In English | En español
Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

Page Options

  • Print This Page

Widget

NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


313 results found for:       L



L    listen  
A measure of volume for a liquid, using the metric system. One L is equal to 1,000 cubic centimeters (cc), 1,000 milliliters (mm), or 1.0567 quarts (qt). Also called liter.

L-3,5,5’-tetraiodothyronine    listen   (...TEH-truh-i-oh-doh-THY-roh-neen)
A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and contains iodine. L-3,5,5’-tetraiodothyronine increases the rate of chemical reactions in cells and helps control growth and development. L-3,5,5’-tetraiodothyronine can also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat thyroid disorders. Also called T4, thyroxin, and thyroxine.

L-377,202      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

L-778,123      
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. It may inhibit the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells.

L-arginine    listen   (… AR-jih-neen)
One of the twenty common amino acids (building blocks of proteins). L-arginine is being studied as a nutritional supplement in the treatment and prevention of cancer and other conditions. Also called arginine.

L-asparaginase    listen   (... as-PAYR-uh-jih-NAYS)
A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer. It is an enzyme taken from the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. Also called asparaginase and Elspar.

L-carnitine    listen   (L-KAR-nih-teen)
A form of carnitine, which is a substance made in muscle and liver tissue and found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products. L-carnitine is also a drug that is used to treat patients who do not make enough carnitine and is being studied as a way to prevent tissue damage caused by chemotherapy. Carnitine is a type of dietary supplement. Also called Carnitor and levocarnitine.

L-glutamic acid    listen   (... gloo-TA-mik A-sid)
One of twenty amino acids (molecules that join together to form proteins). L-glutamic acid may help nerve cells send and receive information from other cells. It is being studied for its ability to decrease or prevent nerve damage caused by anticancer drugs. Also called glutamic acid.

L-MTP-PE      
A drug being studied in the treatment of young adults with bone cancer that has gotten worse or come back. L-MTP-PE activates certain types of white blood cells and helps the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of immunostimulant. Also called MEPACT, mifamurtide, and muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine.

L-norgestrel    listen   (... nor-JES-trel)
A form of the hormone progesterone that is made in the laboratory and used to prevent pregnancy. It is being studied in the prevention of ovarian and endometrial cancer, and in the treatment of other conditions. L-norgestrel is a type of oral contraceptive. Also called levonorgestrel and Plan B.

L-threo-dihydrosphingosine    listen   (... THREE-oh-dy-HY-drose-SFING-goh-seen)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Also called safingol.

lab-on-a-chip    listen   (lab-on-uh-chip)
An instrument that uses very small amounts of fluid on a microchip to do certain laboratory tests. A lab-on-a-chip may use body fluids or solutions containing cells or cell parts to diagnose diseases. Also called microfluidic device.

labial mucosa    listen   (LAY-bee-ul myoo-KOH-suh)
The inner lining of the lips.

laboratory study    listen   (LA-bruh-tor-ee STUH-dee)
Research done in a laboratory. A laboratory study may use special equipment and cells or animals to find out if a drug, procedure, or treatment is likely to be useful in humans. It may also be a part of a clinical trial, such as when blood or other samples are collected. These may be used to measure the effect of a drug, procedure, or treatment on the body.

laboratory test    listen   (LA-bruh-tor-ee...)
A medical procedure that involves testing a sample of blood, urine, or other substance from the body. Tests can help determine a diagnosis, plan treatment, check to see if treatment is working, or monitor the disease over time.

lacrimal gland    listen   (LA-krih-mul ...)
A gland that secretes tears. The lacrimal glands are found in the upper, outer part of each eye socket.

lactase    listen   (LAK-tays)
An enzyme that breaks down lactose, a type of sugar found in milk and milk products.

lactate dehydrogenase    listen   (LAK-tayt dee-hy-DRAH-jeh-nays)
One of a group of enzymes found in the blood and other body tissues and involved in energy production in cells. An increased amount of lactate dehydrogenase in the blood may be a sign of tissue damage and some types of cancer or other diseases. Also called lactic acid dehydrogenase and LDH.

lactic acid    listen   (LAK-tik A-sid)
A substance made from sugars in milk, by the action of certain enzymes. It is used in skin care products to reduce wrinkles and soften the skin. It is also being studied in the treatment of hand-foot syndrome (a condition marked by pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, or redness of the hands or feet) in patients receiving chemotherapy. Lactic acid is also made in muscles in the body and is used in many chemical processes in the body. It is a type of alpha hydroxyl acid.

lactic acid dehydrogenase    listen   (LAK-tik A-sid dee-hy-DRAH-jeh-nays)
One of a group of enzymes found in the blood and other body tissues, and involved in energy production in cells. An increased amount in the blood may be a sign of tissue damage and some types of cancer or other diseases. Also called lactate dehydrogenase and LDH.

lactobacillus    listen   (LAK-toh-buh-SIH-lus)
A type of bacterium that makes lactic acid (a substance that is made from sugars found in milk and is also made in the body). Lactobacilli usually do not cause disease, but may cause tooth decay. They are normally found in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. They are being studied in the prevention of infections in patients having donor stem cell transplants and in other conditions.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG    listen   (LAK-toh-buh-SIH-lus ram-NOH-sus ...)
A live form of a bacterium that makes lactic acid (a substance that is made from sugars found in milk and is also made in the body). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is given to help with digestion and normal bowel function. It may also help keep the gastrointestinal (GI) tract healthy. It is being studied in the prevention of infections in patients having donor stem cell transplants and in other conditions. Also called Culturelle.

lactoferrin    listen   (LAK-toh-fayr-in)
A protein that is found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells and is being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. It is involved in fighting against infection and inflammation and it acts as an antioxidant.

lactose    listen   (LAK-tose)
A type of sugar found in milk and milk products.

lactose intolerance    listen   (LAK-tose in-TAH-leh-runts)
The inability to digest or absorb lactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products.

laetrile    listen   (LAY-eh-tril)
A substance found in the pits of many fruits such as apricots and papayas, and in other foods. It has been tried in some countries as a treatment for cancer, but it has not been shown to work in clinical studies. Laetrile is not approved for use in the United States. Also called amygdalin.

LAK cell    listen   (… sel)
A white blood cell that is stimulated in a laboratory to kill tumor cells. Also called lymphokine-activated killer cell.

lamina propria    listen   (LA-mih-nuh PROH-pree-uh)
A type of connective tissue found under the thin layer of tissues covering a mucous membrane.

lamivudine    listen   (luh-MIH-vyoo-deen)
A drug used to treat infection caused by viruses.

lamotrigine    listen   (luh-MOH-trih-jeen)
A drug that is used to help control some types of seizures. It is being studied in the prevention of peripheral neuropathy caused by some chemotherapy drugs. It belongs to the family of drugs called anticonvulsants.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis    listen   (LANG-er-hanz sel HIS-tee-oh-sy-TOH-sis)
A group of rare disorders in which too many Langerhans cells (a type of white blood cell) grow in certain tissues and organs including the bones, skin, and lungs, and damage them. Langerhans cell histiocytosis may also affect the pituitary gland (which makes hormones that control other glands and many body functions, especially growth). Langerhans cell histiocytosis is most common in children and young adults. Also called LCH.

lanolin    listen   (LA-noh-lin)
An oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin is used in moisturizing creams and lotions to treat dry, itchy skin.

Lanoxin    listen   (luh-NOK-sin)
A drug used to treat irregular heartbeat and some types of heart failure. It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Lanoxin helps the heart work normally by controlling the amount of calcium that goes into the heart muscle. It also may kill cancer cells and make them more sensitive to anticancer drugs. It is a type of cardiac glycoside. Also called digoxin.

lansoprazole    listen   (lan-SOH-pruh-zole)
A drug that reduces the amount of acid made in the stomach. It is used to treat stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (a condition in which acid from the stomach causes heartburn), and conditions in which the stomach makes too much acid. Lansoprazole is a type of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Also called Prevacid.

Lantus    listen   (LAN-tus)
A drug used to control the amount of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes. It is a form of the hormone insulin that is made in the laboratory. Lantus controls blood sugar longer than insulin does. It is a type of therapeutic insulin. Also called insulin glargine and insulin glargine recombinant.

laparoscope    listen   (LA-puh-ruh-SKOPE)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to look at tissues and organs inside the abdomen. A laparoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

laparoscopic prostatectomy    listen   (LA-puh-ruh-SKAH-pik PROS-tuh-TEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove all or part of the prostate with the aid of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

laparoscopic surgery    listen   (LA-puh-ruh-SKAH-pik SER-juh-ree)
Surgery done with the aid of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called laparoscopic-assisted resection.

laparoscopic-assisted colectomy    listen   (LA-puh-ruh-SKAH-pik-uh-SIS-ted koh-LEK-toh-mee)
Surgery done with the aid of a laparoscope to remove all or part of the colon through several small incisions made in the wall of the abdomen. A laparoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. The laparoscope is inserted through one opening to guide the surgery. Surgical instruments are inserted through the other openings to perform the surgery. When only part of the colon is removed, it is called a partial colectomy.

laparoscopic-assisted resection    listen   (LA-puh-ruh-SKAH-pik-uh-SIS-ted ree-SEK-shun)
Surgery done with the aid of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called laparoscopic surgery.

laparoscopy    listen   (LA-puh-ROS-koh-pee)
A procedure that uses a laparoscope, inserted through the abdominal wall, to examine the inside of the abdomen. A laparoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

laparotomy    listen   (LA-puh-RAH-toh-mee)
A surgical incision made in the wall of the abdomen.

lapatinib    listen   (luh-PA-tih-nib)
A drug used with another anticancer drug to treat breast cancer that is HER2 positive and has advanced or metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) after treatment with other drugs. Lapatinib is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of ErbB-2 and EGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called GW572016, lapatinib ditosylate, and Tykerb.

lapatinib ditosylate    listen   (luh-PA-tih-nib dy-TOH-sih-layt)
A drug used with another anticancer drug to treat breast cancer that is HER2 positive and has advanced or metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) after treatment with other drugs. Lapatinib ditosylate is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of ErbB-2 and EGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called GW572016, lapatinib, and Tykerb.

lappa    listen   (LA-puh)
A plant whose seeds and root have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. The scientific name is Arctium lappa. Also called burdock and happy major.

large cell carcinoma    listen   (...KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Lung cancer in which the cells are large and look abnormal when viewed under a microscope.

large granular lymphocyte    listen   (larj GRAN-yoo-lur LIM-foh-site)
A type of white blood cell that contains granules with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or microbial cells.

large intestine    listen   (larj in-TES-tin)
The long, tube-like organ that is connected to the small intestine at one end and the anus at the other. The large intestine has four parts: cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. Partly digested food moves through the cecum into the colon, where water and some nutrients and electrolytes are removed. The remaining material, solid waste called stool, moves through the colon, is stored in the rectum, and leaves the body through the anal canal and anus.

laromustine    listen   (LAYR-oh-MUS-teen)
A drug used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. It blocks cell growth by damaging the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called Cloretazine and Onrigin.

laryngeal    listen   (luh-RIN-jee-ul)
Having to do with the larynx.

laryngeal cancer    listen   (luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of the larynx (area of the throat that contains the vocal cords and is used for breathing, swallowing, and talking). Most laryngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the larynx).

laryngectomee    listen   (LAYR-in-JEK-toh-MEE)
A person whose larynx (voice box) has been removed.

laryngectomy    listen   (LAYR-in-JEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box).

laryngitis    listen   (LAYR-in-JY-tis)
Inflammation of the larynx.

laryngoscope    listen   (luh-RIN-goh-SKOPE)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the larynx (voice box). A laryngoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

laryngoscopy    listen   (LAYR-in-GOS-koh-pee)
Examination of the larynx (voice box) with a mirror (indirect laryngoscopy) or with a laryngoscope (direct laryngoscopy).

larynx    listen   (LAYR-inx)
The area of the throat containing the vocal cords and used for breathing, swallowing, and talking. Also called voice box.

laser    listen   (LAY-zer)
A device that forms light into intense, narrow beams that may be used to cut or destroy tissue, such as cancer tissue. It may also be used to reduce lymphedema (swelling caused by a buildup of lymph fluid in tissue) after breast cancer surgery. Lasers are used in microsurgery, photodynamic therapy, and many other procedures to diagnose and treat disease.

laser acupuncture    listen   (LAY-zer AK-yoo-PUNK-cher)
The use of a low-level laser beam instead of an acupuncture needle to stimulate an acupuncture point.

laser surgery    listen   (LAY-zer SER-juh-ree)
A surgical procedure that uses the cutting power of a laser beam to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor.

laser therapy    listen   (LAY-zer THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that uses intense, narrow beams of light to cut and destroy tissue, such as cancer tissue. Laser therapy may also be used to reduce lymphedema (swelling caused by a buildup of lymph fluid in tissue) after breast cancer surgery.

lassitude    listen   (LA-sih-tood)
A feeling of tiredness, weakness, and lack of interest in daily activities.

late effect    listen   (layt eh-FEKT)
A health problem that occurs months or years after a disease is diagnosed or after treatment has ended. Late effects may be caused by cancer or cancer treatment. They may include physical, mental, and social problems and second cancers.

late-stage cancer    listen   (LAYT-stayj KAN-ser)
A term used to describe cancer that is far along in its growth, and has spread to the lymph nodes or other places in the body.

latency period    listen   (LAY-ten-see PEER-ee-ud)
The time that passes between being exposed to something that can cause disease (such as radiation or a virus) and having symptoms.

latent    listen   (LAY-tent)
Describes a condition that is present but not active or causing symptoms.

Latisse    listen   (LA-tees)
The drug bimatoprost used to increase the length, thickness, and darkness of eyelashes. It is being studied as a way to increase the growth of eyelashes and eyebrows in patients given chemotherapy for cancer. A sterile brush is used to apply Latisse on the upper and lower margins of the eyelids once a day.

latissimus dorsi flap    listen   (luh-TIH-sih-mus DOR-sy …)
A type of surgery used to rebuild the shape of the breast after a mastectomy. A muscle in the back called the latissimus dorsi, along with skin, fat, and blood vessels, is moved from the back to the chest to form a new breast mound or to form a pocket for a breast implant. This is usually done by passing the muscle tissue and blood vessels through a tunnel under the skin to the chest. A latissimus dorsi flap is a type of breast reconstruction.

laughter therapy    listen   (LAF-ter THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of therapy that uses humor to help relieve pain and stress and improve a person’s sense of well-being. It may be used to help people cope with a serious disease, such as cancer. Laughter therapy may include laughter exercises, clowns, and comedy movies, books, games, and puzzles. It is a type of complementary therapy. Also called humor therapy.

lavage    listen   (luh-VAZH)
In medicine, washing out an organ (such as the stomach or colon), a body cavity, or a wound by flushing it with a fluid. Also called irrigation.

lavender    listen   (LA-ven-der)
A plant with aromatic leaves and flowers that is a member of the mint family. Oil from the flowers has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, to keep insects away, and to wash in. It is also used in aromatherapy. Perillyl alcohol, a substance found in lavender, is being studied in cancer prevention and treatment. The scientific name is Lavandula angustifolia. Also called English lavender and true lavender.

laxative    listen   (LAK-suh-tiv)
A substance that promotes bowel movements.

LBH589      
A drug being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks enzymes needed for cells to grow and divide and may kill cancer cells. LBH589 may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Faridak and panobinostat.

LCH      
A group of rare disorders in which too many Langerhans cells (a type of white blood cell) grow in certain tissues and organs including the bones, skin, and lungs, and damage them. LCH may also affect the pituitary gland (which makes hormones that control other glands and many body functions, especially growth). LCH is most common in children and young adults. Also called Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

LCIS      
A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. However, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast. Also called lobular carcinoma in situ.

LDH      
One of a group of enzymes found in the blood and other body tissues, and involved in energy production in cells. An increased amount in the blood may be a sign of tissue damage and some types of cancer or other diseases. Also called lactate dehydrogenase and lactic acid dehydrogenase.

lead compound    listen   (leed KOM-pownd)
In medicine, a chemical compound that shows promise as a treatment for a disease and may lead to the development of a new drug. Thousands of compounds are tested in the laboratory to find a lead (“leading”) compound that may act on specific genes or proteins involved in a disease. Once a lead compound has been found, the chemical structure is used as a starting point to make a drug that has the most benefits and the least harms. Finding a lead compound is the first step in making a new drug to treat a disease.

lectin    listen   (LEK-tin)
A complex molecule that has both protein and sugars. Lectins are able to bind to the outside of a cell and cause biochemical changes in it. Lectins are made by both animals and plants.

LED therapy    listen   (...THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with drugs that become active and may kill cancer cells when exposed to light. LED therapy is a type of photodynamic therapy, which uses a special type of light to activate the drug. Also called light-emitting diode therapy.

LEEP    listen  
A technique that uses electric current passed through a thin wire loop to remove abnormal tissue. Also called loop electrosurgical excision procedure and loop excision.

leflunomide    listen   (leh-FLOO-noh-mide)
An anticancer drug that works by inhibiting a cancer cell growth factor. Also called SU101.

legal aid organization    listen   (LEE-gul ayd OR-guh-nih-ZAY-shun)
A group or agency that gives legal help to people with low incomes. Health legal aid workers help people with issues related to getting good healthcare, and getting insurance to cover certain patients and conditions.

leiomyoma    listen   (LY-oh-my-OH-muh)
A benign smooth muscle tumor, usually in the uterus or gastrointestinal tract. Also called fibroid.

leiomyosarcoma    listen   (LY-oh-MY-oh-sar-KOH-muh)
A malignant (cancer) tumor of smooth muscle cells that can arise almost anywhere in the body, but is most common in the uterus, abdomen, or pelvis.

lemon    listen   (LEH-mun)
A small, yellow citrus fruit that is a source of citric acid and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The juice is used to flavor food and drink and to prevent scurvy. Lemon oil (scented liquid taken from the peel) is used in aromatherapy. The scientific name of the lemon tree is Citrus limon.

lenalidomide    listen   (leh-nuh-LIH-doh-mide)
A drug that is similar to thalidomide, and is used to treat multiple myeloma and certain types of anemia. It is also used to treat mantle cell lymphoma that has come back or has not gotten better after other treatment. It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. Lenalidomide may help the immune system kill abnormal blood cells or cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of immunomodulating agent. Also called CC-5013 and Revlimid.

lens    listen   (lenz)
A clear disk that focuses light, as in a camera or microscope. In the eye, the lens is a clear, curved structure at the front of the eye behind the pupil. It focuses light rays that enter the eye through the pupil, making an image on the retina (light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye).

lentinan    listen   (LEN-tih-nun)
A beta-glucan (a type of polysaccharide) from the mushroom Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom). It has been studied in Japan as a treatment for cancer.

LEP-ETU      
A form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than paclitaxel. It is being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. LEP-ETU blocks the ability of cells to divide and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called liposomal paclitaxel, LipoTaxen, paclitaxel liposome, and PNU-93914.

lepirudin    listen   (LEH-pih-ROO-din)
A drug that inhibits blood clotting. It is being studied in cancer treatment.

leptomeningeal    listen   (LEP-toh-meh-NIN-jee-ul)
Having to do with the two innermost meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord).

leptomeningeal carcinoma    listen   (LEP-toh-meh-NIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A serious problem that may occur in cancer in which cancer cells spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). It can happen in many types of cancer, but is the most common in melanoma, breast, lung, and gastrointestinal cancer. The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called carcinomatous meningitis, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, leptomeningeal metastasis, meningeal carcinomatosis, meningeal metastasis, and neoplastic meningitis.

leptomeningeal carcinomatosis    listen   (LEP-toh-meh-NIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh-TOH-sis)
A serious problem that may occur in cancer in which cancer cells spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). It can happen in many types of cancer, but is the most common in melanoma, breast, lung, and gastrointestinal cancer. The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called carcinomatous meningitis, leptomeningeal carcinoma, leptomeningeal metastasis, meningeal carcinomatosis, meningeal metastasis, and neoplastic meningitis.

leptomeningeal metastasis    listen   (LEP-toh-meh-NIN-jee-ul meh-TAS-tuh-sis)
A serious problem that may occur in cancer in which cancer cells spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). It can happen in many types of cancer, but is the most common in melanoma, breast, lung, and gastrointestinal cancer. The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called carcinomatous meningitis, leptomeningeal carcinoma, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, meningeal carcinomatosis, meningeal metastasis, and neoplastic meningitis.

leridistim    listen   (leh-RIH-dih-stim)
A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy. It is a type of colony-stimulating factor. Also called SC-70935.

lesion    listen   (LEE-zhun)
An area of abnormal tissue. A lesion may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

lestaurtinib    listen   (leh-STOR-tih-nib)
A drug being studied in the treatment of acute leukemias and some other types of cancer. It binds to a protein that is present on the surface of some types of cancer cells and stops them from dividing. Lestaurtinib is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of indolocarbazole alkaloid. Also called CEP-701.

lethargy    listen   (LEH-thur-jee)
A condition marked by drowsiness and an unusual lack of energy and mental alertness. It can be caused by many things, including illness, injury, or drugs.

letrozole    listen   (LEH-truh-zole)
A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Letrozole lowers the amount of estrogen made by the body. This may stop the growth of cancer cells that need estrogen to grow. Letrozole is a type of aromatase inhibitor. Also called Femara.

leucovorin    listen   (LOO-koh-VOR-in)
The active ingredient in a drug used to lessen the toxic effects of substances that block the action of folic acid, especially the anticancer drug methotrexate. Leucovorin is used to treat some types of anemia and is also used with fluorouracil to treat colorectal cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Leucovorin is a form of folic acid. It is a type of chemoprotective agent and a type of chemosensitizing agent. Also called folinic acid.

leucovorin calcium    listen   (LOO-koh-VOR-in KAL-see-um)
A drug used to lessen the toxic effects of substances that block the action of folic acid, especially the anticancer drug methotrexate. Leucovorin calcium is used to treat some types of anemia and is also used with fluorouracil to treat colorectal cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Leucovorin calcium is a form of folic acid. It is a type of chemoprotective agent and a type of chemosensitizing agent. Also called calcium levoleucovorin, citrovorum factor, and Wellcovorin.

leukapheresis    listen   (LOO-kuh-feh-REE-sis)
Removal of the blood to collect specific blood cells. The remaining blood is returned to the body.

leukemia    listen   (loo-KEE-mee-uh)
Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream.

leukemic leptomeningitis    listen   (loo-KEE-mik MEH-nin-JY-tis)
A serious problem that may occur in leukemia. In leukemic leptomeningitis, cancer cells have spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called leukemic meningitis and meningeal leukemia.

leukemic meningitis    listen   (loo-KEE-mik MEH-nin-JY-tis)
A serious problem that may occur in leukemia. In leukemic meningitis, cancer cells have spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called leukemic leptomeningitis and meningeal leukemia.

Leukeran    listen   (LOO-keh-run)
A drug used to treat several types of leukemias and lymphomas. It blocks cell growth by damaging the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called chlorambucil.

leukocyte    listen   (LOO-koh-site)
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. Leukocytes are part of the body’s immune system. They help the body fight infection and other diseases. Types of leukocytes are granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). Checking the number of leukocytes in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It may be used to look for conditions such as infection, inflammation, allergies, and leukemia. Also called WBC and white blood cell.

leukopenia    listen   (LOO-koh-PEE-nee-uh)
A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood.

leukoplakia    listen   (LOO-koh-PLAY-kee-uh)
An abnormal patch of white tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and other areas of the body. It may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of leukoplakia in the mouth.

leuprolide acetate    listen   (LOO-proh-lide A-seh-tayt)
A drug used to treat advanced prostate cancer. Under the brand name Lupron, it is also used to treat early puberty in children and certain gynecologic conditions. Leuprolide acetate is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the testicles from making testosterone (a male hormone) and the ovaries from making estrogen and progesterone (female hormones). It may stop the growth of prostate cancer cells that need testosterone to grow. Leuprolide acetate is a type of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Also called Eligard, Lupron, and Viadur.

leuvectin    listen   (loo-VEK-tin)
An agent that delivers the gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) into cells to increase production of IL-2 by the cells.

levamisole    listen   (lee-VA-mih-sole)
An antiparasitic drug that is also being studied in cancer therapy with fluorouracil.

levels of evidence    listen   (LEH-vulz ... EH-vih-dents)
A ranking system used to describe the strength of the results measured in a clinical trial or research study. The design of the study (such as a case report for an individual patient or a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial) and the endpoints measured (such as survival or quality of life) affect the strength of the evidence.

levetiracetam    listen   (LEE-veh-ty-RA-seh-tam)
A drug used to treat seizures (involuntary muscle movements) caused by epilepsy (a group of brain disorders). Levetiracetam is being studied in the treatment of seizures in patients with cancer that has spread to the brain. It is a type of anticonvulsant. Also called Keppra.

levocarnitine    listen   (LEE-voh-KAR-nih-teen)
A form of carnitine, which is a substance made in muscle and liver tissue and found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products. Levocarnitine is also a drug that is used to treat patients who do not make enough carnitine and is being studied as a way to prevent tissue damage caused by chemotherapy. Carnitine is a type of dietary supplement. Also called Carnitor and L-carnitine.

levofloxacin    listen   (LEE-voh-FLOK-suh-sin)
A substance used to treat bacterial infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called quinolone antibiotics.

levonorgestrel    listen   (LEE-voh-nor-JES-trel)
A form of the hormone progesterone that is made in the laboratory and used to prevent pregnancy. It is being studied in the prevention of ovarian and endometrial cancer, and in the treatment of other conditions. Levonorgestrel is a type of oral contraceptive. Also called L-norgestrel and Plan B.

Levulan    listen   (LEH-vyoo-lan)
A drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When Levulan is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent. Also called aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride and Levulan Kerastick.

Levulan Kerastick    listen   (LEH-vyoo-lan KAYR-uh-stik)
A drug used to treat actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). The drug is also being studied in the treatment of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers and other types of cancer. When Levulan Kerastick is taken up by cells, including cancer cells, and then exposed to certain types of light, it becomes active and kills the cells. It is a type of photosensitizing agent. Also called aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride and Levulan.

Lexapro    listen   (LEK-suh-proh)
A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It belongs to the family of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Also called escitalopram.

lexatumumab    listen   (lek-suh-TOO-moo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It binds to a protein called TRAIL-R2 on the surface of some tumor cells, which may kill the tumor cells. Lexatumumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-TRAIL R2 mAb HGS-ETR2 and HGS-ETR2.

LGD1069      
A drug used to treat skin problems caused by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that have not gotten better after other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. LGD1069 is a type of retinoid. Also called bexarotene and Targretin.

LH      
A hormone made in the pituitary gland. In females, it acts on the ovaries to make follicles release their eggs and to make hormones that get the uterus ready for a fertilized egg to be implanted. In males, it acts on the testes to cause cells to grow and make testosterone. Also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and lutropin.

LH-RH      
A hormone made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. LH-RH causes the pituitary gland in the brain to make and secrete the hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In men, these hormones cause the testicles to make testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to make estrogen and progesterone. Also called GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, LHRH, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

LH-RH agonist    listen   (... A-guh-nist)
A substance that keeps the testicles and ovaries from making sex hormones by blocking other hormones that are needed to make them. In men, LH-RH agonists cause the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some LH-RH agonists are used to treat prostate cancer. Also called GnRH agonist, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist.

LH-RH antagonist    listen   (… an-TA-guh-nist)
A substance that blocks the pituitary gland from making hormones called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In men, this causes the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, this causes the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some LH-RH antagonists are used to treat advanced prostate cancer. They are also used to treat certain gynecologic conditions and are being studied in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Also called GnRH antagonist, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist.

Lhermitte's sign    listen   (layr-MEETZ ...)
A sensation similar to an electrical shock radiating from the back of the head down the spine as the neck is bent forward.

LHRH      
A hormone made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. LHRH causes the pituitary gland in the brain to make and secrete the hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In men, these hormones cause the testicles to make testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to make estrogen and progesterone. Also called GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, LH-RH, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

Li-Fraumeni syndrome    listen   (lee-FRAH-meh-nee SIN-drome)
A rare, inherited predisposition to multiple cancers, caused by an alteration in the p53 tumor suppressor gene.

liarozole    listen   (lee-AYR-oh-zole)
An anticancer drug that promotes differentiation by increasing the levels of retinoic acid within the tumor.

libido    listen   (lih-BEE-doh)
Sexual desire or the mental energy or emotion related to sex.

licorice root extract    listen   (LIH-kuh-rish … EK-strakt)
A substance prepared from dried roots of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra. It is used as a flavoring in medicines, drinks, and sweets, and it is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Licorice root extract contains several compounds that reduce inflammation, kill certain bacteria and viruses, act like estrogen and other hormones, and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of antioxidant.

lidocaine    listen   (LY-doh-kane)
A substance used to relieve pain by blocking signals at the nerve endings in skin. It can also be given intravenously to stop heart arrhythmias. It is a type of local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic.

lifetime risk      
A measure of the risk that a certain event will happen during a person’s lifetime. In cancer research, it is usually given as the likelihood that a person who is free of a certain type of cancer will develop or die from that type of cancer during his or her lifetime. For example, a woman with no known risk factors for breast cancer has a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer of about 12%. This means one out of every eight women will develop breast cancer during her lifetime.

ligation    listen   (ly-GAY-shun)
The process of tying off blood vessels so that blood cannot flow to a part of the body or to a tumor.

light cigarette    listen   (lite SIH-guh-ret)
A type of cigarette that is claimed to give off less tobacco tar than a regular cigarette when smoked. Light cigarettes have been shown to be no safer than regular cigarettes, and smoking them does not lower the risk of cancer or other diseases. A person smoking a light cigarette can inhale the same amount of tobacco tar, nicotine, and harmful, cancer-causing chemicals as in a regular cigarette, depending on how the cigarette is smoked. Cigarettes are no longer allowed to be labeled or advertised as light cigarettes. Also called low tar cigarette.

light microscope    listen   (lite MY-kroh-SKOPE)
A microscope (device to magnify small objects) in which objects are lit directly by white light.

light therapy    listen   (… THAYR-uh-pee)
The treatment of disease with certain types of light. Light therapy can use lasers, LED, fluorescent lamps, and ultraviolet or infrared radiation. Also called phototherapy.

light-emitting diode therapy    listen   (lite-ee-MIH-ting DY-ode THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with drugs that become active and may kill cancer cells when exposed to light. Light-emitting diode therapy is type of photodynamic therapy which uses a special type of light to activate the drug. Also called LED therapy.

lignan    listen   (LIG-nun)
A member of a group of substances found in plants that have shown estrogenic and anticancer effects. Lignans have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems.

limb perfusion    listen   (lim per-FYOO-zhun)
A procedure that may be used to deliver anticancer drugs directly to an arm or leg. The flow of blood to and from the limb is temporarily stopped with a tourniquet (a tight band around the limb), and anticancer drugs are put directly into the blood of the limb. This allows the person to receive a high dose of drugs in the area where the cancer occurred. Also called isolated limb perfusion.

limb-salvage surgery    listen   (lim-SAL-vij SER-juh-ree)
Surgery to remove a tumor in a limb (arm or leg) without removing the whole limb. The bone and tissue around the tumor may also be removed, and an implant may be used to replace the part of the limb removed. Limb-salvage surgery is done to help save the use and appearance of the limb. It is used to treat cancers of the bone and soft tissue. Also called limb-sparing surgery.

limb-sparing surgery    listen   (lim-SPAYR-ing SER-juh-ree)
Surgery to remove a tumor in a limb (arm or leg) without removing the whole limb. The bone and tissue around the tumor may also be removed, and an implant may be used to replace the part of the limb removed. Limb-sparing surgery is done to help save the use and appearance of the limb. It is used to treat cancers of the bone and soft tissue. Also called limb-salvage surgery.

limbic system    listen   (LIM-bik SIS-tem)
A network of structures in the brain involved in memory and emotions.

limited-stage small cell lung cancer    listen   (LIH-mih-ted-stayj ... sel lung KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one lung, the tissues between the lungs, and nearby lymph nodes only.

LIN      
A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules (glands that make milk) of the breast. This condition rarely becomes cancer. However, having LIN in one breast increases the risk of breast cancer in either breast. Types of LIN include atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Also called lobular intraepithelial neoplasia and lobular neoplasia.

linac    listen   (LIH-nak)
A machine that uses electricity to form a stream of fast-moving subatomic particles. This creates high-energy radiation that may be used to treat cancer. Also called linear accelerator, mega-voltage linear accelerator, and MeV linear accelerator.

linear accelerator    listen   (LIH-nee-er ak-SEH-leh-RAY-ter)
A machine that uses electricity to form a stream of fast-moving subatomic particles. This creates high-energy radiation that may be used to treat cancer. Also called linac, mega-voltage linear accelerator, and MeV linear accelerator.

linitis plastica    listen   (lih-NY-tis plas-TIH-kuh)
A rare type of stomach cancer that begins in the lining of the stomach and spreads to the muscles of the stomach wall. This causes the wall of the stomach to become thick, hard, and rubbery, which leads to trouble digesting food. Also called gastric scirrhous carcinoma.

linseed    listen   (LIN-seed)
The seed of the flax plant. It is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acid, fiber, and a compound called lignin. It is being studied in the prevention of several types of cancer. Also called flaxseed.

lintuzumab    listen   (lin-TOO-zoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and some types of leukemia. It binds to CD33, a protein on the surface of certain normal blood stem cells and some abnormal blood cells. It causes the immune system to kill these cells. Lintuzumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called MoAb HuM195 and monoclonal antibody HuM195.

Lioresal    listen   (lih-OR-eh-sal)
A drug that is used to treat certain types of muscle spasms and is being studied in the treatment of liver cancer. Lioresal relaxes muscles by blocking certain nerve receptors in the spinal cord. It is a type of antispasmodic. Also called baclofen and Kemstro.

liothyronine sodium    listen   (LY-oh-THY-roh-neen SOH-dee-um)
A drug that is used to treat certain thyroid (a gland located near the voice box) conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Liothyronine sodium is made in the laboratory and is a form of the thyroid hormone triiodthyronine (T3). Also called Cytomel and Triostat.

lipid    listen   (LIH-pid)
Fat.

Lipiodol    listen   (LIH-pee-oh-dol)
A form of poppy seed oil that contains iodine. Lipiodol is given by injection and builds up in the blood and lymph vessels in tumors. It is used for imaging (taking pictures) of the salivary glands and the lymph system. It is also being studied in the imaging of other organs such as the liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. It is a type of diagnostic imaging agent. Also called ethiodized oil, Ethiodol, and iodized oil.

Lipitor    listen   (LIH-pih-tor)
A drug used to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood and to prevent stroke, heart attack, and angina (chest pain). It is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Lipitor blocks an enzyme that helps make cholesterol in the body. It also causes an increase in the breakdown of cholesterol. It is a type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and a type of statin. Also called atorvastatin calcium.

LipoDox    listen   (LY-poh-DOX)
A form of the anticancer drug doxorubicin that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than doxorubicin. LipoDox is used to treat ovarian cancer, AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma, and multiple myeloma in patients whose disease has not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It may be used together with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. LipoDox is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic. Also called Dox-SL, Doxil, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome, Evacet, and liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride.

lipoma    listen   (lih-POH-muh)
A benign (not cancer) tumor made of fat cells.

lipophilic    listen   (LIH-poh-FIH-lik)
Able to dissolve, be dissolved in, or absorb lipids (fats).

liposarcoma    listen   (LIH-poh-sar-KOH-muh)
A rare cancer of the fat cells.

liposomal    listen   (LY-poh-SOH-mul)
A drug preparation that contains the active drug inside very tiny, fat-like particles. This form is easier for the body to absorb and allows more drug to get to the target area of the body, such as a tumor. Liposomal drugs may have fewer side effects and work better than other forms of the drug.

liposomal cytarabine    listen   (LY-poh-SOH-mul sy-TAYR-uh-been)
A form of the anticancer drug cytarabine that is contained inside very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than cytarabine. It is used to treat lymphoma that has spread to the meninges (three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called cytarabine liposome and Depo-Cyt.

liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride    listen   (LY-poh-SOH-mul DOK-soh-ROO-bih-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A form of the anticancer drug doxorubicin that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than doxorubicin. Liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride is used to treat ovarian cancer, AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma, and multiple myeloma in patients whose disease has not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It may be used together with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic. Also called Dox-SL, Doxil, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome, Evacet, and LipoDox.

liposomal paclitaxel    listen   (LY-poh-SOH-mul PA-klih-TAK-sil)
A form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than paclitaxel. It is being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. Liposomal paclitaxel blocks the ability of cells to divide and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called LEP-ETU, LipoTaxen, paclitaxel liposome, and PNU-93914.

liposomal SN-38    listen   (LY-poh-SOH-mul…)
A form of the anticancer drug irinotecan that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than irinotecan alone. Liposomal SN-38 is being studied in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Liposomal SN-38 blocks the ability of cells to divide and grow. It may stop the growth of tumor cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of irinotecan (CPT-11) derivative. Also called SN-38 liposome.

liposomal vincristine sulfate    listen   (LY-poh-SOH-mul vin-KRIS-teen SUL-fayt)
A form of the anticancer drug vincristine sulfate that is contained inside very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than vincristine. Liposomal vincristine sulfate is used to treat adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is Philadelphia chromosome negative and has come back or has not gotten better with other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Marqibo and vincristine sulfate liposome.

liposome    listen   (LY-poh-some)
A very tiny, fat-like particle that is made in the laboratory. In medicine, liposomes containing drugs or other substances are used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Drugs given in liposomes may have fewer side effects and work better than the same drugs given alone.

liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin citrate    listen   (LY-poh-some-en-KAP-soo-lay-ted DOK-soh-ROO-bih-sin SIH-trayt)
A form of the anticancer drug doxorubicin citrate that is contained inside very tiny, fat-like particles. It is being studied in the treatment of breast cancer that has spread and in the treatment of other types of cancer. Doxorubicin citrate damages DNA and may kill cancer cells. Liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin citrate may have fewer side effects and may work better than doxorubicin citrate.

liposome-encapsulated irinotecan hydrochloride PEP02    listen   (LY-poh-some-en-KAP-soo-lay-ted I-rih-noh-TEE-kan HY-droh-KLOR-ide …)
A form of the anticancer drug irinotecan hydrochloride that is contained inside very tiny, fat-like particles. It is being studied in the treatment of colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and in other types of cancer. Irinotecan hydrochloride blocks cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. Liposome-encapsulated irinotecan hydrochloride PEP02 may have fewer side effects and work better than irinotecan hydrochloride. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of camptothecin analog. Also called PEP02.

LipoTaxen    listen   (LIH-poh-TAK-sen)
A form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than paclitaxel. It is being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. LipoTaxen blocks the ability of cells to divide and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called LEP-ETU, liposomal paclitaxel, paclitaxel liposome, and PNU-93914.

liquid-based Pap test    listen   (LIH-kwid-bayst ...)
A type of Pap test. A Pap test is a procedure in which cells are scraped from the cervix for examination under a microscope. It is used to detect cancer or changes that may lead to cancer. A Pap test can also show conditions that are not cancer, such as infection or inflammation. In a liquid-based Pap test, the cells are rinsed into a small container of liquid. The cells are then placed onto slides by a special machine and examined under a microscope to see if the cells are abnormal.

lisinopril    listen   (ly-SIH-noh-pril)
A drug used to treat high blood pressure and certain heart conditions. It is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of side effects caused by some anticancer drugs. It blocks certain enzymes that cause blood vessels to constrict (narrow). It is a type of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Also called Prinivil and Zestril.

lisofylline    listen   (lih-SAH-fuh-lin)
A drug that may protect healthy cells from chemotherapy and radiation without inhibiting the effects of these therapies on tumor cells.

liter    listen   (LEE-ter)
A measure of volume for a liquid, using the metric system. One liter is equal to 1,000 cubic centimeters (cc), 1,000 milliliters (mm), or 1.0567 quarts (qt). Also called L.

lithium    listen   (LIH-thee-um)
A soft metal. Lithium salts are used to treat certain mental disorders, especially bipolar (manic depressive) disorder. Lithium salts include lithium carbonate and lithium citrate.

liver    listen   (LIH-ver)
A large organ located in the upper abdomen. The liver cleanses the blood and aids in digestion by secreting bile.

liver cancer    listen   (LIH-ver KAN-ser)
Primary liver cancer is cancer that forms in the tissues of the liver. Secondary liver cancer is cancer that spreads to the liver from another part of the body.

liver function test    listen   (LIH-ver FUNK-shun ...)
A blood test to measure the blood levels of certain substances released by the liver. A high or low level of certain substances can be a sign of liver disease.

liver metastasis    listen   (LIH-ver meh-TAS-tuh-sis)
Cancer that has spread from the original (primary) tumor to the liver.

liver X receptor alpha pathway    listen   (LIH-ver … reh-SEP-ter AL-fuh PATH-way)
Describes a group of proteins in a cell that work together to help control how certain genes are expressed and how cholesterol, lipids (fats), bile acids, and steroid hormones are made in the body. Changes in the liver X receptor alpha pathway may lead to diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Drugs or substances that affect this pathway are being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases. Also called LXR alpha pathway.

liver-spleen scan    listen   (LIH-ver ... skan)
A procedure used to check for abnormal areas in the liver or spleen. A very small amount of a radioactive substance is injected into a vein and travels through the blood to the liver and spleen. It is detected by a scanner linked to a computer, which forms an image of the areas where the radioactive substance collects. A liver-spleen scan may be used to help find cancer in the liver or spleen, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and other liver or spleen problems.

living will    listen   (LIH-ving wil)
A type of legal advance directive in which a person describes specific treatment guidelines that are to be followed by health care providers if he or she becomes terminally ill and cannot communicate. A living will usually has instructions about whether to use aggressive medical treatment to keep a person alive (such as CPR, artificial nutrition, use of a respirator).

LMB-1 immunotoxin    listen   (... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.

LMB-2 immunotoxin    listen   (... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.

LMB-7 immunotoxin    listen   (... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.

LMB-9 immunotoxin    listen   (... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.

LMP400      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks certain enzymes that break and rejoin DNA strands. These enzymes are needed for cells to divide and grow. Blocking them may cause cancer cells to die. LMP400 also helps anticancer drugs kill cancers that are resistant to some other drugs. LMP400 is a type of indenoisoquinoline and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.

LMP776      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks certain enzymes that break and rejoin DNA strands. These enzymes are needed for cells to divide and grow. Blocking them may cause cancer cells to die. LMP776 also helps anticancer drugs kill cancers that are resistant to some other drugs. LMP776 is a type of indenoisoquinoline and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.

lobaplatin    listen   (LOH-buh-PLA-tin)
A substance that contains the metal platinum and may kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. It is a type of alkylating agent.

lobe    listen   (lobe)
A portion of an organ, such as the liver, lung, breast, thyroid, or brain.

lobectomy    listen   (loh-BEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove a whole lobe (section) of an organ (such as the lungs, liver, brain, or thyroid gland).

lobeline    listen   (LOH-beh-leen)
A substance that comes from a plant known as Indian tobacco, which is different from the tobacco used to make smoking products. It has been studied as a way to help people stop smoking. It is a type of alkaloid.

lobradimil    listen   (loh-BRAY-dih-mil)
A substance that is being studied for its ability to help other drugs reach the brain. It belongs to the family of drugs called bradykinin agonists. Also called RMP-7.

lobular carcinoma    listen   (LAH-byoo-ler KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer that begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast. Lobular carcinoma may be either lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or invasive lobular carcinoma. LCIS is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. LCIS rarely becomes invasive cancer, but having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing invasive cancer in either breast. In invasive lobular carcinoma, cancer has spread from the lobules to surrounding normal tissue. It can also spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body.

lobular carcinoma in situ    listen   (LAH-byoo-ler KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. However, having lobular carcinoma in situ in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast. Also called LCIS.

lobular intraepithelial neoplasia    listen   (LAH-byoo-ler IN-truh-eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules (glands that make milk) of the breast. This condition rarely becomes cancer. However, having lobular intraepithelial neoplasia in one breast increases the risk of breast cancer in either breast. Types of lobular intraepithelial neoplasia include atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Also called LIN and lobular neoplasia.

lobular neoplasia    listen   (LAH-byoo-ler NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
A condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules (glands that make milk) of the breast. This condition rarely becomes cancer. However, having lobular neoplasia in one breast increases the risk of breast cancer in either breast. Types of lobular neoplasia include atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Also called LIN and lobular intraepithelial neoplasia.

lobule    listen   (LAH-byool)
A small lobe or a subdivision of a lobe.

local anesthesia    listen   (LOH-kul A-nes-THEE-zhuh)
A temporary loss of feeling in one small area of the body caused by special drugs called anesthetics. The patient stays awake but has no feeling in the area of the body treated with the anesthetic. Local anesthetics may be injected or put on the skin to lessen pain during medical, surgical, or dental procedures. Some are available over-the-counter (without a doctor’s order) and may help lessen local pain, irritation, and itching caused by conditions such as cold sores, sunburn, poison ivy, and minor cuts.

local cancer    listen   (LOH-kul KAN-ser)
An invasive malignant cancer confined entirely to the organ where the cancer began.

local therapy    listen   (LOH-kul THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that affects cells in the tumor and the area close to it.

localization    listen   (LOH-kuh-lih-ZAY-shun)
The process of determining or marking the location or site of a lesion or disease. May also refer to the process of keeping a lesion or disease in a specific location or site.

localized    listen   (LOH-kuh-lized)
In medicine, describes disease that is limited to a certain part of the body. For example, localized cancer is usually found only in the tissue or organ where it began, and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or to other parts of the body. Some localized cancers can be completely removed by surgery.

localized gallbladder cancer    listen   (LOH-kuh-lized GAWL-bla-der KAN-ser)
Cancer found only in the tissues that make up the wall of the gallbladder. Localized gallbladder cancer can be removed completely in an operation.

locally advanced cancer    listen   (LOH-kuh-lee ad-VANST KAN-ser)
Cancer that has spread from where it started to nearby tissue or lymph nodes.

locally recurrent cancer    listen   (LOH-kuh-lee ree-KER-ent KAN-ser)
Cancer that has recurred (come back) at or near the same place as the original (primary) tumor, usually after a period of time during which the cancer could not be detected.

locus    listen   (LOH-kus)
Specific place where something is located or occurs. It may refer to a specific place on the body (such as an acupuncture point) or the place on a chromosome where a specific gene is found.

Lofibra    listen   (loh-FY-bruh)
A drug used to treat high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Lofibra is being studied in the treatment of advanced cancers in young patients and in the treatment of other conditions. It is a type of antilipidemic agent. Also called fenofibrate and TriCor.

lometrexol    listen   (loh-meh-TREK-sol)
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antifolates.

lomustine    listen   (loh-MUS-teen)
A drug used to treat brain tumors that have already been treated with surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma that has not gotten better with other types of treatment or has come back. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Lomustine damages the cell's DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called CCNU and CeeNU.

lonafarnib    listen   (loh-nah-FAR-nib)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. Also called SCH 66336.

long-term side effect    listen   (... eh-FEKT)
A problem that is caused by a disease or treatment of a disease and may continue for months or years. Long-term side effects of cancer treatment include heart, lung, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract problems; pain, numbness, tingling, loss of feeling, or heat or cold sensitivity in the hands or feet; fatigue; hearing loss; cataracts; and dry eyes or dry mouth.

loop electrosurgical excision procedure    listen   (loop ee-LEK-troh-SER-jih-kul ek-SIH-zhun proh-SEE-jer)
A technique that uses electric current passed through a thin wire loop to remove abnormal tissue. Also called LEEP and loop excision.

loop excision    listen   (...ek-SIH-zhun)
A technique that uses electric current passed through a thin wire loop to remove abnormal tissue. Also called LEEP and loop electrosurgical excision procedure.

loperamide hydrochloride    listen   (loh-PER-uh-mide HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat diarrhea. Loperamide hydrochloride slows the movement of the muscles in the small intestine to allow more water to be taken out of the feces (waste matter) and more nutrients to be absorbed. Also called Imodium.

lopinavir    listen   (loh-PIH-nuh-veer)
A drug used with another drug, called ritonavir, to treat infection with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Lopinavir blocks the ability of HIV to make copies of itself and may help some anticancer drugs work better. It is a type of anti-HIV agent and a type of protease inhibitor.

lopinavir/ritonavir    listen   (loh-PIH-nuh-veer/ry-TOH-nuh-veer)
A combination of the drugs ritonavir and lopinavir. It is used to treat infection with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Lopinavir/ritonavir blocks the ability of HIV to make copies of itself and may help other anticancer drugs work better or may block the growth of cancer cells. Ritonavir blocks the breakdown of lopinavir. Lopinavir/ritonavir is a type of anti-HIV agent and a type of protease inhibitor. Also called Kaletra.

lorazepam    listen   (lor-A-zeh-pam)
A drug that is used to treat anxiety and certain seizure disorders (such as epilepsy), and to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It belongs to the families of drugs called antiemetics and benzodiazepines.

losartan    listen   (loh-SAR-tan)
A drug used to treat high blood pressure. Losartan blocks the action of chemicals that make blood vessels constrict (get narrower). It is a type of angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Also called Cozaar and losartan potassium.

losartan potassium    listen   (loh-SAR-tan puh-TA-see-um)
A drug used to treat high blood pressure. Losartan potassium blocks the action of chemicals that make blood vessels constrict (get narrower). It is a type of angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Also called Cozaar and losartan.

losoxantrone    listen   (loh-SOK-san-trone)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antipyrazoles.

lovastatin    listen   (LOH-vuh-STA-tin)
A drug used to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. It is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Lovastatin is a type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin). Also called Mevacor.

low birth weight    listen   (loh berth wayt)
A term used to describe an infant born weighing 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) or less. A low birth weight may occur when an infant is born too early (premature). These infants may have an increased risk of serious health problems. Smoking cigarettes, being exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke, drinking alcohol, and taking certain drugs during pregnancy can increase the risk of having an infant with a low birth weight.

low grade    listen   (loh grayd)
A term used to describe cells and tissue that look almost normal under a microscope. Low-grade cancer cells look more like normal cells and tend to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade cancer cells. Cancer grade may be used to help plan treatment and determine prognosis. Low-grade cancers usually have a better prognosis than high-grade cancers and may not need treatment right away.

low tar cigarette    listen   (loh tar SIH-guh-ret)
A type of cigarette that is claimed to give off less tobacco tar than a regular cigarette when smoked. Low tar cigarettes have been shown to be no safer than regular cigarettes, and smoking them does not lower the risk of cancer or other diseases. A person smoking a low tar cigarette can inhale the same amount of tobacco tar, nicotine, and harmful, cancer-causing chemicals as in a regular cigarette, depending on how the cigarette is smoked. Cigarettes are no longer allowed to be labeled or advertised as low tar cigarettes. Also called light cigarette.

low-grade lymphoma    listen   (... lim-FOH-muh)
A type of lymphoma that tends to grow and spread slowly, and has few symptoms. Also called indolent lymphoma.

low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion    listen   (... SKWAY-mus IN-truh-eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul LEE-zhun)
Slightly abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion is caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and is a common abnormal finding on a Pap test. It usually goes away on its own without treatment but sometimes the abnormal cells become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion is sometimes called mild dysplasia. Also called LSIL.

low-risk HPV    listen   (loh-risk …)
A type of human papilloma virus (HPV) that can cause skin warts, such as skin warts on the hands, feet, and skin around the genitals and anus. It may also cause respiratory papillomatosis, a condition in which warts form on the larynx or other areas of the respiratory tract and cause breathing problems. Low-risk HPV infections do not cause cancer, and many go away on their own without treatment. Also called low-risk human papillomavirus.

low-risk human papillomavirus    listen   (loh-risk HYOO-mun PA-pih-LOH-muh-VY-rus)
A type of human papilloma virus (HPV) that can cause skin warts, such as skin warts on the hands, feet, and skin around the genitals and anus. It may also cause respiratory papillomatosis, a condition in which warts form on the larynx or other areas of the respiratory tract and cause breathing problems. Low-risk human papillomavirus infections do not cause cancer, and many go away on their own without treatment. Also called low-risk HPV.

lower extremity    listen   (LOH-er ek-STREH-mih-tee)
The part of the body that includes the leg, ankle, and foot.

lower GI series    listen   (LOH-er ... SEER-eez)
X-rays of the colon and rectum that are taken after a person is given a barium enema.

LPHL      
A rare type of Hodgkin lymphoma (a cancer of the immune system). It is marked by the presence of lymphocyte-predominant cells, which used to be called popcorn cells. These cells are different from the typical Reed-Sternberg cells found in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. LPHL may change into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Also called lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL, and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

LSIL      
Slightly abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. LSIL is caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and is a common abnormal finding on a Pap test. It usually goes away on its own without treatment but sometimes the abnormal cells become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. LSIL is sometimes called mild dysplasia. Also called low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

LU 79553      
An anticancer drug that kills cancer cells by affecting DNA synthesis.

LU-103793      
An anticancer drug that reduces the risk of tumor cell growth and reproduction.

lubricant    listen   (LOO-brih-kunt)
An oily or slippery substance.

lumbar puncture    listen   (LUM-bar PUNK-cher)
A procedure in which a thin needle called a spinal needle is put into the lower part of the spinal column to collect cerebrospinal fluid or to give drugs. Also called spinal tap.

lumen    listen   (LOO-men)
The cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ such as a blood vessel or the intestine.

Lumigan    listen   (LOO-mih-gun)
The drug bimatoprost used to treat glaucoma (a build-up of fluid in the eye). It lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the flow of natural eye fluids out of the eye. One drop of Lumigan is put directly in the eye once a day.

lumpectomy    listen   (lum-PEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove a tumor (lump) in a breast and a small amount of normal tissue around it. It is a type of breast-conserving surgery.

lung    listen   (lung)
One of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

lung biopsy    listen   (… BY-op-see)
The removal of a small piece of lung tissue to be checked by a pathologist for cancer or other diseases. The tissue may be removed using a bronchoscope (a thin, lighted, tube-like instrument that is inserted through the trachea and into the lung). It may also be removed using a fine needle inserted through the chest wall, by surgery guided by a video camera inserted through the chest wall, or by an open biopsy. In an open biopsy, a doctor makes an incision between the ribs, removes a sample of lung tissue, and closes the wound with stitches.

lung cancer    listen   (lung KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope.

lung disorder    listen   (… dis-OR-der)
A type of disease that affects the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. Lung disorders may be caused by infection, by smoking tobacco, or by breathing in secondhand tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos, or other forms of air pollution. Lung disorders include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, and lung cancer. Also called pulmonary disease and respiratory disease.

lung function    listen   (… FUNK-shun)
A term used to describe how well the lungs work in helping a person breathe. During breathing, oxygen is taken into the lungs, where it passes into the blood and travels to the body’s tissues. Carbon dioxide, a waste product made by the body’s tissues, is carried to the lungs, where it is breathed out. There are different tests to measure lung function. Also called pulmonary function.

lung function test    listen   (… FUNK-shun …)
A test used to measure how well the lungs work. It measures how much air the lungs can hold and how quickly air is moved into and out of the lungs. It also measures how much oxygen is used and how much carbon dioxide is given off during breathing. A lung function test can be used to diagnose a lung disease and to see how well treatment for the disease is working. Also called PFT and pulmonary function test.

lung metastasis    listen   (...meh-TAS-tuh-sis)
Cancer that has spread from the original (primary) tumor to the lung.

Lupron    listen   (LOO-pron)
A drug used to treat advanced prostate cancer. It is also used to treat early puberty in children and certain gynecologic conditions. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Lupron blocks the testicles from making testosterone (a male hormone) and the ovaries from making estrogen and progesterone (female hormones). It may stop the growth of prostate cancer cells that need testosterone to grow. Lupron is a type of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Also called Eligard, leuprolide acetate, and Viadur.

lupus    listen   (LOO-pus)
A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect the joints and many organs, including the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system. It can cause many different symptoms; however, not everyone with lupus has all of the symptoms. Also called SLE and systemic lupus erythematosus.

lurtotecan    listen   (LOOR-toh-TEE-kan)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.

luteinizing hormone    listen   (LOO-tih-NY-zing HOR-mone)
A hormone made in the pituitary gland. In females, it acts on the ovaries to make follicles release their eggs and to make hormones that get the uterus ready for a fertilized egg to be implanted. In males, it acts on the testes to cause cells to grow and make testosterone. Also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, LH, and lutropin.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist    listen   (LOO-tih-NY-zing HOR-mone-reh-LEE-sing HOR-mone an-TA-guh-nist)
A substance that blocks the pituitary gland from making hormones called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In men, this causes the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, this causes the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat advanced prostate cancer. They are also used to treat certain gynecologic conditions and are being studied in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Also called GnRH antagonist, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, and LH-RH antagonist.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone    listen   (LOO-tih-NY-zing HOR-mone-reh-LEE-sing HOR-mone)
A hormone made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone causes the pituitary gland in the brain to make and secrete the hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In men, these hormones cause the testicles to make testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to make estrogen and progesterone. Also called GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, LH-RH, and LHRH.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist    listen   (LOO-tih-NY-zing HOR-mone-reh-LEE-sing HOR-mone A-guh-nist)
A substance that keeps the testicles and ovaries from making sex hormones by blocking other hormones that are needed to make them. In men, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists cause the testicles to stop making testosterone. In women, they cause the ovaries to stop making estrogen and progesterone. Some luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists are used to treat prostate cancer. Also called GnRH agonist, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and LH-RH agonist.

lutetium texaphyrin    listen   (loo-TEE-shee-um tek-SA-fih-rin)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer using photodynamic therapy. It belongs to the family of drugs called metallotexaphyrins. Also called motexafin lutetium.

lutropin    listen   (LOO-troh-pin)
A hormone made in the pituitary gland. In females, it acts on the ovaries to make follicles release their eggs and to make hormones that get the uterus ready for a fertilized egg to be implanted. In males, it acts on the testes to cause cells to grow and make testosterone. Also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, LH, and luteinizing hormone.

Luvox    listen   (LOO-vox)
A drug used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is a type of antidepressant agent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Also called fluvoxamine.

LXR alpha pathway    listen   (… AL-fuh PATH-way)
Describes a group of proteins in a cell that work together to help control how certain genes are expressed and how cholesterol, lipids (fats), bile acids, and steroid hormones are made in the body. Changes in the LXR alpha pathway may lead to diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Drugs or substances that affect this pathway are being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases. Also called liver X receptor alpha pathway.

LY231514      
A drug used alone or with another drug to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. LY231514 blocks DNA synthesis and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of folate antagonist. Also called Alimta and pemetrexed disodium.

LY293111      
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called leukotriene B4 receptor antagonists.

LY317615      
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, colon, lung, ovarian, and prostate. LY317615 blocks certain cell signaling pathways, and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of serine threonine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called enzastaurin and enzastaurin hydrochloride.

LY335979      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. LY335979 may help kill cancer cells that are resistant to anticancer drugs. Also called zosuquidar trihydrochloride.

LY353381 hydrochloride    listen   (... HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A substance being studied in the treatment of osteoporosis and breast cancer. LY353381 hydrochloride is made in the laboratory and binds to estrogen receptors in the body. It is a type of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Also called arzoxifene hydrochloride.

lycopene    listen   (LY-kuh-peen)
A red pigment found in tomatoes and some fruits. It is an antioxidant and may help prevent some types of cancer.

lymph    listen   (limf)
The clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infections and other diseases. Also called lymphatic fluid.

lymph gland    listen   (limf gland)
A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph glands filter lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they store lymphocytes (white blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels. Also called lymph node.

lymph node    listen   (limf node)
A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph nodes filter lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they store lymphocytes (white blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels. Also called lymph gland.

lymph node dissection    listen   (limf node dy-SEK-shun)
A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. For a regional lymph node dissection, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed; for a radical lymph node dissection, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. Also called lymphadenectomy.

lymph node drainage    listen   (limf node DRAY-nij)
The flow of lymph from an area of tissue into a particular lymph node.

lymph node mapping    listen   (limf node MA-ping)
The use of dyes and radioactive substances to identify lymph nodes that may contain tumor cells. Also called lymphatic mapping.

lymph vessel    listen   (limf ...)
A thin tube that carries lymph (lymphatic fluid) and white blood cells through the lymphatic system. Also called lymphatic vessel.

lymphadenectomy    listen   (LIM-fa-deh-NEK-toh-mee)
A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed and a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. For a regional lymphadenectomy, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed; for a radical lymphadenectomy, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. Also called lymph node dissection.

lymphadenopathy    listen   (limf-A-deh-NAH-puh-thee)
Disease or swelling of the lymph nodes.

lymphangiogram    listen   (lim-FAN-jee-oh-gram)
An x-ray of the lymphatic system. A dye is injected into a lymphatic vessel and travels throughout the lymphatic system. The dye outlines the lymphatic vessels and organs on the x-ray.

lymphangiography    listen   (lim-FAN-jee-AH-gruh-fee)
An x-ray study of the lymphatic system. A dye is injected into a lymphatic vessel and travels throughout the lymphatic system. The dye outlines the lymphatic vessels and organs on the x-ray.

lymphangiosarcoma    listen   (lim-FAN-jee-oh-sar-KOH-muh)
A type of cancer that begins in the cells that line lymph vessels.

lymphangitic carcinomatosis    listen   (LIM-fan-JIH-tik KAR-sih-NOH-muh-TOH-sis)
A condition in which cancer cells spread from the original (primary) tumor and invade lymph vessels (thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells through the body’s lymph system). The invaded lymph vessels then fill up with cancer cells and become blocked. Although lymphangitic carcinomatosis can occur anywhere in the body, it commonly happens in the lungs. It can happen in many types of cancer but is most common in breast, lung, colon, stomach, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. Also called carcinomatous lymphangitis.

lymphatic basin    listen   (lim-FA-tik BAY-sin)
A group of lymph nodes that receives and filters lymph that flows from a certain area of the body. Special dyes may be used to stain and identify the lymphatic basin in the tissues around a tumor, so that lymph nodes that may contain cancer can be removed and checked by a pathologist.

lymphatic fluid    listen   (lim-FA-tik FLOO-id)
The clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infections and other diseases. Also called lymph.

lymphatic mapping    listen   (lim-FA-tik MA-ping)
The use of dyes and radioactive substances to identify lymph nodes that may contain tumor cells. Also called lymph node mapping.

lymphatic system    listen   (lim-FA-tik SIS-tem)
The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infections and other diseases. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels (a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells). Lymphatic vessels branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body.

lymphatic vessel    listen   (lim-FA-tik ...)
A thin tube that carries lymph (lymphatic fluid) and white blood cells through the lymphatic system. Also called lymph vessel.

lymphedema    listen   (LIM-fuh-DEE-muh)
A condition in which extra lymph fluid builds up in tissues and causes swelling. It may occur in an arm or leg if lymph vessels are blocked, damaged, or removed by surgery.

lymphoblast    listen   (LIM-foh-BLAST)
A lymphocyte that has gotten larger after being stimulated by an antigen. Lymphoblast also refers to an immature cell that can develop into a mature lymphocyte.

lymphoblastic    listen   (LIM-foh-BLAS-tik)
Refers to lymphoblasts (a type of immature white blood cell).

lymphoblastic lymphoma    listen   (LIM-foh-BLAS-tik lim-FOH-muh)
An aggressive (fast-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the lymph nodes and the thymus gland. These lymphoblasts may spread to other places in the body. It is most common in teenagers and young adults and affects more males than females. It may be a T or B cell type. Also called precursor lymphoblastic lymphoma.

lymphocyte    listen   (LIM-foh-site)
A type of immune cell that is made in the bone marrow and is found in the blood and in lymph tissue. The two main types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes make antibodies, and T lymphocytes help kill tumor cells and help control immune responses. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell.

lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (LIM-foh-site-preh-DAH-mih-nunt HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
A rare type of Hodgkin lymphoma (a cancer of the immune system). It is marked by the presence of lymphocyte-predominant cells, which used to be called popcorn cells. These cells are different from the typical Reed-Sternberg cells found in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma may change into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Also called LPHL, NLPHL, and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

lymphocytic    listen   (LIM-foh-SIH-tik)
Refers to lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
A type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (white blood cells).

lymphocytic leukopenia    listen   (LIM-foh-SIH-tik LOO-koh-PEE-nee-uh)
A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Also called lymphocytopenia and lymphopenia.

lymphocytopenia    listen   (LIM-foh-SY-toh-PEE-nee-uh)
A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Also called lymphocytic leukopenia and lymphopenia.

lymphoepithelioma    listen   (LIM-foh-EH-pih-THEE-lee-OH-muh)
A type of cancer that begins in the tissues covering the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose).

lymphography    listen   (lim-FAH-gruh-fee)
An x-ray study of lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels made visible by the injection of a special dye.

lymphoid    listen   (LIM-foyd)
Referring to lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Also refers to tissue in which lymphocytes develop.

lymphokine-activated killer cell    listen   (LIM-foh-kine-AK-tih-vay-ted KIH-ler sel)
A white blood cell that is stimulated in a laboratory to kill tumor cells. Also called LAK cell.

lymphoma    listen   (lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer that begins in cells of the immune system. There are two basic categories of lymphomas. One kind is Hodgkin lymphoma, which is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. The other category is non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large, diverse group of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be further divided into cancers that have an indolent (slow-growing) course and those that have an aggressive (fast-growing) course. These subtypes behave and respond to treatment differently. Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in children and adults, and prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and the type of cancer.

lymphomatoid granulomatosis    listen   (lim-FOH-muh-toyd GRAN-yoo-loh-muh-TOH-sis)
Destructive growth of lymph cells, usually involving the lungs, skin, kidneys, and central nervous system. Grades I and II are not considered cancer, but grade III is considered a lymphoma.

lymphomatous leptomeningitis    listen   (lim-FOH-muh-tus LEP-toh-MEH-nin-JY-tis)
A serious problem that may occur in lymphoma. In lymphomatous leptomeningitis, cancer cells have spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called lymphomatous meningitis.

lymphomatous meningitis    listen   (lim-FOH-muh-tus MEH-nin-JY-tis)
A serious problem that may occur in lymphoma. In lymphomatous meningitis, cancer cells have spread from the original (primary) tumor to the meninges (thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). The cancer may cause the meninges to be inflamed. Also called lymphomatous leptomeningitis.

lymphopenia    listen   (LIM-foh-PEE-nee-uh)
A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Also called lymphocytic leukopenia and lymphocytopenia.

lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma    listen   (LIM-foh-plaz-muh-SIH-tik lim-FOH-muh)
An indolent (slow-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by abnormal levels of IgM antibodies in the blood and an enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes. Also called Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

lymphopoietin-1    listen   (LIM-foh-POY-eh-tin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Lymphopoietin-1 is made by cells that cover and support organs, glands, and other structures in the body. It causes the growth of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Lymphopoietin-1 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Lymphopoietin-1 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-7 and interleukin-7.

lymphoproliferative disorder    listen   (LIM-foh-proh-LIH-feh-ruh-tiv dis-OR-der)
A disease in which cells of the lymphatic system grow excessively. Lymphoproliferative disorders are often treated like cancer.

lymphosarcoma    listen   (LIM-foh-sar-KOH-muh)
An obsolete term for a malignant tumor of lymphatic tissue.

lymphoscintigraphy    listen   (LIM-foh-sin-TIH-gruh-fee)
A method used to check the lymph system for disease. A radioactive substance that flows through the lymph ducts and can be taken up by lymph nodes is injected into the body. A scanner or probe is used to follow the movement of this substance on a computer screen. Lymphoscintigraphy is used to find the sentinel lymph node (the first node to receive lymph from a tumor), which may be removed and checked for tumor cells. Lymphoscintigraphy is also used to diagnose certain diseases or conditions, such as lymphoma or lymphedema.

lymphostatic elephantiasis    listen   (lim-foh-STA-tik EH-luh-fun-TY-uh-sis)
A condition in which tissue or a limb becomes very swollen and thick, and changes color. It is caused by a block in the flow of lymph and a buildup of fluid in tissues. Also called stage III lymphedema.

Lynch syndrome    listen   (linch SIN-drome)
An inherited disorder in which affected individuals have a higher-than-normal chance of developing colorectal cancer and certain other types of cancer, often before the age of 50. Also called hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer and HNPCC.

Lyrica    listen   (LEER-ih-kuh)
A drug used to treat nerve pain caused by diabetes or herpes zoster infection and certain types of seizures. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of nerve pain in the hands and feet of cancer patients given chemotherapy. Lyrica is a type of anticonvulsant. Also called pregabalin.

lysis    listen   (LY-sis)
In biology, lysis refers to the breakdown of a cell caused by damage to its plasma (outer) membrane. It can be caused by chemical or physical means (for example, strong detergents or high-energy sound waves) or by infection with a strain virus that can lyse cells.

lysosome    listen   (LY-soh-some)
A sac-like compartment inside a cell that has enzymes that can break down cellular components that need to be destroyed.

lytic    listen   (LIH-tik)
Having to do with lysis. In biology, lysis refers to the disintegration of a cell by disruption of its plasma membrane. Lysis can be caused by chemical or physical means (e.g., high-energy sound waves) or by a virus infection.

lytic lesion    listen   (LIH-tik LEE-zhun)
Destruction of an area of bone due to a disease process, such as cancer.

Back to TopBack to Top