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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


25 results found for:       J



J-107088      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor. Also called edotecarin.

J-pouch coloanal anastomosis    listen   (... powch KOH-loh-AY-nul uh-NAS-toh-MOH-sis)
A surgical procedure in which the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A 2-4 inch section of the colon is formed into a J-shaped pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the side-to-end coloanal anastomosis but a larger pouch is formed.

J-pouch colorectal anastomosis    listen   (… powch KOH-loh-REK-tul uh-NAS-toh-MOH-sis)
A surgical procedure in which the colon is attached to the remainder of the rectum after most of it has been removed during surgery for rectal cancer. A 2-inch to 4-inch section of the colon is formed into a J-shaped pouch to store stool until it can be eliminated.

Jakafi    listen   (JA-kah-fy)
A drug used to treat certain types of myelofibrosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of other blood diseases and some types of cancer. Jakafi blocks a protein called JAK, which may help keep abnormal blood cells or cancer cells from growing. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called ruxolitinib phosphate.

Jamshidi needle    listen   (jam-SHEE-dee NEE-dul)
A long, hollow needle with a tapered cutting edge on one end and a handle with a place to attach a syringe on the other end. It is used to remove a sample of tissue from the bone marrow. The needle is inserted through the bone into the bone marrow and the syringe is attached to the top to remove the sample or to deliver drugs or fluid into the bone.

jaundice    listen   (JAWN-dis)
A condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow, urine darkens, and the color of stool becomes lighter than normal. Jaundice occurs when the liver is not working properly or when a bile duct is blocked.

Javlor    listen   (JAV-lor)
A substance being studied in the treatment of bladder cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Also called vinflunine.

JEB      
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat childhood ovarian and testicular germ cell cancers that have spread. It includes the drugs carboplatin (JM8), etoposide phosphate, and bleomycin sulfate. Also called JEB regimen.

JEB regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat childhood ovarian and testicular germ cell cancers that have spread. It includes the drugs carboplatin (JM8), etoposide phosphate, and bleomycin sulfate. Also called JEB.

jejunostomy    listen   (JEH-joo-NOS-toh-mee)
Surgery to create an opening into the jejunum (part of the small intestine) from the outside of the body. A jejunostomy allows a feeding tube to be put into the small intestine.

jejunum    listen   (jeh-JYOO-num)
The middle part of the small intestine. It is between the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) and the ileum (last part of the small intestine). The jejunum helps to further digest food coming from the stomach. It absorbs nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and water from food so they can be used by the body.

Jevtana    listen   (jev-TA-nuh)
A drug used with prednisone to treat hormone-resistant prostate cancer that has spread and that had been treated with docetaxel. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Jevtana blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimitotic agent. Also called cabazitaxel and taxoid XRP6258.

Jewett staging system    listen   (JOO-et STAY-jing SIS-tem)
A staging system for prostate cancer that uses ABCD. “A” and “B” refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate. “C” refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. “D” refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body. Also called ABCD rating and Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

jiang huang    listen   (jyong hwong)
An East Indian plant that is a member of the ginger family and is used as a spice and food color. The underground stems are used in some cultures to treat certain stomach problems. The substance in jiang huang that gives it a yellow color (curcumin) is being studied in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer disease, cystic fibrosis, and psoriasis. The scientific name is Curcuma longa. Also called Indian saffron and turmeric.

Jim’s Juice    listen   (jimz joos)
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in Jim’s Juice have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. Jim’s Juice is not available in the United States. Also called 126–F, Cancell, Cantron, JS–101, JS–114, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.

JM 216      
A substance being studied in the treatment of prostate and other types of cancer. It contains the metal platinum and may kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called BMS-182751 and satraplatin.

JMML      
A rare form of childhood leukemia in which cancer cells often spread into tissues such as the skin, lung, and intestines. Also called juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

johimbe    listen   (yo-HIM-bay)
A tree native to West Africa. The bark is used as a supplement for bodybuilding and to enhance male sexual performance. It contains the chemical yohimbine, which is being studied in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. It may interact with certain drugs used to treat depression, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. The scientific name is Pausinystalia yohimbe. Also called yohimbe.

joint    listen   (joynt)
In medicine, the place where two or more bones are connected. Examples include the shoulder, elbow, knee, and jaw.

JS–101      
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in JS–101 have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. JS–101 is not available in the United States. Also called 126–F, Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–114, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.

JS–114      
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in JS–114 have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. JS–114 is not available in the United States. Also called 126–F, Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–101, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.

junctional nevus    listen   (JUNK-shuh-nul NEE-vus)
A type of nevus (mole) found at the junction (border) between the epidermis (outer) and the dermis (inner) layers of the skin. These moles may be colored and slightly raised.

juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia    listen   (JOO-veh-NILE MY-eh-loh-MAH-noh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
A rare form of childhood leukemia in which cancer cells often spread into tissues such as the skin, lung, and intestines. Also called JMML.

juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma    listen   (JOO-veh-NILE PY-loh-SIH-tik AS-troh-sy-TOH-muh)
A slow-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain and spinal cord. Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma usually occurs in children and young adults. It forms in the brain more often than the spinal cord.

juvenile rickets    listen   (JOO-veh-NILE RIH-kets)
A condition in children in which bones become soft and deformed because they don’t have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet or by not getting enough sunlight. In adults, this condition is called osteomalacia. Also called infantile rickets, rachitis, and rickets.

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