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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


21 results found for:       X



x-ray    listen   (EX-ray)
A type of radiation used in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In low doses, x-rays are used to diagnose diseases by making pictures of the inside of the body. In high doses, x-rays are used to treat cancer.

x-ray therapy    listen   (...THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy that uses high-energy radiation from x-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Xalkori    listen   (ZAL-kor-ee)
A drug used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer that has a mutated (changed) form of a gene called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Xalkori blocks the protein made by the mutated ALK gene. Blocking this protein may stop the growth and spread of cancer cells. Xalkori may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called crizotinib, MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor PF-02341066, and PF-02341066.

Xanax    listen   (ZAN-ax)
A drug used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks. It is being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of benzodiazepine. Also called alprazolam.

Xeloda    listen   (zeh-LOH-duh)
A drug used to treat stage III colon cancer in patients who had surgery to remove the cancer. It is also used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with certain other anticancer drugs. Xeloda is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is taken up by cancer cells and breaks down into 5-fluorouracil, a substance that kills tumor cells. Xeloda is a type of antimetabolite. Also called capecitabine.

XELOX    listen  
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat colorectal cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs capecitabine (Xeloda) and oxaliplatin. Also called XELOX regimen.

XELOX regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat colorectal cancer that has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs capecitabine (Xeloda) and oxaliplatin. Also called XELOX.

xenograft    listen   (ZEE-noh-graft)
The transplant of an organ, tissue, or cells to an individual of another species.

xeroderma pigmentosum    listen   (ZEER-oh-DER-ma pig-men-TOH-sum)
A genetic condition marked by an extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, including sunlight. People with xeroderma pigmentosum are not able to repair skin damage from the sun and other sources of ultraviolet radiation, and have a very high risk of skin cancer.

xerogram    listen   (ZEER-oh-gram)
A picture of the body recorded on paper rather than on film. Also called xeroradiograph.

xeroradiograph    listen   (ZEER-oh-RAY-dee-oh-graf)
A picture of the body recorded on paper rather than on film. Also called xerogram.

xeroradiography    listen   (ZEER-oh-RAY-dee-AH-gruh-fee)
A type of x-ray in which a picture of the body is recorded on paper rather than on film.

xerostomia    listen   (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-uh)
Dry mouth. It occurs when the body is not able to make enough saliva.

Xgeva    listen   (ex-JEE-vuh)
A drug used to prevent or treat certain bone problems. Under the brand name Xgeva, it is used to prevent broken bones and other bone problems caused by solid tumors that have spread to bone. It is also used in certain patients to treat giant cell tumor of the bone that cannot be removed by surgery. Under the brand name Prolia, it is used to treat osteoporosis (a decrease in bone mass and density) in postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breaking bones. Xgeva is also being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. It binds to a protein called RANKL, which keeps RANKL from binding to another protein called RANK on the surface of certain bone cells, including bone cancer cells. This may help keep bone from breaking down and cancer cells from growing. Xgeva is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called AMG 162, denosumab, and Prolia.

XK469R      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of leukemia. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.

XL880      
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. XL880 blocks enzymes involved in the growth and spread of tumor cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called foretinib and MET/VEGFR-2 inhibitor GSK1363089.

Xofigo    listen   (SOH-fee-goh)
A drug used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bone and has not gotten better with other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Xofigo contains a radioactive substance called radium 223. Radium 223 collects in bone and gives off radiation that may kill cancer cells. Xofigo is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called radium 223 dichloride.

XR9576      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may help tumor cells respond again to drugs they have become resistant (unable to respond) to. XR9576 is a type of multidrug resistance inhibitor and a type of P-glycoprotein antagonist. Also called tariquidar.

XRP9881      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of breast cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called taxane derivatives.

Xtandi    listen   (ek-STAN-dee)
A drug used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and did not get better with other treatment, including docetaxel. Xtandi binds to proteins called androgen receptors, which are found in some prostate cancer cells. These proteins bind to androgens (male hormones) and may cause cancer cells to grow. Blocking these proteins may keep cancer cells from growing. Xtandi is a type of antiandrogen. Also called enzalutamide.

Xyotax    listen   (ZY-oh-tax)
A form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel combined with a protein called poliglumex that may have fewer side effects and work better than paclitaxel. It is being studied in the treatment of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called mitotic inhibitors. Also called CT-2103, paclitaxel poliglumex, and paclitaxel polyglutamate.

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