditions that need surgery.

generalized anxiety disorder    listen   (JEH-neh-ruh-lized ang-ZY-eh-tee dis-OR-der)
A condition marked by excessive worry and feelings of fear, dread, and uneasiness that last six months or longer. Other symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder include being restless, being tired or irritable, muscle tension, not being able to concentrate or sleep well, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, sweating, and dizziness. Also called GAD.

generic    listen   (jeh-NAYR-ik)
Official nonbrand names by which medicines are known. Generic names usually refer to the chemical name of the drug.

genetic    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik)
Having to do with genes. Most genes are sequences of DNA that contain information for making specific proteins or molecules of RNA that perform important functions in a cell. The information in genes is passed from parents to children.

genetic analysis    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik uh-NA-lih-sis)
The study of a sample of DNA to look for mutations (changes) that may increase risk of disease or affect the way a person responds to treatment.

genetic counseling    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik KOWN-suh-ling)
A communication process between a specially trained health professional and a person concerned about the genetic risk of disease. The person's family and personal medical history may be discussed, and counseling may lead to genetic testing.

genetic infantile agranulocytosis    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik IN-fun-TILE ay-GRAN-yoo-loh-sy-TOH-sis)
An inherited disorder in which there is a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infections). Infants with the disorder get infections caused by bacteria, and are at an increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplasia (a bone marrow disorder). Also called congenital neutropenia, infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Kostmann disease, Kostmann neutropenia, and Kostmann syndrome.

genetic marker    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik MAR-ker)
Alteration in DNA that may indicate an increased risk of developing a specific disease or disorder.

genetic marker of susceptibility    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik MAR-ker … suh-SEP-tih-BIH-lih-tee)
A specific change in a person’s DNA that makes the person more likely to develop certain diseases such as cancer.

genetic predisposition    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik PREE-dih-spuh-ZIH-shun)
An inherited increase in the risk of developing a disease. Also called genetic susceptibility.

genetic profile    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik PROH-file)
Information about specific genes, including variations and gene expression, in an individual or in a certain type of tissue. A genetic profile may be used to help diagnose a disease or learn how the disease may progress or respond to treatment with drugs or radiation.

genetic susceptibility    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik suh-SEP-tih-BIH-lih-tee)
An inherited increase in the risk of developing a disease. Also called genetic predisposition.

genetic testing    listen   (jeh-NEH-tik TES-ting)
Analyzing DNA to look for a genetic alteration that may indicate an increased risk for developing a specific disease or disorder.

geneticist    listen   (jeh-NEH-tih-sist)
A scientist who has special training in the study of genes and heredity (the passing of genetic information from parents to their children). A medical geneticist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating genetic disorders or conditions. Medical geneticists also counsel individuals and families at risk for certain genetic disorders or cancers.

genetics    listen   (jeh-NEH-tix)
The study of genes and heredity. Heredity is the passing of genetic information and traits (such as eye color and an increased chance of getting a certain disease) from parents to offspring.

genistein    listen   (jeh-NIS-teen)
An isoflavone found in soy products. Soy isoflavones are being studied to see if they help prevent cancer.

genital    listen   (JEH-nih-tul)
Refers to the genitalia (external and internal sex organs and glands).

genital wart    listen   (JEH-nih-tul wort)
A raised growth on the surface of the genitals caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The HPV in genital warts is very contagious and can be spread by skin-to-skin contact, usually during oral, anal, or genital sex with an infected partner. Also called condyloma.

genitourinary system    listen   (jeh-nih-toh-YOOR-ih-nayr-ee SIS-tem)
The parts of the body that play a role in reproduction, getting rid of waste products in the form of urine, or both.

genome    listen   (JEE-nome)
The complete genetic material of an organism.

genome-wide association study    listen   (JEE-nome ... uh-SOH-see-AY-shun STUH-dee)
A study that compares DNA markers across the genome (the complete genetic material in a person) in people with a disease or trait to people without the disease or trait. These studies may uncover clues to help prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Also called GWAS.

genomic profile    listen   (jeh-NOH-mik PROH-file)
Information about all the genes in an organism, including variations, gene expression, and the way those genes interact with each other and with the environment. A genomic profile may be used to discover why some people get certain diseases while other people do not, or why people respond differently to the same drug.

genomic sequencing    listen   (jeh-NOH-mik SEE-kwen-sing)
A laboratory method that is used to determine the entire genetic makeup of a specific organism or cell type. This method can be used to find changes in areas of the genome that may be important in the development of specific diseases, such as cancer.

genomics    listen   (jeh-NOH-mix)
The study of the complete genetic material, including genes and their functions, of an organism.

geranium    listen   (jeh-RAY-nee-um)
A type of plant that is native to southern Africa and has white, pink, purple, or red flowers and 3- to 5-lobed leaves. An essential oil that smells like roses is taken from the leaves and used in perfume, in mosquito repellants, and in aromatherapy to treat skin problems and to reduce stress. The scientific name is Pelargonium graveolens. Also called pelargonium.

germ    listen   (jerm)
A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause infection and disease.

germ cell    listen   (jerm sel)
A reproductive cell of the body. Germ cells are egg cells in females and sperm cells in males.

germ cell tumor    listen   (jerm sel TOO-mer)
A type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. Germ cell tumors can occur almost anywhere in the body and can be either benign or malignant.

German chamomile    listen   (JER-mun KA-muh-mile)
A plant whose daisy-like flowers are used in tea to calm and relax, improve sleep, and help stomach problems. German chamomile has been studied in the prevention of mucositis (mouth sores) caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It has also been used in some cultures to treat skin conditions, mild infections, and other disorders. The scientific name is Matricaria recutita.

German Commission E    listen   (JER-mun kuh-MIH-shun …)
The German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices Commission E. A committee made up of scientists, toxicologists, doctors, and pharmacists formed by the German government in 1978 to find out if herbs sold in Germany are safe and effective. The Commission has published information on the uses, side effects, and drug interactions of more than 300 herbs.

germfree    listen   (JERM-free)
Free of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that can cause infection and disease.

germicide    listen   (JER-mih-side)
Any substance or process that kills germs (bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that can cause infection and disease). Also called microbicide.

germline DNA    listen   (JERM-line ...)
The DNA in germ cells (egg and sperm cells that join to form an embryo). Germline DNA is the source of DNA for all other cells in the body.

germline mutation    listen   (JERM-line myoo-TAY-shun)
A gene change in a body's reproductive cell (egg or sperm) that becomes incorporated into the DNA of every cell in the body of the offspring. Germline mutations are passed on from parents to offspring. Also called hereditary mutation.

Gerota's capsule    listen   (gay-ROH-tuz KAP-sul)
A fibrous envelope of tissue that surrounds the kidney. Also called Gerota's fascia and renal fascia.

Gerota's fascia    listen   (gay-ROH-tuz FA-shuh)
A fibrous envelope of tissue that surrounds the kidney. Also called Gerota's capsule and renal fascia.

Gerson therapy    listen   (GER-sun THAYR-uh-pee)
A diet plan that has been claimed to be a treatment for cancer, migraine, tuberculosis, and other diseases. It is a vegetarian diet that includes eating organic fruits and vegetables and 13 glasses of fresh juice each day. It also includes supplements with iodine, vitamin B-12, potassium, thyroid hormone, liver extract, and pancreatic enzymes. No clinical trial to test Gerson therapy has been reported.

gestational trophoblastic disease    listen   (jeh-STAY-shuh-nul troh-fuh-BLAS-tik dih-ZEEZ)
A rare condition in which abnormal cells grow inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of trophoblastic cells, which normally surround the fertilized egg in the uterus and help connect the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus. These cells also form part of the placenta (the organ that passes nutrients from the mother to the fetus). Most gestational trophoblastic diseases are benign (not cancer) and do not spread, but some types are malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or other parts of the body. The two main types of gestational trophoblastic diseases are hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Also called gestational trophoblastic tumor, GTD, and GTT.

gestational trophoblastic tumor    listen   (jeh-STAY-shuh-nul troh-fuh-BLAS-tik TOO-mer)
A rare condition in which abnormal cells grow inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of trophoblastic cells, which normally surround the fertilized egg in the uterus and help connect the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus. These cells also form part of the placenta (the organ that passes nutrients from the mother to the fetus). Most gestational trophoblastic tumors are benign (not cancer) and do not spread, but some types are malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or other parts of the body. The two main types of gestational trophoblastic tumors are hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Also called gestational trophoblastic disease, GTD, and GTT.

gFOBT      
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards coated with a chemical substance called guaiac and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. A testing solution is put on the cards and the guaiac causes the stool sample to change color. If there is blood in the stool, the color changes very quickly. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called guaiac fecal occult blood test, guaiac smear test, and stool guaiac test.

GG745      
A drug used to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate gland. It is being studied in the treatment of male hair loss and prostate cancer. GG745 blocks enzymes the body needs to make male sex hormones. It is a type of 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. Also called Avodart and dutasteride.

GI      
Refers to the stomach and intestines. Also called gastrointestinal.

GI14721      
An antitumor drug that belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. It is a camptothecin analog.

giant cell fibroblastoma    listen   (JY-unt sel FY-broh-blas-TOH-muh)
A rare type of soft tissue tumor marked by painless nodules in the dermis (the inner layer of the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin) and subcutaneous (beneath the skin) tissue. These tumors may come back after surgery, but they do not spread to other parts of the body. They occur mostly in boys and are related to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

giant cell tumor    listen   (JY-unt sel TOO-mer)
A rare tumor that usually forms in bone, but may also form in cartilage, muscle, fat, blood vessels, or other supportive tissue in the body. Most giant cell tumors occur at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs, near a joint (such as the knee, wrist, hip, or shoulder). Most are benign (not cancer) but some are malignant (cancer). Giant cell tumors usually occur in young and middle-aged adults. Also called GCT.

giant hypertrophic gastritis    listen   (JY-unt hy-per-TROH-fik gas-TRY-tis)
A condition marked by inflammation and ulcers (breaks on the skin or on the surface of an organ) of the mucosa (inner lining) of the stomach and by overgrowth of the cells that make up the mucosa. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Patients with giant hypertrophic gastritis may be at a higher risk of stomach cancer. Also called gastric mucosal hypertrophy and Ménétrier disease.

giant lymph node hyperplasia    listen   (JY-unt limf node HY-per-PLAY-zhuh)
A rare disorder in which benign (not cancer) growths form in lymph node tissue. There are two main ways that giant lymph node hyperplasia occurs: localized (unicentric) and multicentric. Unicentric giant lymph node hyperplasia affects only one group of lymph nodes in one part of the body, usually in the chest or abdomen. It may not cause symptoms. Multicentric giant lymph node hyperplasia affects many groups of lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue all through the body. It can weaken the immune system and cause problems such as infection, fever, weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, nerve damage, and anemia. People with giant lymph node hyperplasia have an increased risk of lymphoma. Also called angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia and Castleman disease.

gigantism    listen   (jy-GAN-tih-zum)
A condition in which the whole body or any of its parts grow much larger than normal.

Gilotrif    listen   (JEE-loh-trif)
A drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients with certain mutations (changes) in a cell protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Gilotrif blocks certain EGFRs, which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Gilotrif is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called afatinib dimaleate.

gimatecan    listen   (jih-muh-TEE-kan)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. Also called ST1481.

ginger    listen   (JIN-jer)
An herb with a root that has been used in cooking, and by some cultures to treat nausea, vomiting, and certain other medical conditions. It is being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy. The scientific name is Zingiber officianale.

gingiva    listen   (JIN-jih-vuh)
The tissue of the upper and lower jaws that surrounds the base of the teeth. Also called gums.

ginkgo    listen   (GING-koh)
A tree native to China. Substances taken from the leaves and seeds have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. Ginkgo has been studied in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease, dementia, certain blood vessel diseases, and memory loss. It may cause bleeding or high blood pressure when used with certain drugs. Also called ginkgo biloba and maidenhair tree.

ginkgo biloba    listen   (GING-koh by-LOH-buh)
A tree native to China. Substances taken from the leaves and seeds have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. Ginkgo biloba has been studied in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease, dementia, certain blood vessel diseases, and memory loss. It may cause bleeding or high blood pressure when used with certain drugs. Also called ginkgo and maidenhair tree.

ginseng    listen   (JIN-seng)
An herb with a root that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects.

GIST    listen  
A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant. Also called gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

gland    listen   (gland)
An organ that makes one or more substances, such as hormones, digestive juices, sweat, tears, saliva, or milk. Endocrine glands release the substances directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands release the substances into a duct or opening to the inside or outside of the body.

gland of Lieberkuhn    listen   (... LEE-ber-keen)
Tube-like gland found in the lining of the colon and rectum. Glands of Lieberkuhn renew the lining of the intestine and make mucus. Also called colon crypt.

glandular cell of the cervix    listen   (GLAN-juh-ler sel … SER-vix)
A type of cell that makes mucus and is found in tissue that lines the inner part of the cervix. Abnormal glandular cells may be found in Pap tests and may be a sign of cancer or other serious condition.

glans penis    listen   (glanz PEE-nis)
The rounded, gland-like head of the penis.

glaucoma    listen   (glaw-KOH-muh)
A condition in which there is a build-up of fluid in the eye, which presses on the retina and the optic nerve. The retina is the layer of nerve tissue inside the eye that senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. Glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and cause loss of vision or blindness.

Gleason score    listen   (GLEE-sun...)
A system of grading prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope. Gleason scores range from 2 to 10 and indicate how likely it is that a tumor will spread. A low Gleason score means the cancer tissue is similar to normal prostate tissue and the tumor is less likely to spread; a high Gleason score means the cancer tissue is very different from normal and the tumor is more likely to spread.

Gleevec    listen   (GLEE-vek)
A drug used to treat different types of leukemia and other cancers of the blood, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, skin tumors called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and a rare condition called systemic mastocytosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Gleevec blocks the protein made by the bcr/abl oncogene. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called imatinib mesylate and STI571.

Gliadel Wafer    listen   (GLY-uh-del WAY-fer)
A biodegradable wafer that is used to deliver the anticancer drug carmustine directly into a brain tumor site after the tumor has been removed by surgery. Also called carmustine implant and polifeprosan 20 carmustine implant.

glial cell    listen   (GLEE-ul sel)
Any of the cells that hold nerve cells in place and help them work the way they should. The types of glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells. Also called neuroglia.

glial tumor    listen   (GLEE-ul TOO-mer)
A general term for tumors of the central nervous system, including astrocytomas, ependymal tumors, glioblastoma multiforme, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

glioblastoma    listen   (GLEE-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
A fast-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain and spinal cord and has cells that look very different from normal cells. Glioblastoma usually occurs in adults and affects the brain more often than the spinal cord. Also called GBM, glioblastoma multiforme, and grade IV astrocytoma.

glioblastoma multiforme    listen   (GLEE-oh-blas-TOH-muh MUL-tih-form)
A fast-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain and spinal cord and has cells that look very different from normal cells. Glioblastoma multiforme usually occurs in adults and affects the brain more often than the spinal cord. Also called GBM, glioblastoma, and grade IV astrocytoma.

glioma    listen   (glee-OH-muh)
A cancer of the brain that begins in glial cells (cells that surround and support nerve cells).

gliosarcoma    listen   (GLEE-oh-sar-KOH-muh)
A type of glioma (cancer of the brain that comes from glial, or supportive, cells).

glossectomy    listen   (glah-SEK-toh-mee)
Surgical removal of all or part of the tongue.

glottis    listen   (GLAH-tis)
The middle part of the larynx; the area where the vocal cords are located.

glucagon    listen   (GLOO-kuh-gon)
A hormone produced by the pancreas that increases the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

glucagonoma    listen   (GLOO-kuh-guh-NOH-muh)
A rare pancreatic tumor that produces a hormone called glucagon. Glucagonomas can produce symptoms similar to diabetes.

glucarpidase    listen   (gloo-KAR-pih-dayz)
A drug used to treat toxic levels of methotrexate (an anticancer drug) in the blood of patients with kidney problems. It is a bacterial enzyme that breaks down proteins and other substances, such as methotrexate. Glucarpidase may also help certain drugs kill cancer cells. It is a type of chemoprotective agent and a type of prodrug activator. Also called carboxypeptidase-G2 and Voraxaze.

glucocorticoid    listen   (GLOO-koh-KOR-tih-koyd)
A compound that belongs to the family of compounds called corticosteroids (steroids). Glucocorticoids affect metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They may be naturally produced (hormones) or synthetic (drugs).

gluconeogenesis    listen   (GLOO-koh-NEE-oh-JEH-neh-sis)
The process of making glucose (sugar) from its own breakdown products or from the breakdown products of lipids (fats) or proteins. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in cells of the liver or kidney.

Glucophage    listen   (GLOO-koh-fayj)
A drug used to treat diabetes mellitus (a condition in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood ). It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It decreases the amount of glucose (a type of sugar) released into the bloodstream from the liver and increases the body’s use of the glucose. Glucophage is a type of antidiabetic agent. Also called metformin hydrochloride.

glucose    listen   (GLOO-kose)
A type of sugar; the chief source of energy for living organisms.

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency    listen   (GLOO-kose-6-FOS-fayt dee-hy-DRAH-jeh-nays deh-FIH-shun-see)
An inherited disorder in which a person doesn’t have enough of an enzyme called G6PD that helps red blood cells work the way they should. In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, the red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to infection, severe stress, or certain drugs, chemicals, or foods. This may lead to a condition called hemolytic anemia. This disorder is most common in African-American men and in men of Middle Eastern or Mediterranean descent. Also called G6PD deficiency.

glucuronic acid    listen   (GLOO-kyoo-RAH-nik A-sid)
A form of a type of sugar called glucose that helps remove harmful substances from the body. Glucuronic acid and the harmful substance combine in the liver and then are passed in the urine. Glucuronic acid is also found in other substances in the body, such as cartilage and synovial fluid (fluid found in the joints).

glufosfamide    listen   (GLOO-FOS-fuh-mide)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

glutamic acid    listen   (gloo-TA-mik A-sid)
One of twenty amino acids (molecules that join together to form proteins). Glutamic acid may help nerve cells send and receive information from other cells. It is being studied for its ability to decrease or prevent nerve damage caused by anticancer drugs. Also called L-glutamic acid.

glutamine    listen   (GLOO-tuh-meen)
An amino acid used in nutrition therapy. It is also being studied for the treatment of diarrhea caused by radiation therapy to the pelvis.

glutathione    listen   (GLOO-tuh-THY-one)
A substance found in plant and animal tissues that has many functions in a cell. These include activating certain enzymes and destroying toxic compounds and chemicals that contain oxygen.

glutathione S-transferase    listen   (GLOO-tuh-THY-one ... TRANZ-feh-rays)
A family of enzymes involved in metabolism and in making toxic compounds less harmful to the body.

glycan    listen   (GLY-kan)
A large carbohydrate molecule. It contains many small sugar molecules that are joined chemically. Also called polysaccharide.

glycan analysis    listen   (GLY-kan uh-NA-lih-sis)
A study of the types of carbohydrate (sugar) molecules attached to proteins in cells. Proteins with carbohydrate molecules are called glycoproteins. Glycan analysis is being studied to find out if glycoproteins on cancer cells may be used as biomarkers for cancer.

glycemia    listen   (gly-SEE-mee-uh)
Glucose (a type of sugar) found in the blood. Also called blood sugar.

glycemic index    listen   (gly-SEE-mik IN-dex)
A measure of the increase in the level of blood glucose (a type of sugar) caused by eating a specific carbohydrate (food that contains sugar) compared with eating a standard amount of glucose. Foods with a high glycemic index release glucose quickly and cause a rapid rise in blood glucose. Foods with a low glycemic index release glucose slowly into the blood. A relationship between the glycemic index and recurrent colorectal cancer is being studied.

glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase inhibitor    listen   (gly-SIH-nuh-mide RY-boh-NOO-klee-oh-tide FOR-mil-TRANZ-feh-rays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A drug that blocks DNA synthesis and may prevent tumor growth. It is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

Glycine max    listen   (GLY-seen ...)
A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Glycine max contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Glycine max in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called soy, soya, and soybean.

glycogen storage disease    listen   (GLY-koh-jen STOR-ij dih-ZEEZ)
A type of inherited disorder in which there are problems with how a form of glucose (sugar) called glycogen is stored and used in the body. Certain enzymes that help make or break down glycogen are missing or do not work the way they should. This causes abnormal amounts or types of glycogen in the tissues, especially in the liver and in muscle tissue. There are many types of glycogen storage disease, which can cause problems in different parts of the body, including the liver, muscles, kidneys, and heart. Also called GSD.

glycolic acid    listen   (gly-KAH-lik A-sid)
A substance found in some fruits, sugar beets, and sugar cane. It is used in skin care products to reduce wrinkles and soften the skin. It is a type of alpha hydroxyl acid.

glycolysis    listen   (gly-KAH-lih-sis)
A process in which glucose (sugar) is partially broken down by cells in enzyme reactions that do not need oxygen. Glycolysis is one method that cells use to produce energy. When glycolysis is linked with other enzyme reactions that use oxygen, more complete breakdown of glucose is possible and more energy is produced.

glycopeptide    listen   (gly-koh-PEP-tide)
A short chain of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) that has sugar molecules attached to it. Some glycopeptides have been studied for their ability to stimulate the immune system.

glycoprotein    listen   (gly-koh-PROH-teen)
A protein that has sugar molecules attached to it.

glycoprotein 100    listen   (gly-koh-PROH-teen …)
gp100. A tumor-specific antigen used in the development of cancer vaccines. Also called gp100.

glycosaminoglycan    listen   (GLY-koh-suh-MEE-noh-GLY-kan)
A type of long, unbranched polysaccharide molecule. Glycosaminoglycans are major structural components of cartilage and are also found in the cornea of the eye.

GM-CSF      
A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets. It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and sargramostim.

GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine    listen   (… seh-KREE-ting brest TOO-mer vak-SEEN)
A vaccine that is being studied as a way to help the body’s immune system kill breast cancer cells. To make the vaccine, the GM-CSF gene is put into breast cancer cells in the laboratory. The cells are then treated with radiation to stop them from growing and injected into the same or a different patient. The GM-CSF protein made by the changed breast cancer cells may help the immune system kill breast cancer cells in the body.

GM2-KLH vaccine    listen   (... vak-SEEN)
A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies that fight certain cancer cells.

GnRH      
A hormone made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. GnRH causes the pituitary gland in the brain to make and secrete the hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In men, these hormones cause the testicles to make testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to make estrogen and progesterone. Also called gonadotropin-releasing hormone, LH-RH, LHRH, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

GnRH agonist    listen   (… A-guh-nist)
A substance that keeps the testicles and ovaries from making sex hormones by blocking other hormones that are needed to make them. In men, GnRH agonists cause the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some GnRH agonists are used to treat prostate cancer. Also called gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, LH-RH agonist, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist.

GnRH antagonist    listen   (… an-TA-guh-nist)
A substance that blocks the pituitary gland from making hormones called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In men, this causes the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, this causes the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some GnRH antagonists are used to treat advanced prostate cancer. They are also used to treat certain gynecologic conditions and are being studied in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Also called gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, LH-RH antagonist, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist.

goiter    listen   (GOY-ter)
An enlarged thyroid. It may be caused by too little iodine in the diet or by other conditions. Most goiters are not cancer.

gold fiducial marker seeds    listen   (… fih-DOO-shul MAR-ker …)
Tiny, gold seeds, about the size of a grain of rice, that are put in and/or around a tumor to show exactly where it is in the body. Doctors are then able to target the tumor directly and give higher doses of radiation with less harm to nearby healthy tissue. Also called gold fiducial markers, gold seeds, and gold-seed fiducial markers.

gold fiducial markers    listen   (… fih-DOO-shul MAR-kers)
Tiny, gold seeds, about the size of a grain of rice, that are put in and/or around a tumor to show exactly where it is in the body. Doctors are then able to target the tumor directly and give higher doses of radiation with less harm to nearby healthy tissue. Also called gold fiducial marker seeds, gold seeds, and gold-seed fiducial markers.

gold seeds    listen   (gold seeds)
Tiny, gold seeds, about the size of a grain of rice, that are put in and/or around a tumor to show exactly where it is in the body. Doctors are then able to target the tumor directly and give higher doses of radiation with less harm to nearby healthy tissue. Also called gold fiducial marker seeds, gold fiducial markers, and gold-seed fiducial markers.

gold therapy    listen   (… THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The gold salts stop cells from releasing chemicals that can harm tissues. Also called aurotherapy and chrysotherapy.

gold-seed fiducial markers    listen   (… fih-DOO-shul MAR-kers)
Tiny, gold seeds, about the size of a grain of rice, that are put in and/or around a tumor to show exactly where it is in the body. Doctors are then able to target the tumor directly and give higher doses of radiation with less harm to nearby healthy tissue. Also called gold fiducial marker seeds, gold fiducial markers, and gold seeds.

gonad    listen   (GOH-nad)
The part of the reproductive system that produces and releases eggs (ovary) or sperm (testicle/testis).

gonadal dysgenesis    listen   (goh-NA-dul dis-JEH-neh-sis)
Abnormal development of a gonad (ovary or testicle). Men with gonadal dysgenesis have a greater risk of developing testicular cancer. Gonadal dysgenesis is usually part of a genetic syndrome.

gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist    listen   (goh-NA-doh-TROH-pin-reh-LEE-sing HOR-mone an-TA-guh-nist)
A substance that blocks the pituitary gland from making hormones called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In men, this causes the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, this causes the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat advanced prostate cancer. They are also used to treat certain gynecologic conditions and are being studied in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Also called GnRH antagonist, LH-RH antagonist, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist.

gonadotropin-releasing hormone    listen   (goh-NA-doh-TROH-pin-reh-LEE-sing HOR-mone)
A hormone made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone causes the pituitary gland in the brain to make and secrete the hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In men, these hormones cause the testicles to make testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to make estrogen and progesterone. Also called GnRH, LH-RH, LHRH, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist    listen   (goh-NA-doh-TROH-pin-reh-LEE-sing HOR-mone A-guh-nist)
A substance that keeps the testicles and ovaries from making sex hormones by blocking other hormones that are needed to make them. In men, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists cause the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are used to treat prostate cancer. Also called GnRH agonist, LH-RH agonist, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist.

gonioscopy    listen   (GOH-nee-OS-koh-pee)
A procedure in which a gonioscope (special lens) is used to look at the front part of the eye between the cornea (the clear layer) and the iris (the colored part of the eye). Gonioscopy checks for blockages in the area where fluid drains out of the eye.

Gonzalez regimen    listen   (gun-ZAH-les REH-jih-men)
An alternative therapy that is being studied as a treatment for pancreatic cancer. It includes a special diet, nutritional supplements, pancreatic enzymes, and coffee enemas.

Good Clinical Practice    listen   (… KLIH-nih-kul PRAK-tis)
An international set of guidelines that helps make sure that the results of a clinical trial are reliable and that the patients are protected. Good Clinical Practice covers the way a clinical trial is designed, conducted, performed, monitored, audited, recorded, analyzed, and reported. Also called GCP.

Gorlin syndrome    listen   (GOR-lin SIN-drome)
A genetic condition that causes unusual facial features and disorders of the skin, bones, nervous system, eyes, and endocrine glands. People with this syndrome have a higher risk of basal cell carcinoma. Also called basal cell nevus syndrome and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

goserelin acetate    listen   (GOH-seh-REH-lin A-seh-tayt)
A drug used to treat prostate cancer and to relieve the symptoms of advanced breast cancer. It is also used to treat problems with the endometrium (lining of the uterus). Goserelin acetate keeps the body from making the hormones luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This causes the testicles to stop making testosterone (a male hormone) in men, and the ovaries to stop making estradiol (a form of the hormone estrogen) in women. Goserelin acetate may stop the growth of cancer cells that need testosterone or estrogen to grow. It is a type of LHRH agonist. Also called ZDX and Zoladex.

gossypol    listen   (GAH-sih-pole)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It comes from the seed of the cotton plant (Gossypium). It blocks the growth of cells and may kill cancer cells. Gossypol may also act as a male contraceptive (a type of birth control). Also called cottonseed meal toxin.

gossypol acetic acid    listen   (GAH-sih-pole uh-SEE-tik A-sid)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It is a form of a chemical taken from the seed of the cotton plant (Gossypium). It blocks the growth of cells and may kill cancer cells. Gossypol acetic acid may also act as a male contraceptive (form of birth control).

gout    listen   (gowt)
A condition marked by increased levels of uric acid in the blood, joints, and tissue. The buildup of uric acid in the joints and tissues causes arthritis and inflammation.

gp100      
A tumor-specific antigen used in the development of cancer vaccines. Also called glycoprotein 100.

gp209-2M      
A peptide (short piece of protein) made from the tumor-specific antigen gp100, and used to make vaccines being studied in the treatment of melanoma.

gp96 heat shock protein-peptide complex vaccine    listen   (… PROH-teen-PEP-tide KOM-plex vak-SEEN)
A vaccine made from a patient’s tumor cells that may help the body’s immune system kill cancer cells. This vaccine is used to treat kidney cancer, a type of brain cancer called glioma, and metastatic melanoma (a type of skin cancer that has spread). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called gp96 HSP-peptide complex, Oncophage, and vitespen.

gp96 HSP-peptide complex    listen   (… PEP-tide KOM-plex)
A vaccine made from a patient’s tumor cells that may help the body’s immune system kill cancer cells. This vaccine is used to treat kidney cancer, a type of brain cancer called glioma, and metastatic melanoma (a type of skin cancer that has spread). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called gp96 heat shock protein-peptide complex vaccine, Oncophage, and vitespen.

GPX-100      
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. It is an anthracycline.

grade 1 follicular lymphoma    listen   (... fuh-LIH-kyoo-ler lim-FOH-muh)
An indolent (slow-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and small cells that have cleaved (u-shaped) nuclei.

grade 2 follicular lymphoma    listen   (... fuh-LIH-kyoo-ler lim-FOH-muh)
An indolent (slow-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and a mix of large cells and small cells that have cleaved (u-shaped) nuclei.

grade 3 follicular lymphoma    listen   (... fuh-LIH-kyoo-ler lim-FOH-muh)
A type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by large cells and enlarged lymph nodes. Grade 3 follicular lymphoma is less common, and more aggressive than grades 1 or 2 follicular lymphoma.

grade IV astrocytoma    listen   (... AS-troh-sy-TOH-muh)
A fast-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain and spinal cord and has cells that look very different from normal cells. Grade IV astrocytoma usually occurs in adults and affects the brain more often than the spinal cord. Also called GBM, glioblastoma, and glioblastoma multiforme.

grading    listen   (GRAY-ding)
A system for classifying cancer cells in terms of how abnormal they appear when examined under a microscope. The objective of a grading system is to provide information about the probable growth rate of the tumor and its tendency to spread. The systems used to grade tumors vary with each type of cancer. Grading plays a role in treatment decisions.

graft    listen   (graft)
Healthy skin, bone, or other tissue taken from one part of the body and used to replace diseased or injured tissue removed from another part of the body.

graft-versus-host disease    listen   (... dih-ZEEZ)
A disease caused when cells from a donated stem cell graft attack the normal tissue of the transplant patient. Symptoms include jaundice, skin rash or blisters, a dry mouth, or dry eyes. Also called GVHD.

graft-versus-tumor    listen   (graft-VER-sus-TOO-mer)
An immune response to a person's tumor cells by immune cells present in a donor's transplanted tissue, such as bone marrow or peripheral blood.

gram    listen   (gram)
A unit of weight in the metric system. One gram is equal to one thousandth of a kilogram and is approximately 30-times less than an ounce.

granisetron hydrochloride    listen   (gra-NIH-seh-tron HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It is also used to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery. Granisetron hydrochloride blocks the action of the chemical serotonin, which binds to certain nerves and may trigger nausea and vomiting. Blocking serotonin may help lessen nausea and vomiting. It is a type of serotonin receptor antagonist and a type of antiemetic. Also called Kytril.

granular leukocyte    listen   (GRAN-yoo-lur LOO-koh-site)
A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granular leukocytes. A granular leukocyte is a type of white blood cell. Also called granulocyte, PMN, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte.

granulocyte    listen   (GRAN-yoo-loh-SITE)
A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granulocytes. A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell. Also called granular leukocyte, PMN, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte.

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor    listen   (GRAN-yoo-loh-SITE KAH-luh-nee-STIM-yoo-LAY-ting FAK-ter)
A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called filgrastim and G-CSF.

granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor    listen   (GRAN-yoo-loh-SITE-MA-kroh-FAYJ KAH-luh-nee-STIM-yoo-LAY-ting FAK-ter)
A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets. It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called GM-CSF and sargramostim.

granulocytic sarcoma    listen   (GRAN-yoo-loh-SIH-tik sar-KOH-muh)
A malignant, green-colored tumor of myeloid cells (a type of immature white blood cell). This tumor is usually associated with myelogenous leukemia. Also called chloroma.

granulocytopenia    listen   (GRAN-yoo-loh-SY-toh-PEE-nee-uh)
A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell).

granulosa cell tumor    listen   (GRAN-yoo-LOH-suh sel TOO-mer)
A type of slow-growing, malignant tumor that usually affects the ovary.

gray elm    listen   (gray elm)
The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called Indian elm, red elm, slippery elm, sweet elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

green tea extract    listen   (green tee EK-strakt)
A mixture that is prepared from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. It contains substances called flavonoids and polyphenols, which are antioxidants. Antioxidants help protect cells from damage caused by certain chemicals that may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Green tea extract may be taken to treat certain conditions. It is also being studied in the prevention of cancer and other diseases.

Greene Menopause Index    listen   (green MEH-nuh-pawz IN-dex)
A tool used by researchers to study the symptoms of menopause. It is a standard list of 21 questions which women use to rate how much they are bothered by menopause symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty sleeping.

grief    listen   (greef)
The normal response to a major loss, such as the death of a loved one. Grief may also be felt by a person with a serious, long-term illness or with a terminal illness. It may include feelings of great sadness, anger, guilt, and despair. Physical problems, such as not being able to sleep and changes in appetite, may also be part of grief.

grief counseling    listen   (greef KOWN-suh-ling)
The process by which a trained counselor or a support group helps a person work through normal feelings of sorrow after a loss, such as the death of a loved one.

grief therapy    listen   (greef THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that helps a person work through a greater than normal reaction to a loss, such as the death of a loved one. This reaction may include behavioral and physical problems, extreme mourning, and being unable to separate emotionally from the person who died. Grief therapy may be individual or group therapy.

groin    listen   (groyn)
The area where the thigh meets the abdomen.

growth and development milestones    listen   (grothe … dee-VEH-lup-MENT MILE-stones)
Goals for the expected sizes of infants and children and activities they should be able to do at specific ages, such as sit, stand, play, speak, think, and interact with others.

growth factor    listen   (grothe FAK-ter)
A substance made by the body that functions to regulate cell division and cell survival. Some growth factors are also produced in the laboratory and used in biological therapy.

growth hormone    listen   (grothe HOR-mone)
A protein made by the pituitary gland that helps control body growth and the use of glucose and fat in the body. Also called somatotropin.

GSD      
A type of inherited disorder in which there are problems with how a form of glucose (sugar) called glycogen is stored and used in the body. Certain enzymes that help make or break down glycogen are missing or do not work the way they should. This causes abnormal amounts or types of glycogen in the tissues, especially in the liver and in muscle tissue. There are many types of GSD, which can cause problems in different parts of the body, including the liver, muscles, kidneys, and heart. Also called glycogen storage disease.

GSK1070916A      
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It blocks certain enzymes (Aurora kinases) involved in cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor. Also called Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor GSK1070916A.

GTD      
A rare condition in which abnormal cells grow inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of trophoblastic cells, which normally surround the fertilized egg in the uterus and help connect the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus. These cells also form part of the placenta (the organ that passes nutrients from the mother to the fetus). Most GTDs are benign (not cancer) and do not spread, but some types are malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or other parts of the body. The two main types of GTDs are hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Also called gestational trophoblastic disease, gestational trophoblastic tumor, and GTT.

GTI-2040      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks the production of a protein called ribonucleotide reductase, which helps cells make DNA. This may kill cancer cells that need ribonucleotide reductase to grow. It may also make cells more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide, and a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor.

GTT      
A rare condition in which abnormal cells grow inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of trophoblastic cells, which normally surround the fertilized egg in the uterus and help connect the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus. These cells also form part of the placenta (the organ that passes nutrients from the mother to the fetus). Most GTTs are benign (not cancer) and do not spread, but some types are malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or other parts of the body. The two main types of GTTs are hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Also called gestational trophoblastic disease, gestational trophoblastic tumor, and GTD.

guaiac    listen   (GWY-ak)
A substance from a type of tree called Guaiacum that grows in the Caribbean. Guaiac is used in the fecal occult blood test (a test for blood in human stool samples).

guaiac fecal occult blood test    listen   (GWY-ak FEE-kul uh-KULT …)
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards coated with a chemical substance called guaiac and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. A testing solution is put on the cards and the guaiac causes the stool sample to change color. If there is blood in the stool, the color changes very quickly. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called gFOBT, guaiac smear test, and stool guaiac test.

guaiac smear test    listen   (GWY-ak smeer …)
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards coated with a chemical substance called guaiac and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. A testing solution is put on the cards and the guaiac causes the stool sample to change color. If there is blood in the stool, the color changes very quickly. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called gFOBT, guaiac fecal occult blood test, and stool guaiac test.

guanine    listen   (GWAH-neen)
A chemical compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is a type of purine.

guided imagery    listen   (GY-ded IH-muh-jree)
A technique in which a person focuses on positive images in his or her mind. It can help people reach a relaxed, focused state and help reduce stress and give a sense of well-being. Also called imagery.

gums    listen   (gumz)
The tissue of the upper and lower jaws that surrounds the base of the teeth. Also called gingiva.

gut flora    listen   (... FLOR-uh)
Bacteria and other organisms that live inside the intestines. They help digest food. Vitamins such as biotin and vitamin K are made by gut flora. Also called gut microflora, intestinal flora, intestinal microflora, and microflora.

gut microflora    listen   (... MY-kroh-FLOR-uh)
Bacteria and other organisms that live inside the intestines. They help digest food. Vitamins such as biotin and vitamin K are made by gut microflora. Also called gut flora, intestinal flora, intestinal microflora, and microflora.

gutka    listen   (GUT-kuh)
A type of smokeless tobacco that is made in India and is widely used throughout Asia. It is a mixture of tobacco, crushed areca nut (also called betel nut), spices, and other ingredients. It is used like chewing tobacco and is placed in the mouth, usually between the gum and cheek. Gutka contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using it can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the lip, mouth, tongue, throat, and esophagus. Also called betel quid with tobacco.

GVHD      
A disease caused when cells from a donated stem cell graft attack the normal tissue of the transplant patient. Symptoms include jaundice, skin rash or blisters, a dry mouth, or dry eyes. Also called graft-versus-host disease.

GW572016      
A drug used with another anticancer drug to treat breast cancer that is HER2 positive and has advanced or metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) after treatment with other drugs. GW572016 is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of ErbB-2 and EGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called lapatinib, lapatinib ditosylate, and Tykerb.

GW786034      
A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma, which is the most common type of kidney cancer. It is also used to treat advanced soft tissue sarcoma that has been treated with other anticancer drugs. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. GW786034 may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called pazopanib hydrochloride and Votrient.

GWAS    listen  
A study that compares DNA markers across the genome (the complete genetic material in a person) in people with a disease or trait to people without the disease or trait. These studies may uncover clues to help prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Also called genome-wide association study.

gynecologic    listen   (GY-neh-kuh-LAH-jik)
Having to do with the female reproductive tract (including the cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and vagina).

gynecologic cancer    listen   (GY-neh-kuh-LAH-jik KAN-ser)
Cancer of the female reproductive tract, including the cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and vagina.

gynecologic oncologist    listen   (GY-neh-kuh-LAH-jik on-KAH-loh-jist)
A doctor who specializes in treating cancers of the female reproductive organs.

gynecologist    listen   (GY-neh-KAH-loh-jist)
A doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the female reproductive organs.

gynecomastia    listen   (GY-neh-koh-MAS-tee-uh)
The abnormal growth of breast gland tissue in males. Gynecomastia in infants and boys may be caused by an imbalance in certain hormones. It may also be caused by conditions that affect hormones, such as tumors; malnutrition; kidney, liver, or thyroid disease; or treatment with certain drugs. It can occur at any age.

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