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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


168 results found for:       V



VACB      
A procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the breast. An imaging device is used to guide a hollow probe connected to a vacuum device. The probe is inserted through a tiny cut made in numbed skin on the breast. The tissue sample is removed using gentle vacuum suction and a small rotating knife within the probe. Then the tissue sample is studied under a microscope to check for signs of disease. This procedure causes very little scarring and no stitches are needed. Also called vacuum-assisted biopsy and vacuum-assisted core biopsy.

vaccinated    listen   (VAK-sih-NAY-ted)
Treated with a vaccine.

vaccination    listen   (VAK-sih-NAY-shun)
Treatment with a vaccine.

vaccine    listen   (vak-SEEN)
A substance or group of substances meant to cause the immune system to respond to a tumor or to microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. A vaccine can help the body recognize and destroy cancer cells or microorganisms.

vaccine adjuvant    listen   (vak-SEEN A-juh-vunt)
A substance added to a vaccine to improve the immune response so that less vaccine is needed.

vaccine therapy    listen   (vak-SEEN THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of treatment that uses a substance or group of substances to stimulate the immune system to destroy a tumor or infectious microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses.

vaccinia CEA vaccine    listen   (vak-SIH-nee-uh … vak-SEEN)
A vaccine made by putting the gene for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) into the vaccinia virus. The vaccinia virus is related to the virus used to make the smallpox vaccine. CEA is a tumor marker. The vaccinia CEA vaccine may help the immune system recognize and kill cancer cells that make CEA.

vaccinia-TRICOM vaccine    listen   (vak-SIH-nee-uh … vak-SEEN)
A cancer vaccine made with a form of a vaccinia virus that does not cause disease in humans. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. The virus is changed in the laboratory to make human proteins that may help immune cells in the body kill tumor cells. Also called recombinant vaccinia-TRICOM vaccine and rV-TRICOM.

vacuum aspiration    listen   (VAK-yoom AS-pih-RAY-shun)
A surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated (opened) and vacuum is used to remove tissue from the uterus. Also called suction aspiration and suction evacuation.

vacuum-assisted biopsy    listen   (VA-kyoom-uh-SIS-ted BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the breast. An imaging device is used to guide a hollow probe connected to a vacuum device. The probe is inserted through a tiny cut made in numbed skin on the breast. The tissue sample is removed using gentle vacuum suction and a small rotating knife within the probe. Then the tissue sample is studied under a microscope to check for signs of disease. This procedure causes very little scarring and no stitches are needed. Also called VACB and vacuum-assisted core biopsy.

vacuum-assisted core biopsy    listen   (VA-kyoom-uh-SIS-ted … BY-op-see)
A procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the breast. An imaging device is used to guide a hollow probe connected to a vacuum device. The probe is inserted through a tiny cut made in numbed skin on the breast. The tissue sample is removed using gentle vacuum suction and a small rotating knife within the probe. Then the tissue sample is studied under a microscope to check for signs of disease. This procedure causes very little scarring and no stitches are needed. Also called VACB and vacuum-assisted biopsy.

vagina    listen   (vuh-JY-nuh)
The muscular canal that goes from the uterus to the outside of the body. During birth, the baby passes through the vagina. Also called birth canal.

vaginal    listen   (VA-jih-nul)
Having to do with the vagina (the birth canal).

vaginal cancer    listen   (VA-jih-nul KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in the tissues of the vagina (birth canal). The vagina leads from the cervix (the opening of the uterus) to the outside of the body. The most common type of vaginal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which starts in the thin, flat cells lining the vagina. Another type of vaginal cancer is adenocarcinoma, cancer that begins in glandular cells in the lining of the vagina.

vaginal dilation therapy    listen   (VA-jih-nul DY-LAY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A method used to prevent the closing of the vagina (the birth canal) after radiation therapy to the pelvis. The patient puts a dilator (tube-like device) coated with an oily or slippery substance into her vagina.

vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia    listen   (VA-jih-nul IN-truh-eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the vagina (birth canal). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into the vaginal wall. Also called VAIN.

vaginectomy    listen   (va-jih-NEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove part or all of the vagina (the birth canal).

VAIN    listen  
Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the vagina (birth canal). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into the vaginal wall. Also called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.

valacyclovir    listen   (VAL-uh-SY-kloh-veer)
A substance that is being studied in the prevention of fungal, bacterial, and viral infections in patients undergoing donor stem cell transplantation with cells that are infected with cytomegalovirus. It belongs to the family of drugs called antivirals.

valdecoxib    listen   (VAL-deh-KOK-sib)
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for pain and other side effects of cancer therapy. It belongs to the family of drugs called COX-2 inhibitors.

valerian    listen   (vuh-LEER-ee-un)
A plant whose roots are used as a sedative and to treat certain medical conditions. It is being studied as a way to improve sleep in cancer patients undergoing treatment. Also called garden heliotrope, garden valerian, Indian valerian, Mexican valerian, Pacific valerian, Valeriana officinalis, and Valerianae radix.

Valeriana officinalis    listen   (vuh-LEER-ee-a-nuh uh-FIH-sih-NUH-lis)
A plant whose roots are used as a sedative and to treat certain medical conditions. It is being studied as a way to improve sleep in cancer patients undergoing treatment. Also called garden heliotrope, garden valerian, Indian valerian, Mexican valerian, Pacific valerian, valerian, and Valerianae radix.

Valerianae radix    listen   (vuh-LEER-ee-un-i RAY-dix)
A plant whose roots are used as a sedative and to treat certain medical conditions. It is being studied as a way to improve sleep in cancer patients undergoing treatment. Also called garden heliotrope, garden valerian, Indian valerian, Mexican valerian, Pacific valerian, valerian, and Valeriana officinalis.

valganciclovir    listen   (VAL-gan-SY-kloh-veer)
An antiviral agent that is being studied as a treatment for AIDS-related cytomegalovirus. It is changed in the body to ganciclovir.

Valium    listen   (VAL-ee-um)
A drug used to treat mild to moderate anxiety and tension and to relax muscles. It is a type of benzodiazepine. Also called diazepam.

valproic acid    listen   (val-PROH-ik A-sid)
A drug used to treat epileptic seizures and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches. It is also being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme that cells need to grow and may cause cancer cells to die. It also blocks the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of anticonvulsant, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, antimaniacal, migraine headache prophylactic, and antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Depakene and Stavzor.

valrubicin    listen   (val-ROO-bih-SIN)
A drug used to treat bladder cancer that does not respond to BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin). It is an anthracycline and is a type of antitumor antibiotic. Also called AD 32.

VAMP    listen  
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat low-risk childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs vincristine sulfate, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), methotrexate, and prednisone. Also called VAMP regimen.

VAMP regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used with radiation therapy to treat low-risk childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. It includes the drugs vincristine sulfate, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), methotrexate, and prednisone. Also called VAMP.

vancomycin    listen   (VAN-koh-MY-sin)
An antibiotic drug used to fight resistant bacterial infections.

vandetanib    listen   (van-DEH-tuh-nib)
A drug used to treat medullary thyroid cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and cannot be treated by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vandetanib prevents the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It also blocks enzymes needed for cell growth and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Caprelsa and ZD6474.

vapreotide    listen   (vah-PREE-oh-tide)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called somatostatin analogs.

varenicline tartrate    listen   (vuh-REH-nih-klin TAR-trayt)
A drug used to help people stop smoking by acting the same way nicotine acts in the brain. It is a type of nicotine receptor partial agonist. Also called Chantix.

variable expression    listen   (VAYR-ee-uh-bul ek-SPREH-shun)
Refers to the difference in the way that signs and symptoms of a genetic condition can show up in individual patients who have that condition. For example, some patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 may have only mild symptoms, such as brown spots and freckling on the skin, and others may have more severe symptoms, such as brain tumors and tumors on the nerves.

varicose vein    listen   (VAYR-ih-kose vayn)
A condition in which a vein, most often in the legs, becomes permanently enlarged, twisted, and painful. This may be caused by valves in the vein that don’t work properly or by weakness in the vein walls.

VAS      
A tool used to help a person rate the intensity of certain sensations and feelings, such as pain. The visual analog scale for pain is a straight line with one end meaning no pain and the other end meaning the worst pain imaginable. A patient marks a point on the line that matches the amount of pain he or she feels. It may be used to help choose the right dose of pain medicine. Also called visual analog scale.

vas deferens    listen   (VAS DEH-feh-RENZ)
A coiled tube that carries the sperm out of the testes.

vascular endothelial growth factor    listen   (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter)
A substance made by cells that stimulates new blood vessel formation. Also called VEGF.

vascular endothelial growth factor-antisense oligonucleotide    listen   (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter-AN-tee-sents AH-lih-goh-NOO-klee-oh-tide)
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to the RNA for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor-antisense oligonucleotide blocks the cell’s ability to make VEGF, which may kill tumors that need new blood vessels to grow. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide and a type of gene expression inhibitor. Also called VEGF-AS.

vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor    listen   (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks an enzyme needed to form blood vessels. Also called VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

vascular endothelial growth factor trap    listen   (VAS-kyoo-ler EN-doh-THEE-lee-ul grothe FAK-ter ...)
A drug used with other drugs to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor trap blocks the action of a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called VEGF Trap, Zaltrap, and ziv-aflibercept.

vascularized autologous bone graft    listen   (VAS-kyoo-luh-RIZED aw-TAH-luh-gus ...)
Bone tissue that contains blood vessels, taken from one part of the body and used to replace diseased or injured bone in another part of the body of the same person.

vasectomy    listen   (va-SEK-toh-mee)
An operation to cut or tie off the two tubes that carry sperm out of the testicles.

vasoactive    listen   (VAY-zoh-AK-tiv)
Describes something that causes the blood vessels to constrict (get narrower) or dilate (get wider).

vasoactive intestinal peptide    listen   (VAY-zoh-AK-tiv in-TES-tih-nul PEP-tide)
A hormone found in the pancreas, intestine, and central nervous system. It has many actions in the body, such as helping to control the secretion of water, salts, enzymes, and gastric acid during digestion. It also causes smooth muscles in the digestive tract, the heart, and the blood vessels to relax. It also has effects on the immune system and the central nervous system. Certain tumors in the pancreas make large amounts of vasoactive intestinal peptide. Also called VIP hormone.

vasomotor    listen   (VAY-zoh-MOH-ter)
Affecting the narrowing and widening of the blood vessels.

vatalanib    listen   (va-TAH-la-nib)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and VEGF receptor kinase inhibitors. Also called PTK787/ZK 222584.

VB4-845      
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of head and neck cancer. VB4-845 is made by linking a monoclonal antibody fragment to a toxic protein that may kill cancer cells. It binds to EpCAM (a protein on the surface of epithelial cells and some types of cancer cells). Also called anti-EpCAM-Pseudomonas-exotoxin fusion protein and Proxinium.

Vectibix    listen   (VEK-tih-bix)
A human monoclonal antibody that is being used to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose disease has not gotten better during or after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. Vectibix binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and may block tumor cell growth. Also called ABX-EGF and panitumumab.

vegan    listen   (VEE-gun)
A person who does not eat any foods that come from animals, including meat, eggs, and dairy products. A vegan diet is being studied in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer and other medical conditions.

VEGF      
A substance made by cells that stimulates new blood vessel formation. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor.

VEGF Trap    listen   (... trap)
A drug used with other drugs to treat colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not gotten better with chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. VEGF Trap blocks the action of a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor trap, Zaltrap, and ziv-aflibercept.

VEGF-AS      
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It binds to the RNA for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels. VEGF-AS blocks the cell’s ability to make VEGF, which may kill tumors that need new blood vessels to grow. It is a type of antisense oligonucleotide and a type of gene expression inhibitor. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor-antisense oligonucleotide.

VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor    listen   (VEGFR TY-ruh-seen KY-nays in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that blocks an enzyme needed to form blood vessels. Also called vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

VEGFR-2 inhibitor CT-322    listen   (... in-HIH-bih-ter ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. VEGFR-2 inhibitor CT-322 may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called Angiocept and CT-322.

vein    listen   (vayn)
A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart from tissues and organs in the body.

VeIP      
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat advanced ovarian and testicular germ cell cancers. It includes the drugs vinblastine sulfate (Velban), ifosfamide (Ifex), and cisplatin (Platinol). Also called VeIP regimen.

VeIP regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat advanced ovarian and testicular germ cell cancers. It includes the drugs vinblastine sulfate (Velban), ifosfamide (Ifex), and cisplatin (Platinol). Also called VeIP.

velafermin    listen   (veh-luh-FER-min)
A substance that is being studied in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis (sores in the mouth) in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy. Velafermin belongs to the family of drugs called recombinant human fibroblast growth factors (rhFGF).

Velban    listen   (VEL-bun)
A drug used to treat several types of cancer, including breast cancer and a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor that have not gotten better with other treatment, lymphoma, testicular cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Velban blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Velsar and vinblastine sulfate.

velcade    listen   (VEL-kayd)
A drug used to treat multiple myeloma. It is also used to treat mantle cell lymphoma in patients who have already received at least one other type of treatment and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Velcade blocks several molecular pathways in a cell and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of proteasome inhibitor and a type of dipeptidyl boronic acid. Also called bortezomib and PS-341.

veliparib    listen   (veh-lih-PAR-ib)
A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancers caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer drugs, and radiation used to treat cancer. Veliparib may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Also called ABT-888 and PARP-1 inhibitor ABT-888.

Velsar    listen   (VEL-sar)
A drug used to treat several types of cancer, including breast cancer and a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor that have not gotten better with other treatment, lymphoma, testicular cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Velsar blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Velban and vinblastine sulfate.

veltuzumab    listen   (vel-TOO-zoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of lymphoma. It binds to the protein CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of immune system cell) and some types of lymphoma cells. This causes the immune system to kill the cancer cells. Veltuzumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called hA20, HCD20, and IMMU-106.

vemurafenib    listen   (VEH-myoo-RA-feh-nib)
A drug used to treat advanced melanoma that has a mutated (changed) form of a cell protein called BRAF. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vemurafenib blocks this mutated protein, which may stop the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of targeted therapy agent. Also called BRAF (V600E) kinase inhibitor RO5185426, PLX4032, RG7204, and Zelboraf.

venipuncture    listen   (VEE-nih-PUNK-cher)
The puncture of a vein with a needle for the purpose of drawing blood. Also called phlebotomy.

venlafaxine    listen   (ven-luh-FAK-seen)
A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It may also be used to treat hot flashes in women who are in menopause or are being treated for breast cancer. Venlafaxine increases the levels of the chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve mood. It is a type of antidepressant and a type of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Also called Effexor.

venography    listen   (veh-NAH-gruh-fee)
A procedure in which an x-ray of the veins is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins.

venous catheter    listen   (VEE-nus KA-theh-ter)
A thin, flexible tube that is inserted into a large vein, usually in the arm, chest, or leg. It is used to give intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, and chemotherapy and other drugs, and for taking blood samples. It avoids the need for repeated needle sticks.

venous sampling    listen   (VEE-nus...)
A procedure in which a sample of blood is taken from a certain vein and checked for specific substances released by nearby organs and tissues. A higher than normal amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.

ventilator    listen   (VEN-tih-LAY-ter)
In medicine, a machine used to help a patient breathe. Also called respirator.

ventricle    listen   (VEN-trih-kul)
A fluid-filled cavity in the heart or brain.

Vepesid    listen   (VEH-peh-sid)
A drug used to treat testicular and small cell lung cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. Vepesid blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of podophyllotoxin derivative and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor. Also called etoposide and Toposar.

Versed    listen   (ver-SED)
A drug used to treat anxiety and tension and to relax muscles. It is also being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of benzodiazepine. Also called midazolam and midazolam hydrochloride.

vertebral column    listen   (ver-TEE-brul KAH-lum)
The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The vertebral column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and spine.

vertebroplasty    listen   (VER-teh-broh-PLAS-tee)
A procedure used to repair a bone in the spine that has a break caused by cancer, osteoporosis (a decrease in bone mass and density), or trauma. Bone cement is injected into the broken bone to make it stronger.

verum acupuncture    listen   (VEER-um AK-yoo-PUNK-cher)
Refers to traditional acupuncture, which is the technique of inserting thin needles through the skin to certain depths and at certain points on the body to control pain and other symptoms. The term verum acupuncture may be used when comparing traditional acupuncture to sham (placebo) acupuncture. In sham acupuncture, needles do not go as deep and are not used at the same points on the body.

Vesanoid    listen   (VEH-suh-noyd)
An oral preparation of tretinoin that is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia, usually together with other drugs. It is being studied in the treatment and prevention of other types of cancer. Tretinoin is a form of vitamin A.

vesicant extravasation    listen   (VEH-sih-kunt ek-STRA-vuh-SAY-shun)
The leakage of certain drugs called vesicants out of a vein into the tissue around it. Vesicants cause blistering and other tissue injury that may be severe and can lead to tissue necrosis (tissue death).

vesicle    listen   (VEH-sih-kul)
A small sac formed by a membrane and filled with liquid. Vesicles inside cells move substances into or out of the cell. Vesicles made in the laboratory can be used to carry drugs to cells in the body.

VHL syndrome    listen   (… SIN-drome)
A rare inherited disorder in which blood vessels grow abnormally in the eyes, brain, spinal cord, adrenal glands, or other parts of the body. People with VHL syndrome have a higher risk of developing some types of cancer. Also called von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

Viadur    listen   (VY-uh-door)
A drug used to treat advanced prostate cancer. Under the brand name Lupron, it is also used to treat early puberty in children and certain gynecologic conditions. Viadur is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks the testicles from making testosterone (a male hormone) and the ovaries from making estrogen and progesterone (female hormones). It may stop the growth of prostate cancer cells that need testosterone to grow. Viadur is a type of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Also called Eligard, leuprolide acetate, and Lupron.

Viagra    listen   (vy-A-gruh)
A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. Viagra relaxes the smooth muscle of the penis to allow increased blood flow and erection. It is a type of phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Also called sildenafil.

vibro-acoustography imaging    listen   (VY-broh-uh-koos-TAH-gruh-fee IH-muh-jing)
A technique being studied in the diagnosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. Vibro-acoustography imaging uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to cause tissues to vibrate. The sound made by the vibrating tissues is picked up by a microphone and is used to make an image of the object on a computer. Cancer tissue can be seen because it is denser and vibrates at a different rate than normal tissue.

Vidaza    listen   (vih-DAY-zuh)
A drug that is used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called azacitidine and Mylosar.

video-assisted resection    listen   (VIH-dee-oh-uh-SIS-ted ree-SEK-shun)
Surgery that is aided by the use of a video camera that projects and enlarges the image on a television screen. Also called video-assisted surgery.

video-assisted surgery    listen   (VIH-dee-oh-uh-SIS-ted SER-juh-ree)
Surgery that is aided by the use of a video camera that projects and enlarges the image on a television screen. Also called video-assisted resection.

villous adenoma    listen   (VIH-lus A-deh-NOH-muh)
A type of polyp that grows in the colon and other places in the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes in other parts of the body. These adenomas may become malignant (cancer).

villus    listen   (VIH-lus)
A tiny hair-like projection, often on the surface of mucous membranes. The plural is villi.

VIN    listen  
Abnormal cells are found on the surface of the vulvar skin. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby tissue. Also called vulvar carcinoma in situ and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

vinblastine sulfate    listen   (vin-BLAS-teen SUL-fayt)
A drug used to treat several types of cancer, including breast cancer and a type of gestational trophoblastic tumor that have not gotten better with other treatment, lymphoma, testicular cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vinblastine sulfate blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Velban and Velsar.

vinca alkaloid    listen   (VIN-kuh AL-kuh-LOYD)
A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). Vinca alkaloids interfere with microtubules (cellular structures that help move chromosomes during mitosis). They are used to treat cancer. A vinca alkaloid is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent.

vincristine    listen   (vin-KRIS-teen)
The active ingredient in a drug used to treat acute leukemia. It is used in combination with other drugs to treat Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Vincristine is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks cell growth by stopping cell division. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent.

vincristine sulfate    listen   (vin-KRIS-teen SUL-fayt)
A drug used to treat acute leukemia. It is used in combination with other drugs to treat Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Vincristine sulfate is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks cell growth by stopping cell division. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Oncovin.

vincristine sulfate liposome    listen   (vin-KRIS-teen SUL-fayt LY-poh-some)
A form of the anticancer drug vincristine sulfate that is contained inside very tiny, fat-like particles. It may have fewer side effects and work better than vincristine. Vincristine sulfate liposome is used to treat adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is Philadelphia chromosome negative and has come back or has not gotten better with other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called liposomal vincristine sulfate and Marqibo.

vindesine    listen   (VIN-deh-seen)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of plant drugs called vinca alkaloids.

vinflunine    listen   (VIN-floo-neen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of bladder cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Also called Javlor.

vinorelbine    listen   (vih-NOR-el-been)
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of plant drugs called vinca alkaloids.

vinorelbine tartrate    listen   (vih-NOR-el-been TAR-trayt)
A drug used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of vinca alkaloid and a type of antimitotic agent. Also called Navelbine.

vinyl chloride    listen   (VY-nil KLOR-ide)
A substance used to make plastics. Exposure to vinyl chloride may increase the risk of developing liver, brain, and lung cancers; lymphoma; and leukemia.

Vioxx    listen   (VY-ox)
A drug that was being used for pain relief and was being studied for its ability to prevent cancer and to prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Vioxx was taken off the market in the U.S. because of safety concerns. Also called rofecoxib.

VIP      
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat advanced testicular cancer. It is often used in patients who cannot receive bleomycin. It includes the drugs etoposide (VePesid), ifosfamide, and cisplatin (Platinol). Also called VIP regimen.

VIP hormone    listen   (... HOR-mone)
A hormone found in the pancreas, intestine, and central nervous system. It has many actions in the body, such as helping to control the secretion of water, salts, enzymes, and gastric acid during digestion. It also causes smooth muscles in the digestive tract, the heart, and the blood vessels to relax. It also has effects on the immune system and the central nervous system. Certain tumors in the pancreas make large amounts of VIP hormone. Also called vasoactive intestinal peptide.

VIP regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat advanced testicular cancer. It is often used in patients who cannot receive bleomycin. It includes the drugs etoposide (VePesid), ifosfamide, and cisplatin (Platinol). Also called VIP.

viral    listen   (VY-rul)
Having to do with a virus.

viral oncolysate    listen   (VY-rul on-KAH-lih-sayt)
An extract made from cancer cells that are infected with a strain of virus that can lyse (break down) cancer cells. The extract contains both cancer cell proteins and virus proteins. Viral oncolysates are being studied as cancer vaccines.

viral therapy    listen   (VY-rul THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment using a virus that has been changed in the laboratory to find and destroy cancer cells without harming healthy cells. It is a type of targeted therapy. Also called oncolytic virotherapy, oncolytic virus therapy, and virotherapy.

viral vector    listen   (VY-rul VEK-ter)
A type of virus used in cancer therapy. The virus is changed in the laboratory and cannot cause disease. Viral vectors may produce tumor antigens (proteins found on a tumor cell) to stimulate an antitumor immune response in the body. Viral vectors may also be used to carry genes that can change cancer cells back to normal cells.

virotherapy    listen   (VY-roh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment using a virus that has been changed in the laboratory to find and destroy cancer cells without harming healthy cells. It is a type of targeted therapy. Also called oncolytic virotherapy, oncolytic virus therapy, and viral therapy.

virtual colonoscopy    listen   (VER-chuh-wul KOH-luh-NOS-koh-pee)
A method to examine the inside of the colon by taking a series of x-rays. A computer is used to make 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D pictures of the colon from these x-rays. The pictures can be saved, changed to give better viewing angles, and reviewed after the procedure, even years later. Also called computed tomographic colonography, computed tomography colonography, CT colonography, and CTC.

virulence    listen   (VEER-uh-lents)
The ability of a microorganism to cause damage to its host.

virulent    listen   (VEER-uh-lent)
Refers to the ability of a virus or a bacterium to cause damage to its host.

Virulizin    listen   (VEER-yoo-LY-zin)
A substance that activates some types of immune system cells, and is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called biological therapy agents.

virus    listen   (VY-rus)
In medicine, a very simple microorganism that infects cells and may cause disease. Because viruses can multiply only inside infected cells, they are not considered to be alive.

virus replication cycle    listen   (VY-rus reh-plih-KAY-shun...)
The reproduction cycle of viruses. A replication cycle begins with the infection of a host cell and ends with the release of mature progeny virus particles.

virus-like particle    listen   (VY-rus-like PAR-tih-kul)
A small particle that contains certain proteins from the outer coat of a virus. Virus-like particles do not contain any genetic material from the virus and cannot cause an infection. They are used to make vaccines that can help the body’s immune system kill microorganisms and certain cancer cells. Virus-like particles were used to make vaccines that prevent cervical cancer caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). They were also used to make vaccines that prevent liver cancer caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus.

virus-neutralizing antibody    listen   (VY-rus-NOO-truh-LY-zing AN-tee-BAH-dee)
An antibody that binds to a virus and interferes with its ability to infect a cell.

viscera    listen   (VIH-seh-ruh)
The soft internal organs of the body, including the lungs, the heart, and the organs of the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems.

visceral    listen   (VIH-seh-rul)
Having to do with the viscera, which are the soft internal organs of the body, including the lungs, the heart, and the organs of the digestive, excretory, reproductive, and circulatory systems.

visceral peritoneum    listen   (VIH-seh-rul PAYR-ih-toh-NEE-um)
The layers of tissue that cover the outer surface of most organs in the abdomen, including the intestines.

viscotoxin    listen   (VIS-koh-TOK-sin)
A member of a group of small proteins produced by mistletoe plants that are able to kill cells and may stimulate the immune system.

visilizumab    listen   (vih-sih-LIZ-yoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the treatment of an immune system reaction called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which may occur after a donor stem cell transplant. It is also being studied in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases. Visilizumab binds to a protein called CD3, which is found on some T cells (a type of white blood cell). This may help suppress the body’s immune response. Visilizumab is a type of monoclonal antibody.

vismodegib    listen   (VIS-moh-DEH-gib)
A drug used to treat advanced basal cell carcinoma that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after surgery. It is also used in patients who cannot be treated with surgery or radiation therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vismodegib blocks a type of protein involved in tissue growth and repair and may block the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of Hedgehog signaling pathway antagonist. Also called Erivedge and GDC-0449.

visual analog scale    listen   (VIH-zhoo-ul A-nuh-log skayl)
A tool used to help a person rate the intensity of certain sensations and feelings, such as pain. The visual analog scale for pain is a straight line with one end meaning no pain and the other end meaning the worst pain imaginable. A patient marks a point on the line that matches the amount of pain he or she feels. It may be used to help choose the right dose of pain medicine. Also called VAS.

visual pathway glioma    listen   (VIH-zhoo-ul ... glee-OH-muh)
A rare, slow-growing tumor that usually forms in the optic nerve, optic chiasm, or optic tract. These are parts of the nervous system that carry messages from the eye to the brain. Also called optic pathway glioma.

vital    listen   (VY-tul)
Necessary to maintain life. Breathing is a vital function.

vitality    listen   (vy-TA-lih-tee)
A term used to describe a person’s ability to live, grow, and develop. Vitality also refers to having energy and being vigorous and active. Being ill or being treated for a disease, such as cancer, may lessen a person’s vitality.

vitamin    listen   (VY-tuh-min)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Sources of vitamins are plant and animal food products and dietary supplements. Some vitamins are made in the human body from food products. Vitamins are either fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) or water-soluble (can dissolve in water). Excess fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fatty tissue, but excess water-soluble vitamins are removed in the urine. Examples are vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

vitamin A    listen   (VY-tuh-min …)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin A helps in vision, bone growth, reproduction, growth of epithelium (cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body), and fighting infections. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils). Vitamin A is found in liver, egg yolks, and whole milk dairy products from animals and in fish oils. It can also be made in the body from a substance found in some fruits and vegetables, such as cantaloupes, carrots, spinach, and sweet potatoes. Vitamin A is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Also called retinol.

vitamin A acid    listen   (VY-tuh-min...A-sid)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin A acid is made in the body from vitamin A and helps cells to grow and develop, especially in the embryo. A form of vitamin A acid made in the laboratory is put on the skin to treat conditions such as acne and is taken by mouth to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (a fast-growing cancer in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow). Vitamin A acid is being studied in the prevention and treatment of other types of cancer. Also called all-trans retinoic acid, ATRA, retinoic acid, and tretinoin.

vitamin B complex    listen   (VY-tuh-min ... KOM-plex)
A compound containing several or all of a group of vitamins and nutrients that the body needs in very small amounts to function and stay healthy. The B vitamins in the vitamin B complex include thiamine, riboflavin, niacin (nicotinic acid), niacinamide (nicotinamide), the vitamin B6 group (including pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine), biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and vitamin B12. Aminobenzoic acid, inositol, and choline are sometimes included as part of the vitamin B complex. The vitamin B complex is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and is found in yeast, seeds, eggs, liver, meat, and vegetables. Members of the vitamin B complex are being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer.

vitamin B1    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin B1 helps some enzymes work properly, helps break down sugars in the diet, and keeps nerves and the heart healthy. It is found in pork, organ meats, peas, beans, nuts, and whole grains. Vitamin B1 is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in daily. Not enough vitamin B1 can cause a disease called beriberi (a condition marked by heart, nerve, and digestive disorders). Too much vitamin B1 may help cancer cells grow faster. Also called thiamine.

vitamin B12    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin B12 helps make red blood cells, DNA, RNA, energy, and tissues, and keeps nerve cells healthy. It is found in liver, meat, eggs, poultry, shellfish, milk, and milk products. Vitamin B12 is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough vitamin B12 can cause certain types of anemia (a condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal) and neurologic disorders. It is being studied with folate in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Also called cobalamin and cyanocobalamin.

vitamin B2    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin B2 helps make red blood cells, helps some enzymes work properly, and keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy. It is found in milk, eggs, malted barley, organ meats, yeast, and leafy vegetables. Vitamin B2 is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough vitamin B2 can cause anemia (a low number of red blood cells), mouth sores, and skin problems. Amounts of vitamin B2 may be higher in the blood of patients with some types of cancer. Also called riboflavin.

vitamin B3    listen   (VY-tuh-min …)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin B3 helps some enzymes work properly and helps skin, nerves, and the digestive tract stay healthy. Vitamin B3 is found in many plant and animal products. It is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough vitamin B3 can cause a disease called pellagra (a condition marked by skin, nerve, and digestive disorders). A form of vitamin B3 is being studied in the prevention of skin and other types of cancer. Vitamin B3 may help to lower blood cholesterol. Also called niacin and nicotinic acid.

vitamin B5    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin B5 helps some enzymes use foods and make many substances used in the body and protects cells against damage from peroxides. It is found in almost all plant and animal foods. Vitamin B5 is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Also called pantothenic acid.

vitamin B6    listen   (VY-tuh-min…)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin B6 helps keep nerves and skin healthy, fight infections, keep blood sugar levels normal, produce red blood cells, and some enzymes work properly. Vitamin B6 is a group of related compounds (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine) found in cereals, beans, peas, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and bananas. It is water-soluble (can dissolve in water). Not enough vitamin B6 can cause mouth and tongue sores and nervous disorders. Vitamin B6 is being studied in the prevention of hand-foot syndrome (a disorder caused by certain anticancer drugs and marked by pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, or redness of the hands or feet). Also called pyridoxine.

vitamin C    listen   (VY-tuh-min…)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin C helps fight infections, heal wounds, and keep tissues healthy. It is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Vitamin C is found in all fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, strawberries, cantaloupe, green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, leafy greens, and potatoes. It is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Vitamin C is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Also called ascorbic acid.

vitamin D    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin D helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in fatty fish, egg yolks, and dairy products. Skin exposed to sunshine can also make vitamin D. Not enough vitamin D can cause a bone disease called rickets. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Also called cholecalciferol.

vitamin D2    listen   (VY-tuh-min …)
A form of vitamin D that helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in plants and yeast. It can be made in the body from another form of vitamin D when the body is exposed to the sun. Vitamin D2 is also made in the laboratory. It is used to prevent and to treat vitamin D deficiency. It is a type of dietary supplement. Also called ergocalciferol.

vitamin E    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to stay healthy and work the way it should. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in seeds, nuts, leafy green vegetables, and vegetable oils. Vitamin E boosts the immune system and helps keep blood clots from forming. It also helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Vitamin E is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of antioxidant. Also called alpha-tocopherol.

vitamin H    listen   (VY-tuh-min …)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin H helps some enzymes break down substances in the body for energy and helps tissues develop. It is found in yeast, whole milk, egg yolks, and organ meats. Vitamin H is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough vitamin H can cause skin, nerve, and eye disorders. Vitamin H is present in larger amounts in some cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Attaching vitamin H to substances used to treat some types of cancer helps them find cancer cells. Also called biotin.

vitamin K    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin K helps to form blood clots (a mass that forms when blood platelets, proteins, and cells stick together) and maintain strong bones. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in green leafy vegetables, broccoli, liver, and vegetable oils. Vitamin K is also made by bacteria that live in the large intestine. Not enough vitamin K can lead to bleeding and bruising. It is a type of phylloquinone.

vitamin Q10    listen   (VY-tuh-min ...)
A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Vitamin Q10 helps mitochondria (small structures in the cell) make energy. It is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Vitamin Q10 is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in fatty fish, beef, soybeans, peanuts, and spinach. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer and heart disease and in the relief of side effects caused by some cancer treatments. Also called coenzyme Q10, CoQ10, Q10, and ubiquinone.

vitespen    listen   (vy-TEH-spen)
A vaccine made from a patient’s tumor cells that may help the body’s immune system kill cancer cells. This vaccine is used to treat kidney cancer, a type of brain cancer called glioma, and metastatic melanoma (a type of skin cancer that has spread). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called gp96 heat shock protein-peptide complex vaccine, gp96 HSP-peptide complex, and Oncophage.

Vitex    listen   (VY-tex)
An extract made from the fruit of the chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) found in parts of Asia and Europe. It is claimed to treat infertility and to lessen symptoms that may occur before or during a woman’s menstrual period, such as headaches and irregular bleeding. Vitex may affect levels of reproductive hormones in the blood. It is a type of phytomedicine. Also called chaste tree berry and monk’s pepper.

vitreous humor    listen   (VIH-tree-us HYOO-mer)
The clear jelly-like substance that fills the inside of the eyeball. As a person ages, the vitreous humor becomes more liquid.

Vivitrol    listen   (VIH-vih-trol)
A drug that blocks the action of opiates (drugs used to treat pain). It may be used in the treatment of intravenous opiate addiction or alcohol dependence. Vivitrol is also being studied in the treatment of breast cancer. It may block the effects of the hormone estrogen, which causes some breast cancer cells to grow, or block the blood flow to tumors. It is a type of opiate antagonist. Also called naltrexone, naltrexone hydrochloride, and ReVia.

VNP20009      
A genetically modified Salmonella bacterium that is injected into the tumor. It is being studied for its ability to shrink solid tumors.

VNP40101M      
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

vocal cord    listen   (VOH-kul kord)
One of two small bands of muscle within the larynx that vibrates to produce the voice.

voice box    listen   (voys …)
The area of the throat containing the vocal cords and used for breathing, swallowing, and talking. Also called larynx.

volociximab    listen   (voh-loh-SIK-sih-mab)
A monoclonal antibody that is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. Volociximab binds to a protein that is found on cells that line some tumor blood vessels. It is a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called M200.

Voltaren    listen   (vol-TAYR-en)
A drug that is used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of skin cancer. It blocks substances that cause inflammation and pain. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called diclofenac sodium.

Voltaren gel    listen   (vol-TAYR-en jel)
The gel form of a drug that is used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of skin cancer. It blocks substances that cause inflammation and pain. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called diclofenac sodium gel.

vomit    listen   (VAH-mit)
To eject some or all of the contents of the stomach through the mouth.

von Hippel-Lindau syndrome    listen   (von HIH-pul-LIN-dow SIN-drome)
A rare inherited disorder in which blood vessels grow abnormally in the eyes, brain, spinal cord, adrenal glands, or other parts of the body. People with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome have a higher risk of developing some types of cancer. Also called VHL syndrome.

Voraxaze    listen   (vor-AK-sayz)
A drug used to treat toxic levels of methotrexate (an anticancer drug) in the blood of patients with kidney problems. It is a bacterial enzyme that breaks down proteins and other substances, such as methotrexate. Voraxaze may also help certain drugs kill cancer cells. It is a type of chemoprotective agent and a type of prodrug activator. Also called carboxypeptidase-G2 and glucarpidase.

voriconazole    listen   (VOR-ih-KAH-nuh-zole)
A drug that treats infections caused by fungi.

vorinostat    listen   (vor-IN-oh-stat)
A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Vorinostat is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called SAHA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and Zolinza.

vorozole    listen   (VOR-uh-zole)
A hormone therapy drug used to decrease the production of estrogen.

Votrient    listen   (VOH-tree-ent)
A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma, which is the most common type of kidney cancer. It is also used to treat advanced soft tissue sarcoma that has been treated with other anticancer drugs. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Votrient may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called GW786034 and pazopanib hydrochloride.

vulva    listen   (VUL-vuh)
The external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina.

vulvar cancer    listen   (VUL-ver KAN-ser)
Cancer of the vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina).

vulvar carcinoma in situ    listen   (VUL-ver KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found on the surface of the vulvar skin. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby tissue. Also called VIN and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia    listen   (VUL-ver IN-truh-eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul NEE-oh-PLAY-zhuh)
Abnormal cells are found on the surface of the vulvar skin. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby tissue. Also called VIN and vulvar carcinoma in situ.

VX 853      
A drug being studied to make cancer cells less resistant to the effects of chemotherapy.

VX-710      
A drug being studied to make cancer cells less resistant to the effects of chemotherapy.

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