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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


423 results found for:       T



T cell    listen   (... sel)
A type of white blood cell. T cells are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T lymphocyte and thymocyte.

T lymphocyte    listen   (… LIM-foh-site)
A type of white blood cell. T lymphocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T cell and thymocyte.

T reg    listen   (... reg)
A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active. T regs are being studied in the treatment of cancer. A T reg is a type of white blood cell and a type of lymphocyte. Also called regulatory T cell, suppressor T cell, and T-regulatory cell.

t test    listen   (... test)
A statistical test that is used to find out if there is a real difference between the means (averages) of two different groups. It is sometimes used to see if there is a significant difference in response to treatment between groups in a clinical trial.

T-3      
A thyroid hormone. Also called triiodothyronine.

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia    listen   (T-sel uh-KYOOT LIM-foh-BLAS-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
An aggressive (fast-growing) type of leukemia (blood cancer) in which too many T-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called precursor T-lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.

T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia    listen   (T-sel uh-KYOOT LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
An aggressive (fast-growing) type of leukemia (blood cancer) in which too many T-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the bone marrow and blood. Also called precursor T-lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

T-cell depletion    listen   (... sel dih-PLEE-shun)
Treatment to destroy T cells, which play an important role in the immune response. Elimination of T cells from a bone marrow graft from a donor may reduce the chance of an immune reaction against the recipient's tissues.

T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia    listen   (… sel larj GRAN-yoo-lur LIM-foh-site loo-KEE-mee-uh)
A type of leukemia in which large T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that contain granules (small particles) are found in the blood. It is a chronic disease that may last for a long time and get worse. Also called T-LGL leukemia.

T-cell lymphoma    listen   (... sel lim-FOH-muh)
A type of cancer that forms in T cells (a type of immune system cell). T-cell lymphomas may be either indolent (slow-growing) or aggressive (fast-growing). Most T-cell lymphomas are non-Hodgkin lymphomas. There are many different types of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. These include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Prognosis and treatment depend on type and stage of the cancer.

T-DM1      
A drug used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients who have already been treated with the anticancer drug called trastuzumab and a type of drug called a taxane. It may also be used in patients whose cancer has recurred (come back) after adjuvant therapy with these drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. T-DM1 contains a monoclonal antibody called trastuzumab that binds to a protein called HER2, which is found on some breast cancer cells. It also contains an anticancer drug called DM1, which may help kill cancer cells. T-DM1 is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. Also called ado-trastuzumab emtansine and Kadcyla.

T-LGL leukemia    listen   (... loo-KEE-mee-uh)
A type of leukemia in which large T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that contain granules (small particles) are found in the blood. It is a chronic disease that may last for a long time and get worse. Also called T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.

T-lymphoblastic lymphoma    listen   (T-LIM-foh-BLAS-tik lim-FOH-muh)
A type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which too many T-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the lymph nodes and spleen. It is most common in young men. Also called precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma.

T-regulatory cell    listen   (T-REH-gyoo-luh-TOR-ee sel)
A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active. T-regulatory cells are being studied in the treatment of cancer. A T-regulatory cell is a type of white blood cell and a type of lymphocyte. Also called regulatory T cell, suppressor T cell, and T reg.

T138067      
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors. It inhibits the growth of cancer cells by preventing cell division.

T4      
A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and contains iodine. T4 increases the rate of chemical reactions in cells and helps control growth and development. T4 can also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat thyroid disorders. Also called L-3,5,5’-tetraiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroxine.

T4N5 liposomal lotion    listen   (... LY-poh-SOH-mul LOH-shun)
A lotion being studied in the treatment of skin cancer and a skin condition called xeroderma pigmentosum. It has an enzyme contained in very tiny, fat-like particles. The enzyme repairs damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. T4N5 liposomal lotion is a type of DNA repair enzyme topical agent. Also called Dimericine.

T900607      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called tubulin-binding agents.

TAC      
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and cyclophosphamide. Also called TAC regimen.

TAC regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with other types of therapy to treat breast cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and cyclophosphamide. Also called TAC.

TAC-101      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called synthetic retinoids and angiogenesis inhibitors.

TACE    listen  
A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor is blocked after anticancer drugs are given in blood vessels near the tumor. Sometimes, the anticancer drugs are attached to small beads that are injected into an artery that feeds the tumor. The beads block blood flow to the tumor as they release the drug. This allows a higher amount of drug to reach the tumor for a longer period of time, which may kill more cancer cells. It also causes fewer side effects because very little of the drug reaches other parts of the body. TACE is used to treat liver cancer. Also called chemoembolization and transarterial chemoembolization.

tachycardia    listen   (TA-kih-KAR-dee-uh)
Rapid beating of the heart, usually defined as greater than 100 beats per minute.

tachypnea    listen   (TA-kip-NEE-uh)
Rapid breathing.

tacrolimus    listen   (tak-ROH-lih-mus)
A drug used to help reduce the risk of rejection by the body of organ and bone marrow transplants.

tadalafil    listen   (tuh-DA-luh-fil)
A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. It is also being studied in the treatment of sexual problems in patients treated with radiation or surgery for prostate cancer. Tadalafil blocks the action of a certain enzyme, which can result in increased blood flow to the penis, causing an erection. It is a type of cGMP phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor. Also called Cialis.

TAE      
A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor or an abnormal area of tissue is blocked. During TAE, a small incision (cut) is made in the inner thigh and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted and guided into an artery near the tumor or abnormal tissue. Once the catheter is in place, small particles made of tiny gelatin sponges or beads are injected. This blocks the artery and stops the flow of blood to the tumor or abnormal area of tissue. TAE is used to treat some types of liver cancer, kidney cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors. It may also be used to treat uterine fibroids, aneurysms, and other conditions. Also called arterial embolization and transarterial embolization.

Tafinlar    listen   (TA-fin-lar)
A drug used alone or with trametinib to treat melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients with a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called BRAF. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tafinlar blocks this mutated protein, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of targeted therapy. Also called dabrafenib.

TAG-72 antigen    listen   (... AN-tih-jen)
A protein/sugar complex found on the surface of many cancer cells, including breast, colon, and pancreatic cells.

tai chi    listen   (ty chee)
A form of traditional Chinese mind/body exercise and meditation that uses slow sets of body movements and controlled breathing. Tai chi is done to improve balance, flexibility, muscle strength, and overall health.

tailbone    listen   (TAYL-bone)
The small bone at the bottom of the spine. It is made up of 3-5 fused bones. Also called coccyx.

tailored intervention    listen   (TAY-lurd IN-ter-VEN-shun)
The use of communication, drugs, or other types of treatments that are specific for an individual or a group to improve health or change behavior.

talabostat    listen   (tal-A-boh-stat)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer, including certain types of lung, pancreas, and brain cancer. Talabostat may help the immune system block the growth of cancer cells. It may also increase the growth of new blood cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor. Also called PT-100 and talabostat mesylate.

talabostat mesylate    listen   (tal-A-boh-stat MEH-zih-layt)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer, including certain types of lung, pancreas, and brain cancer. Talabostat mesylate may help the immune system block the growth of cancer cells. It may also increase the growth of new blood cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor. Also called PT-100 and talabostat.

talactoferrin    listen   (tuh-LAK-toh-FAYR-in)
A drug being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Talactoferrin increases the activity of dendritic cells (a type of immune cell) to help kill cancer cells. It is a form of human lactoferrin (a protein found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells) that is made in the laboratory. Talactoferrin is a type of recombinant protein and a type of immunomodulatory protein. Also called talactoferrin alfa and TLF.

talactoferrin alfa    listen   (tuh-LAK-toh-FAYR-in AL-fuh)
A drug being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Talactoferrin alfa increases the activity of dendritic cells (a type of immune cell) to help kill cancer cells. It is a form of human lactoferrin (a protein found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells) that is made in the laboratory. Talactoferrin alfa is a type of recombinant protein and a type of immunomodulatory protein. Also called talactoferrin and TLF.

talampanel    listen   (tuh-LAM-puh-nel)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of brain tumors and other brain disorders, such as epilepsy and Parkinson disease. It is a type of AMPA receptor antagonist.

talaporfin sodium    listen   (ta-luh-POR-fin SOH-dee-um)
A drug used in photodynamic therapy. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light, the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells.

talc    listen  
A mineral, usually used in a powdered form. In cancer treatment, sterile talc is used to prevent pleural effusions (an abnormal collection of fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall). Talc is inserted into the space, causing it to close up, so fluid cannot collect there. Also called sterile talc powder.

talk therapy    listen   (...THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment of mental, emotional, personality, and behavioral disorders using methods such as discussion, listening, and counseling. Also called psychotherapy.

talotrexin    listen   (ta-loh-TREK-sin)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of leukemia and some other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antifolates.

Tamiflu    listen   (TA-mih-floo)
A drug used to prevent and to treat influenza virus infections. It blocks the release of the virus from infected cells. It is a type of antiviral agent. Also called oseltamivir phosphate.

tamoxifen    listen   (tuh-MOK-sih-FEN)
A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in women and men. It is also used to prevent breast cancer in women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells in the ducts of the breast) and in women who are at a high risk of developing breast cancer. Tamoxifen is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast. Tamoxifen is a type of antiestrogen. Also called tamoxifen citrate.

tamoxifen citrate    listen   (tuh-MOK-sih-FEN SIH-trayt)
A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in women and men. It is also used to prevent breast cancer in women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells in the ducts of the breast) and in women who are at a high risk of developing breast cancer. Tamoxifen citrate is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast. Tamoxifen citrate is a type of antiestrogen. Also called tamoxifen.

tamsulosin    listen   (tam-SOO-loh-sin)
A drug used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. Tamsulosin relaxes the muscles of the prostate and bladder, which helps the flow of urine. It is a type of alpha blocker. Also called Flomax and tamsulosin hydrochloride.

tamsulosin hydrochloride    listen   (tam-SOO-loh-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. Tamsulosin hydrochloride relaxes the muscles of the prostate and bladder, which helps the flow of urine. It is a type of alpha blocker. Also called Flomax and tamsulosin.

tandutinib    listen   (tan-DOO-tih-nib)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may stop cancer cell growth by blocking certain enzymes. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called CT53518 and MLN518.

tanespimycin    listen   (ta-NEH-spih-MY-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. Tanespimycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin.

tannic acid    listen   (TA-nik A-sid)
A type of chemical found in plants and in certain foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, wine, and tea. Tannic acid has antioxidant properties and may promote good health. It is being studied in the prevention of cancer, heart disease, and other diseases. It is also used in certain medicines, fabrics, leather, and ink. Tannic acid is a type of polyphenol. Also called tannin.

tannin    listen   (TA-nin)
A type of chemical found in plants and in certain foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, wine, and tea. Tannins have antioxidant properties and may promote good health. They are being studied in the prevention of cancer, heart disease, and other diseases. They are also used in certain medicines, fabrics, leather, and ink. A tannin is a type of polyphenol. Also called tannic acid.

tapentadol hydrochloride    listen   (tuh-PEN-tuh-dol HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat moderate to severe pain. It binds to opioid receptors and other molecules in the central nervous system. Tapentadol hydrochloride is a type of opioid and a type of analgesic agent. Also called Nucynta.

Tarceva    listen   (tar-SEE-vuh)
A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tarceva blocks a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called CP-358,774, erlotinib hydrochloride, and OSI-774.

targeted therapy    listen   (TAR-geh-ted THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific types of cancer cells with less harm to normal cells. Some targeted therapies block the action of certain enzymes, proteins, or other molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. Other types of targeted therapies help the immune system kill cancer cells or deliver toxic substances directly to cancer cells and kill them. Targeted therapy may have fewer side effects than other types of cancer treatment. Most targeted therapies are either small molecule drugs or monoclonal antibodies.

Targretin    listen   (tar-GREH-tin)
A drug used to treat skin problems caused by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that have not gotten better after other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Targretin is a type of retinoid. Also called bexarotene and LGD1069.

tariquidar    listen   (tar-IH-kwih-dar)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may help tumor cells respond again to drugs they have become resistant (unable to respond) to. Tariquidar is a type of multidrug resistance inhibitor and a type of P-glycoprotein antagonist. Also called XR9576.

Tarvacin    listen   (TAR-vuh-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer and infections caused by certain viruses. It binds to substances on the surface of tumor cells, certain viruses, and cells infected with a virus. The immune system detects Tarvacin on the cells and the viruses and may destroy them. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of targeted therapy agent. Also called bavituximab.

Tasigna    listen   (tuh-SIG-nuh)
A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It is used in some newly diagnosed patients. It is also used in patients who have not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs or who are not able to take imatinib mesylate. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tasigna blocks a protein called BCR-ABL, which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called nilotinib.

taurolidine    listen   (TAW-roh-LIH-deen)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called anti-infectives.

taxane    listen   (TAK-sayn)
A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). Taxanes interfere with microtubules (cellular structures that help move chromosomes during mitosis). They are used to treat cancer. A taxane is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent.

taxoid XRP6258    listen   (TAK-zoyd …)
A drug used with prednisone to treat hormone-resistant prostate cancer that has spread and that had been treated with docetaxel. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Taxoid XRP6258 blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimitotic agent. Also called cabazitaxel and Jevtana.

Taxol    listen   (TAK-sol)
A drug used to treat breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. It is also used together with another drug to treat non-small cell lung cancer. Taxol is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimitotic agent. Also called paclitaxel.

Taxotere    listen   (TAK-soh-teer)
A drug used to treat certain types of cancers of the breast, stomach, lung, prostate, and head and neck. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Taxotere kills cancer cells by stopping them from dividing. It is a type of taxane. Also called docetaxel.

Taxotere-Platinol-fluorouracil    listen   (TAK-soh-teer-PLA-tih-nol-floor-oh-YOOR-uh-sil)
A chemotherapy combination used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), cisplatin (Platinol), and fluorouracil. Also called DCF, docetaxel-cisplatin-fluorouracil, TPF, and TPF regimen.

tazarotene    listen   (ta-ZAR-oh-teen)
A drug used on the skin to treat several skin conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of basal cell skin cancer and basal cell nevus syndrome. Tazarotene is related to vitamin A and is made in the laboratory. It turns on a gene that may help stop the growth of skin cancer cells. Tazarotene is a type of synthetic retinoid. Also called Avage and Tazorac.

Tazorac    listen   (TAZ-oh-rak)
A drug used on the skin to treat several skin conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of basal cell skin cancer and basal cell nevus syndrome. Tazorac is related to vitamin A and is made in the laboratory. It turns on a gene that may help stop the growth of skin cancer cells. Tazorac is a type of synthetic retinoid. Also called Avage and tazarotene.

TB      
A disease caused by a specific type of bacteria that spreads from one person to another through the air. TB can affect many parts of the body, but most often affects the lungs. A person may not have symptoms of TB for years, but they may appear when the patient becomes ill with a serious condition like diabetes, AIDS, or cancer. TB can usually be treated and cured with antibiotics. Also called tuberculosis.

Tc 99m sulfur colloid    listen   (… SUL-fur KAH-loyd)
A substance being studied as a way to find cancer in the body. It is also used to find sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called sulfur colloid. Sulfer colloid is taken up by special cells in lymph tissue, and in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity is used to find where the Tc 99m sulfur colloid is in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc-99m SC and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid.

Tc-99m Dextran    listen   (... DEK-stran)
A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have Tc-99m Dextran in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 99m-Tc-Dx and technetium Tc 99m dextran.

Tc-99m SC      
A substance being studied as a way to find cancer in the body. It is also used to find sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called sulfur colloid. Sulfer colloid is taken up by special cells in lymph tissue, and in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity is used to find where the Tc-99m SC is in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc 99m sulfur colloid and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid.

TCE      
A device used to look at tissues in the esophagus. It is a tiny capsule with a laser scanner inside and a very thin cord attached to it. The patient swallows the capsule and the thin cord helps keep the capsule in a specific area in the esophagus. The cord is also used to remove the capsule. Pictures are taken by the laser scanner and sent to a computer for viewing. A TCE is used to find early cancers of the esophagus and other parts of the body. Also called tethered capsule endoscope.

TCGA      
A project to identify the complete set of DNA changes in many different types of cancer. Studying these changes may help researchers understand how different types of cancer form. This may lead to new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. TCGA is led by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), which are parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Also called The Cancer Genome Atlas.

TCM      
A medical system that has been used for thousands of years to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. It is based on the belief that qi (the body's vital energy) flows along meridians (channels) in the body and keeps a person’s spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical health in balance. TCM aims to restore the body’s balance and harmony between the natural opposing forces of yin and yang, which can block qi and cause disease. TCM includes acupuncture, diet, herbal therapy, meditation, physical exercise, and massage. Also called Oriental medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

tea tree    listen   (tee tree)
A tree that is a member of the myrtle family. Oil from the tea tree is used in shampoos and skin care products and to treat skin infections. It has been used in some cultures to treat other skin conditions, including acne, burns, and insect bites. The scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia.

technetium Tc 94m sestamibi    listen   (tek-NEE-shee-um … SES-tuh-MIH-bee)
A substance being studied in certain cancer-imaging tests using positron emission tomography (PET). It contains a radioactive substance called technetium, bound to another substance called sestamibi, that helps it enter cells. It may help show how well cancer cells take up anticancer drugs. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical.

technetium Tc 99m demobesin-4    listen   (tek-NEE-shee-um … deh-MAH-beh-sin …)
A substance being studied as a way to find certain types of cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to another substance called demobesin. Demobesin binds to the receptor for bombesin (a substance that is found at higher-than-normal levels on some types of cancer cells). Technetium Tc 99m demobsin-4 collects in cancer cells and a machine is used to find where the cancer cells are in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent.

technetium Tc 99m dextran    listen   (tek-NEE-shee-um ... DEK-stran)
A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have technetium Tc 99m dextran in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 99m-Tc-Dx and Tc-99m Dextran.

technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid    listen   (tek-NEE-shee-um ... SUL-fur KAH-loyd)
A substance being studied as a way to find cancer in the body. It is also used to find sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called sulfur colloid. Sulfer colloid is taken up by special cells in lymph tissue, and in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity is used to find where the technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid is in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc 99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m SC.

technician    listen   (tek-NIH-shun)
A person trained in the techniques (methods) and skills of a profession. For example, a mammogram technician is trained to perform mammograms.

tegafur    listen   (TEH-guh-fer)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

tegafur-uracil    listen   (TEH-guh-fer-YOOR-uh-sil)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a combination of tegafur and uracil. The tegafur is taken up by the cancer cells and breaks down into 5-FU, a substance that kills tumor cells. The uracil causes higher amounts of 5-FU to stay inside the cells and kill them. Tegafur-uracil is a type of antimetabolite. Also called Ftorafur and UFT.

teicoplanin    listen   (ty-koh-PLAY-nin)
A substance used to treat bacterial infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called antibiotics.

telangiectasia    listen   (teh-LAN-jee-ek-TAY-zhuh)
The permanent enlargement of blood vessels, causing redness in the skin or mucous membranes.

Telcyta    listen   (tel-SY-tuh)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called glutathione analogs. Also called TLK286.

telemedicine    listen   (TEH-leh-MEH-dih-sin)
The delivery of healthcare from a distance using electronic information and technology such as computers, cameras, videoconferencing, the Internet, satellite, and wireless communications.

telomerase    listen   (teh-LOH-meh-rays)
An enzyme in cells that helps keep them alive by adding DNA to telomeres (the ends of chromosomes). Each time a cell divides, the telomeres lose a small amount of DNA and become shorter. Over time, the chromosomes become damaged and the cells die. Telomerase helps keep this from happening. Cancer cells usually have more telomerase than most normal cells.

telomere    listen   (TEH-loh-meer)
The ends of a chromosome. Each time a cell divides, the telomeres lose a small amount of DNA and become shorter. Over time, the chromosomes become damaged and the cells die. In cancer cells the telomeres do not get shorter, and may become longer, as the cells divide.

Temodar    listen   (TEH-moh-dar)
A drug that is used to treat certain types of brain tumors in adults and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called temozolomide.

temoporfin    listen   (teh-moh-POR-fin)
An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents.

temozolomide    listen   (teh-moh-ZOH-loh-mide)
A drug that is used to treat certain types of brain tumors in adults and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called Temodar.

temsirolimus    listen   (TEM-sih-ROH-lih-mus)
A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (a type of kidney cancer). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Temsirolimus blocks a protein involved in cell division, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of rapamycin analog and a type of serine/threonine kinase inhibitor. Also called CCI-779 and Torisel.

tendon    listen   (TEN-dun)
Tough, fibrous, cord-like tissue that connects muscle to bone or another structure, such as an eyeball. Tendons help the bone or structure to move.

teniposide    listen   (teh-nih-POH-side)
An anticancer drug that is a podophyllotoxin derivative and belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors.

TENS    listen  
A procedure in which mild electric currents are applied to some areas of the skin. Also called transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

teratocarcinoma    listen   (TAYR-uh-toh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A type of germ cell cancer that usually forms in the testes (testicles).

teratoma    listen   (TAYR-uh-TOH-muh)
A type of germ cell tumor that may contain several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, and bone. Teratomas occur most often in the ovaries in women, the testicles in men, and the tailbone in children. Not all teratomas are malignant.

terazosin    listen   (ter-AY-zoh-sin)
A drug used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and is being studied in the treatment of other conditions. Terazosin relaxes muscle tissue in blood vessels and in the prostate. It is a type of alpha blocker. Also called Hytrin and terazosin hydrochloride.

terazosin hydrochloride    listen   (ter-AY-zoh-sin HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and is being studied in the treatment of other conditions. Terazosin hydrochloride relaxes muscle tissue in blood vessels and in the prostate. It is a type of alpha blocker. Also called Hytrin and terazosin.

terminal disease    listen   (TER-mih-nul dih-ZEEZ)
Disease that cannot be cured and will cause death.

terpene    listen   (TER-peen)
A type of strong-smelling chemical substance found in some plants, especially trees that have cones. Terpenes are found in essential oils (scented liquid taken from plants).

testicle    listen   (TES-tih-kul)
One of two egg-shaped glands inside the scrotum that produce sperm and male hormones. Also called testis.

testicular cancer    listen   (tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular cancer is most common in young or middle-aged men. Most testicular cancers begin in germ cells (cells that make sperm) and are called testicular germ cell tumors.

testicular cord    listen   (tes-TIH-kyuh-ler kord)
A cord-like structure in the male reproductive system that contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels, and the vas deferens (a coiled tube that carries sperm out of the testicle). It runs from the abdomen to the testicle, and connects to the testicle in the scrotum (external sac). Also called spermatic cord.

testicular germ cell tumor    listen   (tes-TIH-kyuh-ler jerm sel TOO-mer)
A type of tumor that forms in a testicle from germ cells (cells that make sperm). Two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas grow and spread slowly and are sensitive to radiation therapy. Nonseminomas grow and spread more quickly than seminomas. There are several different types of nonseminomas.

testimonial    listen   (TES-tih-MOH-nee-ul)
Information provided by an individual who claims to have been helped or cured by a particular product. The information provided lacks the necessary elements to be evaluated in a rigorous and scientific manner and is not used in the scientific literature.

testis    listen   (TES-tis)
One of two egg-shaped glands inside the scrotum that produce sperm and male hormones. Also called testicle.

testosterone    listen   (tes-TOS-teh-rone)
A hormone made mainly in the testes (part of the male reproductive system). It is needed to develop and maintain male sex characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle growth. Testosterone may also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat certain medical conditions.

testosterone flare    listen   (tes-TOS-teh-rone flayr)
A temporary increase in testosterone levels in the body caused by certain types of hormone therapy used to treat prostate cancer. A testosterone flare may occur in patients who are taking drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. When first given, these drugs cause the testicles to make more testosterone. This may cause symptoms, such as bone pain and urinary problems, to get worse, but they usually go away after the first few weeks of treatment.

tetanus toxoid    listen   (TEH-tuh-nus TOK-soyd)
A substance that is derived from the toxin released by the bacterium that causes the disease tetanus. It is used as a vaccine to prevent tetanus or to help boost the immune response to other vaccines.

tethered capsule endoscope    listen   (TEH-thurd KAP-sul EN-doh-SKOPE)
A device used to look at tissues in the esophagus. It is a tiny capsule with a laser scanner inside and a very thin cord attached to it. The patient swallows the capsule and the thin cord helps keep the capsule in a specific area in the esophagus. The cord is also used to remove the capsule. Pictures are taken by the laser scanner and sent to a computer for viewing. A tethered capsule endoscope is used to find early cancers of the esophagus and other parts of the body. Also called TCE.

tetra-O-methyl NDGA    listen   (TEH-truh-O-MEH-thul ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks proteins needed for cancer growth. It is a type of transcriptional inhibitor. Also called EM-1421 and tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid.

tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid    listen   (TEH-truh-O-MEH-thul NOR-dy-HY-droh-GWY-uh-reh-tik A-sid)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks proteins needed for cancer growth. It is a type of transcriptional inhibitor. Also called EM-1421 and tetra-O-methyl NDGA.

tetracycline    listen   (TEH-truh-SY-kleen)
A drug used to treat bacterial infections. It stops the growth of bacteria by keeping them from making proteins. Tetracycline also binds to new bone tissue and is being studied as a way to detect bone growth. Tetracycline is a type of antibiotic and a type of bone-labeling agent.

tetradecanoylphorbol acetate    listen   (TEH-truh-DEH-kuh-noyl-FOR-bol A-seh-tayt)
A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and TPA.

tetrahydrouridine    listen   (TEH-truh-HY-droh-YOOR-ih-deen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may help make cancer cells easier to kill with radiation therapy. Tetrahydrouridine is a type of radiosensitizing agent, a type of multidrug resistance modulator, and a type of cytidine deaminase inhibitor. Also called THU.

TG4010      
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug.

thalamus    listen   (THA-luh-mus)
An area of the brain that helps process information from the senses and transmit it to other parts of the brain.

thalidomide    listen   (thuh-LIH-doh-mide)
A drug used with another drug to treat multiple myeloma in patients who have just been diagnosed. It is also used to treat a painful skin disease related to leprosy. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Thalidomide may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of immunomodulating agent. Also called Synovir and Thalomid.

Thalomid    listen   (THA-loh-MID)
A drug used with another drug to treat multiple myeloma in patients who have just been diagnosed. It is also used to treat a painful skin disease related to leprosy. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Thalomid may help the immune system kill cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of immunomodulating agent. Also called Synovir and thalidomide.

The Cancer Genome Atlas    listen   (… KAN-ser JEE-nome AT-lus)
A project to identify the complete set of DNA changes in many different types of cancer. Studying these changes may help researchers understand how different types of cancer form. This may lead to new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas is led by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), which are parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Also called TCGA.

theaflavin    listen   (thee-uh-FLAY-vin)
A substance formed when green tea is fermented to make black tea. It is being studied in the treatment of cancer and other conditions, such as high cholesterol. It is a type of antioxidant.

thearubigin    listen   (thee-uh-ROO-bih-jin)
A substance formed when green tea is fermented to make black tea. It is being studied in the treatment of cancer and other conditions, such as high cholesterol. It is a type of antioxidant.

theobromine    listen   (thee-oh-BROH-meen)
A substance that is closely related to caffeine and is found in cocoa beans, cola nuts, and tea. It may also be made in the laboratory. Theobromine is used to increase the amount of urine made by the kidneys, to stimulate the heart, and to widen blood vessels. It is a type of alkaloid.

theophylline    listen   (thee-AH-fih-lin)
A drug used to improve breathing in people who are short of breath. It belongs to the family of drugs called bronchodilators or respiratory smooth muscle relaxants.

Theraloc    listen   (THAYR-uh-lok)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Theraloc binds to a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is found on some normal cells and some types of cancer cells. Blocking this protein may help keep cancer cells from growing. Theraloc is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called nimotuzumab.

therapeutic    listen   (THAYR-uh-PYOO-tik)
Having to do with treating disease and helping healing take place.

therapeutic (subthreshold) electrical stimulation    listen   (THAYR-uh-PYOO-tik … ee-LEK-trih-kul STIM-yoo-LAY-shun)
A procedure in which small electric impulses are used to stimulate muscles that are weak or paralyzed. It helps to increase muscle strength, blood circulation, and range of motion and to lessen muscle spasms. Also called NES, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and NMES.

therapeutic angiotensin-(1-7)    listen   (THAYR-uh-PYOO-tik AN-jee-oh-TEN-sin ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. Therapeutic angiotensin-(1-7) is a hormone that is made in the laboratory, and helps control blood pressure. It may stop the growth of some types of cancer cells and may stop the growth of blood vessels needed by tumors to grow. It is a type of antiproliferative agent.

therapeutic touch    listen   (THAYR-uh-PYOO-tik tuch)
A form of complementary and alternative medicine based on the belief that vital energy flows through the human body. This energy is said to be balanced or made stronger by practitioners who pass their hands over, or gently touch, a patient's body. Therapeutic touch is being studied in patients receiving cancer therapy, to find out if it can improve quality of life, boost the immune system, or reduce side effects. Therapeutic touch is a type of energy therapy. Also called healing touch.

therapy    listen   (THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment.

thermal ablation    listen   (THER-mul a-BLAY-shun)
A procedure using heat to remove tissue or a part of the body, or destroy its function. For example, to remove the lining of the uterus, a catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, a balloon at the end of the catheter is inflated, and fluid inside the balloon is heated to destroy the lining of the uterus.

thermography    listen   (ther-MAH-gruh-fee)
In medicine, a procedure in which a heat-sensing infrared camera is used to record the surface heat produced by different parts of the body. Abnormal tissue growth can cause temperature changes, which may show up on the thermogram. Thermography may be used to diagnose breast cancer and other tumors.

thermotherapy    listen   (THER-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment of disease using heat.

thiamine    listen   (THY-uh-min)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Thiamine helps some enzymes work properly, helps break down sugars in the diet, and keeps nerves and the heart healthy. It is found in pork, organ meats, peas, beans, nuts, and whole grains. Thiamine is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in daily. Not enough thiamine can cause a disease called beriberi (a condition marked by heart, nerve, and digestive disorders). Too much thiamine may help cancer cells grow faster. Also called vitamin B1.

thiazide diuretic    listen   (THY-uh-zide DY-yoo-REH-tik)
A type of drug used to treat high blood pressure, edema (extra fluid in the tissues), and other conditions. Thiazide diuretics cause the kidneys to make more urine, which allows the body to get rid of extra fluid and salt.

thiethylperazine    listen   (thy-EH-thul-PAYR-uh-zeen)
A drug used to prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting. It belongs to the families of drugs called antiemetics and phenothiazines.

thioguanine    listen   (THY-oh-GWAH-neen)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

thiotepa    listen   (THY-oh-TEH-puh)
A drug used to treat certain types of bladder cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusion (a condition in which cancer causes an abnormal amount of fluid to collect in hollow spaces or between tissues of the body). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Thiotepa damages the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent.

third molar    listen   (...MOH-ler)
The last tooth to come in at the back of each side of the upper and lower jaws. Third molars usually come in between 17 and 23 years of age, but not everyone has them. Also called wisdom tooth.

third-line therapy    listen   (... THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is given when both initial treatment (first-line therapy) and subsequent treatment (second-line therapy) don’t work, or stop working.

thoracalgia    listen   (THOR-uh-KAL-juh)
Chest pain. Also called thoracodynia.

thoracentesis    listen   (THOR-uh-sen-TEE-sis)
Removal of fluid from the pleural cavity through a needle inserted between the ribs.

thoracic    listen   (thor-A-sik)
Having to do with the chest.

thoracic surgeon    listen   (thor-A-sik SER-jun)
A surgeon who specializes in operating on organs inside the chest, including the heart and lungs.

thoracic surgical oncologist    listen   (thor-A-sik SER-jih-kul on-KAH-loh-jist)
A surgeon who specializes in operating on tumors found inside the chest.

thoracodynia    listen   (THOR-uh-koh-DIN-ee-uh)
Chest pain. Also called thoracalgia.

thoracoscope    listen   (thor-A-koh-skope)
A thin tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the chest. A thoracoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have tool to remove tissue.

thoracoscopy    listen   (THOR-uh-KOS-koh-pee)
Examination of the inside of the chest, using a thoracoscope. A thoracoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.

thoracotomy    listen   (THOR-uh-KAH-toh-mee)
An operation to open the chest.

throat    listen   (throte)
The hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes to the stomach). The throat is about 5 inches long, depending on body size. Also called pharynx.

throat cancer    listen   (throte KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of the pharynx (the hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the windpipe and esophagus). Throat cancer includes cancer of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose), the oropharynx (the middle part of the pharynx), and the hypopharynx (the bottom part of the pharynx). Cancer of the larynx (voice box) may also be included as a type of throat cancer. Most throat cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells that look like fish scales). Also called pharyngeal cancer.

thrombectomy    listen   (throm-BEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove a thrombus (blood clot) from a blood vessel.

thrombocyte    listen   (THROM-boh-site)
A tiny piece of cell that is made by breaking off of a large cell in the bone marrow. Thrombocytes are found in the blood and spleen. They help form blood clots to slow or stop bleeding, and to help wounds heal. Also called platelet.

thrombocytopenia    listen   (THROM-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nee-uh)
A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of platelets in the blood. It may result in easy bruising and excessive bleeding from wounds or bleeding in mucous membranes and other tissues.

thrombohemorrhagic event    listen   (THROM-boh-HEH-muh-RA-jik eh-VENT)
A process that involves either a blood clot or bleeding, such as a heart attack or stroke.

thrombolysis    listen   (throm-BOL-ih-sis)
The process of breaking up a thrombus (blood clot) that is blocking blood flow. The blood clot may be dissolved using drugs delivered through a catheter (tube) into the clot.

thrombophlebitis    listen   (THROM-boh-fleh-BY-tis)
Inflammation of a vein that occurs when a blood clot forms.

thrombopoietin    listen   (THROM-boh-POY-eh-tin)
A substance made by the body that helps make blood cells, especially platelets. A form of thrombopoietin made in the laboratory is called recombinant human thrombopoietin and rHu thrombopoietin. Thrombopoietin is being studied as a way to increase the number of platelets in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Also called TPO.

thrombosis    listen   (throm-BOH-sis)
The formation or presence of a thrombus (blood clot) inside a blood vessel.

thrombus    listen   (THROM-bus)
A blood clot that forms on the wall of a blood vessel or in the heart when blood platelets, proteins, and cells stick together. A thrombus may block the flow of blood.

thrush    listen   (thrush)
A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Thrush usually affects the mouth (oral thrush); however, rarely, it spreads throughout the entire body. Also called candidiasis and candidosis.

THU      
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may help make cancer cells easier to kill with radiation therapy. THU is a type of radiosensitizing agent, a type of multidrug resistance modulator, and a type of cytidine deaminase inhibitor. Also called tetrahydrouridine.

thymic carcinoma    listen   (THY-mik KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A rare type of thymus gland cancer. It usually spreads, has a high risk of recurrence, and has a poor survival rate. Thymic carcinoma is divided into subtypes, depending on the types of cells in which the cancer began. Also called type C thymoma.

thymidine    listen   (THY-mih-deen)
A chemical compound found in DNA. Also used as treatment for mucositis.

thymidylate synthase    listen   (THY-mih-DIH-layt SIN-thays)
A protein involved in making and repairing DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it on from parent to child). High levels of thymidylate synthase may be involved in how certain types of cancer form and respond to treatment.

thymidylate synthase inhibitor    listen   (THY-mih-DIH-layt SIN-thays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A drug that blocks DNA synthesis and may prevent tumor cell growth. It is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

thymine    listen   (THY-meen)
A chemical compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA. It is a type of pyrimidine.

Thymitaq    listen   (THY-mih-tak)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of liver cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called thymidylate synthase inhibitors. Also called AG337 and nolatrexed.

thymocyte    listen   (THY-moh-site)
A type of white blood cell. Thymocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T cell and T lymphocyte.

thymoma    listen   (thy-MOH-muh)
A tumor of the thymus, an organ that is part of the lymphatic system and is located in the chest, behind the breastbone.

thymus    listen   (THY-mus)
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system, in which T lymphocytes grow and multiply. The thymus is in the chest behind the breastbone.

Thyrogen    listen   (THY-roh-jen)
A form of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is made in the laboratory. It is used to test for remaining or recurring cancer cells in patients who have been treated for thyroid cancer. Also called thyrotropin alfa.

thyroglobulin    listen   (THY-roh-GLAH-byoo-lin)
The form that thyroid hormone takes when stored in the cells of the thyroid. If the thyroid has been removed, thyroglobulin should not show up on a blood test. Doctors measure thyroglobulin level in blood to detect thyroid cancer cells that remain in the body after treatment.

thyroid    listen   (THY-royd)
A gland located beneath the larynx (voice box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin. The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism. Also called thyroid gland.

thyroid cancer    listen   (THY-royd KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (an organ at the base of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope.

thyroid follicular cell    listen   (THY-royd fuh-LIH-kyoo-ler sel)
A type of cell in the thyroid. Thyroid follicular cells make thyroid hormone.

thyroid gland    listen   (THY-royd...)
A gland located beneath the larynx (voice box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin. The thyroid gland helps regulate growth and metabolism. Also called thyroid.

thyroid hormone    listen   (THY-royd HOR-mone)
A hormone that affects heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight. Thyroid hormone is made by the thyroid gland and can also be made in the laboratory.

thyroid hormone treatment    listen   (THY-royd HOR-mone TREET-ment)
Treatment with thyroid hormone, which is a hormone that affects heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight.

thyroid-stimulating hormone    listen   (THY-royd STIM-yoo-LAY-ting HOR-mone)
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the release of thyroid hormone from thyroglobulin. It also stimulates the growth of thyroid follicular cells. An abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone level may mean that the thyroid hormonal regulation system is out of control, usually as a result of a benign condition (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism). Also called TSH.

thyroidectomy    listen   (THY-roy-DEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid.

thyroiditis    listen   (thy-roy-DY-tis)
Inflammation of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis may be an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland over time, causing hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone). A temporary form of thyroiditis may also occur after the birth of a baby, or when viral or bacterial infections spread to the thyroid.

thyroidologist    listen   (THY-roy-DAH-loh-jist)
A medical doctor who specializes in thyroid diseases.

thyrotropin alfa    listen   (THY-roh-TROH-pin AL-fuh)
A form of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is made in the laboratory. It is used to test for remaining or recurring cancer cells in patients who have been treated for thyroid cancer. Also called Thyrogen.

thyroxin    listen   (thy-ROK-sin)
A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and contains iodine. Thyroxin increases the rate of chemical reactions in cells and helps control growth and development. Thyroxin can also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat thyroid disorders. Also called L-3,5,5’-tetraiodothyronine, T4, and thyroxine.

thyroxine    listen   (thy-ROK-seen)
A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and contains iodine. Thyroxine increases the rate of chemical reactions in cells and helps control growth and development. Thyroxine can also be made in the laboratory and is used to treat thyroid disorders. Also called L-3,5,5’-tetraiodothyronine, T4, and thyroxin.

tiacumicin B    listen   (ty-a-KYOO-my-sin ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of diarrhea caused by infection with Clostridium difficile (a type of bacteria that can grow without oxygen) in cancer patients. Tiacumicin B is a type of antibiotic. Also called OPT-80 and PAR-101.

tiazofurin    listen   (ty-A-zoh-FYOOR-in)
An anticancer drug being studied to stop cell growth.

tibia    listen   (TIH-bee-uh)
The larger of two bones between the knee and ankle. Also called shinbone.

time to progression    listen   (… pruh-GREH-shun)
The length of time from the date of diagnosis or the start of treatment for a disease until the disease starts to get worse or spread to other parts of the body. In a clinical trial, measuring the time to progression is one way to see how well a new treatment works. Also called TTP.

tin ethyl etiopurpurin    listen   (tin EH-thul EE-tee-oh-PUR-pyoo-rin)
An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents. Also called SnET2.

tinidazole    listen   (ty-NIH-duh-zole)
A drug used to treat protozoal infections, such as amebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis. It belongs to a family of drugs called antiprotozoal agents. Tinidazole is also being evaluated in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections in people with low-grade gastric lymphoma.

tinnitus    listen   (tih-NY-tus)
A disorder in which a person hears noises such as buzzing, ringing, clicking, or the sound of a pulse, when no outside sound is causing them. Tinnitus may have many different causes, and may be a symptom of another disease or condition. It may be caused by certain tumors and anticancer drugs.

tinzaparin    listen   (tin-ZA-puh-rin)
A drug that is used with another drug, warfarin, to treat blood clots that form deep in the veins and to prevent new blood clots from forming. It is a type of anticoagulant. Also called Innohep and tinzaparin sodium.

tinzaparin sodium    listen   (tin-ZA-puh-rin SOH-dee-um)
A drug that is used with another drug, warfarin, to treat blood clots that form deep in the veins and to prevent new blood clots from forming. It is a type of anticoagulant. Also called Innohep and tinzaparin.

tipifarnib    listen   (tih-pee-FAR-nib)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called farnesyltransferase inhibitors. Also called R115777 and Zarnestra.

tipranavir sodium    listen   (tih-PRA-nuh-veer SOH-dee-um)
A drug used with another drug, ritonavir, to treat patients who are infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and have been treated with other anti-HIV drugs. Tipranavir sodium blocks the HIV virus from making copies of itself. It is a type of anti-HIV agent and a type of protease inhibitor. Also called Aptivus.

tirapazamine    listen   (TEER-uh-PA-zuh-meen)
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may cause damage to the DNA in cells that have a low level of oxygen, including cancer cells. This may make the cells easier to kill with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Tirapazamine is a type of radiosensitizing agent and a type of chemosensitizing agent.

tissue    listen   (TIH-shoo)
A group or layer of cells that work together to perform a specific function.

tissue flap reconstruction    listen   (TIH-shoo ... REE-kun-STRUK-shun)
A type of breast reconstruction in which a flap of tissue is surgically moved from another area of the body to the chest, and formed into a new breast mound.

tissue fluid    listen   (TIH-shoo FLOO-id)
Fluid found in the spaces around cells. It comes from substances that leak out of blood capillaries (the smallest type of blood vessel). It helps bring oxygen and nutrients to cells and to remove waste products from them. As new tissue fluid is made, it replaces older fluid, which drains towards lymph vessels. When it enters the lymph vessels, it is called lymph. Also called interstitial fluid.

tissue plasminogen activator    listen   (TIH-shoo plaz-MIH-noh-jen AK-tih-vay-ter)
An enzyme made in the body that helps dissolve blood clots. A form of this enzyme is made in the laboratory to treat heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the lungs. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. Tissue plasminogen activator is a type of systemic thrombolytic agent. Also called tPA.

TLF      
A drug being studied in the treatment of kidney cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. TLF increases the activity of dendritic cells (a type of immune cell) to help kill cancer cells. It is a form of human lactoferrin (a protein found in milk, tears, mucus, bile, and some white blood cells) that is made in the laboratory. TLF is a type of recombinant protein and a type of immunomodulatory protein. Also called talactoferrin and talactoferrin alfa.

TLK286      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called glutathione analogs. Also called Telcyta.

TM      
A mental technique used to promote relaxation, reduce stress, and improve quality of life. TM is the registered trademark of the Maharishi Foundation Ltd. Also called Transcendental Meditation.

TNF      
A protein made by white blood cells in response to an antigen (substance that causes the immune system to make a specific immune response) or infection. TNF can also be made in the laboratory. It may boost a person’s immune response, and also may cause necrosis (cell death) of some types of tumor cells. TNF is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of cytokine. Also called tumor necrosis factor.

TNF-bound colloidal gold    listen   (... bownd kuh-LOY-dul ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. TNF-bound colloidal gold is made in the laboratory by binding a cancer-killing protein called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to the surface of very tiny particles of gold. These TNF-gold particles may kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue. Also called Aurimmune and colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factor.

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand    listen   (… ree-LAY-ted A-pop-TOH-sis-in-DOO-sing LIH-gund)
A cell protein that can attach to certain molecules in some cancer cells and may kill the cells. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Also called Apo-2L, TRAIL, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

TNFerade    listen  
A gene therapy product that is being studied in combination with radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer.

TNM staging system    listen   (… STAY-jing SIS-tem)
A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body). This system was created and is updated by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). The TNM staging system is used to describe most types of cancer. Also called AJCC staging system.

TNP-470      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent.

tobacco    listen   (tuh-BA-koh)
A plant with leaves that have high levels of the addictive chemical nicotine. After harvesting, tobacco leaves are cured, aged, and processed in various ways. The resulting products may be smoked (in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), applied to the gums (as dipping and chewing tobacco), or inhaled (as snuff). Cured tobacco leaves and the products made from them contain many cancer-causing chemicals, and tobacco use and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke have been strongly linked to many types of cancer and other diseases. The scientific name of the most common tobacco plant is Nicotiana tabacum.

tobacco tar    listen   (tuh-BA-koh tar)
A chemical substance made when tobacco is burned. Tar contains most of the cancer-causing and other harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. When tobacco smoke is inhaled, the tar can form a sticky layer on the inside of the lungs. This damages the lungs and may lead to lung cancer, emphysema, or other lung problems. Cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products may produce different amounts of tar, depending on how they are made. Inhaling tobacco smoke also causes other types of cancer, including cancers of the mouth and throat.

tobacco-specific nitrosamine    listen   (tuh-BA-koh-speh-SIH-fik ny-TROH-suh-meen)
A type of harmful, cancer-causing chemical found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are formed when tobacco leaves are grown, cured, aged, and processed. Tobacco products can contain different amounts of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, depending on how they are made. Also called TSNA.

tocladesine    listen   (toh-KLA-deh-seen)
A substance that has been studied as an anticancer drug. It is an analog of a substance that occurs naturally in the body (cyclic adenosine monophosphate).

toluene    listen   (TOL-yoo-een)
A strong-smelling, colorless liquid used to make gasoline and other types of fuel, paint, paint thinner, fingernail polish, glue, and rubber. Being exposed to toluene may cause headache, tiredness, confusion, weakness, memory loss, nausea, loss of appetite, hearing and color vision loss, dizziness, loss of consciousness, kidney damage, and death.

tomography    listen   (toh-MAH-gruh-fee)
A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.

tomotherapy    listen   (toh-mah-THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of therapy in which radiation is aimed at a tumor from many different directions. The patient lays on a table and is moved through a donut-shaped machine. The radiation source in the machine rotates around the patient in a spiral pattern. Before radiation, a 3-dimensional (3-D) image of the tumor is taken. This helps doctors find the highest dose of radiation that can be used to kill tumor cells while causing less damage to nearby tissue. Tomotherapy is a type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Also called helical tomotherapy.

tonga    listen   (TON-guh)
An herb native to islands in the South Pacific. Substances taken from the root have been used in some cultures to relieve stress, anxiety, tension, sleeplessness, and problems of menopause. Tonga may increase the effect of alcohol and of certain drugs used to treat anxiety and depression. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration advises users that tonga may cause severe liver damage. The scientific name is Piper methysticum. Also called intoxicating pepper, kava kava, rauschpfeffer, and yangona.

tongue cancer    listen   (tung KAN-ser)
Cancer that begins in the tongue. When the cancer begins in the front two-thirds of the tongue, it is considered to be a type of oral cavity cancer; when the cancer begins in the back third of the tongue, it is considered to be a type of oropharyngeal or throat cancer.

tonsil    listen   (TON-sil)
One of two small masses of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat.

topical    listen   (TAH-pih-kul)
On the surface of the body.

topical chemotherapy    listen   (TAH-pih-kul KEE-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with anticancer drugs in a lotion or cream applied to the skin.

topoisomerase II inhibitor    listen   (TOH-poh-i-SAH-meh-rays … in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks the activity of the enzyme topoisomerase II, which cuts and repairs tangled strands of DNA. Topoisomerase II is involved in cell division and growth, so blocking activity of this enzyme may kill cancer cells. Some topoisomerase II inhibitors are being used to treat cancer.

topoisomerase II inhibitor RTA 744    listen   (TOH-poh-i-SAH-meh-rays ... in-HIH-bih-ter ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of adult brain tumors. Topoisomerase II inhibitor RTA 744 crosses the blood-brain barrier and blocks an enzyme needed for cancer growth. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called RTA 744.

topoisomerase inhibitor    listen   (TOH-poh-i-SAH-meh-rays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks topoisomerases (enzymes that break and rejoin DNA strands and are needed for cells to divide and grow). Blocking these enzymes may kill cancer cells. Certain topoisomerase inhibitors are being studied in the treatment of cancer.

Toposar    listen   (TOH-poh-sar)
A drug used to treat testicular and small cell lung cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. Toposar blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of podophyllotoxin derivative and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called etoposide and Vepesid.

topotecan    listen   (toh-poh-TEE-kan)
A drug used to treat certain types of ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Topotecan is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Hycamtin and topotecan hydrochloride.

topotecan hydrochloride    listen   (toh-poh-TEE-kan HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat certain types of ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Topotecan hydrochloride is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called Hycamtin and topotecan.

toremifene    listen   (TOR-eh-mih-FEEN)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antiestrogens. Toremifene blocks the effect of the hormone estrogen in the body. It may help control some cancers from growing, and it may delay or reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

Torisel    listen   (TOR-ih-sel)
A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (a type of kidney cancer). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Torisel blocks a protein involved in cell division, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of rapamycin analog and a type of serine/threonine kinase inhibitor. Also called CCI-779 and temsirolimus.

TORS      
Surgery in which a robot with arms is used to remove cancer from hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and throat. Cameras attached to the robot give a 3-dimensional (3D) image that a surgeon can see. The surgeon guides tools at the ends of the robot arms to remove the cancer. Also called transoral robotic surgery.

tositumomab    listen   (TAH-sih-TOO-moh-mab)
A drug used together with another drug to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tositumomab binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on the surface of B cells, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab    listen   (TAH-sih-TOO-moh-mab ... I-oh-dine I 131 TAH-sih-TOO-moh-mab)
A combination of drugs used to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab is made up of a monoclonal antibody called tositumomab and a form of tositumomab that is linked to a radioactive substance called iodine I 131. It is a type of radioimmunoconjugate. Also called Bexxar and Bexxar regimen.

total androgen blockade    listen   (TOH-tul AN-droh-jen blah-KAYD)
Treatment used to block androgen (male hormone) activity in the body. This may be done by giving an antiandrogen drug and removing the testicles (orchiectomy) or by giving an antiandrogen drug with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Total androgen blockade may stop the growth of cancer cells that need androgens to grow, and is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Also called combined androgen blockade and complete androgen blockade.

total estrogen blockade    listen   (TOH-tul ES-truh-jin blah-KAYD)
Therapy used to eliminate estrogen in the body. This may be done with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these procedures.

total hysterectomy    listen   (TOH-tul HIS-teh-REK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the entire uterus, including the cervix. Also called complete hysterectomy.

total laryngectomy    listen   (TOH-tul LAYR-in-JEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove all of the larynx (voice box).

total mastectomy    listen   (TOH-tul ma-STEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the whole breast. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. Also called simple mastectomy.

total nodal irradiation    listen   (TOH-tul NOH-dul ih-RAY-dee-AY-shun)
Radiation therapy to the mantle field, the spleen, the lymph nodes in the upper abdomen, and the lymph nodes in the pelvic area.

total pancreatectomy    listen   (TOH-tul PAN-kree-uh-TEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the entire pancreas. Part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, the common bile duct, gallbladder, spleen, and nearby lymph nodes are also removed.

total parenteral nutrition    listen   (TOH-tul puh-REN-teh-rul noo-TRIH-shun)
A form of nutrition that is delivered into a vein. Total parenteral nutrition does not use the digestive system. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of vomiting that won't stop, severe diarrhea, or intestinal disease. It may also be given to those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy or radiation and bone marrow transplantation. It is possible to give all of the protein, calories, vitamins and minerals a person needs using total parenteral nutrition. Also called hyperalimentation, parenteral nutrition, and TPN.

total PSA    listen   (TOH-tul ...)
The total amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. It includes the amount of free PSA and the amount of PSA attached to other proteins.

total skin electron beam radiation therapy    listen   (TOH-tul skin ee-LEK-tron beem RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy using electrons that is directed at the entire surface of the body. This type of radiation goes into the outer layers of the skin, but does not go deeper into tissues and organs below the skin. Also called TSEB radiation therapy.

total-body irradiation    listen   (TOH-tul-BAH-dee ih-RAY-dee-AY-shun)
Radiation therapy to the entire body. It is usually followed by bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation.

Totect    listen   (TOH-tekt)
A drug used to treat the toxic effects of an anticancer drug that leaks from a vein into surrounding tissue and causes tissue damage. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. Totect contains the active ingredient dexrazoxane. It is a type of chemoprotective agent, a type of cardioprotective agent, and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.

totipotent    listen   (toh-TIH-puh-tent)
Having to do with cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body.

tourniquet    listen   (TOOR-nih-ket)
A device, such as a strip of cloth or a band of rubber, that is wrapped tightly around a leg or an arm to prevent the flow of blood to the leg or the arm for a period of time. A tourniquet may be used when drawing blood or to stop bleeding after an injury.

toxemia    listen   (tok-SEE-mee-uh)
Disease caused by the spread of bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream. Also called blood poisoning and septicemia.

toxic    listen   (TOK-sik)
Having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances usually cause unwanted side effects.

toxicant    listen   (TOK-sih-kunt)
A poison that is made by humans or that is put into the environment by human activities. Many pesticides are toxicants.

toxicity    listen   (tok-SIH-sih-tee)
The extent to which something is poisonous or harmful.

toxicology    listen   (TOK-sih-KAH-loh-jee)
The study of poisons, including the source, effect, and treatment of poisoning. It is a branch of pharmacology (the study of drugs).

toxin    listen   (TOK-sin)
A poison made by certain bacteria, plants, or animals, including insects.

TP-38 immunotoxin    listen   (... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of brain tumors. It combines a protein that binds to certain tumor cells with a bacterial toxin that kills tumor cells.

tPA      
An enzyme made in the body that helps dissolve blood clots. A form of this enzyme is made in the laboratory to treat heart attacks, strokes, and clots in the lungs. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. tPA is a type of systemic thrombolytic agent. Also called tissue plasminogen activator.

TPA      
A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. TPA affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate.

TPF      
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), cisplatin (Platinol), and fluorouracil. Also called DCF, docetaxel-cisplatin-fluorouracil, Taxotere-Platinol-fluorouracil, and TPF regimen.

TPF regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer and stomach cancer. It includes the drugs docetaxel (Taxotere), cisplatin (Platinol), and fluorouracil. Also called DCF, docetaxel-cisplatin-fluorouracil, Taxotere-Platinol-fluorouracil, and TPF.

TPN      
A form of nutrition that is delivered into a vein. TPN does not use the digestive system. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of vomiting that won't stop, severe diarrhea, or intestinal disease. It may also be given to those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy or radiation and bone marrow transplantation. It is possible to give all of the protein, calories, vitamins and minerals a person needs using TPN. Also called hyperalimentation, parenteral nutrition, and total parenteral nutrition.

TPO      
A substance made by the body that helps make blood cells, especially platelets. A form of TPO made in the laboratory is called recombinant human TPO and rHu TPO. TPO is being studied as a way to increase the number of platelets in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Also called thrombopoietin.

trabectedin    listen   (truh-BEK-teh-din)
A substance that comes from a type of sea squirt and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to DNA and causes breaks in the DNA. It also blocks the ability of the cell to repair the DNA damage, and may cause cancer cells to die. Trabectedin is also made in the laboratory. It is a type of DNA excision repair inhibitor. Also called ecteinascidin 743 and ET-743.

trabecular cancer    listen   (truh-BEH-kyoo-ler KAN-ser)
A rare type of cancer that forms on or just beneath the skin, usually in parts of the body that have been exposed to the sun. It is most common in older people and in people with weakened immune systems. Also called Merkel cell cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.

trace element    listen   (trays EH-leh-ment)
An element found in very small amounts in a given substance. Organisms need certain trace elements to survive.

tracer    listen   (TRAY-ser)
A substance (such as a radioisotope) used in imaging procedures.

trach tube    listen   (trake...)
A 2-inch- to 3-inch-long curved metal or plastic tube placed in a surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open. Also called tracheostomy tube.

trachea    listen   (TRAY-kee-uh)
The airway that leads from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (large airways that lead to the lungs). Also called windpipe.

tracheal carina    listen   (TRAY-kee-ul kuh-RY-nuh)
A ridge at the base of the trachea (windpipe) that separates the openings of the right and left main bronchi (the large air passages that lead from the trachea to the lungs). Also called carina of trachea.

trachelectomy    listen   (TRAY-kee-LEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the cervix (the end of the uterus that forms a canal between the uterus and the vagina).The upper part of the vagina and certain pelvic lymph nodes may also be removed. Also called cervicectomy.

tracheoesophageal puncture    listen   (TRAY-kee-oh-ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul PUNK-cher)
A small opening made by a surgeon between the esophagus and the trachea. A valve keeps food out of the trachea but lets air into the esophagus for esophageal speech.

tracheostomy    listen   (TRAY-kee-OS-toh-mee)
Surgery to create an opening (stoma) into the windpipe. The opening itself may also be called a tracheostomy.

tracheostomy button    listen   (TRAY-kee-OS-toh-mee...)
A 0.5-inch- to 1.5-inch-long plastic tube placed in a surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open.

tracheostomy tube    listen   (TRAY-kee-OS-toh-mee...)
A 2-inch- to 3-inch-long curved metal or plastic tube placed in a surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open. Also called trach tube.

tradition    listen   (truh-DIH-shun)
A belief or behavior that is passed from generation to generation in a family, a culture, or a religion.

traditional acupuncture    listen   (truh-DIH-shuh-nul AK-yoo-PUNK-cher)
An ancient form of acupuncture based on the principle that there are five universal elements (wood, fire, earth, metal, and water) that affect a person's emotions, personality, health, and response to treatment. Each person is affected by one element more than the others. Also called five element acupuncture.

Traditional Chinese Medicine    listen   (truh-DIH-shuh-nul chy-NEEZ MEH-dih-sin)
A medical system that has been used for thousands of years to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. It is based on the belief that qi (the body's vital energy) flows along meridians (channels) in the body and keeps a person’s spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical health in balance. Traditional Chinese medicine aims to restore the body’s balance and harmony between the natural opposing forces of yin and yang, which can block qi and cause disease. Traditional Chinese medicine includes acupuncture, diet, herbal therapy, meditation, physical exercise, and massage. Also called Oriental medicine and TCM.

TRAIL    listen   (trayl)
A cell protein that can attach to certain molecules in some cancer cells and may kill the cells. TRAIL is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Also called Apo-2L, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

TRAIL receptor 1    listen   (… reh-SEP-ter 1)
A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells. An increase in the amount or activity of TRAIL receptor 1 on cancer cells may kill more cells. Also called death receptor 4, DR4, TRAIL-R1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A.

TRAIL receptor 2    listen   (… reh-SEP-ter 2)
A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells. An increase in the amount or activity of TRAIL receptor 2 on cancer cells may kill more cells. Also called death receptor 5, DR5, TRAIL-R2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10B.

TRAIL-R1    listen   (trayl ...)
A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells. An increase in the amount or activity of TRAIL-R1 on cancer cells may kill more cells. Also called death receptor 4, DR4, TRAIL receptor 1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A.

TRAIL-R2    listen   (trayl …)
A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells. An increase in the amount or activity of TRAIL-R2 on cancer cells may kill more cells. Also called death receptor 5, DR5, TRAIL receptor 2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10B.

TRAM flap    listen   (… flap)
A type of surgery used to rebuild the shape of the breast after a mastectomy. A muscle in the lower abdomen called the rectus abdominis, along with skin, fat, and blood vessels, is moved from the lower abdomen to the chest. This is usually done by passing the muscle tissue and blood vessels through a tunnel under the skin to the chest. A TRAM flap forms a natural-looking breast, so the patient usually does not need a breast implant. It is a type of breast reconstruction. Also called transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

tramadol hydrochloride    listen   (TRA-muh-dol HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used to treat moderate to severe pain in adults. It binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Tramadol hydrochloride is a type of analgesic agent and a type of opioid. Also called Ultram.

trametinib    listen   (truh-MEH-tih-nib)
A drug used alone or with dabrafenib to treat melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients with a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called BRAF. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Trametinib blocks certain proteins, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of targeted therapy. Also called Mekinist.

tranquilizer    listen   (TRANG-kwih-LY-zer)
A drug that calms and soothes, and reduces stress and tension. Tranquilizers are used to treat anxiety and insomnia.

trans fat    listen   (tranz fat)
A type of fat that has certain chemical properties and is usually found in processed foods such as baked goods, snack foods, fried foods, shortening, margarine, and certain vegetable oils. Eating trans fat increases blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease.

transabdominal ultrasound    listen   (TRANZ-ab-DAH-mih-nul UL-truh-sownd)
A procedure used to examine the organs in the abdomen. An ultrasound transducer (probe) is pressed firmly against the skin of the abdomen. High-energy sound waves from the transducer bounce off tissues and create echoes. The echoes are sent to a computer, which makes a picture called a sonogram. Also called abdominal ultrasound.

transaminase    listen   (tranz-A-mih-nays)
A type of enzyme that causes the transfer of a chemical substance called an amino group from one molecule to another. Transaminases are involved in many processes in the body, such as making amino acids.

transarterial chemoembolization    listen   (tranz-ar-TEER-ee-ul KEE-moh-EM-boh-lih-ZAY-shun)
A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor is blocked after anticancer drugs are given in blood vessels near the tumor. Sometimes, the anticancer drugs are attached to small beads that are injected into an artery that feeds the tumor. The beads block blood flow to the tumor as they release the drug. This allows a higher amount of drug to reach the tumor for a longer period of time, which may kill more cancer cells. It also causes fewer side effects because very little of the drug reaches other parts of the body. Transarterial chemoembolization is used to treat liver cancer. Also called chemoembolization and TACE.

transarterial embolization    listen   (tranz-ar-TEER-ee-ul EM-boh-lih-ZAY-shun)
A procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor or an abnormal area of tissue is blocked. During transarterial embolization, a small incision (cut) is made in the inner thigh and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted and guided into an artery near the tumor or abnormal tissue. Once the catheter is in place, small particles made of tiny gelatin sponges or beads are injected. This blocks the artery and stops the flow of blood to the tumor or abnormal area of tissue. Transarterial embolization is used to treat some types of liver cancer, kidney cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors. It may also be used to treat uterine fibroids, aneurysms, and other conditions. Also called arterial embolization and TAE.

Transcendental Meditation    listen   (TRAN-sen-DEN-tul MEH-dih-TAY-shun)
A mental technique used to promote relaxation, reduce stress, and improve quality of life. Transcendental Meditation is the registered trademark of the Maharishi Foundation Ltd. Also called TM.

transcription    listen   (tran-SKRIP-shun)
In biology, the process by which a cell makes an RNA copy of a sequence of DNA that is a gene.

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation    listen   (tranz-kyoo-TAY-nee-us ee-LEK-trih-kul nerv STIM-yoo-LAY-shun)
A procedure in which mild electric currents are applied to some areas of the skin. Also called TENS.

transdermal    listen   (tranz-DER-mul)
Absorbed through the unbroken skin.

transfer factor    listen   (TRANZ-fer FAK-ter)
A substance made by some white blood cells. Transfer factor from one person’s white blood cells may be able to cause a specific immune response when injected into the skin of another person.

transferrin-CRM107    listen   (tranz-FAYR-in...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of brain tumors. Transferrin-CRM107 is made by linking a diphtheria toxin to transferrin, a protein that binds to fast growing cells, such as tumor cells. The diphtheria toxin then kills the tumor cells. Transferrin-CRM107 is a type of immunotoxin.

transformation    listen   (TRANZ-for-MAY-shun)
In medicine, the change that a normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant.

transfusion    listen   (tranz-FYOO-zhun)
A procedure in which a person is given an infusion of whole blood or parts of blood. The blood may be donated by another person, or it may have been taken from the patient earlier and stored until needed. Also called blood transfusion.

transgenic mice    listen   (trans-JEH-nik...)
Mice that have had DNA from another source put into their DNA. The foreign DNA is put into the nucleus of a fertilized mouse egg. The new DNA becomes part of every cell and tissue of the mouse. These mice are used in the laboratory to study diseases.

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6    listen   (TRAN-zee-ent reh-SEP-ter poh-TEN-shul KA-ty-on CHA-nul sub-FA-mih-lee …)
A protein found in cell membranes that moves calcium into cells. Levels of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 are lower than normal in patients who don’t have enough vitamin D. High levels of the protein may be found in breast cancer tissue. It is a type of calcium channel protein. Also called TRPV6.

transitional care    listen   (tran-ZIH-shuh-nul kayr)
Support given to patients when they move from one phase of disease or treatment to another, such as from hospital care to home care. It involves helping patients and families with medical, practical, and emotional needs as they adjust to different levels and goals of care.

transitional cell    listen   (tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel)
A cell that varies in shape depending on whether the tissue is being stretched. Transitional cells may be stretched without breaking apart. They line hollow organs such as the bladder.

transitional cell cancer    listen   (tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in transitional cells in the lining of the bladder, ureter, or renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects, holds, and drains urine). Transitional cells are cells that can change shape and stretch without breaking apart.

translation    listen   (trans-LAY-shun)
In biology, the process by which a cell makes proteins using the genetic information carried in messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA is made by copying DNA, and the information it carries tells the cell how to link amino acids together to form proteins.

translational research    listen   (trans-LAY-shuh-nul reh-SERCH)
A term used to describe the process by which the results of research done in the laboratory are used to develop new ways to diagnose and treat disease.

translocation    listen   (TRANZ-loh-KAY-shun)
A genetic change in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. Sometimes pieces from two different chromosomes will trade places with each other. Translocations may lead to medical problems such as leukemia, breast cancer, schizophrenia, muscular dystrophy, and Down syndrome.

transoral robotic surgery    listen   (TRANZ-or-ul roh-BAH-tik SER-juh-ree)
Surgery in which a robot with arms is used to remove cancer from hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and throat. Cameras attached to the robot give a 3-dimensional (3D) image that a surgeon can see. The surgeon guides tools at the ends of the robot arms to remove the cancer. Also called TORS.

transperineal biopsy    listen   (TRANZ-PAYR-ih-NEE-ul BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate for examination under a microscope. The sample is removed with a thin needle that is inserted through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate.

transperineal template-guided prostate mapping biopsy    listen   (TRANZ-payr-ih-NEE-ul TEM-plut-GY-ded PROS-tayt MA-ping BY-op-see)
A procedure being studied in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and in planning prostate cancer treatment. Ultrasound is used to create a map of the prostate so the whole prostate gland can be seen in three dimensions and divided into 24 areas. Needles are then inserted through a template into each of the 24 areas and tissue is removed to be checked under a microscope. Also called TTMB.

transplant surgeon    listen   (TRANZ-plant SER-jun)
A doctor who specializes in transplantation surgery. The surgeon replaces a patient's organ with an organ from another person.

transplantation    listen   (tranz-plan-TAY-shun)
A surgical procedure in which tissue or an organ is transferred from one area of a person’s body to another area, or from one person (the donor) to another person (the recipient).

transrectal biopsy    listen   (tranz-REK-tul BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate using a thin needle that is inserted through the rectum and into the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is usually used to guide the needle. The sample is examined under a microscope to see if it contains cancer.

transrectal ultrasound    listen   (tranz-REK-tul UL-truh-sownd)
A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. Transrectal ultrasound is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound, ERUS, and TRUS.

transsphenoidal surgery    listen   (TRANS-sfee-NOY-dul SER-juh-ree)
A type of surgery in which instruments are inserted through the nose and sphenoid sinus (a hollow space in a bone in the nose) to remove tumors that are in or near the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized organ that lies at the base of the brain above the back of the nose.

transurethral biopsy    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the prostate for examination under a microscope. A thin, lighted tube is inserted through the urethra into the prostate, and a small piece of tissue is removed with a cutting loop.

transurethral electroevaporation of the prostate    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul ee-LEK-troh-ee-VA-per-AY-shun ... PROS-tayt)
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. A ball or special wire loop on the instrument heats the prostate tissue and turns it to vapor. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate, TUEVAP, and TUVP.

transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul ee-LEK-troh-VAY-per-ih-ZAY-shun ... PROS-tayt)
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. A ball or special wire loop on the instrument heats the prostate tissue and turns it to vapor. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral electroevaporation of the prostate, TUEVAP, and TUVP.

transurethral incision of the prostate    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul in-SIH-zhun ... PROS-tayt)
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra and one or two small cuts are made in the bladder neck and prostate. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called TUIP.

transurethral microwave thermotherapy    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul MY-kroh-WAYV THER-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A small microwave antenna on the instrument heats nearby prostate tissue and destroys it. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called TUMT.

transurethral needle ablation    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul NEE-dul a-BLAY-shun)
A procedure that is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument with a small probe that gives off low-level radiofrequency energy is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. The energy from the probe heats nearby prostate tissue and destroys it. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral radiofrequency ablation and TUNA.

transurethral radiofrequency ablation    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul RAY-dee-oh-FREE-kwen-see a-BLAY-shun)
A procedure that is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument with a small probe that gives off low-level radiofrequency energy is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. The energy from the probe heats nearby prostate tissue and destroys it. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral needle ablation and TUNA.

transurethral resection    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul ree-SEK-shun)
Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra. Also called TUR.

transurethral resection of the prostate    listen   (TRANZ-yoo-REE-thrul ree-SEK-shun ... PROS-tayt)
Surgery to remove tissue from the prostate using an instrument inserted through the urethra. Also called TURP.

transvaginal sonography    listen   (tranz-VA-jih-nul soh-NAH-gruh-fee)
A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves to bounce off organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer, which creates a picture called a sonogram. Also called transvaginal ultrasound and TVS.

transvaginal ultrasound    listen   (tranz-VA-jih-nul UL-truh-sownd)
A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves to bounce off organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer, which creates a picture called a sonogram. Also called transvaginal sonography and TVS.

transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap    listen   (TRANZ-vers REK-tus ab-DAH-mih-nis MY-oh-kyoo-TAY-nee-us …)
A type of surgery used to rebuild the shape of the breast after a mastectomy. A muscle in the lower abdomen called the rectus abdominis, along with skin, fat, and blood vessels, is moved from the lower abdomen to the chest. This is usually done by passing the muscle tissue and blood vessels through a tunnel under the skin to the chest. A transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap forms a natural-looking breast, so the patient usually does not need a breast implant. It is a type of breast reconstruction. Also called TRAM flap.

trastuzumab    listen   (tras-TOO-zoo-mab)
A drug used to treat breast cancer that is HER2-positive (expresses the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2). It is also used with other drugs to treat HER2-positive stomach cancer that has not already been treated and has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Trastuzumab binds to HER2 on the surface of HER2-positive cancer cells, and may kill them. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called Herceptin.

trauma    listen   (TRAW-muh)
Injury to the body, or an event that causes long-lasting mental or emotional damage.

Traumeel S    listen   (TRUH-meel …)
A substance that contains minerals and extracts of 14 plants, including belladonna, arnica, St. John's wort, and Echinacea. It is being studied as a mouth rinse treatment for oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by cancer therapy. It is known as a homeopathic remedy.

trazodone    listen   (TRA-zoh-done)
A drug used to treat depression. It may also be used to help relieve anxiety and insomnia (trouble sleeping) and to treat certain other disorders. Trazodone increases the level of the chemical serotonin in the brain, which helps improve mood. It is a type of antidepressant. Also called Oleptro.

Treanda    listen   (tree-AN-duh)
A drug used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is also used to treat slow-growing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that has gotten worse within 6 months of treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Treanda may damage the DNA in cancer cells and cause them to die. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of antimetabolite. Also called bendamustine hydrochloride.

treatment cycle    listen   (TREET-ment SY-kul)
In medicine, a course of treatment that is repeated on a regular schedule with periods of rest in between. For example, treatment given for one week followed by three weeks of rest is one treatment cycle.

treatment field    listen   (TREET-ment feeld)
In radiation therapy, the place on the body where the radiation beam is aimed.

Trelstar    listen   (TREL-star)
A drug that is used to treat advanced prostate cancer, and is being studied in the treatment of breast cancer. It belongs to the family of hormonal drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Also called triptorelin.

tremelimumab    listen   (treh-meh-LIM-yoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Tremelimumab binds to a protein called CTLA-4, which is found on the surface of T cells (a type of white blood cell). It may block CTLA-4 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. Tremelimumab is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immunomodulatory agent.

treosulfan    listen   (TREE-oh-SUL-fan)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

trephine    listen   (TREE-fine)
A surgical tool used to cut out circular pieces of bone or other tissue.

tretinoin    listen   (TREH-tih-NOYN)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Tretinoin is made in the body from vitamin A and helps cells to grow and develop, especially in the embryo. A form of tretinoin made in the laboratory is put on the skin to treat conditions such as acne and is taken by mouth to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (a fast-growing cancer in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow). Tretinoin is being studied in the prevention and treatment of other types of cancer. Also called all-trans retinoic acid, ATRA, retinoic acid, and vitamin A acid.

triacetyluridine    listen   (try-A-seh-til-YOOR-ih-deen)
A substance that is being studied for its ability to protect against the gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. It belongs to the family of drugs called cytoprotective agents. Also called PN401.

trial sponsor    listen   (TRY-ul SPON-ser)
A person, company, institution, group, or organization that oversees or pays for a clinical trial and collects and analyzes the data. Also called clinical trial sponsor.

triamcinolone    listen   (try-am-SIH-noh-lone)
A substance that is being studied for the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is an anti-inflammatory drug that is applied to the skin to relieve irritation, rashes, and infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called topical corticosteroids.

Triapine    listen   (TRY-uh-peen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and 3-AP.

tributyrin    listen   (try-BYOO-tuh-rin)
A triglyceride drug that may inhibit cell growth and induce cell differentiation. Differentiating agents may be effective in changing cancer cells back into normal cells.

trichothiodystrophy    listen   (TRIH-koh-thy-oh-DIS-truh-fee)
A hereditary condition characterized by sparse and brittle hair, short stature, and mental retardation.

TriCor    listen   (TRY-kor)
A drug used to treat high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. TriCor is being studied in the treatment of advanced cancers in young patients and in the treatment of other conditions. It is a type of antilipidemic agent. Also called fenofibrate and Lofibra.

tricyclic antidepressant    listen   (try-SY-klik AN-tee-dee-PREH-sunt)
A type of drug used to treat depression.

Trifolium pratense    listen   (try-FOH-lee-um pray-TEN-see)
A plant whose flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It is being studied in the relief of menopausal symptoms and may have anticancer effects. Also called purple clover, red clover, and wild clover.

trigeminal nerve    listen   (try-JEH-mih-nul nerv)
The main sensory nerve of the head and face, and the motor nerve of the muscles used in chewing. Also called fifth cranial nerve.

trigger    listen   (TRIH-ger)
In medicine, a specific event that starts a process or that causes a particular outcome. For example, chemotherapy, painful treatments, or the smells, sounds, and sights that go with them may trigger anxiety and fear in a patient who has cancer. In allergies, exposure to mold, pollen or dust may trigger sneezing, watery eyes, and coughing.

trigger point acupuncture    listen   (TRIH-ger poynt AK-yoo-PUNK-cher)
Use of acupuncture to treat pain by inserting needles into trigger points on the body. Trigger points are places on the body where injury has occurred, but the pain has been sent along nerves and is felt in another place in the body.

triiodothyronine    listen   (try-I-oh-doh-THY-ruh-neen)
A thyroid hormone. Also called T-3.

Trilisate    listen   (TRIH-lih-sayt)
A substance used to treat arthritis and relieve pain, inflammation, and fever. It is also being studied in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Trilisate blocks the action of a substance that sends a pain message to the brain. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Also called choline magnesium trisalicylate.

trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole    listen   (try-MEH-thoh-prim-SUL-fuh-meh-THOK-suh-zole)
An antibiotic drug used to treat infection and prevent pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

trimetrexate glucuronate    listen   (TRY-meh-TREK-sayt gloo-KYOO-roh-nayt)
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. It is used in the treatment of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

Triostat    listen   (TRY-oh-stat)
A drug that is used to treat certain thyroid (a gland located near the voice box) conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Triostat is made in the laboratory and is a form of the thyroid hormone triiodthyronine (T3). Also called Cytomel and liothyronine sodium.

triple-negative breast cancer    listen   (TRIH-pul-NEH-guh-tiv brest KAN-ser)
Describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. Also called ER-negative PR-negative HER2/neu-negative breast cancer.

triptorelin    listen   (TRIP-toh-REH-lin)
A drug that is used to treat advanced prostate cancer, and is being studied in the treatment of breast cancer. It belongs to the family of hormonal drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Also called Trelstar.

Trisenox    listen   (TRY-seh-nox)
A drug used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that has not gotten better or that has come back after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called arsenic trioxide.

trophoblast    listen   (TROH-foh-BLAST)
A thin layer of cells that helps a developing embryo attach to the wall of the uterus, protects the embryo, and forms a part of the placenta.

tropisetron    listen   (troh-PIH-seh-tron)
A drug used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment. It is also used to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery. Tropisetron blocks the action of the chemical serotonin, which binds to certain nerves and may trigger nausea and vomiting. Blocking serotonin may help lessen nausea and vomiting. It is a type of serotonin receptor antagonist and a type of antiemetic. It is not available in the United States.

troxacitabine    listen   (TROK-suh-SY-tuh-been)
A drug being studied for use as an anticancer agent.

TRPV6      
A protein found in cell membranes that moves calcium into cells. Levels of TRPV6 are lower than normal in patients who don’t have enough vitamin D. High levels of the protein may be found in breast cancer tissue. It is a type of calcium channel protein. Also called transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6.

true lavender    listen   (...LA-ven-der)
A plant with aromatic leaves and flowers that is a member of the mint family. Oil from the flowers has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, to keep insects away, and to wash in. It is also used in aromatherapy. Perillyl alcohol, a substance found in true lavender, is being studied in cancer prevention and treatment. The scientific name is Lavandula angustifolia. Also called English lavender and lavender.

TRUS      
A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. TRUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound, ERUS, and transrectal ultrasound.

trust    listen   (trust)
A legal document in which a person states what is to be done with his or her property after death. There are many types of trusts, and a trust may take the place of a will.

TSEB radiation therapy    listen   (... RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy using electrons that is directed at the entire surface of the body. This type of radiation goes into the outer layers of the skin, but does not go deeper into tissues and organs below the skin. Also called total skin electron beam radiation therapy.

TSH      
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland. TSH stimulates the release of thyroid hormone from thyroglobulin. It also stimulates the growth of thyroid follicular cells. An abnormal TSH level may mean that the thyroid hormonal regulation system is out of control, usually as a result of a benign condition (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism). Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone.

TSNA      
A type of harmful, cancer-causing chemical found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. TSNAs are formed when tobacco leaves are grown, cured, aged, and processed. Tobacco products can contain different amounts of TSNAs, depending on how they are made. Also called tobacco-specific nitrosamine.

TTI-237      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors.

TTMB      
A procedure being studied in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and in planning prostate cancer treatment. Ultrasound is used to create a map of the prostate so the whole prostate gland can be seen in three dimensions and divided into 24 areas. Needles are then inserted through a template into each of the 24 areas and tissue is removed to be checked under a microscope. Also called transperineal template-guided prostate mapping biopsy.

TTP      
The length of time from the date of diagnosis or the start of treatment for a disease until the disease starts to get worse or spread to other parts of the body. In a clinical trial, measuring the TTP is one way to see how well a new treatment works. Also called time to progression.

tubal ligation    listen   (TOO-bul ly-GAY-shun)
An operation to tie the fallopian tubes closed. This procedure prevents pregnancy by blocking the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.

tubefeeding    listen   (toob-FEE-ding)
A way of giving medicines and liquids, including liquid foods, through a small tube placed through the nose or mouth into the stomach or small intestine. Sometimes the tube is placed into the stomach or small intestine through an incision (cut) made on the outside of the abdomen. Tubefeeding may be added to what a person is able to eat and drink, or it may be the only source of nutrition. It is a type of enteral nutrition. Also called gavage.

tuberculosis    listen   (too-BER-kyoo-LOH-sis)
A disease caused by a specific type of bacteria that spreads from one person to another through the air. Tuberculosis can affect many parts of the body, but most often affects the lungs. A person may not have symptoms of tuberculosis for years, but they may appear when the patient becomes ill with a serious condition like diabetes, AIDS, or cancer. Tuberculosis can usually be treated and cured with antibiotics. Also called TB.

tuberous sclerosis    listen   (TOO-ber-us skleh-ROH-sis)
A genetic disorder in which benign (not cancer) tumors form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin. This disease can cause seizures, mental disabilities, and different types of skin lesions.

tubulin    listen   (TOO-byoo-lin)
One of a group of proteins found in high levels in the cell cytoplasm (fluid inside a cell but outside the cell's nucleus). Tubulins are the building blocks of microtubules (narrow, hollow tubes inside a cell), which are involved in cell division and cell movement. Certain anticancer drugs bind to and block the formation or function of tubulins, which may block cell division.

tubulovillous adenoma    listen   (TOO-byoo-loh-VIH-lus A-deh-NOH-muh)
A type of polyp that grows in the colon and other places in the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes in other parts of the body. These adenomas may become malignant (cancer).

TUEVAP      
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. A ball or special wire loop on the instrument heats the prostate tissue and turns it to vapor. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral electroevaporation of the prostate, transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate, and TUVP.

tui na    listen   (twee-nah)
Chinese massage that uses kneading, pressing, rolling, shaking, and stretching of the body. Tui na is thought to regulate qi (vital energy) and blood flow, and improve the function of tendons, bones, and joints.

TUIP      
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra and one or two small cuts are made in the bladder neck and prostate. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral incision of the prostate.

tumescent mastectomy    listen   (too-MEH-sent ma-STEK-toh-mee)
A type of surgery to remove the breast. The breast is injected with a liquid mixture of salts and small amounts of two drugs. These drugs are lidocaine, to numb the area, and epinephrine, to narrow blood vessels and reduce bleeding. Tumescent mastectomy is usually used to treat breast cancer in elderly patients.

tumor    listen   (TOO-mer)
An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called neoplasm.

tumor antigen vaccine    listen   (TOO-mer AN-tih-jen vak-SEEN)
A vaccine made of cancer cells, parts of cancer cells, or pure tumor antigens (substances isolated from tumor cells). A tumor antigen vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system to find and kill cancer cells.

tumor board review    listen   (TOO-mer bord reh-VYOO)
A treatment planning approach in which a number of doctors who are experts in different specialties (disciplines) review and discuss the medical condition and treatment options of a patient. In cancer treatment, a tumor board review may include that of a medical oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with drugs), a surgical oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with surgery), and a radiation oncologist (who provides cancer treatment with radiation). Also called multidisciplinary opinion.

tumor burden    listen   (TOO-mer BUR-den)
Refers to the number of cancer cells, the size of a tumor, or the amount of cancer in the body. Also called tumor load.

tumor debulking    listen   (TOO-mer dee-BUL-king)
Surgical removal of as much of a tumor as possible. Tumor debulking may increase the chance that chemotherapy or radiation therapy will kill all the tumor cells. It may also be done to relieve symptoms or help the patient live longer. Also called debulking.

tumor grade    listen   (TOO-mer grayd)
A description of a tumor based on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. Low-grade cancer cells look more like normal cells and tend to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade cancer cells. Grading systems are different for each type of cancer. They are used to help plan treatment and determine prognosis. Also called histologic grade.

tumor infiltrating lymphocyte    listen   (TOO-mer IN-fil-TRAY-ting LIM-foh-site)
A white blood cell that has left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor.

tumor initiation    listen   (TOO-mer ih-NIH-shee-AY-shun)
A process in which normal cells are changed so that they are able to form tumors. Substances that cause cancer can be tumor initiators.

tumor load    listen   (TOO-mer lode)
Refers to the number of cancer cells, the size of a tumor, or the amount of cancer in the body. Also called tumor burden.

tumor lysis syndrome    listen   (TOO-mer LY-sis SIN-drome)
A condition that can occur after treatment of a fast-growing cancer, especially certain leukemias and lymphomas (cancers of the blood). As tumor cells die, they break apart and release their contents into the blood. This causes a change in certain chemicals in the blood, which may cause damage to organs, including the kidneys, heart, and liver.

tumor marker    listen   (TOO-mer MAR-ker)
A substance found in tissue, blood, or other body fluids that may be a sign of cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Most tumor markers are made by both normal cells and cancer cells, but they are made in larger amounts by cancer cells. A tumor marker may help to diagnose cancer, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Examples of tumor markers include CA-125 (in ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (in breast cancer), CEA (in colon cancer), and PSA (in prostate cancer).

tumor marker test    listen   (TOO-mer MAR-ker ...)
A test that measures the amount of substances called tumor markers in tissue, blood, urine, or other body fluids. Most tumor markers are made by both normal cells and cancer cells, but they are made in higher amounts by cancer cells. A high level of a tumor marker may be a sign of cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. A tumor marker test is usually done with other tests, such as biopsies, to help diagnose some types of cancer. It may also be used to help plan treatment or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back.

tumor microenvironment    listen   (TOO-mer MY-kroh-en-VY-run-MENT)
The normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that surround and feed a tumor cell. A tumor can change its microenvironment, and the microenvironment can affect how a tumor grows and spreads.

tumor model    listen   (TOO-mer MAH-dul)
Cells, tissues, or animals used to study the development and progression of cancer, and to test new treatments before they are given to humans. Animals with transplanted human tumors or other tissues are called xenograft models.

tumor necrosis factor    listen   (TOO-mer neh-KROH-sis FAK-ter)
A protein made by white blood cells in response to an antigen (substance that causes the immune system to make a specific immune response) or infection. Tumor necrosis factor can also be made in the laboratory. It may boost a person’s immune response, and also may cause necrosis (cell death) of some types of tumor cells. Tumor necrosis factor is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of cytokine. Also called TNF.

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A    listen   (TOO-mer neh-KROH-sis FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter SOO-per FA-mih-lee …)
A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells. An increase in the amount or activity of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A on cancer cells may kill more cells. Also called death receptor 4, DR4, TRAIL receptor 1, and TRAIL-R1.

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10B    listen   (TOO-mer neh-KROH-sis FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter SOO-per FA-mih-lee …)
A protein on the surface of certain cells that binds another protein called TRAIL, which may kill some cancer cells. An increase in the amount or activity of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10B on cancer cells may kill more cells. Also called death receptor 5, DR5, TRAIL receptor 2, and TRAIL-R2.

tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand    listen   (TOO-mer neh-KROH-sis FAK-ter-ree-LAY-ted A-pop-TOH-sis-in-DOO-sing LIH-gund)
A cell protein that can attach to certain molecules in some cancer cells and may kill the cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Also called Apo-2L, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and TRAIL.

tumor promotion    listen   (TOO-mer proh-MOH-shun)
A process in which existing tumors are stimulated to grow. Tumor promoters are not able to cause tumors to form.

tumor suppressor gene    listen   (TOO-mer suh-PREH-ser jeen)
A type of gene that makes a protein called a tumor suppressor protein that helps control cell growth. Mutations (changes in DNA) in tumor suppressor genes may lead to cancer. Also called antioncogene.

tumor vasculature–targeted tumor necrosis factor alpha    listen   (TOO-mer VAS-kyoo-luh-cher-TAR-geh-ted TOO-mer neh-KROH-sis FAK-ter AL-fuh)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to a peptide. The peptide binds to tumor blood vessels, and TNF damages them. It is a type of biological response modifier. Also called NGR-TNF.

tumor volume    listen   (TOO-mer VOL-yoom)
The size of a cancer measured by the amount of space taken up by the tumor. For example, the tumor volume of prostate cancer is the percentage of the prostate taken up by the tumor.

tumor-derived    listen   (TOO-mer-deh-RIVED)
Taken from an individual's own tumor tissue; may be used in the development of a vaccine that enhances the body's ability to build an immune response to the tumor.

tumor-specific antigen    listen   (TOO-mer-speh-SIH-fik AN-tih-jen)
A protein or other molecule that is unique to cancer cells or is much more abundant in them. These molecules are usually found in the plasma (outer) membrane, and they are thought to be potential targets for immunotherapy or other types of anticancer treatment.

TUMT      
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A small microwave antenna on the instrument heats nearby prostate tissue and destroys it. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral microwave thermotherapy.

TUNA      
A procedure that is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument with a small probe that gives off low-level radiofrequency energy is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. The energy from the probe heats nearby prostate tissue and destroys it. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral needle ablation and transurethral radiofrequency ablation.

TUR      
Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra. Also called transurethral resection.

Turcot syndrome    listen   (ter-KOH SIN-drome)
A rare, inherited disorder in which polyps (abnormal growths of tissue) form on the inside walls of the colon and rectum, and tumors form in the brain. There are two types of Turcot syndrome, which are caused by mutations (changes) in different genes. People with Turcot syndrome have a higher-than-normal risk of colorectal cancer and brain cancer, especially glioblastoma and medulloblastoma.

Turkish rhubarb    listen   (... ROO-barb)
The root of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rheum palmatum or Rheum officinale. Also called Chinese rhubarb, da-huang, Indian rhubarb, and rhubarb.

turmeric    listen   (TER-mayr-ik)
An East Indian plant that is a member of the ginger family and is used as a spice and food color. The underground stems are used in some cultures to treat certain stomach problems. The substance in turmeric that gives it a yellow color (curcumin) is being studied in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer disease, cystic fibrosis, and psoriasis. The scientific name is Curcuma longa. Also called Indian saffron and jiang huang.

TURP    listen  
Surgery to remove tissue from the prostate using an instrument inserted through the urethra. Also called transurethral resection of the prostate.

TUVP      
A procedure used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). An instrument is inserted through the urethra into the prostate. A ball or special wire loop on the instrument heats the prostate tissue and turns it to vapor. This relieves pressure and improves urine flow. Also called transurethral electroevaporation of the prostate, transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate, and TUEVAP.

TVS      
A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves to bounce off organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer, which creates a picture called a sonogram. Also called transvaginal sonography and transvaginal ultrasound.

twelve-step program    listen   (... PROH-gram)
A program to help people recover from substance abuse, emotional disorders, or addictions. The twelve steps come from an organization called Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and are changed for each specific condition.

Tykerb    listen   (TY-kerb)
A drug used with another anticancer drug to treat breast cancer that is HER2 positive and has advanced or metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) after treatment with other drugs. Tykerb is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of ErbB-2 and EGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called GW572016, lapatinib, and lapatinib ditosylate.

tympanites    listen   (TIM-puh-NY-teez)
Swelling of the abdomen caused by gas in the intestines or peritoneal cavity. Also called meteorism.

type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist    listen   (tipe 3 SAYR-uh-TOH-nin reh-SEP-ter an-TA-guh-nist)
A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist.

type C thymoma    listen   (tipe C thy-MOH-muh)
A rare type of thymus gland cancer. It usually spreads, has a high risk of recurrence, and has a poor survival rate. Thymic carcinoma is divided into subtypes, depending on the types of cells in which the cancer began. Also called thymic carcinoma.

tyrosinase peptide    listen   (ty-RAH-sih-NAYS PEP-tide)
A protein that is made from tumor cells and is used in a vaccine against melanoma. A tyrosinase peptide vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system to find and kill melanoma cells.

tyrosine kinase inhibitor    listen   (TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks the action of enzymes called tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are a part of many cell functions, including cell signaling, growth, and division. These enzymes may be too active or found at high levels in some types of cancer cells, and blocking them may help keep cancer cells from growing. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used to treat cancer. They are a type of targeted therapy.

tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF 1120    listen   (TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF 1120 blocks enzymes needed for cells to grow, and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called BIBF 1120.

tyrosinemia    listen   (TY-roh-sih-NEE-mee-uh)
A rare, inherited disorder marked by high blood levels of a protein building block called tyrosine. This can cause a harmful buildup of tyrosine and other substances in the body’s tissues and organs, especially in the liver, kidney, and nervous system. This can lead to serious medical problems and may increase the risk of liver cancer. Tyrosinemia is caused by mutations (changes) in certain genes that make enzymes needed to break down tyrosine.

TZT-1027      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of tubulin inhibitor. Also called soblidotin.

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