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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


826 results found for:       S



S-1      
A drug that is being studied for its ability to enhance the effectiveness of fluorouracil and prevent gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

S-phase fraction    listen   (... fayz FRAK-shun)
A measure of the percentage of cells in a tumor that are in the phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is synthesized. The S-phase fraction may be used with the proliferative index to give a more complete understanding of how fast a tumor is growing.

S100 calcium binding protein A8    listen   (… KAL-see-um … PROH-teen …)
A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin A.

S100 calcium binding protein A9    listen   (… KAL-see-um … PROH-teen …)
A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin B.

SAB      
A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called spinal anesthesia, spinal block, and subarachnoid block.

sacrum    listen   (SAY-krum)
The large, triangle-shaped bone in the lower spine that forms part of the pelvis. It is made of 5 fused bones of the spine.

safingol    listen   (SA-fin-gol)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Also called L-threo-dihydrosphingosine.

SAHA    listen  
A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SAHA is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, and Zolinza.

saline    listen   (SAY-leen)
A solution of salt and water.

saliva    listen   (suh-LY-vuh)
The watery fluid in the mouth made by the salivary glands. Saliva moistens food to help digestion and it helps protect the mouth against infections.

salivary gland    listen   (SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland)
A gland in the mouth that produces saliva.

salivary gland cancer    listen   (SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland KAN-ser)
A rare cancer that forms in tissues of a salivary gland (gland in the mouth that makes saliva). Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people.

salpingo-oophorectomy    listen   (sal-PIN-goh-oh-oh-foh-REK-toh-mee)
Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

salvage therapy    listen   (SAL-vij THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is given after the cancer has not responded to other treatments.

samarium 153    listen   (suh-MAYR-ee-um ...)
A radioactive substance used in the treatment of bone cancer and bone metastases (cancers that have spread from the original tumor to the bone). Samarium 153 is a radioactive form of the element samarium. It collects in bone, where it releases radiation that may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radioisotope.

samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium    listen   (suh-MAYR-ee-um…LEK-sih-DROH-nam PEN-tuh-SOH-dee-um)
A drug used to treat bone pain caused by bone cancer and other cancers that have spread to the bone. It contains a radioactive substance called samarium SM 153. Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium collects in bone and gives off radiation that may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called Quadramet.

saponin    listen   (SA-poh-nin)
A substance found in soybeans and many other plants. Saponins may help lower cholesterol and may have anticancer effects.

saquinavir mesylate    listen   (sa-KWIH-nuh-veer MEH-zih-layt)
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called protease inhibitors. It interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.

sarCNU      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called sarcosinamide nitrosourea.

sarcoid    listen   (SAR-koyd)
An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoid may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoidosis.

sarcoidosis    listen   (SAR-koy-DOH-sis)
An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoidosis may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoid.

sarcoma    listen   (sar-KOH-muh)
A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue. Different types of sarcoma are based on where the cancer forms. For example, osteosarcoma forms in bone, liposarcoma forms in fat, and rhabdomyosarcoma forms in muscle. Treatment and prognosis depend on the type and grade of the cancer (how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how quickly the cancer is likely to grow and spread). Sarcoma occurs in both adults and children.

sarcomatoid carcinoma    listen   (sar-KOH-muh-toyd KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A type of cancer that looks like a mixture of carcinoma (cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs in the body) and sarcoma (cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue). The sarcoma-like cells are often spindle cells. Under a microscope, spindle cells look long and slender.

sarcosinamide nitrosourea    listen   (SAR-koh-SIH-nuh-MIDE ny-TROH-soh-YOO-ree-uh)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called sarCNU.

sargramostim    listen   (sar-GRA-moh-stim)
A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets. It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called GM-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

satellite tumor    listen   (SA-teh-lite TOO-mer)
A type of skin cancer on or under the skin that has spread from the primary tumor through the lymph system and is not more than 2 centimeters away from the original tumor.

satraplatin    listen   (SA-truh-PLA-tin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of prostate and other types of cancer. It contains the metal platinum and may kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called BMS-182751 and JM 216.

saturated fat    listen   (SA-chuh-RAY-ted…)
A type of fat with certain chemical properties that is usually solid at room temperature. Most saturated fats come from animal food products, but some plant oils, such as palm and coconut oil, also contain high levels. Eating saturated fat increases the level of cholesterol in the blood and the risk of heart disease.

saw palmetto    listen   (...pawl-MEH-toh)
A shrub that is a member of the palm tree family. An extract made from the berries of this shrub has been studied in the treatment of certain urinary and prostate disorders. The scientific name is Serenoa repens.

SB-715992      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SB-715992 blocks a protein that tumor cells need to divide. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor. Also called ispinesib.

SB939      
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. SB939 blocks the action of an enzyme called histone deacetylase (HDAC) and may stop tumor cells from dividing. It is a type of HDAC inhibitor.

SC-70935      
A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy. It is a type of colony-stimulating factor. Also called leridistim.

SC-PEG E. coli L-asparaginase    listen   (… as-PAYR-uh-jih-NAYS)
A drug used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is a form of the anticancer drug PEG-asparaginase that stays in the body longer. SC-PEG E. coli L-asparaginase is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of tumor cells that need asparagine to grow. It is a type of protein synthesis inhibitor. Also called EZN-2285 and Oncaspar-IV.

scalpel    listen   (SKAL-pul)
A small, thin knife used for surgery.

scan    listen   (skan)
A type of test that makes detailed pictures of areas inside the body. A scan may also refer to the picture that gets made during the test. Scans may be used to help diagnose disease, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working. There are many different types of scans, including computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and nuclear medicine scans (such as bone scans and liver scans). CT scans are done with an x-ray machine linked to a computer. MRI scans are done with radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer. Nuclear medicine scans are done with small amounts of radioactive substances that are injected into the body and a special machine that detects the radioactive substance.

scanner    listen   (SKA-ner)
In medicine, an instrument that takes pictures of the inside of the body.

scapula    listen   (SKA-pyoo-luh)
One of a pair of triangular bones at the back of the shoulder. The scapula connects the collarbone with the upper arm bone. Also called shoulder blade.

scar tissue    listen   (skar TIH-shoo)
Fibrous tissue that forms when normal tissue is destroyed by disease, injury, or surgery. For example, scar tissue forms when a wound heals after a cut, sore, burn, or other skin condition, or when an incision (cut) is made into the skin during surgery. It may also form inside the body when certain conditions, such as cirrhosis, cause normal tissue to become fibrous tissue.

SCF      
A substance that causes blood stem cells (cells from which other types of cells develop) to change into different types of blood cells and increases the number and actions of these cells in the blood. SCF is a type of cytokine and a type of growth factor. Also called kit ligand and stem cell factor.

SCH 54031      
A drug used to treat melanoma and hepatitis C. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is used under the brand name Sylatron to treat melanoma in patients who have had surgery to remove cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is used under the brand name PEG-Intron to treat hepatitis C infections. SCH 54031 is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells in the immune system) linked to a substance called PEG, which makes the drug stay in the body longer. SCH 54031 is made in the laboratory. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier. Also called peginterferon alfa-2b.

SCH 66336      
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. Also called lonafarnib.

SCH-58500      
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. SCH-58500 is a weakened adenovirus that carries the p53 gene into tumor cells, causing them to die. It is a type of gene therapy. Also called ACN53, rAd/p53, and recombinant adenovirus-p53.

schedule    listen   (SKEH-jool)
In a clinical setting, the step-by-step plan for how patients are to be treated; for example, the drug or type of radiation therapy that is to be given, the method by which it is to be given, the amount of time between courses, and the total length of treatment.

Schiller test    listen   (SHIH-ler …)
A test in which iodine is applied to the cervix. The iodine colors healthy cells brown; abnormal cells remain unstained, usually appearing white or yellow.

schistosome    listen   (SHIS-tuh-some)
A parasitic worm that can cause diseases of the liver, bladder, and gastrointestinal tract. One type of schistosome has been linked to bladder cancer. Schistosomes are found in Africa, the Middle East, East Asia, the Caribbean, and South America.

schizophrenia    listen   (SKIT-soh-FREE-nee-uh)
A group of severe mental disorders in which a person has trouble telling the difference between real and unreal experiences, thinking logically, having normal emotional responses to others, and behaving normally in social situations. Symptoms include seeing, hearing, feeling things that are not there, having false ideas about what is taking place or who one is, nonsense speech, unusual behavior, lack of emotion, and social withdrawal.

Schwann cell    listen   (shwan sel)
A type of glial cell of the peripheral nervous system that helps separate and insulate nerve cells.

schwannoma    listen   (shwah-NOH-muh)
A tumor of the peripheral nervous system that arises in the nerve sheath (protective covering). It is almost always benign, but rare malignant schwannomas have been reported.

SCID    listen  
A rare, inherited disease that is marked by a lack of B lymphocytes (white blood cells that make antibodies and help fight infections) and a lack of T lymphocytes (white blood cells that attack virus-infected cells, foreign cells, and cancer cells). Patients with this disease have a high risk of developing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. Also called severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

scientific review committee    listen   (SY-en-TIH-fik ree-VYOO kuh-MIH-tee)
A group of doctors, scientists, and other experts that reviews the detailed plan of a clinical trial for scientific quality and correct study design. There is a scientific review committee at every health care facility that does clinical research. Most clinical trials are reviewed by the scientific review committee before they go to the facility’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) for approval. Also called scientific review panel.

scientific review panel    listen   (SY-en-TIH-fik ree-VYOO PA-nil)
A group of doctors, scientists, and other experts that reviews the detailed plan of a clinical trial for scientific quality and correct study design. There is a scientific review panel at every health care facility that does clinical research. Most clinical trials are reviewed by the scientific review panel before they go to the facility’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) for approval. Also called scientific review committee.

scientist    listen   (SY-en-tist)
A person who has studied science, especially one who is active in a particular field of investigation.

scintigraphy    listen   (sin-TIH-gruh-fee)
A procedure that produces pictures (scans) of structures inside the body, including areas where there are cancer cells. Scintigraphy is used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease. A small amount of a radioactive chemical (radionuclide) is injected into a vein or swallowed. Different radionuclides travel through the blood to different organs. A machine with a special camera moves over the person lying on a table and detects the type of radiation given off by the radionuclides. A computer forms an image of the areas where the radionuclide builds up. These areas may contain cancer cells. Also called radionuclide scanning.

scintimammography    listen   (SIN-tih-ma-MAH-gruh-fee)
A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue. It is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called Miraluma test and sestamibi breast imaging.

sclera    listen   (SKLAYR-uh)
The white layer of the eye that covers most of the outside of the eyeball.

scleroderma    listen   (SKLAYR-oh-DER-muh)
A chronic disorder marked by hardening and thickening of the skin. Scleroderma can be localized or it can affect the entire body (systemic).

sclerosing adenosis    listen   (skleh-ROH-sing A-deh-NOH-sis)
A benign condition in which scar-like tissue is found in a gland, such as the breast lobules or the prostate. A biopsy may be needed to tell the difference between the abnormal tissue and cancer. Women with sclerosing adenosis of the breast may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

scoliosis    listen   (SKOH-lee-OH-sis)
A condition marked by a side-to-side curve of the backbone. The curve is usually shaped like an S or a C. In most cases, the cause of scoliosis is not known. In some cases, scoliosis may be present at birth or it may be caused by muscle spasms, inflammation, tumors, or certain other disorders. It may also occur at some point in time after radiation therapy to the backbone.

screening    listen   (SKREE-ning)
Checking for disease when there are no symptoms. Since screening may find diseases at an early stage, there may be a better chance of curing the disease. Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), and the Pap test and HPV test (cervix). Screening can also include checking for a person’s risk of developing an inherited disease by doing a genetic test.

screening mammogram    listen   (SKREE-ning MA-muh-gram)
X-rays of the breasts taken to check for breast cancer in the absence of signs or symptoms.

scrotum    listen   (SKROH-tum)
In males, the external sac that contains the testicles.

Scutellaria barbata    listen   (skoo-tuh-LAYR-ee-uh bar-BAY-tuh)
An herb that belongs to a group of herbs named the Scutellaria species or scullcap. Both the root and the above-ground part have been used to make herbal medicines. The root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat lung cancer and other medical problems.

SDS      
A rare, inherited disorder in which the pancreas and bone marrow do not work the way they should. Symptoms include problems digesting food, a low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), bone problems, and being short. Infants with the disorder get bacterial infections and are at an increased risk of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Also called Shwachman syndrome and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

SDX-102      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called alanosine.

Se-methyl-seleno-L-cysteine    listen   (… MEH-thul-seh-LEE-noh-L-SIS-teh-een)
A substance that contains the element selenium (a nutrient that protects cells against damage) and is found in certain plants such as garlic and broccoli. Se-methyl-seleno-L-cysteine can act as an antioxidant and may help prevent or slow the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of amino acid.

sebum    listen   (SEE-bum)
An oily substance produced by certain glands in the skin.

second primary cancer    listen   (SEH-kund PRY-mayr-ee KAN-ser)
Refers to a new primary cancer in a person with a history of cancer.

second-line therapy    listen   (SEH-kund ... THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is given when initial treatment (first-line therapy) doesn’t work, or stops working.

second-look surgery    listen   (SEH-kund ... SER-juh-ree)
Surgery performed after primary treatment to determine whether tumor cells remain.

secondary cancer    listen   (SEH-kun-dayr-ee KAN-ser)
A term that is used to describe cancer that has spread to another part of the body from the place in which it started. Secondary cancers are the same type of cancer as the original (primary) cancer. Also called secondary tumor.

secondary tumor    listen   (SEH-kun-dayr-ee TOO-mer)
A term that is used to describe cancer that has spread to another part of the body from the place in which it started. Secondary tumors are the same type of cancer as the original (primary) tumor. Also called secondary cancer.

secondhand smoke    listen   (SEH-kund-hand ...)
Smoke that comes from the burning of a tobacco product and smoke that is exhaled by smokers. Inhaling secondhand smoke is called involuntary or passive smoking. Also called environmental tobacco smoke and ETS.

secrete    listen   (seh-KREET)
To form and release a substance. In the body, cells secrete substances, such as sweat that cools the body or hormones that act in other parts of the body.

secretin    listen   (seh-KREE-tin)
A hormone released into the blood by cells in the inner layer of the small intestine. It is released when partly digested food moves from the stomach into the small intestine. Secretin causes the pancreas, liver, and stomach to release other substances that help digest food. Secretin may also be made in the laboratory.

secretin human    listen   (seh-KREE-tin HYOO-mun)
A drug used to help diagnose gastrinomas (tumors that cause too much gastric acid to be made) and other problems with the pancreas. It is also used to increase secretions from the pancreas and to help identify a duct called the ampulla of Vater. Secretin human is a form of secretin that is made in the laboratory. Secretin causes the pancreas, liver, and stomach to release substances that help digest food. Also called ChiRhoStim and synthetic human secretin.

secretin stimulation test    listen   (seh-KREE-tin STIM-yoo-LAY-shun …)
A test used to help diagnose problems in the pancreas, such as gastrinomas and pancreatitis. It measures the ability of the pancreas to respond to the hormone secretin (a hormone that causes other substances to be released by the stomach, liver, and pancreas). Secretin is given to the patient by a tube put through the nose or throat into the small intestine and stomach or by injection into a vein. After a certain amount of time, samples are taken to be sent to a laboratory for testing. It is a type of pancreatic function test. Also called pancreatic function test.

sedation    listen   (seh-DAY-shun)
A state of calmness, relaxation, or sleepiness caused by certain drugs. Sedation may be used to help relieve anxiety during medical or surgical procedures or to help cope with very stressful events. Drugs that relieve pain may be used at the same time.

sedative    listen   (SEH-duh-tiv)
A drug or substance used to calm a person down, relieve anxiety, or help a person sleep.

sedimentation rate    listen   (SEH-dih-men-TAY-shun rayt)
The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ESR.

sedoxantrone trihydrochloride    listen   (seh-DOK-san-trone try-HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Sedoxantrone trihydrochloride binds to DNA and stops cells, including cancer cells, from repairing damage to DNA and from making more DNA, RNA, and protein. It is a type of DNA intercalator. Also called CI-958.

SEGA    listen  
A benign (not cancer), slow-growing tumor that usually forms in the walls of fluid-filled spaces in the brain. The tumors are made up of large, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. SEGAs are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis (an inherited disorder in which benign tumors form in the brain and other parts of the body). Also called subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.

segmental cystectomy    listen   (seg-MEN-tul sis-TEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove part of the bladder (the organ that holds urine). Also called partial cystectomy.

segmental mastectomy    listen   (seg-MEN-tul ma-STEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the part of the breast that has cancer and some of the normal tissue around it. The lining over the chest muscles below the cancer and some of the lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. It is a type of breast-conserving surgery. Also called partial mastectomy.

segmental resection    listen   (seg-MEN-tul ree-SEK-shun)
Surgery to remove part of an organ or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it. In lung cancer surgery, segmental resection refers to removing a section of a lobe of the lung. Also called segmentectomy.

segmentectomy    listen   (seg-men-TEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove part of an organ or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it. In lung cancer surgery, segmentectomy refers to removing a section of a lobe of the lung. Also called segmental resection.

seizure       (SEE-zher)
Sudden, uncontrolled body movements and changes in behavior that occur because of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Symptoms include loss of awareness, changes in emotion, loss of muscle control, and shaking. Seizures may be caused by drugs, high fevers, head injuries, and certain diseases, such as epilepsy.

selection bias    listen   (seh-LEK-shun BY-us)
An error in choosing the individuals or groups to take part in a study. Ideally, the subjects in a study should be very similar to one another and to the larger population from which they are drawn (for example, all individuals with the same disease or condition). If there are important differences, the results of the study may not be valid.

selective estrogen receptor modulator    listen   (seh-LEK-tiv ES-truh-jin reh-SEP-ter MAH-juh-lay-ter)
A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective estrogen receptor modulators. Also called SERM.

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor    listen   (seh-LEK-tiv SAYR-uh-TOH-nin ree-UP-tayk in-HIH-bih-ter)
A type of drug that is used to treat depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors slow the process by which serotonin (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) is reused by nerve cells that make it. This increases the amount of serotonin available for stimulating other nerves. Also called SSRI.

selenium    listen   (seh-LEE-nee-um)
A mineral that is needed by the body to stay healthy. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Selenium is a type of antioxidant.

self-esteem    listen   (self-eh-STEEM)
A feeling of self-worth, self-confidence, and self-respect.

sella turcica    listen   (SEL-uh TER-sih-kuh)
A depression of the bone at the base of the skull where the pituitary gland is located.

selumetinib    listen   (SEL-yoo-MEH-tih-nib)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. Selumetinib blocks proteins needed for cell growth and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of protein kinase inhibitor. Also called AZD6244 and MEK inhibitor AZD6244.

semaxanib    listen   (seh-MAK-suh-nib)
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called SU5416.

semen    listen   (SEE-men)
The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of sperm from the testicles and fluid from the prostate and other sex glands.

seminal fluid    listen   (SEH-mih-nul FLOO-id)
Fluid from the prostate and other sex glands that helps transport sperm out of the man's body during orgasm. Seminal fluid contains sugar as an energy source for sperm.

seminal vesicle    listen   (SEH-mih-nul VEH-sih-kul)
A gland that helps produce semen.

seminal vesicle biopsy    listen   (SEH-mih-nul VEH-sih-kul BY-op-see)
The removal of fluid or tissue with a needle from the seminal vesicles for examination under a microscope. The seminal vesicles are glands in the male reproductive tract that produce a part of semen.

seminoma    listen   (SEH-mih-NOH-muh)
A type of cancer that begins in cells that make sperm or eggs. Seminomas occur most often in the testicles or the ovaries. They may also occur in other organs, such as the brain, chest, or abdomen. This happens when cells that have the ability to form sperm or eggs are found in other parts of the body. Seminomas grow and spread slowly.

semiparasitic    listen   (SEH-mee-PAYR-uh-SIH-tik)
In botany, a plant that gets food from a host but also contains chlorophyll and is capable of photosynthesis.

semustine    listen   (seh-MUS-teen)
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Semustine damages the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of nitrosourea.

Seneca Valley virus-001    listen   (SEH-nih-kuh VA-lee VY-rus…)
A virus being studied in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors and other types of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors form from cells that release hormones in response to a signal from the nervous system. The virus infects and breaks down these tumor cells but not normal cells. It is a type of oncolytic virus. Also called NTX-010 and SVV-001.

senega root    listen   (SEH-neh-guh root)
The root of an herb called Polygala senega. It has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including problems of the respiratory system.

senile keratosis    listen   (SEE-nile KAYR-uh-TOH-sis)
A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin. Also called actinic keratosis and solar keratosis.

sensitivity    listen   (SEN-sih-TIH-vih-tee)
In medicine, sensitivity may describe how well a test can detect a specific disease or condition in people who actually have the disease or condition. No test has 100% sensitivity because some people who have the disease or condition will not be identified by the test (false-negative test result). Sensitivity may also refer to the way the body reacts to the environment or to drugs, chemicals, or other substances. For example, a person who is sensitive to the sun may have skin that burns easily or get a rash when exposed to the sun. A person who is sensitive to caffeine may need only small amounts of it to feel its effects.

sensor    listen   (SEN-sor)
A device that responds to a stimulus, such as heat, light, or pressure, and generates a signal that can be measured or interpreted.

Sensorcaine    listen   (SEN-sor-kane)
A drug used to relieve pain by blocking signals at nerve endings. It is being studied in the relief of pain following surgery for cancer. It is a type of local anesthetic. Also called bupivacaine, bupivacaine hydrochloride, and Marcaine.

sensory    listen   (SEN-sor-ee)
Having to do with the senses.

sentinel lymph node    listen   (SEN-tih-nul limf node)
The first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. When cancer spreads, the cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes.

sentinel lymph node biopsy    listen   (SEN-tih-nul limf node BY-op-see)
Removal and examination of the sentinel node(s) (the first lymph node(s) to which cancer cells are likely to spread from a primary tumor). To identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the surgeon injects a radioactive substance, blue dye, or both near the tumor. The surgeon then uses a probe to find the sentinel lymph node(s) containing the radioactive substance or looks for the lymph node(s) stained with dye. The surgeon then removes the sentinel node(s) to check for the presence of cancer cells.

sentinel lymph node mapping    listen   (SEN-tih-nul limf node MA-ping)
The use of dyes and radioactive substances to identify the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. Cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes and other places in the body.

seocalcitol    listen   (see-oh-KAL-sih-tol)
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called vitamin D analogs.

sepsis    listen   (SEP-sis)
The presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues.

septate    listen   (SEP-tate)
An organ or structure that is divided into compartments.

septicemia    listen   (SEP-tih-SEE-mee-uh)
Disease caused by the spread of bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream. Also called blood poisoning and toxemia.

sequential AC/Taxol-Trastuzumab regimen    listen   (see-KWEN-shul … TAK-sol-tras-TOO-zoo-mab REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Also called AC-T-T, AC-T-T regimen, and AC-TH regimen.

sequential treatment    listen   (see-KWEN-shul TREET-ment)
One treatment after the other.

SERM    listen  
A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are SERMs. Also called selective estrogen receptor modulator.

seroma    listen   (see-ROH-muh)
A mass or lump caused by a buildup of clear fluid in a tissue, organ, or body cavity. It usually goes away on its own but may need to be drained with a needle. It often occurs after breast surgery.

Seromycin    listen   (SAYR-oh-MY-sin)
A drug used to treat tuberculosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of pain and nerve problems (numbness, tingling) caused by chemotherapy and in the treatment of low back pain, autism, certain anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. Seromycin is a type of antibiotic. Also called D-cycloserine.

serosa    listen   (seh-ROH-suh)
The outer lining of organs and body cavities of the abdomen and chest, including the stomach. Also called serous membrane.

serotonin    listen   (SAYR-uh-TOH-nin)
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of serotonin in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine.

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor    listen   (sayr-uh-TOH-nin-NOR-eh-pih-NEH-frin ree-UP-tayk in-HIH-bih-ter)
A type of drug that is used to treat depression and certain other disorders. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors increase the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Nerves use these chemicals to send messages to one another. Increasing their levels in the brain helps improve mood. Also called SNRI.

serous    listen   (SEER-us)
Having to do with serum, the clear liquid part of blood.

serous membrane    listen   (SEER-us MEM-brayn)
The outer lining of organs and body cavities of the abdomen and chest, including the stomach. Also called serosa.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary    listen   (ser-TOH-lee-LY-dig sel TOO-mer ... OH-vuh-ree)
A rare type of ovarian tumor in which the tumor cells secrete a male sex hormone. This may cause virilization (the appearance of male physical characteristics in females). Also called androblastoma and arrhenoblastoma.

sertraline    listen   (SER-truh-leen)
A drug used to treat depression. It is a type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Also called Zoloft.

serum    listen   (SEER-um)
The clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins have been removed.

serum albumin    listen   (SEER-um al-BYOO-min)
The main protein in blood plasma. Low levels of serum albumin occur in people with malnutrition, inflammation, and serious liver and kidney disease.

serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase    listen   (SEER-um GLOO-tuh-mayt py-ROO-vayt tranz-A-mih-nays)
An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called alanine transferase and SGPT.

serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase    listen   (SEER-um gloo-TA-mik-ok-SA-loh-uh-SEE-tik tranz-A-mih-nays)
An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called aspartate transaminase and SGOT.

serum tumor marker test    listen   (SEER-um TOO-mer MAR-ker ...)
A blood test that measures the amount of substances called tumor markers (or biomarkers). Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells. A high level of a tumor marker may be a sign of cancer.

Serzone    listen   (SER-zone)
A drug used to treat depression. It belongs to the family of drugs called antidepressant agents. Also called nefazodone.

sesquiterpene lactone    listen   (SES-kwih-TER-peen LAK-tone)
A substance found in some plants. Sesquiterpene lactones may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Plants containing sesquiterpene lactones have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems.

sestamibi breast imaging    listen   (SES-tuh-MIH-bee brest IH-muh-jing)
A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue. It is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called Miraluma test and scintimammography.

sestamibi scan    listen   (SES-tuh-MIH-bee...)
An imaging test used to find overactive parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands found on the thyroid) and breast cancer cells, and to diagnose heart disease. The patient receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium which is bound to another substance called sestamibi. This substance collects in overactive glands, cancer cells, heart muscle, or other tissues and a picture is taken by a gamma camera (a special camera that detects radioactivity).

severe combined immunodeficiency disease    listen   (seh-VEER kum-BIND IH-myoo-noh-deh-FIH-shun-see dih-ZEEZ)
A rare, inherited disease that is marked by a lack of B lymphocytes (white blood cells that make antibodies and help fight infections) and a lack of T lymphocytes (white blood cells that attack virus-infected cells, foreign cells, and cancer cells). Patients with this disease have a high risk of developing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. Also called SCID.

severe myelosuppression    listen   (... MY-eh-loh-suh-PREH-shun)
A severe form of myelosuppression. Myelosuppression is a condition in which bone marrow activity is decreased, resulting in fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is a side effect of some cancer treatments. Also called myeloablation.

sex cord tumor    listen   (… kord TOO-mer)
A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes. These tumors may release sex hormones. Sex cord tumors include granulosa cell, Sertoli cell, and Leydig cell tumors. Also called sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor.

sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor    listen   (… kord-goh-NA-dul STROH-mul TOO-mer)
A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes. These tumors may release sex hormones. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors include granulosa cell, Sertoli cell, and Leydig cell tumors. Also called sex cord tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor.

sex cord-stromal tumor    listen   (… kord-STROH-mul TOO-mer)
A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes. These tumors may release sex hormones. Sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa cell, Sertoli cell, and Leydig cell tumors. Also called sex cord tumor and sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor.

sex drive    listen   (sex drive)
The need for sex. Also called sexual drive.

sexual drive    listen   (SEK-shoo-ul …)
The need for sex. Also called sex drive.

sexuality    listen   (SEK-shoo-A-lih-tee)
A person's behaviors, desires, and attitudes related to sex and physical intimacy with others.

Sezary syndrome    listen   (say-zah-REE SIN-drome)
A cancer that affects the skin. It is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

SGN-00101      
A substance that is being studied in the prevention of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called fusion proteins.

SGN-30      
A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD30 antigen on their surface, including Hodgkin disease cells and cells from anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. SGN-30 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

SGN-35      
A drug used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma that did not get better with other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of lymphoma. SGN-35 is made by combining a monoclonal antibody with an anticancer drug. It binds to a protein called CD30, which is on the surface of some lymphoma cells, and may kill cancer cells. SGN-35 is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. Also called Adcetris and brentuximab vedotin.

SGN-40      
A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD40 antigen on their surface, including cells from multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SGN-40 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

SGOT      
An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called aspartate transaminase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase.

SGPT      
An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of SGPT released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called alanine transferase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase.

sham therapy    listen   (...THAYR-uh-pee)
An inactive treatment or procedure that is intended to mimic as closely as possible a therapy in a clinical trial. Also called placebo therapy.

shave biopsy    listen   (shayv BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a skin abnormality and a thin layer of surrounding skin are removed with a small blade for examination under a microscope. Stitches are not needed with this procedure.

sheep sorrel    listen   (sheep SOR-ul)
A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rumex acetosella. Also called dock and sorrel.

Sheridan’s Formula    listen   (SHAYR-ih-dunz FOR-myoo-luh)
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in Sheridan’s Formula have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. Sheridan’s Formula is not available in the United States. Also called 126–F, Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–101, JS–114, and Protocel.

shiitake mushroom    listen   (shee-TAH-kee ...)
A dark oriental mushroom widely used as a food. Several anticancer substances have been found in shiitake mushrooms, including lentinan, which has been studied in Japan as a treatment for stomach and colorectal cancer. The scientific name is Lentinus edodes.

shinbone    listen   (SHIN-bone)
The larger of two bones between the knee and ankle. Also called tibia.

Sho-saiko-to    listen   (shoh-sah-ee-koh-toh)
A Japanese formulation of seven Chinese herbs that is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

short-term side effect    listen   (... eh-FEKT)
A problem that is caused by treatment of a disease but usually goes away after treatment ends. Short-term side effects of cancer treatment include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, fatigue, and mouth sores.

shoulder blade    listen   (SHOLE-der blayd)
One of a pair of triangular bones at the back of the shoulder. The shoulder blade connects the collarbone with the upper arm bone. Also called scapula.

shunt    listen   (shunt)
In medicine, a passage that is made to allow blood or other fluid to move from one part of the body to another. For example, a surgeon may implant a tube to drain cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to the abdomen. A surgeon may also change normal blood flow by making a passage that leads from one blood vessel to another.

Shwachman syndrome    listen   (SHWAK-mun SIN-drome)
A rare, inherited disorder in which the pancreas and bone marrow do not work the way they should. Symptoms include problems digesting food, a low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), bone problems, and being short. Infants with the disorder get bacterial infections and are at an increased risk of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Also called SDS and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome    listen   (SHWAK-mun-DY-mund SIN-drome)
A rare, inherited disorder in which the pancreas and bone marrow do not work the way they should. Symptoms include problems digesting food, a low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell), bone problems, and being short. Infants with the disorder get bacterial infections and are at an increased risk of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Also called SDS and Shwachman syndrome.

sialic acid    listen   (sy-A-lik A-sid)
Any of a group of simple sugar molecules.

sialyl Tn-KLH    listen   (sy-A-lil ...)
A vaccine composed of a substance that enhances immunity plus an antigen found on some tumors of the colon, breast, lung, ovary, pancreas, and stomach.

sibling    listen   (SIB-ling)
A person’s brother or sister who has the same parents.

sickle cell anemia    listen   (SIH-kul sel uh-NEE-mee-uh)
An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent. Also called sickle cell disease.

sickle cell disease    listen   (SIH-kul sel dih-ZEEZ)
An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent. Also called sickle cell anemia.

side effect    listen   (side eh-FEKT)
A problem that occurs when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Some common side effects of cancer treatment are fatigue, pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased blood cell counts, hair loss, and mouth sores.

side-to-end coloanal anastomosis    listen   (... KOH-loh-AY-nul uh-NAS-toh-MOH-sis)
A surgical procedure in which the side of the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A section of the colon about 2 inches long is formed into a mini-pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the J-pouch coloanal anastomosis but a much smaller pouch is formed.

sideropenic dysphagia    listen   (SIH-der-oh-PEE-nik dis-FAY-jee-uh)
A disorder marked by anemia caused by iron deficiency, and a web-like growth of membranes in the throat that makes swallowing difficult. Having sideropenic dysphagia may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Also called Paterson-Kelly syndrome and Plummer-Vinson syndrome.

sidestream smoke    listen   (SIDE-streem …)
Smoke that comes from the lighted end of a burning tobacco product, such as a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. Sidestream smoke can be a form of secondhand smoke. It contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Inhaling sidestream smoke increases the risk of lung cancer and may increase the risk of other types of cancer. Inhaling it also increases the risk of other health problems, such as heart disease and lung disease.

SIDS    listen  
A disorder marked by the sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep. The cause of SIDS is not known. Also called crib death and sudden infant death syndrome.

sigmoid colon    listen   (SIG-moyd KOH-lun)
The S-shaped section of the colon that connects to the rectum.

sigmoidoscope    listen   (sig-MOY-doh-skope)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the colon. A sigmoidoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

sigmoidoscopy    listen   (sig-MOY-DOS-koh-pee)
Examination of the lower colon using a sigmoidoscope, inserted into the rectum. A sigmoidoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.

sign      
In medicine, a sign is something found during a physical exam or from a laboratory test that shows that a person may have a condition or disease. Some examples of signs are fever, swelling, skin rash, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose.

signal transduction    listen   (SIG-nul tranz-DUK-shun)
The process by which a cell responds to substances in its environment. The binding of a substance to a molecule on the surface of a cell causes signals to be passed from one molecule to another inside the cell. These signals can affect many functions of the cell, including cell division and cell death. Cells that have permanent changes in signal transduction molecules may develop into cancer.

signal transduction inhibitor    listen   (SIG-nul tranz-DUK-shun in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks signals passed from one molecule to another inside a cell. Blocking these signals can affect many functions of the cell, including cell division and cell death, and may kill cancer cells. Certain signal transduction inhibitors are being studied in the treatment of cancer.

signaling pathway    listen   (SIG-nuh-ling …)
Describes a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control one or more cell functions, such as cell division or cell death. After the first molecule in a pathway receives a signal, it activates another molecule. This process is repeated until the last molecule is activated and the cell function is carried out. Abnormal activation of signaling pathways can lead to cancer, and drugs are being developed to block these pathways. These drugs may help block cancer cell growth and kill cancer cells.

signature molecule    listen   (SIG-nuh-cher MAH-leh-kyool)
A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. A signature molecule may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition. Also called biomarker and molecular marker.

signet ring cell carcinoma    listen   (SIG-nut ... sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A highly malignant type of cancer typically found in glandular cells that line the digestive organs. The cells resemble signet rings when examined under a microscope.

significant    listen   (sig-NIH-fih-kunt)
In statistics, describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference is said to be significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone. Also called statistically significant.

SIL      
A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear. Also called squamous intraepithelial lesion.

sildenafil    listen   (sil-DEH-nuh-FIL)
A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil relaxes the smooth muscle of the penis to allow increased blood flow and erection. It is a type of phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Also called Viagra.

silicon phthalocyanine 4    listen   (SIH-lih-kon THA-loh-SY-uh-NEEN …)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light, it becomes active and kills the cancer cells. It is a type of photodynamic therapy agent.

silicone    listen   (SIH-lih-kone)
A synthetic gel that is used as an outer coating on breast implants and as the inside filling of some implants.

siltuximab    listen   (sil-TUK-sih-mab)
A drug used to treat a rare condition called Castleman disease in patients who do not have HIV or human herpesvirus 8. It is also being studied in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Siltuximab binds to a protein called interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is made by some white blood cells and other cells in the body. Siltuximab may help reduce inflammation and stop the growth of cancer cells or abnormal blood cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-IL-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody, cCLB8, CNTO 328, and Sylvant.

Silybum marianum    listen   (SIH-lih-bum mayr-ee-AY-num)
A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including stomach, liver, and gallbladder disorders. The active extract of Silybum marianum seeds is called silymarin. It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments. Also called milk thistle.

silymarin    listen   (SIH-lih-MAYR-in)
A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

simian virus 40    listen   (SIH-mee-un VY-rus…)
A virus that infects some types of monkeys. It may also infect humans, and was found in some polio vaccines tested in the early 1960s. Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people. Also called SV40.

simple mastectomy    listen   (SIM-pul ma-STEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the whole breast. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. Also called total mastectomy.

simple nephrectomy    listen   (SIM-pul neh-FREK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove one kidney.

simple vulvectomy    listen   (SIM-pul vul-VEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the entire vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina).

simulation    listen   (SIM-yoo-LAY-shun)
In cancer treatment, a process used to plan radiation therapy so that the target area is precisely located and marked.

simvastatin    listen   (SIM-vuh-STA-tin)
A drug used to lower the amount of cholesterol and other harmful substances in the blood, such as triglycerides. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer and other conditions. Simvastatin blocks an enzyme that helps make cholesterol in the body. It is a type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and a type of statin. Also called Zocor.

single blind study    listen   (SING-gul blind STUH-dee)
A type of clinical trial in which only the doctor knows whether a patient is taking the standard treatment or the new treatment being tested. This helps prevent bias in treatment studies.

single nucleotide polymorphism    listen   (SING-gul NOO-klee-oh-tide PAH-lee-MOR-fih-zum)
The most common type of change in DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information). Single nucleotide polymorphisms occur when a single nucleotide (building block of DNA) is replaced with another. These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances. Also called SNP.

single-photon emission computed tomography    listen   (SIN-gul-FOH-ton ee-MIH-shun kum-PYOO-ted toh-MAH-gruh-fee)
A special type of computed tomography (CT) scan in which a small amount of a radioactive drug is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. Single-photon emission computed tomography can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Also called SPECT.

Singulair    listen   (SING-yoo-layr)
A drug used to treat symptoms of asthma, such as trouble breathing, tight chest, wheezing, coughing, and runny nose. Singulair blocks the action of a substance that causes airways in the lungs to narrow and causes other symptoms of asthma. It is a type of leukotriene receptor antagonist and a type of antiasthmatic agent. Also called montelukast sodium.

sinus    listen   (SY-nus)
A cavity, space, or channel in the body. Examples include hollow spaces in the bones at the front of the skull, and channels for blood and lymph. Sinuses may also be found in the heart, brain, and other organs.

sinusoidal obstruction syndrome    listen   (SINE-yoo-SOY-dul ub-STRUK-shun SIN-drome)
A condition in which some of the veins in the liver are blocked. This causes a decrease in blood flow inside the liver and may lead to liver damage. Signs and symptoms include weight gain, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, dark-colored urine, and increased liver size. It may occur at some point in time after radiation therapy to the liver and bile ducts or after high-dose anticancer drugs were given before a stem cell transplant. Also called hepatic veno-occlusive disease.

siplizumab    listen   (sip-LIH-zoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of T-cell lymphoma. It is also being studied in the prevention of organ or tissue rejection after a kidney and/or bone marrow transplant. Siplizumab binds to a protein called CD2, which is found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells. This may help suppress the body’s immune response and it may help kill cancer cells. Siplizumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called MEDI-507.

Sipple syndrome    listen   (SIH-pul SIN-drome)
A rare, genetic disorder that affects the endocrine glands and causes a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid gland cancer. It may also cause benign (noncancerous) tumors in the parathyroid glands and adrenal glands. The affected endocrine glands may make high levels of hormones, which can lead to other medical problems such as high blood pressure and kidney stones. An itchy skin condition may also occur. Sipple syndrome is caused by a mutation (change) in a gene called RET. Also called MEN2A, MEN2A syndrome, multiple endocrine adenomatosis type 2A, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A syndrome.

sipuleucel-T    listen   (SY-puh-LOO-sel...)
A drug used to treat prostate cancer that has spread. It is made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer. The cells are treated with a protein that is made by combining a protein found on prostate cancer cells with a growth factor. When the cells are injected back into the patient, they may stimulate T cells to kill prostate cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T is a type of vaccine and a type of cellular adoptive immunotherapy. Also called APC8015 and Provenge.

sirolimus    listen   (sih-ROH-lih-mus)
A drug used to keep the body from rejecting organ and bone marrow transplants. Sirolimus blocks certain white blood cells that can reject foreign tissues and organs. It also blocks a protein that is involved in cell division. It is a type of antibiotic, a type of immunosuppressant, and a type of serine/threonine kinase inhibitor. Sirolimus was previously called rapamycin. Also called Rapamune.

SIRS      
A serious condition in which there is inflammation throughout the whole body. It may be caused by a severe bacterial infection (sepsis), trauma, or pancreatitis. It is marked by fast heart rate, low blood pressure, low or high body temperature, and low or high white blood cell count. The condition may lead to multiple organ failure and shock. Also called systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

SJG-136      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called DNA cross-linking agents.

Sjögren syndrome    listen   (SHOH-grin SIN-drome)
An autoimmune disease that affects the tear glands and salivary glands, and may affect glands in the stomach, pancreas, and intestines. The disease causes dry eyes and mouth, and may cause dryness in the nose, throat, air passages, skin, and vagina. It may also cause inflammation in the joints, muscles, and skin; pneumonia; tingling in the fingers and toes; and fatigue. It often occurs with rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases.

SK&F106615      
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain multiple myelomas and other advanced cancers. SK&F106615 may block the growth of tumors and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. SK&F106615 is a type of signal transduction inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called atiprimod and azaspirane.

skeletal    listen   (SKEH-leh-tul)
Having to do with the skeleton (bones of the body).

skeleton    listen   (SKEH-leh-tun)
The framework that supports the soft tissues of vertebrate animals and protects many of their internal organs. The skeletons of vertebrates are made of bone and/or cartilage.

skin cancer    listen   (skin KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the skin. There are several types of skin cancer. Skin cancer that forms in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment) is called melanoma. Skin cancer that forms in the lower part of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) is called basal cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin) is called squamous cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in neuroendocrine cells (cells that release hormones in response to signals from the nervous system) is called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Most skin cancers form in older people on parts of the body exposed to the sun or in people who have weakened immune systems.

skin conduction    listen   (... kun-DUK-shun)
A change in the heat and electricity passed through the skin by nerves and sweat. Skin conduction increases in certain emotional states and during hot flashes that happen with menopause. Also called electrodermal response and galvanic skin response.

skin graft    listen   (skin graft)
Skin that is moved from one part of the body to another.

skin patch    listen   (skin pach)
A bandage-like patch that releases medicine into the body through the skin. The medicine enters the blood slowly and steadily.

skin stimulation    listen   (skin STIM-yoo-LAY-shun)
The process of applying pressure, friction, temperature change, or chemical substances to the skin to lessen or block a feeling of pain.

skin test    listen   (skin test)
A test for an immune response to a compound by placing it on or under the skin.

skin vesicle    listen   (… VEH-sih-kul)
A fluid-filled sac in the outer layer of skin. It can be caused by rubbing, heat, or diseases of the skin. Also called blister.

skinning vulvectomy    listen   (SKIH-ning vul-VEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the top layer of skin of the vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina). A skin graft may be used to replace the skin that was removed.

skull       (skul)
The bones that form the head. The skull is made up of cranial bones (bones that surround and protect the brain) and facial bones (bones that form the eye sockets, nose, cheeks, jaw, and other parts of the face). An opening at the base of the skull is where the spinal cord connects to the brain. Also called cranium.

SL-11047      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of lymphoma. It belongs to the family of drugs called polyamine analogs.

SLE      
A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect many organs including the joints, skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system. It is marked by many different symptoms; however, not everyone with SLE has all of the symptoms. Also called lupus and systemic lupus erythematosus.

sleep apnea    listen   (… AP-nee-uh)
A sleep disorder that is marked by pauses in breathing of 10 seconds or more during sleep, and causes unrestful sleep. Symptoms include loud or abnormal snoring, daytime sleepiness, irritability, and depression.

sleep disorder    listen   (sleep dis-OR-der)
A disturbance of normal sleep patterns. There are a number of sleep disorders that range from trouble falling asleep, to nightmares, sleepwalking, and sleep apnea (problems with breathing that cause loud snoring). Poor sleep may also be caused by diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, or nerve disorders.

sleep stage    listen   (sleep stayj)
One of 5 parts or stages of the sleep cycle based on the type of brain activity that occurs during the stage. During stages 1 to 4, a person will feel drowsy, fall asleep, and move into a deep, dreamless sleep. Stage 5 is called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and it is during this stage that dreams occur. During several hours of normal sleep, a person will go through several sleep cycles that include REM sleep and the 4 stages of non-REM sleep (light to deep sleep).

sleeve lobectomy    listen   (...loh-BEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove a lung tumor in a lobe of the lung and a part of the main bronchus (airway). The ends of the bronchus are rejoined and any remaining lobes are reattached to the bronchus. This surgery is done to save part of the lung. Also called sleeve resection.

sleeve resection    listen   (...ree-SEK-shun)
Surgery to remove a lung tumor in a lobe of the lung and a part of the main bronchus (airway). The ends of the bronchus are rejoined and any remaining lobes are reattached to the bronchus. This surgery is done to save part of the lung. Also called sleeve lobectomy.

slippery elm    listen   (SLIH-puh-ree elm)
The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called gray elm, Indian elm, red elm, sweet elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

slit-lamp biomicroscopy    listen   (… BY-oh-my-KROS-koh-pee)
An eye exam using an instrument that combines a low-power microscope with a light source that makes a narrow beam of light. The instrument may be used to examine the retina, optic nerve, and other parts of the eye. Also called slit-lamp eye exam.

slit-lamp eye exam    listen   (... I eg-ZAM)
An eye exam using an instrument that combines a low-power microscope with a light source that makes a narrow beam of light. The instrument may be used to examine the retina, optic nerve, and other parts of the eye. Also called slit-lamp biomicroscopy.

SLL      
An indolent (slow-growing) type of lymphoma in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the lymph nodes. This causes the lymph nodes to become larger than normal. Sometimes cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow, and the disease is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The disease is most often seen in people older than 50 years. SLL is a type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Also called small lymphocytic lymphoma and well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.

small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
An aggressive (fast-growing) cancer that forms in tissues of the lung and can spread to other parts of the body. The cancer cells look small and oval-shaped when looked at under a microscope.

small intestine    listen   (... in-TES-tin)
A long tube-like organ that connects the stomach and the large intestine. It is about 20 feet long and folds many times to fit inside the abdomen. The small intestine has three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. It helps to further digest food coming from the stomach. It absorbs nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and water from food so they can be used by the body. The small intestine is part of the digestive system.

small intestine cancer    listen   (... in-TES-tin KAN-ser)
A rare cancer that forms in tissues of the small intestine (the part of the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine). The most common type is adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Other types of small intestine cancer include sarcoma (cancer that begins in connective or supportive tissue), carcinoid tumor (a slow-growing type of cancer), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (a type of soft tissue sarcoma), and lymphoma (cancer that begins in immune system cells).

small lymphocytic lymphoma    listen   (... LIM-foh-SIH-tik lim-FOH-muh)
An indolent (slow-growing) type of lymphoma in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the lymph nodes. This causes the lymph nodes to become larger than normal. Sometimes cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow, and the disease is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The disease is most often seen in people older than 50 years. Small lymphocytic lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Also called SLL and well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.

small-molecule drug    listen   (… MAH-leh-kyool ...)
A substance that is able to enter cells easily because it has a low molecular weight. Once inside the cells, it can affect other molecules, such as proteins, and may cause cancer cells to die. This is different from drugs that have a large molecular weight, such as monoclonal antibodies, which are not able to get inside cells very easily. Many targeted therapies are small-molecule drugs or small molecule inhibitors.

smokeless tobacco    listen   (SMOKE-les tuh-BA-koh)
A type of tobacco that is not smoked or burned. It may be used as chewing tobacco or moist snuff, or inhaled through the nose as dry snuff. Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using it can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas. It may also cause heart disease, gum disease, and other health problems.

smoking cessation    listen   (SMOH-king seh-SAY-shun)
To quit smoking. Smoking cessation lowers the risk of cancer and other serious health problems. Counseling, behavior therapy, medicines, and nicotine-containing products, such as nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and nasal sprays, may be used to help a person quit smoking.

smoldering myeloma    listen   (SMOLE-der-ing MY-eh-LOH-muh)
A very slow-growing type of myeloma in which abnormal plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) make too much of a single type of monoclonal antibody (a protein). This protein builds up in the blood or is passed in the urine. Patients with smoldering myeloma usually have no symptoms, but need to be checked often for signs of progression to fully developed multiple myeloma.

SN-38 liposome    listen   (... LY-poh-some)
A form of the anticancer drug irinotecan that is contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than irinotecan alone. SN-38 liposome is being studied in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. SN-38 liposome blocks the ability of cells to divide and grow. It may stop the growth of tumor cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of irinotecan (CPT-11) derivative. Also called liposomal SN-38.

SNDX-275      
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It blocks enzymes needed for cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Also called entinostat and HDAC inhibitor SNDX-275.

SnET2      
An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents. Also called tin ethyl etiopurpurin.

SNP    listen   (snip)
The most common type of change in DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information). SNPs occur when a single nucleotide (building block of DNA) is replaced with another. These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances. Also called single nucleotide polymorphism.

SNRI      
A type of drug that is used to treat depression and certain other disorders. SNRIs increase the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Nerves use these chemicals to send messages to one another. Increasing their levels in the brain helps improve mood. Also called serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

snuff tobacco    listen   (… tuh-BA-koh)
A type of smokeless tobacco that is made of finely ground or shredded tobacco leaves. It may have different scents and flavors and may be moist or dry. Moist snuff tobacco is placed in the mouth, usually between the cheek and gum or behind the upper or lower lip. Dry snuff tobacco is inhaled through the nose. Snuff tobacco contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using it can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas. Snuff tobacco use may also cause gum disease, heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Using snuff tobacco is also called “dipping.”

SNX 111      
A drug used in the treatment of chronic pain. Also called Prialt and ziconotide.

SNX-5422      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SNX-5422 blocks a protein needed for cells to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor.

SNX-5422 mesylate    listen   (…MEH-zih-layt)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SNX-5422 mesylate blocks a protein needed for cells to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor.

soblidotin    listen   (soh-blih-DOH-tin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of tubulin inhibitor. Also called TZT-1027.

social service    listen   (SOH-shul SER-vis)
A community resource that helps people in need. Services may include help getting to and from medical appointments, home delivery of medication and meals, in-home nursing care, help paying medical costs not covered by insurance, loaning medical equipment, and housekeeping help.

social support    listen   (SOH-shul suh-PORT)
A network of family, friends, neighbors, and community members that is available in times of need to give psychological, physical, and financial help.

social worker    listen   (SOH-shul WUR-ker)
A professional trained to talk with people and their families about emotional or physical needs, and to find them support services.

SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224    listen   (... in-HIH-bih-ter ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224 also blocks enzymes that cells need to divide and grow, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of superoxide dismutase inhibitor. Also called ATN-224.

sodium    listen   (SOH-dee-um)
A mineral needed by the body to keep body fluids in balance. Sodium is found in table salt and in many processed foods. Too much sodium can cause the body to retain water.

sodium borocaptate    listen   (SOH-dee-um BORE-oh-KAP-tayt)
A substance used in a type of radiation therapy called boron neutron capture therapy. Sodium borocaptate is injected into a vein and becomes concentrated in tumor cells. The patient then receives radiation treatment with atomic particles called neutrons. The neutrons react with the boron in sodium borocaptate and make radioactive particles that kill the tumor cells without harming normal cells. Also called BSH.

sodium ferric gluconate    listen   (SOH-dee-um FAYR-ik GLOO-koh-nayt)
A form of the mineral iron that is used to treat anemia caused by low amounts of iron in the blood. Anemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal. Sodium ferric gluconate is a type of hematinic and a dietary supplement. Also called Ferrlecit.

sodium salicylate    listen   (SOH-dee-um suh-LIH-sih-LAYT)
A drug that is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Sodium salicylate may be tolerated by people who are sensitive to aspirin.

sodium stibogluconate    listen   (SOH-dee-um stih-boh-GLOO-koh-nayt)
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain solid tumors, lymphoma, and myeloma. Sodium stibogluconate may block enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of pentavalent antimonial. Also called SSG.

sodium sulfite    listen   (SOH-dee-um SUL-fite)
A chemical used in photography, paper making, water treatment, and for other purposes.

sodium thiosulfate    listen   (SOH-dee-um THY-oh-SUL-fayt)
A substance that is used in medicine as an antidote to cyanide poisoning and to decrease side effects of the anticancer drug cisplatin.

soft diet    listen   (soft DY-et)
A diet consisting of bland foods that are softened by cooking, mashing, pureeing, or blending.

soft palate    listen   (... PAL-et)
The back, muscular (not bony) part of the roof of the mouth.

soft tissue    listen   (... TIH-shoo)
Refers to muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (…TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
A cancer that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

solar keratosis    listen   (SOH-ler KAYR-uh-TOH-sis)
A thick, scaly patch of skin that may become cancer. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin. Also called actinic keratosis and senile keratosis.

solid tumor    listen   (SAH-lid TOO-mer)
An abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not contain cysts or liquid areas. Solid tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Different types of solid tumors are named for the type of cells that form them. Examples of solid tumors are sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas. Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

Soliris    listen   (soh-LAYR-is)
A drug used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with a rare red blood cell disorder called paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). It is also used to treat another rare disorder called atypical hemolytic urea syndrome (aHUS), in which blood clots form in small blood vessels. Soliris binds to an immune system protein called C5. This helps keep red blood cells from breaking down and helps keep blood clots from forming. Soliris is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called eculizumab.

soluble    listen   (SOL-yoo-bul)
Able to be dissolved in a liquid.

solvent    listen   (SOL-vent)
A liquid that is able to dissolve a solid.

somatic    listen   (soh-MA-tik)
Having to do with the body.

somatic cell    listen   (soh-MA-tik ...)
Any of the body cells except the reproductive (germ) cells.

somatic mutation    listen   (soh-MA-tik myoo-TAY-shun)
An alteration in DNA that occurs after conception. Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children. These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

somatomedin    listen   (SOH-muh-toh-MEE-din)
A protein made by the body that stimulates the growth of many types of cells. Somatomedin is similar to insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas). There are two forms of somatomedin called IGF-1 and IGF-2. Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer. Somatomedin is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called IGF and insulin-like growth factor.

somatostatin receptor scintigraphy    listen   (SOH-muh-toh-STA-tin reh-SEP-ter sin-TIH-gruh-fee)
A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. Radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called octreotide scan and SRS.

somatotropin    listen   (SOH-muh-toh-TROH-pin)
A protein made by the pituitary gland that helps control body growth and the use of glucose and fat in the body. Also called growth hormone.

somnolence syndrome    listen   (SOM-noh-lens SIN-drome)
Periods of drowsiness, lethargy, loss of appetite, and irritability in children following radiation therapy treatments to the head.

sonogram    listen   (SAH-noh-gram)
A computer picture of areas inside the body created by high-energy sound waves. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of the body tissues on a computer screen. A sonogram may be used to help diagnose disease, such as cancer. It may also be used during pregnancy to check the fetus (unborn baby) and during medical procedures, such as biopsies. Also called ultrasonogram.

SOP      
Written instructions for doing a specific task in a certain way. In clinical trials, SOPs are set up to store records, collect data, screen and enroll subjects, and submit Institutional Review Board (IRB) applications and renewals. Also called Standard Operating Procedure.

sorafenib tosylate    listen   (sor-A-feh-nib TOH-suh-layt)
A drug used to treat advanced kidney cancer and a type of liver cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. It is also used to treat a type of advanced thyroid cancer that did not get better with radioactive iodine treatment. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sorafenib tosylate stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called BAY 43-9006 and Nexavar.

sorivudine    listen   (sor-IH-vyoo-deen)
An antiviral drug that is being studied as a treatment for herpesvirus. It belongs to the family of drugs called nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors.

sorrel    listen   (SOR-ul)
A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rumex acetosella. Also called dock and sheep sorrel.

soy    listen   (soy)
A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soy contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soy in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called Glycine max, soya, and soybean.

soya    listen   (SOY-uh)
A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soya contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soya in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called Glycine max, soy, and soybean.

soybean    listen   (SOY-been)
A product from a plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soybean contains isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soybean in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called Glycine max, soy, and soya.

spasm    listen   (SPA-zum)
A sudden contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, such as a cramp.

spastic colon    listen   (SPAS-tik KOH-lun)
A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person’s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other. Also called IBS, irritable bowel syndrome, irritable colon, and mucus colitis.

specialist    listen   (SPEH-shuh-list)
In medicine, a doctor or other health care professional who is trained and licensed in a special area of practice. Examples of medical specialists include oncologists (cancer specialists) and hematologists (blood specialists).

specific immune cell    listen   (speh-SIH-fik ih-MYOON sel)
An immune cell such as a T or B lymphocyte that responds to a single, specific antigen.

specificity    listen   (SPEH-sih-FIH-sih-tee)
When referring to a medical test, specificity refers to the percentage of people who test negative for a specific disease among a group of people who do not have the disease. No test is 100% specific because some people who do not have the disease will test positive for it (false positive).

SPECT    listen  
A special type of computed tomography (CT) scan in which a small amount of a radioactive drug is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. SPECT can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Also called single-photon emission computed tomography.

spectroscopy    listen   (spek-TROS-koh-pee)
The study of the amount of light that is taken up, given off, or scattered (reflected) by an object. Spectroscopy breaks down light and measures different wavelengths of visible and non-visible light. In medicine, different types of spectroscopy are being used to study tissues and to help make a diagnosis.

speculum    listen   (SPEK-yoo-lum)
An instrument used to widen an opening of the body to make it easier to look inside.

speech pathologist    listen   (... puh-THAH-loh-jist)
A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called speech therapist.

speech therapist    listen   (speech THAYR-uh-pist)
A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called speech pathologist.

sperm    listen   (spurm)
The male reproductive cell, formed in the testicle. A sperm unites with an egg to form an embryo.

sperm banking    listen   (spurm...)
Freezing sperm for use in the future. This procedure can allow men to father children after loss of fertility.

sperm count    listen   (spurm kownt)
A count of the number of sperm in a sample of semen. A sperm count may be used as a measure of fertility.

sperm retrieval    listen   (spurm reh-TREE-vul)
Removal of sperm from a man's testis or epididymis by a doctor using a fine needle or other instrument.

spermatic cord    listen   (sper-MA-tik kord)
A cord-like structure in the male reproductive system that contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels, and the vas deferens (a coiled tube that carries sperm out of the testicle). It runs from the abdomen to the testicle, and connects to the testicle in the scrotum (external sac). Also called testicular cord.

spermicide    listen   (SPER-mih-side)
A chemical substance that kills sperm and is used as a type of birth control. It is available over-the-counter (without a doctor’s order) and comes in many different forms such as cream, gel, foam, and suppository. Spermicides can be used alone or with another birth control method such as a condom or diaphragm. They do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

SPF      
A scale for rating the level of sunburn protection in sunscreen products. The higher the SPF, the more sunburn protection it gives. Sunscreens with a value of 2 through 11 give minimal protection against sunburns. Sunscreens with a value of 12 through 29 give moderate protection. SPFs of 30 or higher give high protection against sunburn. Also called sun protection factor.

sphenoid sinus    listen   (SFEE-noyd SY-nus)
A type of paranasal sinus (a hollow space in the bones around the nose). There are two large sphenoid sinuses in the sphenoid bone, which is behind the nose between the eyes. The sphenoid sinuses are lined with cells that make mucus to keep the nose from drying out.

sphincter    listen   (SFINK-ter)
A ring-shaped muscle that relaxes or tightens to open or close a passage or opening in the body. Examples are the anal sphincter (around the opening of the anus) and the pyloric sphincter (at the lower opening of the stomach).

spiculated mass    listen   (SPIH-kyoo-LAY-ted …)
A lump of tissue with spikes or points on the surface.

spinal anesthesia    listen   (SPY-nul A-nes-THEE-zhuh)
A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called SAB, spinal block, and subarachnoid block.

spinal block    listen   (SPY-nul blok)
A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called SAB, spinal anesthesia, and subarachnoid block.

spinal canal    listen   (SPY-nul kuh-NAL)
The narrow, fluid-filled space in the spinal column (the bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone). The spinal cord runs through the spinal canal.

spinal column    listen   (SPY-nul KAH-lum)
The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spinal column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spine, and vertebral column.

spinal cord    listen   (SPY-nul kord)
A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae (back bones). The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system, and spinal cord nerves carry most messages between the brain and the rest of the body.

spinal cord compression    listen   (SPY-nul kord kum-PREH-shun)
Pressure on the spinal cord that may be caused by a tumor, a spinal fracture, or other conditions. Spinal cord compression may cause pain, weakness, loss of feeling, paralysis, incontinence (inability to control urine or stool), or impotence (inability to have an erection of the penis).

spinal tap    listen   (SPY-nul ...)
A procedure in which a thin needle called a spinal needle is put into the lower part of the spinal column to collect cerebrospinal fluid or to give drugs. Also called lumbar puncture.

spindle cell sarcoma    listen   (SPIN-dul sel sar-KOH-muh)
A type of sarcoma that contains spindle cells. Under a microscope, spindle cells look long and slender. Sarcomas are cancers that begin in muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue in the body. Spindle cell sarcomas usually occur in adults.

spindle cell tumor    listen   (SPIN-dul sel TOO-mer)
A type of tumor that contains cells called spindle cells, based on their shape. Under a microscope, spindle cells look long and slender. Spindle cell tumors may be sarcomas or carcinomas.

spine    listen   (spine)
The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spine encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.

spine cancer    listen   (... KAN-ser)
Cancer that begins in the spinal column (backbone) or spinal cord. The spinal column is made up of linked bones, called vertebrae. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae. Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.

spiral CT scan    listen   (SPY-rul … skan)
A procedure that uses a computer linked to an x-ray machine to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. The x-ray machine scans the body in a spiral path. This allows more images to be made in a shorter time than with older CT methods. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly on the x-ray. Spiral CT scan also creates more detailed pictures and may be better at finding small abnormal areas inside the body. It may be used to help diagnose disease, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working. Also called helical computed tomography.

spirituality    listen   (SPEER-ih-choo-A-lih-tee)
Having to do with deep, often religious, feelings and beliefs, including a person’s sense of peace, purpose, connection to others, and beliefs about the meaning of life.

spit tobacco    listen   (… tuh-BA-koh)
A type of smokeless tobacco made from cured tobacco leaves. It may be sweetened and flavored with licorice and other substances. It comes in the form of loose tobacco leaves, pellets or “bits” (leaf tobacco rolled into small pellets), plugs (leaf tobacco pressed and held together with some type of sweetener), or twists (leaf tobacco rolled into rope-like strands and twisted). It is placed in the mouth, usually between the cheek and lower lip, and may be chewed. Spit tobacco contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using it can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and pancreas. Spit tobacco use may also cause gum disease, heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Also called chewing tobacco.

spleen    listen   (spleen)
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system. The spleen makes lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.

splenectomy    listen   (spleh-NEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove the spleen.

splenic    listen   (SPLEH-nik)
Having to do with the spleen (an organ in the abdomen that makes immune cells, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells).

splenomegaly    listen   (SPLEH-noh-MEH-guh-lee)
Enlarged spleen.

sporadic cancer    listen   (spuh-RA-dik KAN-ser)
Cancer that occurs in people who do not have a family history of that cancer or an inherited change in their DNA that would increase their risk for that cancer.

spotted thistle    listen   (... THIH-sul)
A plant whose leaves, stems, and flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. Spotted thistle may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Cnicus benedictus. Also called blessed thistle, cardin, holy thistle, and St. Benedict's thistle.

Sprycel    listen   (SPRY-sel)
A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sprycel is also being studied in the treatment of certain other blood diseases and types of cancer. Sprycel binds to and blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins that help cancer cells grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called BMS-354825 and dasatinib.

sputum    listen   (SPYOO-tum)
Mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing.

sputum cytology    listen   (SPYOO-tum sy-TAH-loh-jee)
Examination under a microscope of cells found in sputum (mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing). The test checks for abnormal cells, such as lung cancer cells.

squalamine lactate    listen   (SKWAH-luh-meen LAK-tayt)
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. It prevents the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.

squamous cell    listen   (SKWAY-mus sel)
Flat cell that looks like a fish scale under a microscope. These cells are found in the tissues that form the surface of the skin, the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the lining of the hollow organs of the body (such as the bladder, kidney, and uterus, including the cervix).

squamous cell carcinoma    listen   (SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer that begins in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Most cancers of the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are squamous cell carcinomas. Also called epidermoid carcinoma.

squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck    listen   (SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh …)
Cancer of the head and neck that begins in squamous cells (thin, flat cells that form the surface of the skin, eyes, various internal organs, and the lining of hollow organs and ducts of some glands). Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck includes cancers of the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, and larynx (voice box). Most head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

squamous intraepithelial lesion    listen   (SKWAY-mus IN-truh-eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul LEE-zhun)
A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear. Also called SIL.

SR-29142      
A drug that may protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs.

SR-45023A      
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonates. It affects cancer cell receptors governing cell growth and cell death.

SR49059      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide. It is a type of vasopressin receptor antagonist.

SRS      
A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. Radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called octreotide scan and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

SSG      
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain solid tumors, lymphoma, and myeloma. SSG may block enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of pentavalent antimonial. Also called sodium stibogluconate.

SSRI      
A type of drug that is used to treat depression. SSRIs slow the process by which serotonin (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) is reused by nerve cells that make it. This increases the amount of serotonin available for stimulating other nerves. Also called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

St. Benedict's thistle    listen   (saynt BEH-neh-diktz THIH-sul)
A plant whose leaves, stems, and flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. St. Benedict's thistle may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Cnicus benedictus. Also called blessed thistle, cardin, holy thistle, and spotted thistle.

St. John's wort    listen   (… wort)
An herbal product sold as an over-the-counter treatment for depression. It is being studied for its ability to lessen certain side effects of cancer treatment. Also called Hypericum perforatum.

ST1481      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. Also called gimatecan.

stable disease    listen   (STAY-bul dih-ZEEZ)
Cancer that is neither decreasing nor increasing in extent or severity.

stage    listen   (stayj)
The extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor, whether lymph nodes contain cancer, and whether the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.

stage 0 anal carcinoma in situ    listen   (... AY-nul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the anus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 bladder carcinoma in situ    listen   (... BLA-der KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stage 0a (papillary carcinoma) and stage 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor. Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the lining of the bladder. Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.

stage 0 breast carcinoma in situ    listen   (... brest KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
There are 3 types of stage 0 breast carcinoma in situ: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and Paget disease of the nipple. DCIS is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues. At this time, there is no way to know which lesions could become invasive. LCIS is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. However, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast. Paget disease of the nipple is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the nipple only. Also called breast carcinoma in situ.

stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ    listen   (... SER-vih-kul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Severely abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. Stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ is usually caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and is found when a cervical biopsy is done. If not treated, these abnormal cells may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. Treatment for stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ may include cryotherapy, laser therapy, loop electrosurgical procedure (LEEP), or cone biopsy to remove or destroy the abnormal tissue. Stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ is sometimes called high-grade or severe dysplasia. Also called cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and CIN 3.

stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (... KRAH-nik LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, but there are no other symptoms of leukemia. Stage 0 is indolent (slow-growing).

stage 0 colorectal carcinoma in situ    listen   (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer.

stage 0 disease    listen   (stayj … dih-ZEEZ)
A group of abnormal cells that remain in the place where they first formed. They have not spread. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called carcinoma in situ.

stage 0 distal extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in situ    listen   (... DIS-tul EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the distal extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct empties into the small intestine). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 esophageal carcinoma in situ    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called high-grade dysplasia.

stage 0 gallbladder carcinoma in situ    listen   (... GAWL-bla-der KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the inner (mucosal) layer of the gallbladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 gastric carcinoma in situ    listen   (... GAS-trik KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the inside lining of the mucosa (innermost layer) of the stomach wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 hypopharyngeal carcinoma in situ    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the hypopharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 laryngeal carcinoma in situ    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the larynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 lip and oral cavity carcinoma in situ    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the lips and oral cavity. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 maxillary sinus carcinoma in situ    listen   (... MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 medullary thyroid carcinoma in situ    listen   (... MED-yoo-LAYR-ee THY-royd KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
No tumor is found in the thyroid but abnormal cells are found by screening tests. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 melanoma    listen   (... MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
Abnormal melanocytes (cells that make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color) are found in the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). These abnormal melanocytes may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called melanoma in situ.

stage 0 Merkel cell carcinoma in situ    listen   (stayj … MER-kul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the place where they first formed and have not spread. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body.

stage 0 nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus carcinoma in situ    listen   (... NAY-zul KA-vih-tee … ETH-moyd SY-nus KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the nasal cavity or ethmoid sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ    listen   (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the nasopharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 non-small cell lung carcinoma in situ    listen   (... sel lung KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the airways. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 nonmelanoma skin carcinoma in situ    listen   (... non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the squamous cell or basal cell layer of the epidermis (topmost layer of the skin). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called nonmelanoma carcinoma in situ.

stage 0 nonmelanoma skin carcinoma in situ on the eyelid    listen   (... non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too ... I-lid)
Abnormal cells are found in the epidermis (topmost layer of the skin). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called nonmelanoma skin carcinoma in situ on the eyelid.

stage 0 oropharyngeal carcinoma in situ    listen   (... OR-oh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the oropharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 pancreatic carcinoma in situ    listen   (...PAN-kree-A-tik KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the pancreas. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 penile carcinoma in situ    listen   (... PEE-nile KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells or growths that look like warts are found on the surface of the skin of the penis. These abnormal cells or growths may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 perihilar extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in situ    listen   (... PAYR-ee-HY-ler EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 testicular carcinoma in situ    listen   (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels are normal.

stage 0 transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the renal pelvis and ureter    listen   (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too ... REE-nul PEL-vus ... YER-eh-ter)
Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a (noninvasive papillary carcinoma) and 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor. Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter.

stage 0 urethral carcinoma in situ    listen   (... yoo-REE-thrul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found on the inside lining of the urethra. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 1 neuroblastoma    listen   (... NOOR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
Tumor is only found in one area; all of the tumor that can be seen is completely removed during surgery.

stage 2 neuroblastoma    listen   (... NOOR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
Stage 2 is divided into stages 2A and 2B. In stage 2A, the tumor is in one area only and not all of the tumor that can be seen can be completely removed during surgery. In stage 2B, the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery, but cancer cells are found in nearby lymph nodes.

stage 3 neuroblastoma    listen   (... NOOR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
In stage 3 neuroblastoma, the tumor (1) cannot be completely removed during surgery and has spread from one side of the body to the other side and may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) is in one area of one side of the body only, but has spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the body; or (3) is in the middle of the body and has spread to tissues or lymph nodes on both sides of the body, and the tumor cannot be removed by surgery.

stage 4 neuroblastoma    listen   (... NOOR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
Stage 4 neuroblastoma is divided into stages 4 and 4S. In stage 4, the tumor has spread to distant lymph nodes, the skin, and/or other parts of the body. In stage 4S, (1) the child is younger than 1 year; and (2) the cancer has spread to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow; and (3) the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery; and/or (4) cancer cells may be found in the lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage A prostate cancer    listen   (… PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage A prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and is found in the prostate only. It is usually found during surgery for other reasons, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (a condition in which an overgrowth of prostate tissue occurs). Stage A is divided into stages A1 and A2. In stage A1, the cancer cells do not look very different from normal cells. In stage A2, the cancer cells look more abnormal or are in several areas in the prostate.

stage B prostate cancer    listen   (… PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage B prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and is more advanced than stage A, but has not spread outside the prostate. Stage B is divided into stages B0, B1, and B2. In stage B0, the cancer is detected only by increased blood levels of PSA (prostate-specific antigen). In stage B1, cancer is in one area of one lobe of the prostate. In stage B2, there is more cancer in one or both lobes of the prostate.

stage C prostate cancer    listen   (… PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage C prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate, has grown beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues, and may be found in the seminal vesicles (glands that help produce semen). Stage C is divided into stages C1 and C2. In stage C1, the cancer has grown outside the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. In stage C2, the cancer has grown outside the prostate and blocks urine flow from the bladder or through the ureters.

stage D prostate cancer    listen   (… PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
A prostate cancer stage defined by the Jewett staging system. Stage D prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and has spread to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other parts of the body, often to the bones. Stage D is divided into stages D0, D1, D2, and D3. In stage D0, the level of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is high. In stage D1, the cancer has spread to local lymph nodes only. In stage D2, the cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes and to bones or internal organs. In stage D3, prostate cancer has come back in patients who had received hormone therapy.

stage I adrenocortical cancer    listen   (... uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul KAN-ser)
The tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller and is found in the adrenal gland only.

stage I adult Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one of the following places in the lymph system: (1) one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group; (2) Waldeyer’s ring; (3) thymus; or (4) spleen. In stage IE, cancer is found outside the lymph system in one organ or area.

stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one lymphatic area (lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, or spleen). In stage IE, cancer is found in one organ or area outside the lymph nodes.

stage I adult primary liver cancer    listen   (... uh-DULT PRY-mayr-ee LIH-ver KAN-ser)
There is one tumor and it has not spread to nearby blood vessels.

stage I AIDS-related lymphoma    listen   (... ree-LAY-ted lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one lymphatic area (lymph node group, tonsils and nearby tissue, thymus, or spleen). In stage IE, cancer is found in one organ or area outside the lymph nodes.

stage I anal cancer    listen   (... AY-nul KAN-ser)
The tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I bladder cancer    listen   (... BLA-der KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the layer of connective tissue next to the inner lining of the bladder.

stage I breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has not spread outside the breast. In stage IB, small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes and either: (1) no tumor is found in the breast; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage I cancer of the uterus    listen   (... KAN-ser ... YOO-ter-us)
Cancer found in only the main part of the uterus, not the cervix.

stage I cervical cancer    listen   (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the cervix only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on the amount of cancer that is found. In stage IA, a very small amount of cancer that can only be seen with a microscope is found in the tissues of the cervix. Stage IA is divided into stages IA1 and IA2, based on the size of the tumor. In stage IA1, the cancer is not more than 3 millimeters deep and not more than 7 millimeters wide. In stage IA2, the cancer is more than 3 but not more than 5 millimeters deep, and not more than 7 millimeters wide. Stage IB is divided into stages IB1 and IB2. In stage IB1, (1) the cancer can only be seen with a microscope and is more than 5 millimeters deep and more than 7 millimeters wide; or (2) the cancer can be seen without a microscope and is 4 centimeters or smaller. In stage IB2, the cancer can be seen without a microscope and is larger than 4 centimeters.

stage I childhood Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one of the following places in the lymph system: (1) one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group; (2) Waldeyer’s ring; (3) thymus; or (4) spleen. In stage IE, cancer is found outside the lymph system in one organ or area.

stage I childhood liver cancer    listen   (... LIH-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor was in the liver only and all of the cancer was removed by surgery.

stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) in one group of lymph nodes; or (2) in one area outside the lymph nodes. No cancer is found in the abdomen or mediastinum (area between the lungs).

stage I chronic lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (… KRAH-nik LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and the lymph nodes are larger than normal.

stage I colorectal cancer    listen   (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread from the mucosa (innermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall to the submucosa (layer of tissue under the mucosa) of the colon and/or rectal wall. Cancer may have spread to the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall. Also called Dukes A colorectal cancer.

stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma    listen   (... kyoo-TAY-nee-us T-sel lim-FOH-muh)
May be either of the following: (1) stage IA cancer affecting less than 10% of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches; (2) stage IB cancer affecting 10% or more of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches.

stage I distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... DIS-tul EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, cancer is found in the distal extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct empties into the small intestine) only. In stage IB, cancer has spread all the way through the wall of the distal bile duct.

stage I endometrial cancer    listen   (... EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the uterus only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer is in the endometrium only or less than halfway through the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus). In stage IB, cancer has spread halfway or more into the myometrium.

stage I esophageal adenocarcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, depending on where the cancer is found. In stage IA, cancer has formed in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. In stage IB, cancer has formed (1) in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope and they grow quickly; or (2) in the inner (mucosal) layer and spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope.

stage I esophageal squamous cell carcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, depending on where the cancer is found. In stage IA, cancer has formed in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. In stage IB, cancer has formed (1) in the inner (mucosal) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope; or (2) in the inner (mucosal) layer and spread into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in the lower esophagus or it is not known where the tumor is.

stage I gallbladder cancer    listen   (... GAWL-bla-der KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the inner (mucosal) layer to a layer of tissue with blood vessels or to the muscle layer.

stage I gastric cancer    listen   (... GAS-trik KAN-ser)
Cancer has formed in the inside lining of the mucosa (innermost layer) of the stomach wall. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer may have spread into the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall. In stage IB, cancer (1) may have spread into the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall.

stage I gestational trophoblastic neoplasia    listen   (... jeh-STAY-shuh-nul troh-fuh-BLAS-tik NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
The tumor is in the uterus only.

stage I hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one area of the hypopharynx only and/or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage I intraocular melanoma of the iris    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... I-ris)
The tumor is in the iris only and is not more than one fourth the size of the iris.

stage I intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
The tumor is in the choroid only and is size category 1 (not more than 12 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or not more than 9 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick).

stage I kidney cancer    listen   (... KID-nee KAN-ser)
The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage I renal cell cancer.

stage I laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found only in the area where it started. Stage I laryngeal cancer depends on where cancer is found in the larynx. If it started in the supraglottis, then cancer is in one area of the supraglottis only and the vocal cords can move normally. If it started in the glottis, then cancer is in one or both vocal cords and the vocal cords can move normally. If it started in the subglottis, then cancer is in the subglottis only.

stage I lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has not spread to lymph nodes.

stage I malignant mesothelioma    listen   (...muh-LIG-nunt MEH-zoh-THEE-lee-OH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm. Cancer has not spread to the lining that covers the lung. In stage IB, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and the lining that covers the lung. Cancer may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm.

stage I maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Cancer has formed in the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus.

stage I melanoma    listen   (... MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is not more than 1 millimeter thick, with no ulceration (a break in the skin). In stage IB, (1) the tumor is not more than 1 millimeter thick and it has ulceration; or (2) the tumor is more than 1 but not more than 2 millimeters thick, with no ulceration.

stage I Merkel cell carcinoma    listen   (stayj ... MER-kul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage I Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller at its widest point and no cancer is found when the lymph nodes are checked under a microscope. In stage IB, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller at its widest point and no swollen lymph nodes are found by a physical exam or imaging tests.

stage I multiple myeloma    listen   (... MUL-tih-pul MY-eh-LOH-muh)
Relatively few cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be no symptoms of disease.

stage I mycosis fungoides    listen   (... my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, less than 10% of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, and/or plaques. In stage IB, 10% or more of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, and/or plaques. In stages IA and IB, there may be abnormal lymphocytes in the blood but they are not cancerous.

stage I nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in only one area (of either the nasal cavity or the ethmoid sinus) and may have spread into bone.

stage I nasopharyngeal cancer    listen   (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) is found in the nasopharynx only; or (2) has spread from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat, including the soft palate, base of the tongue, and tonsils) and/or to the nasal cavity.

stage I nonmelanoma skin cancer    listen   (… non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser)
The tumor is not larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point and may have one of the following high-risk features: (1) is thicker than 2 millimeters; (2) has spread into the lower layer of the dermis or into the layer of fat below the skin; (3) has grown and spread along nerve pathways; (4) began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it; or (5) has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope.

stage I nonmelanoma skin cancer on the eyelid    listen   (... non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser ... I-lid)
Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, the tumor is 5 millimeters or smaller and has not spread to the connective tissue of the eyelid or to the edge of the eyelid where the lashes are. In stage IB, the tumor is larger than 5 millimeters but not larger than 10 millimeters or has spread to the connective tissue of the eyelid or to the edge of the eyelid where the lashes are. In stage IC, the tumor is larger than 10 millimeters but not larger than 20 millimeters or has spread through the full thickness of the eyelid.

stage I oropharyngeal cancer    listen   (... OR-oh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is 2 centimeters or smaller and is found in the oropharynx only.

stage I ovarian epithelial cancer    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un EH-pih-THEE-lee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (1) cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage I ovarian germ cell tumor    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (1) cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage I ovarian low malignant potential tumor    listen   (… oh-VAYR-ee-un...muh-LIG-nunt poh-TEN-shul TOO-mer)
The tumor is found in one or both ovaries. Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, the tumor is found inside a single ovary. In stage IB, the tumor is found inside both ovaries. In stage IC, the tumor is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: (1) tumor cells are found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) tumor cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage I pancreatic cancer    listen   (... PAN-kree-A-tik KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the pancreas only. Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB based on tumor size. In stage IA, the tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters and in stage IB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I penile cancer    listen   (... PEE-nile KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope.

stage I perihilar extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... PAYR-ee-HY-ler EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Cancer has formed in the innermost layer of the wall of the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver) and has spread into the muscle and fibrous tissue of the wall.

stage I prostate cancer    listen   (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the prostate only. The cancer (1) is found by needle biopsy or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons; the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (2) is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (3) cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging; cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate and the PSA level and Gleason score are not known.

stage I renal cell cancer    listen   (... REE-nul sel KAN-ser)
The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage I kidney cancer.

stage I salivary gland cancer    listen   (...SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland KAN-ser)
Cancer that is 2 centimeters or less in diameter and has not spread outside the salivary gland.

stage I soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IB, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage I testicular cancer    listen   (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IS, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IA, cancer is in the testicle and epididymis and may have spread to the inner layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IB, cancer is in the testicle and the epididymis and has spread to the blood or lymph vessels in the testicle; or has spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; or is in the spermatic cord or the scrotum and may be in the blood or lymph vessels of the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IS, cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or the scrotum, and either all tumor marker levels are slightly above normal or one or more tumor marker levels are moderately above normal or high.

stage I thymoma    listen   (... thy-MOH-muh)
Cancer is found only within the thymus. All cancer cells are inside the capsule (sac) that surrounds the thymus.

stage I transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter    listen   (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus ... YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread through the lining of the renal pelvis and/or ureter, into the layer of connective tissue.

stage I uterine sarcoma    listen   (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Cancer is found in the uterus only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer is in the endometrium only or less than halfway through the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus). In stage IB, cancer has spread halfway or more into the myometrium.

stage I vaginal cancer    listen   (...VA-jih-nul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the vaginal wall only.

stage I vulvar cancer    listen   (... VUL-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor is found only in the vulva or perineum (area between the rectum and the vagina). Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread 1 millimeter or less into the tissue of the vulva. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. In stage IB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters or has spread more than 1 millimeter into the tissue of the vulva. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage I Wilms tumor    listen   (... wilmz TOO-mer)
The tumor was completely removed by surgery and all of the following are true: (1) cancer was found only in the kidney and did not spread to blood vessels of the kidney; (2) the outer layer of the kidney did not break open; (3) the tumor did not break open; (4) a biopsy of the tumor was not done; and (5) no cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the tumor was removed.

stage IA breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has not spread outside the breast.

stage IA non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
Stage I non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is in the lung only and is 3 centimeters or smaller.

stage IA soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage IB breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes and either: (1) no tumor is found in the breast; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage IB non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
Stage I non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes and one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus; (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed.

stage IB soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, the tumor is low-grade (likely to grow and spread slowly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage II adrenocortical cancer    listen   (... uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul KAN-ser)
The tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and is found in the adrenal gland only.

stage II adult Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area.

stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups, and both are either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in an organ or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the lymph nodes with cancer.

stage II adult primary liver cancer    listen   (... uh-DULT PRY-mayr-ee LIH-ver KAN-ser)
There is either (1) one tumor that has spread to nearby blood vessels; or (2) there is more than one tumor, none of which is larger than 5 centimeters.

stage II AIDS-related lymphoma    listen   (... ree-LAY-ted lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm. Cancer is also found outside the lymph nodes in one organ or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the affected lymph nodes.

stage II anal cancer    listen   (... AY-nul KAN-ser)
The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage II bladder cancer    listen   (... BLA-der KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the layers of muscle tissue of the bladder.

stage II breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer (larger than 2 millimeters) is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (2) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. In stage IIB, the tumor is (1) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or (2) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (3) larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage II cancer of the uterus    listen   (... KAN-ser ... YOO-ter-us)
Cancer that has spread to the cervix.

stage II cervical cancer    listen   (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips) or to the lower third of the vagina. Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the upper two thirds of the vagina but not to tissues around the uterus. Stage IIA is divided into stages IIA1 and IIA2, based on the size of the tumor. In stage IIA1, the tumor can be seen without a microscope and is 4 centimeters or smaller. In stage IIA2, the tumor can be seen without a microscope and is larger than 4 centimeters. In stage IIB, cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the tissues around the uterus.

stage II childhood Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area.

stage II childhood liver cancer    listen   (... LIH-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor was in the liver only. After the cancer was removed by surgery, a small amount of cancer remains that can only be seen with a microscope.

stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) in one area outside the lymph nodes and in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) in two or more areas above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen), and may or may not have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (3) to have started in the stomach or intestines and can be completely removed by surgery. Cancer may or may not have spread to certain nearby lymph nodes.

stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (… KRAH-nik LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, the liver or spleen is larger than normal, and the lymph nodes may be larger than normal.

stage II colorectal cancer    listen   (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Stage II colorectal cancer is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread through the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall to the serosa (outermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall. In stage IIB, cancer has spread through the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall but has not spread to nearby organs. In stage IIC, cancer has spread through the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall to nearby organs. Also called Dukes B colorectal cancer.

stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma    listen   (... kyoo-TAY-nee-us T-sel lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: (1) stage IIA, in which the skin has red, dry, scaly patches but no tumors, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells; (2) stage IIB, in which tumors are found on the skin, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

stage II distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... DIS-tul EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread from the distal extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct empties into the small intestine) to the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, or other nearby organs. In stage IIB, cancer has spread from the distal extrahepatic bile duct to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer may have spread through the wall of the distal extrahepatic bile duct or to the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, or other nearby organs.

stage II endometrial cancer    listen   (... EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside the uterus.

stage II esophageal adenocarcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope and they grow quickly. In stage IIB, cancer (1) has spread into the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall; or (2) is in the inner (mucosal) layer and may have spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage II esophageal squamous cell carcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread (1) into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells look a lot like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in either the upper or middle esophagus; or (2) into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in the lower esophagus or it is not known where the tumor is. In stage IIB, cancer (1) has spread into the middle (muscle) layer or the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. The tumor cells do not look at all like normal cells under a microscope. The tumor is in either the upper or middle esophagus; or (2) is in the inner (mucosal) layer and may have spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage II gallbladder cancer    listen   (... GAWL-bla-der KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle.

stage II gastric cancer    listen   (... GAS-trik KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer (1) has spread to the subserosa (layer of tissue next to the serosa) of the stomach wall; or (2) has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) may have spread to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor. In stage IIB, cancer (1) has spread to the serosa (outermost layer) of the stomach wall; or (2) has spread to the subserosa (layer of tissue next to the serosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) has spread to the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (4) may have spread to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage II gestational trophoblastic neoplasia    listen   (... jeh-STAY-shuh-nul troh-fuh-BLAS-tik NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
Cancer has spread outside of the uterus to the ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, and/or the ligaments that support the uterus.

stage II hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
The tumor is either (1) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx (voice box); or (2) found in more than one area of the hypopharynx or in nearby tissues.

stage II intraocular melanoma of the iris    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... I-ris)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor (1) is in the iris only and is more than one fourth the size of the iris; or (2) is in the iris only and has caused glaucoma; or (3) has spread next to and/or into the ciliary body, choroid, or both. The tumor has caused glaucoma. In stage IIB, the tumor has spread next to and/or into the ciliary body, choroid, or both, and has also spread into the sclera. The tumor has caused glaucoma.

stage II kidney cancer    listen   (... KID-nee KAN-ser)
The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage II renal cell cancer.

stage II laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage II depends on where the cancer started. If it started in the supraglottis, then cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis or surrounding tissue. If it started in the glottis, then cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis, and/or the vocal cords cannot move normally. If it started in the subglottis, then cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords, which may not move normally.

stage II lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters, and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes.

stage II malignant mesothelioma    listen   (...muh-LIG-nunt MEH-zoh-THEE-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall, the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs, the lining that covers the diaphragm, and the lining that covers the lung. Also, cancer has spread into the diaphragm muscle and/or the lung.

stage II maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to bone around the maxillary sinus, including the roof of the mouth and the nose, but not to bone at the back of the maxillary sinus or the base of the skull.

stage II melanoma    listen   (... MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, (1) the tumor is more than 1 but not more than 2 millimeters thick, with ulceration (a break in the skin); or (2) more than 2 but not more than 4 millimeters thick, with no ulceration. In stage IIB, (1) the tumor is either more than 2 but not more than 4 millimeters thick, with ulceration; or (2) more than 4 millimeters thick, with no ulceration. In stage IIC, the tumor is more than 4 millimeters thick, with ulceration.

stage II Merkel cell carcinoma    listen   (stayj ... MER-kul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage II Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters and no cancer is found when the lymph nodes are checked under a microscope. In stage IIB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters and no swollen lymph nodes are found by a physical exam or imaging tests. In stage IIC, the tumor may be any size and has spread to nearby bone, muscle, connective tissue, or cartilage. It is has not spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body.

stage II multiple myeloma    listen   (... MUL-tih-pul MY-eh-LOH-muh)
Cancer in which a moderate number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

stage II mycosis fungoides    listen   (... my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, any amount of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, and/or plaques. Lymph nodes are enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. In stage IIB, one or more tumors that are 1 centimeter or larger are found on the skin. Lymph nodes may be enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. In stages IIA and IIB, there may be abnormal lymphocytes in the blood but they are not cancerous.

stage II nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in two areas (of either the nasal cavity or the ethmoid sinus) that are near each other or has spread to an area next to the sinuses. Cancer may also have spread into bone.

stage II nasopharyngeal cancer    listen   (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) is found in the nasopharynx only or has spread from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat, including the soft palate, base of the tongue, and tonsils) and/or to the nasal cavity. Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes on one side of the neck and/or to lymph nodes behind the pharynx, and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or (2) is found in the parapharyngeal space (area near the pharynx, between the base of the skull and the lower jaw). Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on one side of the neck and/or to lymph nodes behind the pharynx, and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller.

stage II nonmelanoma skin cancer    listen   (… non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser)
The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point; or the tumor is any size and has two or more of the following high-risk features: (1) is thicker than 2 millimeters; (2) has spread into the lower layer of the dermis or into the layer of fat below the skin; (3) has grown and spread along nerve pathways; (4) began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it; or (5) has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope.

stage II nonmelanoma skin cancer on the eyelid    listen   (... non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser ... I-lid)
The tumor (1) is larger than 20 millimeters; or (2) has spread to nearby parts of the eye or eye socket; or (3) has spread to spaces around the nerves in the eyelid.

stage II oropharyngeal cancer    listen   (... OR-oh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and is found in the oropharynx only.

stage II ovarian epithelial cancer    listen   (... oh-VAYR-ee-un EH-pih-THEE-lee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes, or to other tissue within the pelvis. Also, one of the following is true: (1) cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage II ovarian germ cell tumor    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus). In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes, or to other tissue within the pelvis. Also, one of the following is true: (1) cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage II ovarian low malignant potential tumor    listen   (… oh-VAYR-ee-un...muh-LIG-nunt poh-TEN-shul TOO-mer)
The tumor is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, the tumor has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus). In stage IIB, the tumor has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, the tumor is found inside one or both ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes, or to other tissue within the pelvis. Also, one of the following is true: (1) tumor cells are found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or (2) the capsule (outer covering) of the ovary has ruptured (broken open); or (3) tumor cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (tissue lining the peritoneal cavity).

stage II pancreatic cancer    listen   (... PAN-kree-A-tik KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and may have spread to nearby tissue and organs.

stage II penile cancer    listen   (... PEE-nile KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread (1) to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis; cancer has spread to lymph vessels or blood vessels, or the tumor cells may look very different from normal cells under a microscope; or (2) through connective tissue to erectile tissue (spongy tissue that fills with blood to make an erection); or (3) beyond erectile tissue to the urethra.

stage II perihilar extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... PAYR-ee-HY-ler EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread through the wall of the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver) to nearby fatty tissue or to the liver.

stage II prostate cancer    listen   (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer is found (1) by needle biopsy or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons; the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or (2) by needle biopsy or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons; the PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (3) in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or (4) in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or (5) in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate; the PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7 or lower; or (6) in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate, and the PSA level and Gleason score are not known. In stage IIB, cancer (1) is found in opposite sides of the prostate; the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or (2) cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate; the PSA level is 20 or higher and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or (3) cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate; the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score is 8 or higher.

stage II renal cell cancer    listen   (... REE-nul sel KAN-ser)
The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage II kidney cancer.

stage II salivary gland cancer    listen   (...SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland KAN-ser)
Cancer that is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters in diameter and has not spread outside the salivary gland.

stage II soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and spread quickly) or high-grade (likely to grow and spread quickly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue). In stage IIB, the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and spread quickly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage II testicular cancer    listen   (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IIA, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen (none larger than 2 centimeters); all tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal. In stage IIB, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen (at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 centimeters, but none is larger than 5 centimeters), or has spread to more than 5 lymph nodes (the lymph nodes are not larger than 5 centimeters); all tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal. In stage IIC, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to a lymph node in the abdomen that is larger than 5 centimeters; all tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

stage II thymoma    listen   (... thy-MOH-muh)
Cancer has spread through the capsule (sac) that surrounds the thymus and into the fat around the thymus or into the lining of the chest cavity.

stage II transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter    listen   (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus ... YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread through the layer of connective tissue to the muscle layer of the renal pelvis and/or ureter.

stage II uterine sarcoma    listen   (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside the uterus.

stage II vaginal cancer    listen   (...VA-jih-nul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread through the wall of the vagina to the tissue around the vagina. Cancer has not spread to the wall of the pelvis.

stage II vulvar cancer    listen   (... VUL-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor may be any size and has spread into the lower part of the urethra, the lower part of the vagina, or the anus. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage II Wilms tumor    listen   (… wilmz TOO-mer)
Cancer spread out of the kidney to nearby soft tissue or to blood vessels of the kidney and was completely removed by surgery. No cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the cancer was removed.

stage IIA breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer (larger than 2 millimeters) is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (2) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage IIA intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor (1) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 1 (not more than 12 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or not more than 9 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick); or (2) may have spread to the ciliary body and is size category 1. The tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick; or (3) is in the choroid only and is size category 2 (12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or not more than 12 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick).

stage IIA non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
Stage II non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also, one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is not larger than 5 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus; (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed. OR in stage IIA, cancer has not spread to lymph nodes and one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but not larger than 7 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus; (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed.

stage IIA soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and spread quickly) or high-grade (likely to grow and spread quickly) and 5 centimeters or smaller. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage IIB breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, the tumor is (1) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or (2) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy); or (3) larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

stage IIB intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, the tumor (1) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 2 (12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or not more than 12 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick); or (2) is in the choroid only and is size category 3 (15.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or 12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick; or 3.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 9.1 to 12 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 12.1 to 15 millimeters thick).

stage IIB non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
Stage II non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also, one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but not larger than 7 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus and is at least 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus (3) cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lung; and/or (4) part of the lung has collapsed or become inflamed. OR in stage IIB, cancer has not spread to lymph nodes and one or more of the following is true: (1) the tumor is larger than 7 centimeters; (2) cancer has spread to the main bronchus (and is less than 2 centimeters below where the trachea joins the bronchus), the chest wall, the diaphragm, or the nerve that controls the diaphragm; (3) cancer has spread to the membrane around the heart or lining the chest wall; (4) the whole lung has collapsed or become inflamed; and/or (5) there are one or more separate tumors in the same lobe of the lung.

stage IIB soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, the tumor is mid-grade (somewhat likely to grow and spread quickly) and larger than 5 centimeters. It may be either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue).

stage III adrenocortical cancer    listen   (... uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul KAN-ser)
The tumor can be any size and has spread to fat or lymph nodes near the adrenal gland.

stage III adult Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages III, IIIE, IIIS, and IIIE,S. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, and in the spleen. In stage IIIE,S, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area, and in the spleen.

stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages III, IIIE, IIIS, and IIIE+S. In stage III, cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and in the spleen. In stage IIIE+S, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area, and in the spleen.

stage III AIDS-related lymphoma    listen   (... ree-LAY-ted lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages III, IIIE, IIIS, and IIIE+S. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, and in the spleen. In stage IIIE+S, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area, and in the spleen.

stage III anal cancer    listen   (... AY-nul KAN-ser)
Stage III anal cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, the tumor may be any size and has spread to either (1) lymph nodes near the rectum; or (2) nearby organs, such as the vagina, urethra, and bladder. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and has spread to (1) nearby organs and to lymph nodes near the rectum; or (2) lymph nodes on one side of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs; or (3) lymph nodes near the rectum and in the groin, and/or to lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs.

stage III bladder cancer    listen   (... BLA-der KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread from the bladder to the layer of fat surrounding it and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus, or vagina).

stage III breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer is found in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during imaging tests or a physical exam); or (2) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or (3) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy). In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and cancer has spread to the chest wall and/or to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer. Also, cancer may have spread to: (1) up to 9 axillary lymph nodes; or (2) the lymph nodes near the breastbone. Cancer that has spread to the skin of the breast may also be inflammatory breast cancer. In stage IIIC, no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer may have spread to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer and/or has spread to the chest wall. Also, cancer has spread to: (1) 10 or more axillary lymph nodes; or (2) lymph nodes above or below the collarbone; or (3) axillary lymph nodes and lymph nodes near the breastbone. Cancer that has spread to the skin of the breast may also be inflammatory breast cancer. For treatment, stage IIIC breast cancer is divided into operable and inoperable stage IIIC.

stage III cancer of the uterus    listen   (... KAN-ser ... YOO-ter-us)
Cancer cells have spread outside the uterus to the vagina and/or lymph nodes in the pelvis but have not spread outside the pelvis.

stage III cervical cancer    listen   (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina, and/or to the pelvic wall, and/or has caused kidney problems. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina but not to the pelvic wall. In stage IIIB, (1) cancer has spread to the pelvic wall; and/or (2) the tumor has become large enough to block the ureters (the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder). This blockage can cause the kidneys to enlarge or stop working.

stage III childhood Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages III, IIIE, IIIS, and IIIE,S. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, and in the spleen. In stage IIIE,S, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area, and in the spleen.

stage III childhood liver cancer    listen   (... LIH-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor cannot be removed by surgery; or cancer that can be seen without a microscope remains after surgery; or the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) in at least one area above the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps with breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen) and in at least one area below the diaphragm; or (2) to have started in the chest; or (3) to have started in the abdomen and spread throughout the abdomen, and cannot be completely removed by surgery; or (4) in the area around the spine.

stage III chronic lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (… KRAH-nik LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and there are too few red blood cells. The lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be larger than normal.

stage III colorectal cancer    listen   (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Stage III colorectal cancer is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC. In stage IIIA, (1) cancer may have spread through the mucosa (innermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall to the submucosa (layer of tissue under the mucosa) and may have spread to the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall. Cancer has spread to at least one but not more than 3 nearby lymph nodes, or cancer cells have formed in tissues near the lymph nodes; or (2) cancer has spread through the mucosa of the colon and/or rectal wall to the submucosa. Cancer has spread to at least 4 but not more than 6 nearby lymph nodes. In stage IIIB, (1) cancer has spread through the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall to the serosa (outermost layer) of the colon and/or rectal wall or has spread through the serosa but not to nearby organs. Cancer has spread to at least one but not more than 3 nearby lymph nodes, or cancer cells have formed in tissues near the lymph nodes; or (2) cancer has spread to the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall or to the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall. Cancer has spread to at least 4 but not more than 6 nearby lymph nodes; or (3) cancer has spread through the mucosa of the colon and/or rectal wall to the submucosa and may have spread to the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall. Cancer has spread to 7 or more nearby lymph nodes. In stage IIIC, (1) cancer has spread through the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall but has not spread to nearby organs. Cancer has spread to at least 4 but not more than 6 nearby lymph nodes; or (2) cancer has spread through the muscle layer of the colon and/or rectal wall to the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall or has spread through the serosa but has not spread to nearby organs. Cancer has spread to 7 or more nearby lymph nodes; or (3) cancer has spread through the serosa of the colon and/or rectal wall and has spread to nearby organs. Cancer has spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes, or cancer cells have formed in tissues near the lymph nodes. Also called Dukes C colorectal cancer.

stage III cutaneous T-cell lymphoma    listen   (... kyoo-TAY-nee-us T-sel lim-FOH-muh)
Nearly all of the skin is red, dry, and scaly; lymph nodes are either normal or enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

stage III distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... DIS-tul EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the large vessels that carry blood to the organs in the abdomen. Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III endometrial cancer    listen   (... EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the uterus and cervix, but has not spread beyond the pelvis. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, based on how far the cancer has spread within the pelvis. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to the outer layer of the uterus and/or to the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and ligaments of the uterus. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the vagina or to the parametrium (connective tissue and fat around the uterus). In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis and/or around the aorta (largest artery in the body, which carries blood away from the heart).

stage III esophageal adenocarcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIIA, cancer (1) is in the inner (mucosal) layer and may have spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) has spread into the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) has spread into the diaphragm, sac around the heart, or tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity. The cancer can be removed by surgery. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread into the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread (1) into the diaphragm, sac around the heart, or tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity; the cancer can be removed by surgery. Cancer is found in 1 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) into other nearby organs such as the aorta, trachea, or spine, and the cancer cannot be removed by surgery; or (3) to 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIIA, cancer (1) is in the inner (mucosal) layer and may have spread into the middle (muscle) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) has spread into the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) has spread into the diaphragm, sac around the heart, or tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity. The cancer can be removed by surgery. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread into the outer (connective tissue) layer of the esophageal wall. Cancer is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread (1) into the diaphragm, sac around the heart, or tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity; the cancer can be removed by surgery. Cancer is found in 1 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) into other nearby organs such as the aorta, trachea, or spine, and the cancer cannot be removed by surgery; or (3) to 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage III gallbladder cancer    listen   (... GAWL-bla-der KAN-ser)
Stage III gallbladder cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread through the thin layers of tissue that cover the gallbladder and/or to the liver and/or to one nearby organ (such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, or bile ducts outside the liver). In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and (1) beyond the inner layer of the gallbladder to a layer of tissue with blood vessels or to the muscle layer; or (2) beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle; or (3) through the thin layers of tissue that cover the gallbladder and/or to the liver and/or to one nearby organ (such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, or bile ducts outside the liver).

stage III gastric cancer    listen   (... GAS-trik KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to (1) the serosa (outermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) the subserosa (layer of tissue next to the serosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) the muscle layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to (1) nearby organs such as the spleen, transverse colon, liver, diaphragm, pancreas, kidney, adrenal gland, or small intestine, and may be found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) the serosa (outermost layer) of the stomach wall and is found in 3 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor; or (3) the subserosa (layer of tissue next to the serosa) of the stomach wall and is found in 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to (1) nearby organs such as the spleen, transverse colon, liver, diaphragm, pancreas, kidney, adrenal gland, or small intestine, and may be found in 3 or more lymph nodes near the tumor; or (2) the serosa (outermost layer) of the stomach wall and is found in 7 or more lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage III gestational trophoblastic neoplasia    listen   (... jeh-STAY-shuh-nul troh-fuh-BLAS-tik NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
Cancer has spread to the lung.

stage III hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
The tumor (1) is larger than 4 centimeters or has spread to the larynx (voice box) or esophagus. Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller and cancer is found (1) in one area of the hypopharynx and/or is 2 centimeters or smaller; or (2) in more than one area of the hypopharynx or in nearby tissues, or is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx.

stage III intraocular melanoma of the iris    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... I-ris)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, the tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick. In stage IIIB, the tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is more than 5 millimeters thick.

stage III kidney cancer    listen   (... KID-nee KAN-ser)
(1) The tumor is any size and cancer is found only in the kidney and in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes; or (2) cancer is found in the main blood vessels of the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may be found in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes. Also called stage III renal cell cancer.

stage III laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage III laryngeal cancer depends on whether cancer has spread from the supraglottis, glottis, or subglottis. In stage III cancer of the supraglottis, (1) cancer is in the larynx only and the vocal cords cannot move, and/or cancer is in tissues next to the larynx; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer is in one area of the supraglottis and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller and the vocal cords can move normally; or (3) cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis or surrounding tissues and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. In stage III cancer of the glottis, (1) cancer is in the larynx only and the vocal cords cannot move, and/or cancer is in tissues next to the larynx; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer is in one or both vocal cords and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller and the vocal cords can move normally; or (3) cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis, and/or the vocal cords cannot move normally; cancer has also spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. In stage III cancer of the subglottis, (1) cancer is in the larynx and the vocal cords cannot move; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer is in the subglottis and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (3) cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords, which may not move normally; cancer has also spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller.

stage III lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
The tumor may be any size and has spread to one lymph node that is 3 centimeters or smaller, on the same side of the neck as the tumor; or the tumor is larger than 4 centimeters.

stage III lymphedema    listen   (… LIM-fuh-DEE-muh)
A condition in which tissue or a limb becomes very swollen and thick, and changes color. It is caused by a block in the flow of lymph and a buildup of fluid in tissues. Also called lymphostatic elephantiasis.

stage III malignant mesothelioma    listen   (...muh-LIG-nunt MEH-zoh-THEE-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer (1) is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall. Cancer may have spread to the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs; the lining that covers the diaphragm; the lining that covers the lung; the diaphragm muscle; or the lung. Cancer has spread to lymph nodes where the lung joins the bronchus, along the trachea and esophagus, between the lung and diaphragm, or below the trachea; or (2) is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall; the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs; the lining that covers the diaphragm; and the lining that covers the lung. Cancer has spread into one or more of the following: tissue between the ribs and the lining of the chest wall; fat in the cavity between the lungs; soft tissues of the chest wall; and/or sac that covers the heart. Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes where the lung joins the bronchus, along the trachea and esophagus, between the lung and diaphragm, or below the trachea.

stage III maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) has spread to any of the following: bone at the back of the maxillary sinus, tissues under the skin, the eye socket, the base of the skull, and/or the ethmoid sinuses; or (2) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has also spread to any of the following: the lining of the maxillary sinus, bones around the maxillary sinus (including the roof of the mouth and the nose), tissues under the skin, the eye socket, the base of the skull, and/or the ethmoid sinuses.

stage III melanoma    listen   (... MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
The tumor may be any thickness, with or without ulceration (a break in the skin), and one or more of the following is true: (1) cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes; (2) lymph nodes may be joined together (matted); (3) cancer may be in a lymph vessel between the primary tumor and nearby lymph nodes; and/or (4) very small tumors may be found on or under the skin, not more than 2 centimeters away from where the cancer first started.

stage III Merkel cell carcinoma    listen   (stayj ... MER-kul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Stage III Merkel cell cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, the tumor may be any size and may have spread to nearby bone, muscle, connective tissue, or cartilage. Cancer is found in the lymph nodes when they are checked under a microscope. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and may have spread to nearby bone, muscle, connective tissue, or cartilage. Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes near the tumor and is found by physical exam or imaging test. The lymph nodes are removed and cancer is found in the lymph nodes when they are checked under a microscope. There may also be a second tumor, which is either between the primary tumor and nearby lymph nodes or farther away from the center of the body than the primary tumor is.

stage III multiple myeloma    listen   (... MUL-tih-pul MY-eh-LOH-muh)
A relatively large number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be one or more of the following: 1) a decrease in the number of red blood cells, causing anemia; 2) the amount of calcium in the blood is very high, because the bones are being damaged; 3) more than three bone tumors (plasmacytomas) are found; or 4) high levels of M protein are found in the blood or urine.

stage III mycosis fungoides    listen   (... my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez)
In stage III, nearly all of the skin is reddened and may have patches, papules, plaques, or tumors. Lymph nodes may be enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. There may be abnormal lymphocytes in the blood but they are not cancerous.

stage III nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) has spread to any of the following: the eye socket, maxillary sinus, roof of the mouth, and/or the bone between the eyes; or (2) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has also spread to any of the following: the nasal cavity, ethmoid sinus, eye socket, maxillary sinus, roof of the mouth, and/or the bone between the eyes.

stage III nasopharyngeal cancer    listen   (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) is found in the nasopharynx only or has spread from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat, including the soft palate, base of the tongue, and tonsils) and/or to the nasal cavity. Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or (2) is found in the parapharyngeal space (area near the pharynx, between the base of the skull and the lower jaw). Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or (3) has spread to nearby bones or sinuses. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck and/or to lymph nodes behind the pharynx, and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller.

stage III nonmelanoma skin cancer    listen   (… non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser)
The tumor has spread to the jaw, eye socket, or side of the skull. Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor. The lymph node is not larger than 3 centimeters; or, cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor. The lymph node is not larger than 3 centimeters and one of the following is true: (1) the tumor is not larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point and may have one high-risk feature (is thicker than 2 millimeters, has spread into the lower layer of the dermis or into the layer of fat below the skin, has grown and spread along nerve pathways, began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it, or has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope); or (2) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point; or (3) the tumor is any size and has two or more high-risk features (is thicker than 2 millimeters, has spread into the lower layer of the dermis or into the layer of fat below the skin, has grown and spread along nerve pathways, began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it, or has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope).

stage III nonmelanoma skin cancer on the eyelid    listen   (... non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser ... I-lid)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, to remove all of the tumor, the whole eye and part of the optic nerve must be removed. The bone, muscles, fat, and connective tissue around the eye may also be removed. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be anywhere in or near the eye and has spread to nearby lymph nodes. In stage IIIC, the tumor has spread to structures around the eye or in the face, or to the brain, and cannot be removed in surgery.

stage III oropharyngeal cancer    listen   (... OR-oh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is either (1) 4 centimeters or smaller; cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) larger than 4 centimeters or has spread to the epiglottis (the flap that covers the trachea during swallowing). Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller.

stage III ovarian epithelial cancer    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un EH-pih-THEE-lee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread outside the pelvis to other parts of the abdomen and/or nearby lymph nodes. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, the tumor is found in the pelvis only, but cancer cells that can be seen only with a microscope have spread to the surface of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen), the small intestines, or the tissue that connects the small intestines to the wall of the abdomen. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the peritoneum and the cancer in the peritoneum is 2 centimeters or smaller. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to the peritoneum and the cancer in the peritoneum is larger than 2 centimeters and/or cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered stage III ovarian cancer.

stage III ovarian germ cell tumor    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread outside the pelvis to other parts of the abdomen and/or nearby lymph nodes. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, the tumor is found in the pelvis only, but cancer cells that can be seen only with a microscope have spread to the surface of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen), the small intestines, or the tissue that connects the small intestines to the wall of the abdomen. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the peritoneum and the cancer in the peritoneum is 2 centimeters or smaller. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to the peritoneum and the cancer in the peritoneum is larger than 2 centimeters and/or has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered stage III ovarian cancer.

stage III ovarian low malignant potential tumor    listen   (… oh-VAYR-ee-un...muh-LIG-nunt poh-TEN-shul TOO-mer)
The tumor is found in one or both ovaries and has spread outside the pelvis to other parts of the abdomen and/or nearby lymph nodes. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, the tumor is found in the pelvis only, but tumor cells that can be seen only with a microscope have spread to the surface of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen), the small intestines, or the tissue that connects the small intestines to the wall of the abdomen. In stage IIIB, the tumor has spread to the peritoneum and the tumor in the peritoneum is 2 centimeters or smaller. In stage IIIC, the tumor has spread to the peritoneum and the tumor in the peritoneum is larger than 2 centimeters and/or has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen. The spread of tumor cells to the surface of the liver is also considered stage III disease.

stage III pancreatic cancer    listen   (... PAN-kree-A-tik KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the major blood vessels near the pancreas, and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III penile cancer    listen   (... PEE-nile KAN-ser)
Stage III penile cancer is divided into stage IIIa and stage IIIb. In stage IIIa, cancer has spread to one lymph node in the groin and (1) to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis; cancer may have spread to lymph vessels or blood vessels, or the tumor cells may look very different from normal cells under a microscope; or (2) through connective tissue to erectile tissue (spongy tissue that fills with blood to make an erection); or (3) beyond erectile tissue to the urethra. In stage IIIb, cancer has spread to more than one lymph node on one side of the groin or to lymph nodes on both sides of the groin, and (1) to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis; cancer may have spread to lymph vessels or blood vessels, or the tumor cells may look very different from normal cells under a microscope; or (2) through connective tissue to erectile tissue (spongy tissue that fills with blood to make an erection); or (3) beyond erectile tissue to the urethra.

stage III perihilar extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... PAYR-ee-HY-ler EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, the tumor has spread to one branch of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein. In stage IIIB, the tumor has spread to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer has also spread into the wall of the perihilar extrahepatic bile duct (where the bile duct leaves the liver) and may have spread through the wall to nearby fatty tissue, the liver, or to one branch of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein.

stage III prostate cancer    listen   (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate and may have spread to the seminal vesicles. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10.

stage III renal cell cancer    listen   (... REE-nul sel KAN-ser)
(1) The tumor is any size and cancer is found only in the kidney and in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes; or (2) cancer is found in the main blood vessels of the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may be found in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes. Also called stage III kidney cancer.

stage III salivary gland cancer    listen   (...SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland KAN-ser)
In stage III salivary gland cancer, (1) the tumor is not larger than 4 centimeters and has spread to a single lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) the tumor is larger than 4 centimeters and/or has spread to soft tissue around the affected gland; cancer may have spread to a single lymph node on the same side as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller.

stage III soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
The tumor is either (1) high-grade (likely to grow and spread quickly), larger than 5 centimeters, and either superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle and may be in connective or subcutaneous tissue); or (2) any grade, any size, and has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III testicular cancer    listen   (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IIIA, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has spread to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs; tumor marker levels may range from normal to slightly above normal. In stage IIIB, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen, to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs; the level of one or more tumor markers is moderately above normal. In stage IIIC, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen, to distant lymph nodes, or to the lungs; the level of one or more tumor markers is high; OR, cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has not spread to distant lymph nodes or the lung but has spread to other parts of the body; tumor marker levels may range from normal to high.

stage III thymoma    listen   (... thy-MOH-muh)
Cancer has spread to nearby organs in the chest, including the lung, the sac around the heart, or large blood vessels that carry blood to the heart.

stage III transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter    listen   (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus ... YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread (1) from the renal pelvis to tissue or fat in the kidney; or (2) from the ureter to fat that surrounds the ureter.

stage III uterine sarcoma    listen   (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Cancer has spread beyond the uterus and cervix, but has not spread beyond the pelvis. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, based on how far the cancer has spread within the pelvis. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to the outer layer of the uterus and/or to the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and ligaments of the uterus. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the vagina or to the parametrium (connective tissue and fat around the uterus). In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis and/or around the aorta (largest artery in the body, which carries blood away from the heart).

stage III vaginal cancer    listen   (...VA-jih-nul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the wall of the pelvis.

stage III vulvar cancer    listen   (... VUL-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor may be any size and may have spread into the lower part of the urethra, the lower part of the vagina, or the anus. Cancer has spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, cancer is found in 1 or 2 lymph nodes that are smaller than 5 millimeters or in one lymph node that is 5 millimeters or larger. In stage IIIB, cancer is found in 2 or more lymph nodes that are 5 millimeters or larger, or in 3 or more lymph nodes that are smaller than 5 millimeters. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in lymph nodes and has spread to the outside surface of the lymph nodes.

stage III Wilms tumor    listen   (… wilmz TOO-mer)
Cancer remains in the abdomen after surgery and at least one of the following is true: (1) cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis (the part of the body between the hips); (2) cancer has spread to or through the surface of the peritoneum (the layer of tissue that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most organs in the abdomen); (3) a biopsy of the tumor was done during surgery to remove it; (4) the tumor was removed in more than one piece.

stage IIIA adult primary liver cancer    listen   (... uh-DULT PRY-mayr-ee LIH-ver KAN-ser)
Stage III adult primary liver cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA there is either (1) more than one tumor larger than 5 centimeters; or (2) one tumor that has spread to a major branch of blood vessels near the liver.

stage IIIA anal cancer    listen   (... AY-nul KAN-ser)
Stage III anal cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, the tumor may be any size and has spread to either (1) lymph nodes near the rectum; or (2) nearby organs, such as the vagina, urethra, and bladder.

stage IIIA breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer is found in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during imaging tests or a physical exam); or (2) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or (3) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone (found during a sentinel lymph node biopsy).

stage IIIA intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, the tumor (1) may have spread to the ciliary body and is size category 2 (12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and not more than 3 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or not more than 12 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick). The tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick; or (2) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 3 (15.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or 12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick; or 3.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 9.1 to 12 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 12.1 to 15 millimeters thick); or (3) is size category 3 and has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick. The tumor has not spread to the ciliary body; or (4) is in the choroid only and is size category 4 (more than 18 millimeters wide and may be any thickness; or 15.1 to 18 millimeters wide and more than 12 millimeters thick; or 12.1 to 15 millimeters wide and more than 15 millimeters thick).

stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
Stage III non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also, (1) the tumor may be any size; (2) part of the lung (where the trachea joins the bronchus) or the whole lung may have collapsed or become inflamed; (3) there may be one or more separate tumors in the same lobe of the lung; and/or (4) cancer may have spread to any of the following: main bronchus (but not the area where the trachea joins the bronchus), chest wall, diaphragm and the nerve that controls it, or membrane around the heart, lung, or lining the chest wall. OR in stage IIIA, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also, (1) the tumor may be any size; (2) the whole lung may have collapsed or become inflamed; (3) there may be one or more separate tumors in any of the lobes of the lung with cancer; and/or (4) cancer may have spread to any of the following: main bronchus (but not the area where the trachea joins the bronchus), chest wall, diaphragm and the nerve that controls it, membrane around the lung or lining the chest wall, heart or the membrane around it, trachea, carina (where the trachea joins the bronchi), esophagus, sternum (chest bone), backbone, major blood vessels that lead to or from the heart, or the nerve that controls the larynx (voice box). OR in stage IIIA, cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes and the tumor may be any size. Cancer has spread to any of the following: trachea, carina, esophagus, sternum, backbone, heart, major blood vessels that lead to or from the heart, or the nerve that controls the larynx.

stage IIIB adult primary liver cancer    listen   (... uh-DULT PRY-mayr-ee LIH-ver KAN-ser)
Stage III adult primary liver cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIB, there are one or more tumors of any size that have either (1) spread to nearby organs other than the gallbladder; or (2) broken through the lining of the peritoneal cavity.

stage IIIB anal cancer    listen   (... AY-nul KAN-ser)
Stage III anal cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and has spread to (1) nearby organs and to lymph nodes near the rectum; or (2) lymph nodes on one side of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs; or (3) lymph nodes near the rectum and in the groin, and/or to lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs.

stage IIIB breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and cancer has spread to the chest wall and/or to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer. Also, cancer may have spread to (1) up to 9 axillary lymph nodes; or (2) the lymph nodes near the breastbone. Cancer that has spread to the skin of the breast may also be inflammatory breast cancer.

stage IIIB intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIB, the tumor (1) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 3 (15.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 3.1 to 6 millimeters thick; or 12.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 6.1 to 9 millimeters thick; or 3.1 to 18 millimeters wide and 9.1 to 12 millimeters thick; or 9.1 to 15 millimeters wide and 12.1 to 15 millimeters thick). The tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick; or (2) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 4 (more than 18 millimeters wide and may be any thickness; or 15.1 to 18 millimeters wide and more than 12 millimeters thick; or 12.1 to 15 millimeters wide and more than 15 millimeters thick); or (3) is size category 4 and has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick. The tumor has not spread to the ciliary body.

stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
Stage III non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to lymph nodes above the collarbone or in the opposite side of the chest as the tumor. Also, (1) the tumor may be any size; (2) part of the lung (where the trachea joins the bronchus) or the whole lung may have collapsed or become inflamed; (3) there may be one or more separate tumors in any of the lobes of the lung with cancer; and/or (4) cancer may have spread to any of the following: main bronchus, diaphragm and the nerve that controls it, membrane around the lung, chest wall or the membrane that lines it, trachea, carina (where the trachea joins the bronchi), esophagus, sternum (chest bone), backbone, heart or the membrane around it, major blood vessels that lead to or from the heart, or the nerve that controls the larynx (voice box). OR in stage IIIB, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also, (1) the tumor may be any size; (2) there may be separate tumors in different lobes of the same lung; and/or (3) cancer has spread to any of the following: trachea, carina, esophagus, sternum, backbone, major blood vessels that lead to or from the heart, or the nerve that controls the larynx.

stage IIIC adult primary liver cancer    listen   (... uh-DULT PRY-mayr-ee LIH-ver KAN-ser)
Stage III adult primary liver cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIC, the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage IIIC breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIC, no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer may have spread to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer and/or has spread to the chest wall. Also, cancer has spread to: (1) 10 or more axillary lymph nodes; or (2) lymph nodes above or below the collarbone; or (3) axillary lymph nodes and lymph nodes near the breastbone. Cancer that has spread to the skin of the breast may also be inflammatory breast cancer. For treatment, stage IIIC breast cancer is divided into operable and inoperable stage IIIC.

stage IIIC intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIC, the tumor (1) has spread to the ciliary body and is size category 4 (more than 18 millimeters wide and may be any thickness; or 15.1 to 18 millimeters wide and more than 12 millimeters thick; or 12.1 to 15 millimeters wide and more than 15 millimeters thick). The tumor has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is not more than 5 millimeters thick; or (2) may be any size and has spread through the sclera to the outside of the eyeball. The part of the tumor outside the eyeball is more than 5 millimeters thick. The tumor has not spread to the ciliary body.

stage IV adrenocortical cancer    listen   (... uh-DREE-noh-KOR-tih-kul KAN-ser)
The tumor can be any size and has spread (1) to fat and lymph nodes near the adrenal gland; or (2) to organs near the adrenal gland and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (3) to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lung.

stage IV adult Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) outside the lymph nodes throughout one or more organs, and may be in lymph nodes near those organs; or (2) outside the lymph nodes in one organ and has spread to areas far away from that organ; or (3) in the lung, liver, bone marrow, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The cancer has not spread to the lung, liver, bone marrow, or CSF from nearby areas.

stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... uh-dult non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) throughout one or more organs that are not part of a lymphatic area (lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus or spleen) and may be in lymph nodes near those organs; or (2) in one organ that is not part of a lymphatic area and has spread to organs or lymph nodes far away from that organ; or (3) in the liver, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or lungs (other than cancer that has spread to the lungs from nearby areas).

stage IV adult primary liver cancer    listen   (... uh-DULT PRY-mayr-ee LIH-ver KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the liver to other places in the body, such as the bones or lungs. The tumors may be of any size and may also have spread to nearby blood vessels and/or lymph nodes.

stage IV AIDS-related lymphoma    listen   (... ree-LAY-ted lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) throughout one or more organs that are not part of a lymphatic area (lymph node group, tonsils and nearby tissue, thymus, or spleen) and may be in lymph nodes near those organs; or (2) in one organ that is not part of the lymphatic area and has spread to organs or lymph nodes far away from that organ; or (3) in the liver, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or lungs (other than cancer that has spread to the lungs from nearby areas).

stage IV anal cancer    listen   (... AY-nul KAN-ser)
The tumor may be any size, and cancer has spread to distant parts of the body. It may also have spread to lymph nodes and nearby organs.

stage IV bladder cancer    listen   (... BLA-der KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread (1) from the bladder to the wall of the abdomen or pelvis; and/or (2) to one or more lymph nodes; and/or (3) to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver.

stage IV breast cancer    listen   (... brest KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.

stage IV cancer of the uterus    listen   (... KAN-ser ... YOO-ter-us)
Cancer cells have spread to the lining of the bladder or rectum or to distant parts of the body.

stage IV cervical cancer    listen   (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body. Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB, based on where the cancer is found. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to nearby organs, such as the bladder or rectum. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, bones, or distant lymph nodes.

stage IV childhood Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) outside the lymph nodes throughout one or more organs, and may be in lymph nodes near those organs; or (2) outside the lymph nodes in one organ and has spread to areas far away from that organ; or (3) in the lung, liver, bone marrow, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The cancer has not spread to the lung, liver, bone marrow, or CSF from nearby areas.

stage IV childhood liver cancer    listen   (... LIH-ver KAN-ser)
The cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung or brain.

stage IV childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma    listen   (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found in the bone marrow, brain, or cerebrospinal fluid. Cancer may also be found in other parts of the body.

stage IV chronic lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (… KRAH-nik LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and too few platelets. The lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be larger than normal and there may be too few red blood cells.

stage IV colorectal cancer    listen   (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Stage IV colorectal cancer is divided into stage IVA and stage IVB. In stage IVA, cancer may have spread through the colon and/or rectal wall and may have spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes. Cancer has spread to one organ that is not near the colon and/or rectum, such as the liver, lung, or ovary, or to a distant lymph node. In stage IVB, cancer may have spread through the colon and/or rectal wall and may have spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes. Cancer has spread to more than one organ that is not near the colon and/or rectum or into the lining of the abdominal wall.

stage IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma    listen   (... kyoo-TAY-nee-us T-sel lim-FOH-muh)
Stage IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: in stage IVA cancer, the skin is red, dry, and scaly, and the lymph nodes contain cancer cells; in stage IVB cancer, the skin is red, dry and scaly, cancer cells may be found in lymph nodes, and cancer has spread to other organs in the body.

stage IV distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... DIS-tul EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs.

stage IV endometrial cancer    listen   (... EN-doh-MEE-tree-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis. Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to the bladder and/or bowel wall. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body beyond the pelvis, including the abdomen and/or lymph nodes in the groin.

stage IV esophageal adenocarcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV esophageal squamous cell carcinoma    listen   (... ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV gallbladder cancer    listen   (... GAWL-bla-der KAN-ser)
Stage IV gallbladder cancer is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to a main blood vessel of the liver or to 2 or more nearby organs or areas other than the liver. Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to either (1) lymph nodes along large arteries in the abdomen and/or near the lower part of the backbone; or (2) to organs or areas far away from the gallbladder.

stage IV gastric cancer    listen   (... GAS-trik KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

stage IV gestational trophoblastic neoplasia    listen   (... jeh-STAY-shuh-nul troh-fuh-BLAS-tik NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body other than the lungs.

stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to cartilage around the thyroid or trachea, the bone under the tongue, the thyroid, or nearby soft tissue. Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor (the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters) or to lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller), and one of the following is true: (1) cancer is found in one area of the hypopharynx and/or is 2 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer is found in more than one area of the hypopharynx or in nearby tissues, or is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx (voice box); or (3) cancer has spread to the larynx or esophagus and is more than 4 centimeters; or (4) cancer has spread to cartilage around the thyroid or trachea, the bone under the tongue, the thyroid, or nearby soft tissue. In stage IVB, the tumor (1) has spread to muscles around the upper part of the spinal column, the carotid artery, or the lining of the chest cavity and may have spread to lymph nodes, which can be any size; or (2) may be any size and has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters. In stage IVC, the tumor may be any size and has spread beyond the hypopharynx to other parts of the body.

stage IV intraocular melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... SIH-lee-ayr-ee BAH-dee ... KOR-oyd)
The tumor may be any size and has spread (1) to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) to other parts of the body.

stage IV intraocular melanoma of the iris    listen   (... IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh ... I-ris)
The tumor may be any size and has spread (1) to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) to other parts of the body.

stage IV kidney cancer    listen   (... KID-nee KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread (1) beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may be found in the adrenal gland above the kidney with cancer, or in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) to other organs, such as the lungs, liver, bones, or brain, and may have spread to lymph nodes. Also called stage IV renal cell cancer.

stage IV laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, stage IVB, and stage IVC. In stage IVA, (1) cancer has spread through the thyroid cartilage and/or has spread to tissues beyond the larynx, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or has spread to more than one lymph node anywhere in the neck with none larger than 6 centimeters; cancer may have spread to tissues beyond the larynx, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus. The vocal cords may not move normally. In stage IVB, (1) cancer has spread to the space in front of the spinal column, surrounds the carotid artery, or has spread to parts of the chest; cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck and the lymph nodes may be any size; or (2) cancer has spread to a lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters and may have spread as far as the space in front of the spinal column, around the carotid artery, or to parts of the chest. The vocal cords may not move normally. In stage IVC, cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or bone.

stage IV lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, (1) the tumor has spread through tissue in the lip or oral cavity into nearby tissue and/or bone (jaw, tongue, floor of mouth, maxillary sinus, or skin of chin or nose); cancer may have spread to one lymph node that is 3 centimeters or smaller, on the same side of the neck as the tumor; or (2) the tumor is any size or has spread through tissue in the lip or oral cavity into nearby tissue and/or bone (jaw, tongue, floor of mouth, maxillary sinus, or skin of chin or nose). Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters, or to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck as the tumor or on both sides of the neck, and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters. In stage IVB, (1) the tumor may be any size and has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters; or (2) the tumor has spread further into the muscles or bones in the oral cavity, or to the base of the skull and/or the carotid artery. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck. In stage IVC, the tumor has spread beyond the lip or oral cavity to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs. The tumor may be any size and may have spread to lymph nodes.

stage IV malignant mesothelioma    listen   (...muh-LIG-nunt MEH-zoh-THEE-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer cannot be removed by surgery and is found in one or both sides of the body. Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes anywhere in the chest or above the collarbone. Cancer has spread in one or more of the following ways: (1) through the diaphragm into the peritoneum (the thin layer of tissue that lines the abdomen and covers most of the organs in the abdomen); (2) to the tissue lining the chest on the opposite side of the body as the tumor; (3) to the chest wall and may be found in the rib; (4) into the organs in the center of the chest cavity; (5) into the spine; (6) into the sac around the heart or into the heart muscle; and/or (7) to distant parts of the body such as the brain, spine, thyroid, or prostate.

stage IV maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV maxillary sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters; or to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck as the original tumor or on both sides of the neck, and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters, and cancer has also spread to any of the following: the lining of the maxillary sinus, bones around the maxillary sinus (including the roof of the mouth and the nose), tissues under the skin, the eye socket, the base of the skull, and/or the ethmoid sinuses; or (2) has spread to any of the following: the front of the eye, skin of the cheek, base of the skull, behind the jaw, the bone between the eyes, and/or the sphenoid or frontal sinuses, and cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck. In stage IVB, cancer (1) has spread to any of the following: the back of the eye, brain, middle parts of the skull, nerves in the head that go to the brain, upper part of the throat behind the nose, and/or the base of the skull, and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck; or (2) is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus. In stage IVC, cancer may be anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus, may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the maxillary sinus, such as the lungs.

stage IV melanoma    listen   (... MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
Cancer has spread to other places in the body, such as the lung, liver, brain, bone, soft tissue, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, or to places in the skin far away from where the cancer first started.

stage IV Merkel cell carcinoma    listen   (stayj … MER-kul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
The tumor may be any size and has spread to distant parts of the body, such as the liver, lung, bone, or brain.

stage IV mycosis fungoides    listen   (... my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, most of the skin is reddened and any amount of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, plaques, or tumors, and either (1) cancer has spread to lymph nodes and there may be cancerous lymphocytes in the blood; or (2) there are cancerous lymphocytes in the blood and lymph nodes may be enlarged, but cancer has not spread to them. In stage IVB, most of the skin is reddened and any amount of the skin surface is covered with patches, papules, plaques, or tumors. Cancer has spread to other organs in the body. Lymph nodes may be enlarged and cancer may have spread to them. There may be cancerous lymphocytes in the blood.

stage IV nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters; or to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck as the original tumor or on both sides of the neck, and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters, and cancer has also spread to any of the following: the nasal cavity, ethmoid sinus, eye socket, maxillary sinus, roof of the mouth, and/or the bone between the eyes; or (2) has spread to any of the following: the front of the eye, skin of the nose or cheek, front parts of the skull, base of the skull, and/or the sphenoid or frontal sinuses, and cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck. In stage IVB, cancer (1) has spread to any of the following: the back of the eye, brain, middle parts of the skull, nerves in the head that go to the brain, upper part of the throat behind the nose, and/or the base of the skull, and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck; or (2) is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus. In stage IVC, cancer may be found anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, such as the lungs.

stage IV nasopharyngeal cancer    listen   (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV nasopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer has spread beyond the nasopharynx and may have spread to the cranial nerves, the hypopharynx (bottom part of the throat), areas in and around the side of the skull or jawbone, and/or the bone around the eye. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck and/or to lymph nodes behind the pharynx, and the affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to lymph nodes between the collarbone and the top of the shoulder and/or the affected lymph nodes are larger than 6 centimeters. In stage IVC, cancer has spread beyond nearby lymph nodes to other parts of the body.

stage IV non-small cell lung cancer    listen   (... sel lung KAN-ser)
The tumor may be any size and cancer may have spread to lymph nodes. One or more of the following is true: (1) there are one or more tumors in both lungs; (2) cancer is found in fluid around the lungs or the heart; and/or (3) cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, or bone.

stage IV nonmelanoma skin cancer    listen   (… non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser)
The tumor is any size and may have spread to the jaw, eye socket, or side of the skull. Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor and the affected node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or cancer has spread to more than one lymph node on one or both sides of the body and the affected nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or, the tumor is any size and may have spread to the jaw, eye socket, skull, spine, or ribs. Cancer has spread to one lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters; or, the tumor is any size and has spread to the base of the skull, spine, or ribs. Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes; or, cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung.

stage IV nonmelanoma skin cancer on the eyelid    listen   (... non-MEH-luh-NOH-muh skin KAN-ser ... I-lid)
The tumor has spread to distant parts of the body.

stage IV oropharyngeal cancer    listen   (... OR-oh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV oropharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to the larynx, front part of the roof of the mouth, lower jaw, or muscles that move the tongue or are used for chewing. Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor (the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters) or to more than one lymph node anywhere in the neck (the lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller), and one of the following is true: (1) tumor in the oropharynx is any size and may have spread to the epiglottis (the flap that covers the trachea during swallowing); or (2) tumor has spread to the larynx, front part of the roof of the mouth, lower jaw, or muscles that move the tongue or are used for chewing. In stage IVB, the tumor (1) surrounds the carotid artery or has spread to the muscle that opens the jaw, the bone attached to the muscles that move the jaw, nasopharynx, or base of the skull. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes, which can be any size; or (2) may be any size and has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters. In stage IVC, the tumor may be any size and has spread beyond the oropharynx to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver.

stage IV ovarian epithelial cancer    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un EH-pih-THEE-lee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the abdomen to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or tissue inside the liver. Cancer cells in the fluid around the lungs is also considered stage IV ovarian cancer.

stage IV ovarian germ cell tumor    listen   (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Cancer has spread beyond the abdomen to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or tissue inside the liver. Cancer cells in the fluid around the lungs is also considered stage IV ovarian cancer.

stage IV ovarian low malignant potential tumor    listen   (… oh-VAYR-ee-un...muh-LIG-nunt poh-TEN-shul TOO-mer)
Tumor cells have spread beyond the abdomen to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or tissue inside the liver. Tumor cells in the fluid around the lungs is also considered stage IV disease. Ovarian low malignant potential tumors almost never reach stage IV.

stage IV pancreatic cancer    listen   (... PAN-kree-A-tik KAN-ser)
Cancer may be of any size and has spread to distant organs, such as the liver, lung, and peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen), and may have also spread to organs and tissues near the pancreas or to lymph nodes.

stage IV penile cancer    listen   (... PEE-nile KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread (1) to tissues near the penis, such as the prostate, and may have spread to lymph nodes in the groin or pelvis; or (2) to one or more lymph nodes in the pelvis, or from the lymph nodes to the tissues around the lymph nodes; or (3) to distant parts of the body.

stage IV perihilar extrahepatic bile duct cancer    listen   (... PAYR-ee-HY-ler EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, the tumor may have spread to nearby lymph nodes and has spread to one or more of the following: (1) the main part of the portal vein or both branches of the portal vein; (2) the hepatic artery; (3) the right and left hepatic ducts; (4) the right hepatic duct and the left branch of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein; and/or (5) the left hepatic duct and the right branch of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein. In stage IVB, the tumor has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver.

stage IV prostate cancer    listen   (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) has spread beyond the seminal vesicles to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall; or (2) has spread to nearby lymph nodes and may have spread to the seminal vesicles or to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall; or (3) has spread to distant parts of the body, which may include lymph nodes or bones. Also, the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10.

stage IV renal cell cancer    listen   (... REE-nul sel KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread (1) beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may be found in the adrenal gland above the kidney with cancer, or in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) to other organs, such as the lungs, liver, bones, or brain, and may have spread to lymph nodes. Also called stage IV kidney cancer.

stage IV salivary gland cancer    listen   ((...SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland KAN-ser)
Stage IV salivary gland cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, (1) the tumor may be any size and may have spread to soft tissue around the affected gland. Cancer has spread to a single lymph node on the same side as the tumor and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or has spread to more than one lymph node on either or both sides of the body and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or (2) cancer has spread to the skin, jawbone, ear canal, and/or facial nerve, and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on either or both sides of the body; the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters. In stage IVB, (1) the tumor may be any size and may have spread to soft tissue around the affected gland. Cancer has spread to a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters; or (2) cancer has spread to the base of the skull and/or the carotid artery, and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes of any size on either or both sides of the body. In stage IVC, the tumor may be any size and may have spread to soft tissue around the affected gland, to the skin, jawbone, ear canal, facial nerve, base of the skull, or carotid artery, or to one or more lymph nodes on either or both sides of the body. Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

stage IV Sezary syndrome    listen   (... say-zah-REE SIN-drome)
Most of the skin is reddened and covered with patches, papules, plaques, or tumors. There is a high level of cancerous lymphocytes in the blood. Lymph nodes may be enlarged and cancer may have spread to them.

stage IV soft tissue sarcoma    listen   (...TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
The tumor is any grade, any size, and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs.

stage IV thymoma    listen   (... thy-MOH-muh)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, cancer has spread widely around the lungs and heart. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to the blood or lymph system.

stage IV transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter    listen   (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus ... YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread to at least one of the following: (1) a nearby organ; (2) the layer of fat surrounding the kidney; (3) one or more lymph nodes; and/or (4) distant parts of the body, such as the lung, liver, or bone.

stage IV uterine sarcoma    listen   (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis. Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to the bladder and/or bowel wall. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body beyond the pelvis, including the abdomen and/or lymph nodes in the groin.

stage IV vaginal cancer    listen   (...VA-jih-nul KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, cancer may have spread to one or more of the following areas: (1) the lining of the bladder; (2) the lining of the rectum; and/or (3) beyond the area of the pelvis that has the bladder, uterus, ovaries, and cervix. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to parts of the body that are not near the vagina, such as the lung or bone.

stage IV vulvar cancer    listen   (... VUL-ver KAN-ser)
The tumor has spread into the upper part of the urethra, the upper part of the vagina, or to other parts of the body. Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, (1) cancer has spread into the lining of the upper urethra, the upper vagina, the bladder, or the rectum, or has attached to the pelvic bone; or (2) cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and the lymph nodes are not moveable or have formed an ulcer. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis or to other parts of the body.

stage IV Wilms tumor    listen   (… wilmz TOO-mer)
Cancer has spread through the blood to organs such as the lungs, liver, bone, or brain, or to lymph nodes outside of the abdomen and pelvis (the part of the body between the hips).

stage IVA hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to cartilage around the thyroid or trachea, the bone under the tongue, the thyroid, or nearby soft tissue. Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor (the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters) or to lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (affected lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller), and one of the following is true: (1) cancer is found in one area of the hypopharynx and/or is 2 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer is found in more than one area of the hypopharynx or in nearby tissues, or is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx (voice box); or (3) cancer has spread to the larynx or esophagus and is more than 4 centimeters; or (4) cancer has spread to cartilage around the thyroid or trachea, the bone under the tongue, the thyroid, or nearby soft tissue.

stage IVA laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, stage IVB, and stage IVC. In stage IVA, (1) cancer has spread through the thyroid cartilage and/or has spread to tissues beyond the larynx, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or has spread to more than one lymph node anywhere in the neck with none larger than 6 centimeters; cancer may have spread to tissues beyond the larynx, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus. The vocal cords may not move normally.

stage IVA lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, (1) the tumor has spread through tissue in the lip or oral cavity into nearby tissue and/or bone (jaw, tongue, floor of mouth, maxillary sinus, or skin of chin or nose); cancer may have spread to one lymph node that is 3 centimeters or smaller, on the same side of the neck as the tumor; or (2) the tumor is any size or has spread through tissue in the lip or oral cavity into nearby tissue and/or bone (jaw, tongue, floor of mouth, maxillary sinus, or skin of chin or nose). Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the tumor and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters, or to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck as the tumor or on both sides of the neck, and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters.

stage IVA maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV maxillary sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters; or to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck as the original tumor or on both sides of the neck, and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters, and cancer has also spread to any of the following: the lining of the maxillary sinus, bones around the maxillary sinus (including the roof of the mouth and the nose), tissues under the skin, the eye socket, the base of the skull, and/or the ethmoid sinuses; or (2) has spread to any of the following: the front of the eye, skin of the cheek, base of the skull, behind the jaw, the bone between the eyes, and/or the sphenoid or frontal sinuses, and cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck.

stage IVA nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer (1) has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters; or to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the neck as the original tumor or on both sides of the neck, and the lymph nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters, and cancer has also spread to any of the following: the nasal cavity, ethmoid sinus, eye socket, maxillary sinus, roof of the mouth, and/or the bone between the eyes; or (2) has spread to any of the following: the front of the eye, skin of the nose or cheek, front parts of the skull, base of the skull, and/or the sphenoid or frontal sinuses, and cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck.

stage IVA pancreatic cancer    listen   (... PAN-kree-A-tik KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to organs that are near the pancreas (such as the stomach, spleen, or colon) but has not spread to distant organs (such as the liver or lungs).

stage IVB hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, the tumor (1) has spread to muscles around the upper part of the spinal column, the carotid artery, or the lining of the chest cavity and may have spread to lymph nodes, which can be any size; or (2) may be any size and has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters.

stage IVB laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, stage IVB, and stage IVC. In stage IVB, (1) cancer has spread to the space in front of the spinal column, surrounds the carotid artery, or has spread to parts of the chest; cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck and the lymph nodes may be any size; or (2) cancer has spread to a lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters and may have spread as far as the space in front of the spinal column, around the carotid artery, or to parts of the chest. The vocal cords may not move normally.

stage IVB lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, (1) the tumor may be any size and has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters; or (2) the tumor has spread further into the muscles or bones in the oral cavity, or to the base of the skull and/or the carotid artery. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck.

stage IVB maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV maxillary sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, cancer (1) has spread to any of the following: the back of the eye, brain, middle parts of the skull, nerves in the head that go to the brain, upper part of the throat behind the nose, and/or the base of the skull, and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck; or (2) is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus.

stage IVB nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, cancer (1) has spread to any of the following: the back of the eye, brain, middle parts of the skull, nerves in the head that go to the brain, upper part of the throat behind the nose, and/or the base of the skull, and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck; or (2) is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus.

stage IVB pancreatic cancer    listen   (... PAN-kree-A-tik KAN-ser)
Cancer of the pancreas in which the cancer has spread to distant organs (such as the liver or lungs).

stage IVC hypopharyngeal cancer    listen   (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, the tumor may be any size and has spread beyond the hypopharynx to other parts of the body.

stage IVC laryngeal cancer    listen   (... luh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, stage IVB, and stage IVC. In stage IVC, cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or bone.

stage IVC lip and oral cavity cancer    listen   (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAN-ser)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, the tumor has spread beyond the lip or oral cavity to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs. The tumor may be any size and may have spread to lymph nodes.

stage IVC maxillary sinus cancer    listen   (...MAK-sih-LAYR-ee SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV maxillary sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, cancer may be anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus, may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the maxillary sinus, such as the lungs.

stage IVC nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer    listen   (...NAY-zul KA-vih-tee…ETH-moyd SY-nus KAN-ser)
Stage IV nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, cancer may be found anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, such as the lungs.

stage V Wilms tumor    listen   (… wilmz TOO-mer)
Cancer cells are found in both kidneys when the disease is first diagnosed. Each kidney is staged separately as I, II, III, or IV.

staging    listen   (STAY-jing)
Performing exams and tests to learn the extent of the cancer within the body, especially whether the disease has spread from the original site to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan the best treatment.

staging system    listen   (STAY-jing SIS-tem)
A system that is used to describe the extent of cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread from where it started to nearby areas, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

stamina    listen   (STA-mih-nuh)
The energy and strength to endure physical activity, stress, or illness over time.

standard medical care    listen   (STAN-durd MEH-dih-kul kayr)
Treatment that is accepted by medical experts as a proper treatment for a certain type of disease and that is widely used by healthcare professionals. Also called best practice, standard of care, and standard therapy.

standard of care    listen   (STAN-durd ... kayr)
Treatment that is accepted by medical experts as a proper treatment for a certain type of disease and that is widely used by healthcare professionals. Also called best practice, standard medical care, and standard therapy.

Standard Operating Procedure    listen   (STAN-durd AH-puh-RAY-ting proh-SEE-jer)
Written instructions for doing a specific task in a certain way. In clinical trials, Standard Operating Procedures are set up to store records, collect data, screen and enroll subjects, and submit Institutional Review Board (IRB) applications and renewals. Also called SOP.

standard therapy    listen   (STAN-durd THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is accepted by medical experts as a proper treatment for a certain type of disease and that is widely used by healthcare professionals. Also called best practice, standard medical care, and standard of care.

Stanford V    listen   (STAN-furd …)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs mechlorethamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, bleomycin sulfate, etoposide phosphate, and prednisone and was developed at Stanford University. Also called Stanford V regimen.

Stanford V regimen    listen   (STAN-furd … REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs mechlorethamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, bleomycin sulfate, etoposide phosphate, and prednisone and was developed at Stanford University. Also called Stanford V.

starch    listen   (starch)
A substance found in plants. It contains sugar molecules joined chemically. It is found in high levels in foods such as potatoes, rice, corn, and wheat. It may be used as a dusting powder, a skin softener, a filler in medicine tablets, and a clothes stiffener.

statin    listen   (STA-tin)
Any of a group of drugs that lower the amount of cholesterol and certain fats in the blood. Statins inhibit a key enzyme that helps make cholesterol. Statin drugs are being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

statistically significant    listen   (stuh-TIS-tih-kuh-lee sig-NIH-fih-kunt)
Describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference is said to be statistically significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone. Also called significant.

stature    listen   (STA-cher)
The height of a person while standing.

staurosporine    listen   (STAW-roh-SPOR-een)
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkaloids. It is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

stavudine    listen   (STA-vyoo-deen)
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called nucleoside analogs. It is used to treat infection caused by viruses.

Stavzor    listen   (STAV-zore)
A drug used to treat epileptic seizures and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches. It is also being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme that cells need to grow and may cause cancer cells to die. It also blocks the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of anticonvulsant, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, antimaniacal, migraine headache prophylactic, and antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Depakene and valproic acid.

stellate    listen   (STEH-layt)
Star shaped.

stem cell    listen   (stem sel)
A cell from which other types of cells develop. For example, blood cells develop from blood-forming stem cells.

stem cell engraftment    listen   (stem sel en-GRAFT-ment)
A process in which transplanted stem cells travel through the blood to the bone marrow, where they begin to make new white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. It usually happens within 2 to 4 weeks after a stem cell transplant. The transplanted stem cells may come from a donor or from the patient.

stem cell factor    listen   (stem sel FAK-ter)
A substance that causes blood stem cells (cells from which other types of cells develop) to change into different types of blood cells and increases the number and actions of these cells in the blood. Stem cell factor is a type of cytokine and a type of growth factor. Also called kit ligand and SCF.

stem cell factor receptor    listen   (… sel FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter)
A protein found on the surface of many different types of cells. It binds to a substance called stem cell factor (SCF), which causes certain types of blood cells to grow. Stem cell factor receptor may also be found in higher than normal amounts, or in a changed form, on some types of cancer cells, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and melanoma. Measuring the amount of stem cell factor receptor in tumor tissue may help diagnose cancer and plan treatment. Stem cell factor receptor is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase and a type of tumor marker. Also called c-kit and CD117.

stem cell mobilization    listen   (stem sel MOH-bih-lih-ZAY-shun)
A process in which certain drugs are used to cause the movement of stem cells from the bone marrow into the blood. The stem cells can be collected and stored. They may be used later to replace the bone marrow during a stem cell transplant.

stem cell rescue    listen   (stem sel REH-skyoo)
A method of replacing blood-forming stem cells that were destroyed by treatment with high doses of anticancer drugs or radiation therapy. The stem cells help the bone marrow recover and make healthy blood cells. A stem cell rescue may allow more chemotherapy or radiation therapy to be given so that more cancer cells are killed. It is usually done using the patient’s own stem cells that were saved before treatment. Also called rescue transplant.

stem cell transplant    listen   (stem sel TRANZ-plant)
A method of replacing immature blood-forming cells in the bone marrow that have been destroyed by drugs, radiation, or disease. Stem cells are injected into the patient and make healthy blood cells. A stem cell transplant may be autologous (using a patient’s own stem cells that were saved before treatment), allogeneic (using stem cells donated by someone who is not an identical twin), or syngeneic (using stem cells donated by an identical twin).

Stemgen    listen   (STEM-jen)
A substance that causes blood stem cells (cells from which other types of cells develop) to change into different types of blood cells and increases the number and actions of these cells in the blood. It is being studied in the treatment of myelodysplasia. Stemgen is a type of recombinant stem cell growth factor. Also called ancestim, r-metHuSCF, and recombinant human methionyl stem cell factor.

stent    listen   (stent)
A device placed in a body structure (such as a blood vessel or the gastrointestinal tract) to keep the structure open.

stereotactic biopsy    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik BY-op-see)
A biopsy procedure that uses a computer and a 3-dimensional scanning device to find a tumor site and guide the removal of tissue for examination under a microscope.

stereotactic body radiation therapy    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik BAH-dee RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position a patient and precisely deliver radiation to tumors in the body (except the brain). The total dose of radiation is divided into smaller doses given over several days. This type of radiation therapy helps spare normal tissue.

stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik ... RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.

stereotactic injection    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik in-JEK-shun)
A procedure in which a computer and a 3-dimensional scanning device are used to inject anticancer drugs directly into a tumor.

stereotactic radiation therapy    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotactic radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.

stereotactic radiosurgery    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik RAY-dee-oh-SER-juh-ree)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called radiation surgery, radiosurgery, and stereotaxic radiosurgery.

stereotaxic radiation therapy    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-sik RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotaxic radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation therapy.

stereotaxic radiosurgery    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-sik RAY-dee-oh-SER-juh-ree)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called radiation surgery, radiosurgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery.

stereotaxis    listen   (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-sis)
Use of a computer and scanning devices to create 3-dimensional pictures. This method can be used to direct a biopsy, external radiation, or the insertion of radiation implants.

sterile    listen   (STAYR-il)
Unable to produce children. Also means free from germs.

sterile talc powder    listen   (STAYR-il POW-der)
A mineral, usually used in a powdered form. In cancer treatment, sterile talc powder is used to prevent pleural effusions (an abnormal collection of fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall). Sterile talc powder is inserted into the space, causing it to close up, so fluid cannot collect there. Also called talc.

sternum    listen   (STER-num)
The long flat bone that forms the center front of the chest wall. The sternum is attached to the collarbone and the first seven ribs. Also called breastbone.

steroid    listen   (STAYR-oyd)
Any of a group of lipids (fats) that have a certain chemical structure. Steroids occur naturally in plants and animals or they may be made in the laboratory. Examples of steroids include sex hormones, cholesterol, bile acids, and some drugs.

steroid cream    listen   (STAYR-oyd...)
A skin cream containing a type of drug that relieves swelling, itching, and inflammation.

steroid drug    listen   (STAYR-oyd ...)
A type of drug used to relieve swelling and inflammation. Some steroid drugs may also have antitumor effects.

steroid metabolism gene    listen   (STAYR-oyd meh-TA-buh-lih-zum jeen)
A type of gene that helps the body build up or break down steroids. Steroids may be made by the body (such as hormones and cholesterol) or made in a laboratory (such as drugs). A steroid metabolism gene called CYP17 is being studied in breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.

steroid therapy    listen   (STAYR-oyd THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with corticosteroid drugs to reduce swelling, pain, and other symptoms of inflammation.

STI571      
A drug used to treat different types of leukemia and other cancers of the blood, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, skin tumors called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and a rare condition called systemic mastocytosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. STI571 blocks the protein made by the bcr/abl oncogene. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Gleevec and imatinib mesylate.

Stivarga    listen   (stih-VAR-guh)
A drug used to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with other treatment. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that cannot be removed by surgery or have spread to other parts of the body and have not gotten better with other anticancer drugs. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Stivarga blocks the action of certain proteins, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Stivarga is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called regorafenib.

stoma    listen   (STOH-muh)
A surgically created opening from an area inside the body to the outside.

stomach    listen   (STUH-muk)
An organ that is part of the digestive system. The stomach helps digest food by mixing it with digestive juices and churning it into a thin liquid.

stomach acid stimulation test    listen   (STUH-muk A-sid STIM-yoo-LAY-shun …)
A test used to measure the amount of gastric acid made by the stomach. The patient receives an injection of the hormone gastrin or insulin. A tube is put through the nose or throat into the stomach and samples are taken from the stomach and sent to a laboratory for testing. Also called gastric acid secretion test and stomach acid test.

stomach acid test    listen   (STUH-muk A-sid …)
A test used to measure the amount of gastric acid made by the stomach. The patient receives an injection of the hormone gastrin or insulin. A tube is put through the nose or throat into the stomach and samples are taken from the stomach and sent to a laboratory for testing. Also called gastric acid secretion test and stomach acid stimulation test.

stomach cancer    listen   (STUH-muk KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Also called gastric cancer.

stomatitis    listen   (STOH-muh-TY-tis)
Inflammation or irritation of the mucous membranes in the mouth.

stool    listen   (stool)
The material in a bowel movement. Stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, mucus, and cells from the lining of the intestines. Also called feces.

stool guaiac test    listen   (stool GWY-ak …)
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards coated with a chemical substance called guaiac and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. A testing solution is put on the cards and the guaiac causes the stool sample to change color. If there is blood in the stool, the color changes very quickly. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called gFOBT, guaiac fecal occult blood test, and guaiac smear test.

stool test    listen   (stool test)
A test to check for hidden blood in the bowel movement.

straight colorectal anastomosis    listen   (strayt KOH-loh-REK-tul uh-NAS-toh-MOH-sis)
A surgical procedure in which the colon is attached directly to the remainder of the rectum after most of it has been removed during surgery for rectal cancer. This procedure is different from the J-pouch colorectal anastomosis because a pouch to store stool is not made from the colon before it is attached to the rectum.

streptavidin    listen   (strep-TA-vih-din)
A small bacterial protein that binds with high affinity to the vitamin biotin. This streptavidin-biotin combination can be used to link molecules such as radioisotopes and monoclonal antibodies together. These bound products have the property of being attracted to, and attaching to, cancer cells, rather than normal cells. The radiolabeled products are more easily removed from the body, thus decreasing their toxicity.

streptozocin    listen   (STREP-toh-ZOH-sin)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

stress    listen   (stres)
In medicine, the body’s response to physical, mental, or emotional pressure. Stress causes chemical changes in the body that can raise blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar levels. It may also lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, anger, or depression. Stress can be caused by normal life activities or by an event, such as trauma or illness. Long-term stress or high levels of stress may lead to mental and physical health problems.

stress protein    listen   (... PROH-teen)
One of a group of proteins that help protect cells from stresses such as heat, cold, and low amounts of oxygen or glucose (sugar). Stress proteins help other proteins function in normal cells and may be present at high levels in cancer cells. Blocking the activity of a stress protein called HSP90 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Other stress proteins including HSP70 and gp96 are being studied in vaccines to treat cancer. Also called heat-shock protein and HSP.

stroke    listen   (stroke)
In medicine, a loss of blood flow to part of the brain, which damages brain tissue. Strokes are caused by blood clots and broken blood vessels in the brain. Symptoms include dizziness, numbness, weakness on one side of the body, and problems with talking, writing, or understanding language. The risk of stroke is increased by high blood pressure, older age, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, atherosclerosis (a buildup of fatty material and plaque inside the coronary arteries), and a family history of stroke. Also called cerebrovascular accident and CVA.

Stromagen    listen   (stroh-MUH-jen)
A product that is made of special stem cells taken from a patient’s bone marrow and grown in the laboratory. After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow. Stromagen has been studied in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during stem cell transplant in patients receiving treatment for cancer. Stromagen is used in cellular therapy. Also called autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010.

stromal cell    listen   (STROH-mul sel)
A type of cell that makes up certain types of connective tissue (supporting tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs).

stromal tumor    listen   (STROH-mal TOO-mer)
A tumor that arises in the supporting connective tissue of an organ.

strontium    listen   (STRON-shee-um)
A metal often used in a radioactive form for imaging tests and in the treatment of cancer.

strontium chloride Sr 89    listen   (STRON-shee-um KLOR-ide …)
A salt form of the radioactive metal strontium-89 that is absorbed by a part of growing bone. It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bone.

strontium ranelate    listen   (STRON-shee-um RAN-eh-layt)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Strontium ranelate helps new bone tissue to grow and decreases bone loss. This lowers the risk of bone fractures.

strontium-89    listen   (STRON-shee-um…)
A radioactive form of the metal strontium that is taken up by a part of growing bone. It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by some types of cancer.

study agent    listen   (STUH-dee AY-jent)
A medicine, vitamin, mineral, food supplement, or a combination of them that is being tested in a clinical trial.

Sturge-Weber syndrome    listen   (sterj-VAY-ber SIN-drome)
A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma. Also called SWS.

SU006668      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SU006668 blocks proteins involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called orantinib and SU6668.

SU011248      
A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SU011248 stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU11248, sunitinib, sunitinib malate, and Sutent.

SU101      
An anticancer drug that works by inhibiting a cancer cell growth factor. Also called leflunomide.

SU11248      
A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SU11248 stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU011248, sunitinib, sunitinib malate, and Sutent.

SU5416      
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called semaxanib.

SU6668      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SU6668 blocks proteins involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called orantinib and SU006668.

subarachnoid block    listen   (sub-uh-RAK-noyd blok)
A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called SAB, spinal anesthesia, and spinal block.

subcutaneous    listen   (SUB-kyoo-TAY-nee-us)
Beneath the skin.

subcutaneous port    listen   (SUB-kyoo-TAY-nee-us ...)
A tube surgically placed into a blood vessel and attached to a disk placed under the skin. It is used for the administration of intravenous fluids and drugs; it can also be used to obtain blood samples.

subependymal    listen   (SUB-eh-PEN-dih-mul)
Describes the layer of cells just under the ependyma (the thin membrane that lines the fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord).

subependymal giant cell astrocytoma    listen   (SUB-eh-PEN-dih-mul JY-unt sel AS-troh-sy-TOH-muh)
A benign (not cancer), slow-growing tumor that usually forms in the walls of fluid-filled spaces in the brain. The tumors are made up of large, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis (an inherited disorder in which benign tumors form in the brain and other parts of the body). Also called SEGA.

suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid    listen   (SOO-beh-royl-AN-ih-lide hy-drok-SA-mik A-sid)
A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called SAHA, vorinostat, and Zolinza.

subglottis    listen   (SUB-glah-tis)
The lowest part of the larynx; the area from just below the vocal cords down to the top of the trachea.

subjective improvement    listen   (sub-JEK-tiv im-PROOV-ment)
An improvement that is reported by the patient, but cannot be measured by the healthcare provider (for example, "I feel better").

submucosa    listen   (sub-myoo-KOH-suh)
The layer of tissue under the mucosa (inner lining of some organs and body cavities that makes mucus).

subserosa    listen   (sub-seh-ROH-suh)
The layer of tissue under the serosa (outer lining of some organs and body cavities).

subset analysis    listen   (... uh-NA-lih-sis)
In a clinical study, the evaluation of results for some but not all of the patients who participated. The selected patients have one or more characteristics in common, such as the same stage of disease or the same hormone receptor status.

substance abuse    listen   (SUB-stunts uh-BYOOS)
The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs or alcohol for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Substance abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

subtenon    listen   (SUB-teh-non)
Used to describe injections through the membrane covering the muscles and nerves at the back of the eyeball.

subtotal hysterectomy    listen   (sub-TOH-tul HIS-teh-REK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the uterus, but not the cervix. Also called partial hysterectomy.

sucralfate    listen   (soo-KRAL-fayt)
A drug used to treat ulcers. It adheres to proteins at the ulcer site and forms a protective coating over the ulcer. Sucralfate is also used to treat mucositis.

suction aspiration    listen   (SUK-shun AS-pih-RAY-shun)
A surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated (opened) and vacuum is used to remove tissue from the uterus. Also called suction evacuation and vacuum aspiration.

suction evacuation    listen   (SUK-shun ee-VA-kyoo-A-shun)
A surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated (opened) and vacuum is used to remove tissue from the uterus. Also called suction aspiration and vacuum aspiration.

sudden infant death syndrome    listen   (suh-DEN in-FUNT deth SIN-drome)
A disorder marked by the sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep. The cause of sudden infant death syndrome is not known. Also called crib death and SIDS.

suicide    listen   (SOO-ih-SIDE)
The act of taking one's own life on purpose.

sulfa drug    listen   (SUL-fuh ...)
A type of antibiotic used to treat infection. Also called sulfonamide.

sulfonamide    listen   (sul-FAH-nuh-mide)
A type of antibiotic used to treat infection. Also called sulfa drug.

sulfuric acid    listen   (sul-FYUR-ik A-sid)
A strong acid that, when concentrated, is extremely corrosive to the skin and mucous membranes. It is used in making fertilizers, dyes, electroplating, and industrial explosives.

sulindac    listen   (SUL-in-dak)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

sun protection factor    listen   (... proh-TEK-shun FAK-ter)
A scale for rating the level of sunburn protection in sunscreen products. The higher the sun protection factor, the more sunburn protection it gives. Sunscreens with a value of 2 through 11 give minimal protection against sunburns. Sunscreens with a value of 12 through 29 give moderate protection. Sun protection factors of 30 or higher give high protection against sunburn. Also called SPF.

Sun's Soup    listen   (sunz soop)
A mixture of vegetables and other edible plants that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. The vegetables include soybean, shiitake mushroom, mung bean, red date, scallion, garlic, leek, lentil, Hawthorn fruit, onion, ginseng, Angelica root, licorice, dandelion root, senega root, ginger, olive, sesame seed, and parsley. Sun’s Soup is available in the United States as a dietary supplement.

sunitinib    listen   (soo-NIH-tih-nib)
A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sunitinib stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU011248, SU11248, sunitinib malate, and Sutent.

sunitinib malate    listen   (soo-NIH-tih-nib MA-layt)
A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sunitinib malate stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU011248, SU11248, sunitinib, and Sutent.

sunscreen    listen   (SUN-skreen)
A substance that helps protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays. Sunscreens reflect, absorb, and scatter both ultraviolet A and B radiation to provide protection against both types of radiation. Using lotions, creams, or gels that contain sunscreens can help protect the skin from premature aging and damage that may lead to skin cancer.

superficial    listen   (SOO-per-FIH-shul)
Affecting cells on the surface. Not invasive.

superfractionated radiation therapy    listen   (SOO-per FRAK-shuh-NAY-ted RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
Radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into small doses and treatments are given more than once a day. Superfractionated radiation therapy is given over the same period of time (days or weeks) as standard radiation therapy. Also called hyperfractionated radiation therapy.

superior vena cava    listen   (soo-PEER-ee-er VEE-nuh KAY-vuh)
The large vein that carries blood from the head, neck, arms, and chest to the heart.

superior vena cava syndrome    listen   (soo-PEER-ee-er VEE-nuh KAY-vuh SIN-drome)
A condition in which a tumor presses against the superior vena cava (the large vein that carries blood from the head, neck, arms, and chest to the heart). This pressure blocks blood flow to the heart and may cause coughing, difficulty in breathing, and swelling of the face, neck, and upper arms.

supplemental nutrition    listen   (SUH-pleh-MEN-tul noo-TRIH-shun)
A substance or product that is added to a person’s diet to make sure they get all the nutrients they need. It may include vitamins, minerals, protein, or fat, and may be given by mouth, by tube feeding, or into a vein.

supplemental oxygen therapy    listen   (SUH-pleh-MEN-tul OK-sih-jen THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment in which a storage tank of oxygen or a machine called a compressor is used to give oxygen to people with breathing problems. It may be given through a nose tube, a mask, or a tent. The extra oxygen is breathed in along with normal air. Also called oxygen therapy.

supplementation    listen   (SUH-pleh-men-TAY-shun)
Adding nutrients to the diet.

support group    listen   (suh-PORT groop)
A group of people with similar disease or concerns who help each other cope by sharing experiences and information.

supportive care    listen   (suh-POR-tiv kayr)
Care given to improve the quality of life of patients who have a serious or life-threatening disease. The goal of supportive care is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of a disease, side effects caused by treatment of a disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to a disease or its treatment. Also called comfort care, palliative care, and symptom management.

suppository    listen   (suh-PAH-zih-TOR-ee)
A form of medicine contained in a small piece of solid material, such as cocoa butter or glycerin, that melts at body temperature. A suppository is inserted into the rectum, vagina, or urethra and the medicine is absorbed into the bloodstream.

suppressor T cell    listen   (suh-PREH-ser T sel)
A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active. Suppressor T cells are being studied in the treatment of cancer. A suppressor T cell is a type of white blood cell and a type of lymphocyte. Also called regulatory T cell, T reg, and T-regulatory cell.

supraclavicular lymph node    listen   (SOO-pruh-kla-VIH-kyuh-ler...)
A lymph node located above the clavicle (collarbone).

supraglottic laryngectomy    listen   (SOO-pruh-GLAH-tik LAYR-in-JEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove the supraglottis, which is part of the larynx (voice box) above the vocal cords.

supraglottis    listen   (SOO-pruh-GLAH-tis)
The upper part of the larynx (voice box), including the epiglottis; the area above the vocal cords.

suprarenal gland    listen   (SOO-pruh-REE-nul...)
A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These hormones help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two suprarenal glands, one on top of each kidney. Also called adrenal gland.

supratentorial    listen   (soo-pruh-ten-TOR-ee-ul)
Having to do with the upper part of the brain.

suramin    listen   (SOO-ruh-min)
A drug that is used to treat infections caused by parasites. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called antiprotozoals and anthelmintics.

surface electrode    listen   (SER-fus ee-LEK-trode)
A small device that is attached to the skin to measure or cause electrical activity in the tissue under it. Surface electrodes may be used to look for problems with muscles and nerves.

surgeon    listen   (SER-jun)
A doctor who removes or repairs a part of the body by operating on the patient.

Surgeon General    listen   (SER-jun JEH-neh-rul)
The chief medical doctor and health educator for the United States. The mission of the U.S. Surgeon General is to give the public the best scientific information available on how to improve health and lower the risk of illness and injury. The U.S. Surgeon General oversees the U.S. Public Health Service and is chosen by the U.S. President. Each state public health agency and branch of the U.S. military also has its own Surgeon General. The office of the U.S. Surgeon General is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

surgery    listen   (SER-juh-ree)
A procedure to remove or repair a part of the body or to find out whether disease is present. An operation.

surgical biopsy    listen   (SER-jih-kul BY-op-see)
The removal of tissue by a surgeon for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope.

surgical castration    listen   (SER-jih-kul kas-TRAY-shun)
Surgical removal of the testicles (orchiectomy) or ovaries (oophorectomy) to stop the production of sex hormones. Decreasing the levels of hormones may stop the growth of certain cancers.

surgical menopause    listen   (SER-jih-kul MEH-nuh-pawz)
Describes a stop in a woman’s menstrual periods that is caused by surgery to remove her ovaries. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility.

surgical oncologist    listen   (SER-jih-kul on-KAH-loh-jist)
A doctor who performs biopsies and other surgical procedures in cancer patients.

surrogate endpoint    listen   (SER-uh-gut END-poynt)
In clinical trials, an indicator or sign used in place of another to tell if a treatment works. Surrogate endpoints include a shrinking tumor or lower biomarker levels. They may be used instead of stronger indicators, such as longer survival or improved quality of life, because the results of the trial can be measured sooner. The use of surrogate endpoints in clinical trials may allow earlier approval of new drugs to treat serious or life-threatening diseases, such as cancer. Surrogate endpoints are not always true indicators or signs of how well a treatment works.

surveillance    listen   (ser-VAY-lents)
In medicine, closely watching a patient’s condition but not treating it unless there are changes in test results. Surveillance is also used to find early signs that a disease has come back. It may also be used for a person who has an increased risk of a disease, such as cancer. During surveillance, certain exams and tests are done on a regular schedule. In public health, surveillance may also refer to the ongoing collection of information about a disease, such as cancer, in a certain group of people. The information collected may include where the disease occurs in a population and whether it affects people of a certain gender, age, or ethnic group.

survival rate    listen   (ser-VY-vul ...)
The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are still alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or started treatment for a disease, such as cancer. The survival rate is often stated as a five-year survival rate, which is the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive five years after their diagnosis or the start of treatment. Also called overall survival rate.

survivor    listen   (ser-VY-ver)
One who remains alive and continues to function during and after overcoming a serious hardship or life-threatening disease. In cancer, a person is considered to be a survivor from the time of diagnosis until the end of life.

survivorship    listen   (ser-VY-ver-ship)
In cancer, survivorship focuses on the health and life of a person with cancer post treatment until the end of life. It covers the physical, psychosocial, and economic issues of cancer, beyond the diagnosis and treatment phases. Survivorship includes issues related to the ability to get health care and follow-up treatment, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life. Family members, friends, and caregivers are also considered part of the survivorship experience.

Sustiva    listen   (suh-STEE-vuh)
A drug used with other drugs to treat infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It blocks HIV from making copies of itself. It is a type of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a type of antiviral agent. Also called efavirenz.

Sutent    listen   (SOO-tent)
A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sutent stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU011248, SU11248, sunitinib, and sunitinib malate.

SV40      
Simian virus 40. A virus that infects some types of monkeys. It may also infect humans, and was found in some polio vaccines tested in the early 1960s. Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people. Also called simian virus 40.

SVV-001      
A virus being studied in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors and other types of cancer. Neuroendocrine tumors form from cells that release hormones in response to a signal from the nervous system. The virus infects and breaks down these tumor cells but not normal cells. It is a type of oncolytic virus. Also called NTX-010 and Seneca Valley virus-001.

sweet elm    listen   (sweet elm)
The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called gray elm, Indian elm, red elm, slippery elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

SWS      
A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma. Also called Sturge-Weber syndrome.

Syk kinase inhibitor R-935788    listen   (sik KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter …)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer and certain other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. It may block tumor cell signaling and growth. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called fostamatinib disodium and R788 sodium.

Sylatron    listen   (SY-luh-tron)
A drug used to treat melanoma in patients who have had surgery to remove cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sylatron is a brand name for peginterferon alfa-2b. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier.

Sylvant    listen   (SIL-vant)
A drug used to treat a rare condition called Castleman disease in patients who do not have HIV or human herpesvirus 8. It is also being studied in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Sylvant binds to a protein called interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is made by some white blood cells and other cells in the body. Sylvant may help reduce inflammation and stop the growth of cancer cells or abnormal blood cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-IL-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody, cCLB8, CNTO 328, and siltuximab.

sympathetic nervous system    listen   (SIM-puh-THEH-tik NER-vus SIS-tem)
The part of the nervous system that increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and pupil size. It also causes blood vessels to narrow and decreases digestive juices.

symptom    listen   (SIMP-tum)
A physical or mental problem that a person experiences that may indicate a disease or condition. Symptoms cannot be seen and do not show up on medical tests. Some examples of symptoms are headache, fatigue, nausea, and pain.

symptom management    listen   (SIMP-tum MA-nij-ment)
Care given to improve the quality of life of patients who have a serious or life-threatening disease. The goal of symptom management is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of a disease, side effects caused by treatment of a disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to a disease or its treatment. Also called comfort care, palliative care, and supportive care.

symptomatic    listen   (SIMP-toh-MA-tik)
Having to do with symptoms, which are signs of a condition or disease.

synapse    listen   (SIH-naps)
The space between the end of a nerve cell and another cell. Nerve impulses are usually carried to the neighboring cell by chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are released by the nerve cell and are taken up by another cell on the other side of the synapse. The neighboring cell may be another nerve cell, a muscle cell, or a gland cell.

syncytium    listen   (sin-SIH-shee-um)
A large cell-like structure formed by the joining together of two or more cells. The plural is syncytia.

syndrome    listen   (SIN-drome)
A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.

synergistic    listen   (SIH-ner-JIS-tik)
In medicine, describes the interaction of two or more drugs when their combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects seen when each drug is given alone.

syngeneic    listen   (SIN-jeh-NAY-ik)
Having to do with individuals or tissues that have identical genes. For example, identical twins and cells and tissues from them are syngeneic.

syngeneic bone marrow transplantation    listen   (SIN-jeh-NAY-ik bone MAYR-oh tranz-plan-TAY-shun)
A procedure in which a person receives bone marrow donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

syngeneic stem cell transplantation    listen   (SIN-jeh-NAY-ik stem sel tranz-plan-TAY-shun)
A procedure in which a patient receives blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

synovial membrane    listen   (sih-NOH-vee-ul MEM-brayn)
A layer of connective tissue that lines the cavities of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae (fluid-filled sacs between tendons and bones). The synovial membrane makes synovial fluid, which has a lubricating function.

synovial sarcoma    listen   (sih-NOH-vee-ul sar-KOH-muh)
A malignant tumor that develops in the synovial membrane of the joints.

Synovir    listen   (SIH-noh-veer)
A drug used with another drug to treat multiple myeloma in patients who have just been diagnosed. It is also used to treat a painful skin disease related to leprosy. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Synovir may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of immunomodulating agent. Also called thalidomide and Thalomid.

synovitis    listen   (SIH-noh-VY-tis)
Inflammation (swelling, pain, and warmth) of a synovial membrane, which is a layer of connective tissue that lines a joint, such as the hip, knee, ankle, or shoulder. Synovitis is caused by some types of arthritis and other diseases.

Synribo    listen   (sin-RY-boh)
A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) that have not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Synribo blocks certain proteins involved in cancer cell growth and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of plant alkaloid. Also called homoharringtonine and omacetaxine mepesuccinate.

synthetic    listen   (sin-THEH-tik)
Having to do with substances that are man-made instead of taken from nature.

synthetic human secretin    listen   (sin-THEH-tik HYOO-mun seh-KREE-tin)
A drug used to help diagnose gastrinomas (tumors that cause too much gastric acid to be made) and other problems with the pancreas. It is also used to increase secretions from the pancreas and to help identify a duct called the ampulla of Vater. Synthetic human secretin is a form of secretin that is made in the laboratory. Secretin causes the pancreas, liver, and stomach to release substances that help digest food. Also called ChiRhoStim and secretin human.

synthetic protegrin analog    listen   (sin-THEH-tik proh-TEH-grin A-nuh-log)
A form of a protegrin that is made in the laboratory. Protegrins kill certain bacteria, fungi, and viruses by making holes in their outer membranes and causing them to burst. Synthetic protegrin analogs, such as iseganan, are being studied in the treatment of oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by radiation therapy. It is a type of synthetic antimicrobial peptide.

synthetic retinoid    listen   (sin-THEH-tik REH-tih-noyd)
A substance related to vitamin A that is produced in a laboratory.

syringe    listen   (suh-RINJ)
A small hollow tube used for injecting or withdrawing liquids. It may be attached to a needle in order to withdraw fluid from the body or inject drugs into the body.

systemic    listen   (sis-TEH-mik)
Affecting the entire body.

systemic chemotherapy    listen   (sis-TEH-mik KEE-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with anticancer drugs that travel through the blood to cells all over the body.

systemic disease    listen   (sis-TEH-mik dih-ZEEZ)
Disease that affects the whole body.

systemic inflammatory response syndrome    listen   (sis-TEH-mik in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee reh-SPONTS SIN-drome)
A serious condition in which there is inflammation throughout the whole body. It may be caused by a severe bacterial infection (sepsis), trauma, or pancreatitis. It is marked by fast heart rate, low blood pressure, low or high body temperature, and low or high white blood cell count. The condition may lead to multiple organ failure and shock. Also called SIRS.

systemic lupus erythematosus    listen   (sis-TEH-mik LOO-pus AYR-ih-THEE-muh-TOH-sus)
A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect the joints and many organs, including the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system. It can cause many different symptoms; however, not everyone with systemic lupus erythematosus has all of the symptoms. Also called lupus and SLE.

systemic mastocytosis    listen   (sis-TEH-mik MAS-toh-sy-TOH-sis)
A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. Mast cells give off chemicals such as histamine that can cause flushing (a hot, red face), itching, abdominal cramps, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, and shock.

systemic radiation therapy    listen   (sis-TEH-mik RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy in which a radioactive substance, such as radioactive iodine or a radioactively labeled monoclonal antibody, is swallowed or injected into the body and travels through the blood, locating and killing tumor cells.

systemic scleroderma    listen   (sis-TEH-mik SKLAYR-oh-DER-muh)
A disease that is marked by hardening and thickening of skin, connective tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs, and blood vessels. Also called systemic sclerosis.

systemic sclerosis    listen   (sis-TEH-mik skleh-ROH-sis)
A disease that is marked by hardening and thickening of skin, connective tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs, and blood vessels. Also called systemic scleroderma.

systemic therapy    listen   (sis-TEH-mik THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment using substances that travel through the bloodstream, reaching and affecting cells all over the body.

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