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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms


379 results found for:       I



ibandronate    listen   (i-BAN-droh-nayt)
A drug that is used to prevent and treat osteoporosis, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer that has spread to the bones. It belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonates.

IBMFS      
Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. A rare disorder in which a person’s bone marrow is unable to make enough blood cells and there is a family history of the same disorder. There are several different inherited bone marrow failure syndromes. Patients with an IBMFS are at high risk of forming acute leukemia or certain solid tumors. Also called inherited bone marrow failure syndrome.

ibritumomab tiuxetan    listen   (ih-brih-TOO-moh-mab ty-UK-seh-tan)
A monoclonal antibody that is used to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment and detection of other types of B-cell tumors. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body, including cancer cells. Ibritumomab binds to the protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. It is linked to the compound tiuxetan. This allows certain radioisotopes to be attached before it is given to a patient. It is a type of monoclonal antibody-chelator conjugate. Also called Zevalin.

ibrutinib    listen   (i-BROO-tih-nib)
A drug used to treat mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is used in patients who have already received other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ibrutinib blocks a protein called Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Imbruvica.

IBS      
A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person’s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other. Also called irritable bowel syndrome, irritable colon, mucus colitis, and spastic colon.

ibuprofen    listen   (I-byoo-PROH-fen)
A drug used to treat fever, swelling, pain, and redness by preventing the body from making a substance that causes inflammation. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Also called Advil and Motrin.

ICD      
A small device used to correct a heartbeat that is abnormal (too fast, too slow, or irregular). The device is placed by surgery in the chest or abdomen. Wires are passed through a vein to connect the device to the heart. When it detects abnormal heartbeats, it sends an electrical shock to the heart to restore the heartbeat to normal. Also called implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

ICE    listen  
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas that have come back and do not respond to other treatments. It includes the drugs ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide phosphate. Also called ICE regimen.

ICE regimen    listen   (… REH-jih-men)
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas that have come back and do not respond to other treatments. It includes the drugs ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide phosphate. Also called ICE.

ICI 182780      
A drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. ICI 182780 blocks estrogen activity in the body and is a type of antiestrogen. Also called Faslodex and fulvestrant.

ICI D1694      
An anticancer drug that stops tumor cells from growing by blocking the ability of cells to make DNA. It belongs to the family of drugs called thymidylate synthase inhibitors. Also called raltitrexed.

Iclusig    listen   (i-KLOO-sig)
A drug used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is used in patients who are not able to take or have not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Iclusig blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins, which may help keep cancer cells from growing and may kill them. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called ponatinib hydrochloride.

idarubicin    listen   (I-duh-ROO-bih-sin)
An anticancer drug that is a type of antitumor antibiotic. Also called 4-demethoxydaunorubicin.

IDEC-Y2B8      
A drug used with the drug rituximab to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of B-cell tumors. IDEC-Y2B8 contains a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. It also contains a radioactive substance called yttrium Y 90, which may help kill cancer cells. IDEC-Y2B8 is a type of radioimmunoconjugate. Also called Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, Y 90 Zevalin, and yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.

idiopathic    listen   (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik)
Describes a disease of unknown cause.

idiopathic myelofibrosis    listen   (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik MY-eh-loh-fy-BROH-sis)
A progressive, chronic disease in which the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue and blood is made in organs such as the liver and the spleen, instead of in the bone marrow. This disease is marked by an enlarged spleen and progressive anemia. Also called agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, myelosclerosis with myeloid metaplasia, and primary myelofibrosis.

idiopathic pneumonia syndrome    listen   (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik noo-MOH-nyuh SIN-drome)
A set of pneumonia-like symptoms (such as fever, chills, coughing, and breathing problems) that occur with no sign of infection in the lung. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is a serious condition that can occur after a stem cell transplant.

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis    listen   (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik PUL-muh-NAYR-ee fy-BROH-sis)
A disease in which the alveoli (tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs) are overgrown with fibrous tissue. The cause of the disease is unknown and it gets worse over time. Symptoms include difficult, painful breathing and shortness of breath.

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura    listen   (IH-dee-oh-PA-thik THROM-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nik PUR-pyoo-ruh)
A condition in which platelets (blood cells that cause blood clots to form) are destroyed by the immune system. The low platelet count causes easy bruising and bleeding, which may be seen as purple areas in the skin, mucous membranes, and outer linings of organs. Also called immune thrombocytopenic purpura and ITP.

idoxifene    listen   (i-DOK-sih-feen)
A drug that blocks the effects of estrogen.

idoxuridine    listen   (I-dox-YOOR-ih-deen)
A drug that reduces the risk of cancer cell growth by interfering with the cells' DNA.

IEP      
An education plan for children with certain disabilities or health conditions, such as cancer. By law, these children must receive special education services and other support they need in school. An IEP describes which special services the child needs and how those needs will be met. This may include special class placement, extra help with class assignments and tests, tutoring, and other services such as counseling, speech therapy, and physical therapy. IEPs are covered in the U.S. law, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Also called individualized education plan.

IFA      
A mixture of oil and water that is combined with a specific antigen to boost the immune response to that antigen. It is being studied in immunotherapy and as a way to increase the immune response to cancer vaccines. It is a type of immune modulator. Also called incomplete Freund's adjuvant and Montanide ISA-51.

Ifex    listen   (I-fex)
A drug that is used with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ifex attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of antimetabolite. Also called ifosfamide.

IFN alpha-2B    listen   (… AL-fuh …)
A drug used to treat AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in certain patients, hairy cell leukemia, and melanoma that has been removed by surgery. It is also used with other anticancer drugs to treat a certain type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IFN alpha-2B is also used to treat some infections caused by viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. IFN alpha-2B is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells in the immune system) and is made in the laboratory. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier. Also called interferon alfa-2b, Intron A, and recombinant interferon alfa-2b.

iFOBT      
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. An antibody that binds to a blood protein called hemoglobin is used to detect any blood. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called fecal immunochemical test, FIT, immunoassay fecal occult blood test, immunochemical fecal occult blood test, and immunologic fecal occult blood test.

ifosfamide    listen   (i-FOS-fuh-mide)
A drug that is used with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ifosfamide attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of antimetabolite. Also called Ifex.

Ig    listen   (I-jee)
A protein that is made by B cells and plasma cells (types of white blood cells) and helps the body fight infection. Some Igs may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain conditions or certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Measuring the amount of specific Igs in the blood and urine may help diagnose cancer or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Some Igs may be used as tumor markers. Also called immunoglobulin.

IGF      
A protein made by the body that stimulates the growth of many types of cells. IGF is similar to insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas). There are two forms of IGF called IGF-1 and IGF-2. Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer. IGF is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called insulin-like growth factor and somatomedin.

IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906    listen   (… in-HIH-bih-ter ...)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It blocks a protein called IGF-1R, which is found at high levels in some types of tumors. IGF-1R is needed for cell growth and blocking it may cause tumor cells to die. IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 is a type of IGF-1R inhibitor. Also called OSI-906.

IGFR      
A protein found on the surface of some types of cells that binds to insulin-like growth factor (IGF). This causes the cells to grow and divide. IGFR is found at high levels on the surface of several types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow rapidly in the presence of IGF. Also called insulin-like growth factor receptor.

IgG-RFT5-dgA      
A monoclonal antibody linked to a toxic substance. It is being studied in the treatment of melanoma that has spread to distant parts of the body. IgG-RFT5-dgA is made in the laboratory. It can find and kill certain white blood cells that prevent the immune system from killing cancer cells. Also called RFT5-dgA immunotoxin.

IGRT      
A procedure that uses a computer to create a picture of a tumor to help guide the radiation beam during radiation therapy. The pictures are made using CT, ultrasound, X-ray, or other imaging techniques. IGRT makes radiation therapy more accurate and causes less damage to healthy tissue. Also called image-guided radiation therapy.

IH636 grape seed extract    listen   (… grayp seed EK-strakt)
A substance being studied for its ability to prevent damage to normal tissue caused by radiation therapy. It is a type of antioxidant.

IL      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. ILs regulate immune responses. ILs made in the laboratory are used as biological response modifiers to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. An interleukin is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin.

IL-1      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1 is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. There are two forms of IL-1, alpha and beta, which act the same. IL-1 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-1.

IL-1-alfa    listen   (... AL-fuh)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1-alfa, one form of IL-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of IL-1, IL-1-beta, acts the same as IL-1-alfa. IL-1-alfa made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1-alfa is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1-alpha, interleukin-1-alfa, and interleukin-1-alpha.

IL-1-alpha    listen   (... AL-fuh)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1-alpha, one form of IL-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of IL-1, IL-1-beta, acts the same as IL-1-alpha. IL-1-alpha made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1-alpha is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1-alfa, interleukin-1-alfa, and interleukin-1-alpha.

IL-1-beta    listen   (... BAY-tuh)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1-beta, one form of IL-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of IL-1, IL-1-alpha, acts the same as IL-1-beta. IL-1-beta made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1-beta is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1B and interleukin-1-beta.

IL-10      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-10 is made by activated macrophages and by some T lymphocytes. It reduces inflammation by blocking production of cytokines by immune cells. IL-10 also increases antibody production by plasma cells and helps them live longer. IL-10 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system. It is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-10.

IL-11      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-11 is made by support cells in the bone marrow. It causes the growth of several types of blood cells. Oprelvekin (IL-11 made in the laboratory) is used as a biological response modifier to increase the number of platelets, especially in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. IL-11 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-11.

IL-12      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-12 is made mainly by B lymphocytes and macrophages. It causes other immune cells to make cytokines and increases the growth of T lymphocytes. It may also block the growth of new blood vessels. IL-12 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-12 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-12.

IL-13      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-13 is made by a type of T lymphocyte. It reduces inflammation by blocking production of cytokines by macrophages. It also increases the number and activity of B lymphocytes. IL-13 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. It is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-13.

IL-1B      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-1B, one form of IL-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of IL-1, IL-1-alpha, acts the same as IL-1B. IL-1B made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-1B is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1-beta and interleukin-1-beta.

IL-2      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-2 is made by a type of T lymphocyte. It increases the growth and activity of other T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and affects the development of the immune system. Aldesleukin (IL-2 made in the laboratory) is being used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-2 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-2.

IL-3      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-3 is made mainly by a type of T lymphocyte. It increases the number of blood cells made by the bone marrow. IL-3 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-3 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-3.

IL-4      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-4 is made by a type of T lymphocyte. It causes B lymphocytes to increase and to make antibodies and also increases the production of T lymphocytes. IL-4 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-4 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-4.

IL-5      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-5 is made mainly by some T lymphocytes. It causes B lymphocytes to make more antibodies and increases the number of eosinophils. IL-5 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. It is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-5.

IL-6      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-6 is made mainly by some T lymphocytes. It causes B lymphocytes to make more antibodies and also causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. IL-6 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-6 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-6.

IL-7      
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-7 is made by cells that cover and support organs, glands, and other structures in the body. It causes the growth of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. IL-7 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-7 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-7 and lymphopoietin-1.

ileostomy    listen   (IL-ee-OS-toh-mee)
An opening into the ileum, part of the small intestine, from the outside of the body. An ileostomy provides a new path for waste material to leave the body after part of the intestine has been removed.

ileum    listen   (IH-lee-um)
The last part of the small intestine. It connects to the cecum (first part of the large intestine). The ileum helps to further digest food coming from the stomach and other parts of the small intestine. It absorbs nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and water from food so they can be used by the body.

ileus    listen   (IH-lee-us)
Blockage of the intestines

iloprost    listen   (I-loh-prost)
A substance that is being studied in the prevention of lung cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called prostaglandin analogs.

ILX-295501      
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug. It belongs to the family of drugs called diarylsulfonylureas.

ILX23-7553      
A substance that is being studied as an anticancer drug.

IM      
Within or into muscle. Also called intramuscular.

IM-862      
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.

image-guided radiation therapy    listen   (IH-mij-GY-ded RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a picture of a tumor to help guide the radiation beam during radiation therapy. The pictures are made using CT, ultrasound, X-ray, or other imaging techniques. Image-guided radiation therapy makes radiation therapy more accurate and causes less damage to healthy tissue. Also called IGRT.

imagery    listen   (IH-muh-jree)
A technique in which a person focuses on positive images in his or her mind. It can help people reach a relaxed, focused state and help reduce stress and give a sense of well-being. Also called guided imagery.

imaging    listen   (IH-muh-jing)
In medicine, a process that makes pictures of areas inside the body. Imaging uses methods such as x-rays (high-energy radiation), ultrasound (high-energy sound waves), and radio waves.

imaging procedure    listen   (IH-muh-jing proh-SEE-jer)
A type of test that makes detailed pictures of areas inside the body. Imaging procedures use different forms of energy, such as x-rays (high-energy radiation), ultrasound (high-energy sound waves), radio waves, and radioactive substances. They may be used to help diagnose disease, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working. Examples of imaging procedures are computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine tests. Also called imaging test.

imaging test    listen   (IH-muh-jing …)
A type of test that makes detailed pictures of areas inside the body. Imaging tests use different forms of energy, such as x-rays (high-energy radiation), ultrasound (high-energy sound waves), radio waves, and radioactive substances. They may be used to help diagnose disease, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working. Examples of imaging tests are computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine tests. Also called imaging procedure.

imatinib mesylate    listen   (ih-MA-tih-nib MEH-zih-layt)
A drug used to treat different types of leukemia and other cancers of the blood, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, skin tumors called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and a rare condition called systemic mastocytosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Imatinib mesylate blocks the protein made by the bcr/abl oncogene. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called Gleevec and STI571.

Imbruvica    listen   (im-BROO-vih-kuh)
A drug used to treat mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is used in patients who have already received other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Imbruvica blocks a protein called Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called ibrutinib.

IMC-1121B      
A drug used to treat cancer of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction (area where the esophagus connects to the stomach) that is advanced or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose cancer has gotten worse after treatment with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. IMC-1121B binds to receptors for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which may be found on some types of cancer cells. This may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. IMC-1121B is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-VEGFR-2 fully human monoclonal antibody IMC-1121B, Cyramza, and ramucirumab.

IMC-3G3      
A substance being studied in the treatment of glioblastoma (a type of brain tumor) that has come back. It binds to receptors for a protein called platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This keeps PDGF from binding to the cells. This may stop the growth of cancer cells and blood vessels that have the receptors for PDGF. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called anti-PDGFR alpha monoclonal antibody IMC-3G3 and anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha monoclonal antibody IMC-3G3.

IMC-A12      
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a monoclonal antibody that is made in the laboratory and can bind to substances in the body. IMC-A12 blocks the action of a protein needed for cell growth and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor. Also called cixutumumab.

imexon    listen   (i-MEK-son)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer, including pancreatic, lung, breast, prostate, melanoma, and multiple myeloma. It belongs to the family of drugs called cyanoaziridine derivatives. Also called Amplimexon.

imipenem    listen   (IH-mih-PEH-nem)
An antibiotic drug used to treat severe or very resistant infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called carbapenems.

imiquimod    listen   (IH-mih-KWIH-mod)
A drug used to treat early basal cell skin cancer and certain other skin conditions. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Imiquimod is a type of biological response modifier. Also called Aldara.

immature teratoma    listen   (IH-muh-CHOOR TAYR-uh-TOH-muh)
A rare type of germ cell tumor (type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs). Immature teratomas often contain several different types of tissue such as hair, muscle, and bone.

IMMU-106      
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of lymphoma. It binds to the protein CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of immune system cell) and some types of lymphoma cells. This causes the immune system to kill the cancer cells. IMMU-106 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called hA20, HCD20, and veltuzumab.

IMMU-110      
A substance being studied in the treatment of multiple myeloma and several other types of cancer. It binds to CD74, a protein on the surface of myeloma cells and certain other types of cells. It may help kill cancer cells. IMMU-110 is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called hLL1 and milatuzumab.

immune adjuvant    listen   (ih-MYOON A-juh-vunt)
A drug that stimulates the immune system to respond to disease.

immune complex hemolytic anemia    listen   (ih-MYOON KOM-plex HEE-moh-LIH-tik uh-NEE-mee-uh)
A condition in which the body’s immune system stops red blood cells from forming or causes them to clump together. Immune complex hemolytic anemia can occur in patients who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Also called autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immunohemolytic anemia.

immune function    listen   (ih-MYOON FUNK-shun)
Production and action of cells that fight disease or infection.

immune response    listen   (ih-MYOON reh-SPONTS)
The activity of the immune system against foreign substances (antigens).

immune system    listen   (ih-MYOON SIS-tem)
A complex network of cells, tissues, organs, and the substances they make that helps the body fight infections and other diseases. The immune system includes white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system, such as the thymus, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and bone marrow.

immune system disorder    listen   (ih-MYOON SIS-tem dis-OR-der)
A condition that affects the immune system. The immune system is made up of cells, tissues, and organs that help the body fight infections and other diseases. There are many different types of immune system disorders, including immunodeficiency disease, autoimmune disorders, and allergic disorders. Immunodeficiency disease occurs when a part of the immune system is missing or not working properly. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system recognizes its own tissues as foreign and attacks them. Allergic disorders occur when the immune system overreacts to substances that are usually not harmful, such as pollen, molds, and certain foods. Cancers of the immune system (such as leukemia and lymphoma) are also immune system disorders.

immune system tolerance    listen   (ih-MYOON SIS-tem TAH-leh-runts)
The failure of the immune system to respond to an antigen that previously caused an immune response.

immune thrombocytopenic purpura    listen   (ih-MYOON THROM-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nik PUR-pyoo-ruh)
A condition in which platelets (blood cells that cause blood clots to form) are destroyed by the immune system. The low platelet count causes easy bruising and bleeding, which may be seen as purple areas in the skin, mucous membranes, and outer linings of organs. Also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and ITP.

immunity    listen   (ih-MYOO-nih-tee)
The condition of being protected against an infectious disease. Immunity can be caused by a vaccine, previous infection with the same agent, or by transfer of immune substances from another person or animal.

immunization    listen   (IH-myoo-nih-ZAY-shun)
A technique used to cause an immune response that results in resistance to a specific disease, especially an infectious disease.

immunoassay    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-A-say)
A test that uses the binding of antibodies to antigens to identify and measure certain substances. Immunoassays may be used to diagnose disease. Also, test results can provide information about a disease that may help in planning treatment (for example, when estrogen receptors are measured in breast cancer).

immunoassay fecal occult blood test    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-A-say FEE-kul uh-KULT ...)
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. An antibody that binds to a blood protein called hemoglobin is used to detect any blood. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called fecal immunochemical test, FIT, iFOBT, immunochemical fecal occult blood test, and immunologic fecal occult blood test.

immunochemical fecal occult blood test    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-KEH-mih-kul FEE-kul uh-KULT...)
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. An antibody that binds to a blood protein called hemoglobin is used to detect any blood. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called fecal immunochemical test, FIT, iFOBT, immunoassay fecal occult blood test, and immunologic fecal occult blood test.

immunocompetence    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-KOM-peh-tents)
The ability to produce a normal immune response.

immunocompetent    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-KOM-peh-tent)
Having the ability to produce a normal immune response.

immunocompromised    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-KOM-proh-mized)
Having a weakened immune system caused by certain diseases or treatments.

immunoconjugate    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-KON-jih-gut)
An agent made up of an immune substance, such as a monoclonal antibody, that is chemically linked to a cell-killing substance such as a toxin, a radioactive molecule, or a drug. The antibody part of the immunoconjugate targets cancer cells and the linked substance may kill the cells or make them visible in the body. Some immunoconjugates are used to treat cancer or to help find cancer cells in the body.

immunoconjugate therapy    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-KON-jih-gut THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of treatment that uses an immune substance, such as a monoclonal antibody, that is chemically linked to a cell-killing substance such as a toxin, radioisotope, or drug. The immune substance targets certain types of cells and the linked substance kills the targeted cells without harming other cells. Immunoconjugates are used in the treatment of cancer. Examples include antibody-drug conjugates, immunotoxins, and some targeted therapy drugs.

immunocytochemistry    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-SY-toh-KEH-mih-stree)
A laboratory test that uses antibodies to test for certain antigens in a sample of cells. The antibody is usually linked to a radioactive substance or a dye that causes the cells to light up under a microscope. Immunocytochemistry is used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer. It may also be used to help tell the difference between different types of cancer.

immunodeficiency    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-dih-FIH-shun-see)
The decreased ability of the body to fight infections and other diseases.

immunodeficiency syndrome    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-dih-FIH-shun-see SIN-drome)
The inability of the body to produce an immune response.

immunoglobulin    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-GLAH-byoo-lin)
A protein that is made by B cells and plasma cells (types of white blood cells) and helps the body fight infection. Some immunoglobulins may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain conditions or certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Measuring the amount of specific immunoglobulins in the blood and urine may help diagnose cancer or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Some immunoglobulins may be used as tumor markers. Also called Ig.

immunohemolytic anemia    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-HEE-moh-LIH-tik uh-NEE-mee-uh)
A condition in which the body’s immune system stops red blood cells from forming or causes them to clump together. Immunohemolytic anemia can occur in patients who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Also called autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune complex hemolytic anemia.

immunohistochemistry    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-HIS-toh-KEH-mih-stree)
A laboratory test that uses antibodies to test for certain antigens in a sample of tissue. The antibody is usually linked to a radioactive substance or a dye that causes the antigens in the tissue to light up under a microscope. Immunohistochemistry is used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer. It may also be used to help tell the difference between different types of cancer.

immunologic fecal occult blood test    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-LAH-jik FEE-kul uh-KULT...)
A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. An antibody that binds to a blood protein called hemoglobin is used to detect any blood. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called fecal immunochemical test, FIT, iFOBT, immunoassay fecal occult blood test, and immunochemical fecal occult blood test.

immunological adjuvant    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-LAH-jih-kul A-juh-vunt)
A substance used to help boost the immune response to a vaccine so that less vaccine is needed.

immunology    listen   (IH-myoo-NAH-loh-jee)
The study of the body's immune system.

immunomodulating agent    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-MOD-yoo-lay-ting AY-jent)
A substance that stimulates or suppresses the immune system and may help the body fight cancer, infection, or other diseases. Specific immunomodulating agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and vaccines, affect specific parts of the immune system. Nonspecific immunomodulating agents, such as BCG and levamisole, affect the immune system in a general way.

immunomodulation    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-MAH-juh-LAY-shun)
Change in the body's immune system, caused by agents that activate or suppress its function.

immunophenotyping    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-FEE-noh-ty-ping)
A process used to identify cells, based on the types of antigens or markers on the surface of the cell. This process is used to diagnose specific types of leukemia and lymphoma by comparing the cancer cells to normal cells of the immune system.

immunoscintigraphy    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-sin-TIH-gruh-fee)
An imaging procedure in which antibodies labeled with radioactive substances are given to the person. A picture is taken of sites in the body where the antibody localizes.

immunosignature    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-SIG-nuh-cher)
Information about the antibodies in a person’s blood at a given point in time. Over time, the antibodies can change and immunosignatures might be used to help track a person’s health and diagnose infections, cancer, or other medical conditions earlier.

immunostimulant    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-STIM-yoo-lunt)
A substance that increases the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease.

immunosuppressant    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-suh-PREH-sunt)
An agent that decreases the body’s immune responses. It reduces the body’s ability to fight infections and other diseases, such as cancer. Immunosuppressants may be used to keep a person from rejecting a bone marrow or organ transplant. They are also used in the treatment of conditions marked by over-active immune responses, such as auto-immune diseases and allergies.

immunosuppression    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-suh-PREH-shun)
Suppression of the body's immune system and its ability to fight infections and other diseases. Immunosuppression may be deliberately induced with drugs, as in preparation for bone marrow or other organ transplantation, to prevent rejection of the donor tissue. It may also result from certain diseases such as AIDS or lymphoma or from anticancer drugs.

immunosuppressive    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-suh-PREH-siv)
Describes the ability to decrease the body's immune system responses.

immunosuppressive therapy    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-suh-PREH-siv THAYR-uh-pee)
Therapy used to decrease the body's immune responses, such as drugs given to prevent transplant rejection.

immunotherapy    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of biological therapy that uses substances to stimulate or suppress the immune system to help the body fight cancer, infection, and other diseases. Some types of immunotherapy only target certain cells of the immune system. Others affect the immune system in a general way. Types of immunotherapy include cytokines, vaccines, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), and some monoclonal antibodies.

immunotoxin    listen   (IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
An antibody linked to a toxic substance. Some immunotoxins can bind to cancer cells and kill them.

Imodium    listen   (ih-MOH-dee-um)
A drug used to treat diarrhea. Imodium slows the movement of the muscles in the small intestine to allow more water to be taken out of the feces (waste matter) and more nutrients to be absorbed. Also called loperamide hydrochloride.

impairment    listen   (im-PAYR-ment)
A loss of part or all of a physical or mental ability, such as the ability to see, walk, or learn.

implant    listen   (IM-plant)
A substance or object that is put in the body as a prosthesis, or for treatment or diagnosis.

implant displacement views    listen   (… dis-PLAYS-ment vyooz)
A procedure used to do a mammogram (x-ray of the breasts) in women with breast implants. The implant is pushed back against the chest wall and the breast tissue is pulled forward and around it so the tissue can be seen in the mammogram. Also called Eklund displacement views and Eklund views.

implant radiation therapy    listen   (... RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, internal radiation therapy, and radiation brachytherapy.

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator    listen   (im-PLAN-tuh-bul KAR-dee-oh-VER-ter-dee-FIH-brih-LAY-ter)
A small device used to correct a heartbeat that is abnormal (too fast, too slow, or irregular). The device is placed by surgery in the chest or abdomen. Wires are passed through a vein to connect the device to the heart. When it detects abnormal heartbeats, it sends an electrical shock to the heart to restore the heartbeat to normal. Also called ICD.

implantable pump    listen   (im-PLAN-tuh-bul …)
A small device installed under the skin to administer a steady dose of drugs.

impotence    listen   (IM-puh-tents)
In medicine, refers to the inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Also called erectile dysfunction.

impotent    listen   (IM-poh-tent)
In medicine, describes the inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse.

IMRT      
A type of 3-dimensional radiation therapy that uses computer-generated images to show the size and shape of the tumor. Thin beams of radiation of different intensities are aimed at the tumor from many angles. This type of radiation therapy reduces the damage to healthy tissue near the tumor. Also called intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan    listen   (... ih-brih-TOO-moh-mab ty-UK-seh-tan)
A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody that is used to detect certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the detection of other types of B-cell tumors. It is made up of the monoclonal antibody ibritumomab plus the radioisotope indium 111. It binds to the protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. A machine is used to detect which cells in the body have bound the antibody. In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called In 111 Zevalin and indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan.

In 111 Zevalin    listen   (... ZEH-vuh-lin)
A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody that is used to detect certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the detection of other types of B-cell tumors. It is made up of the monoclonal antibody ibritumomab plus the radioisotope indium 111. It binds to the protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. A machine is used to detect which cells in the body have bound the antibody. In 111 Zevalin is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan and indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan.

in situ    listen   (in SY-too)
In its original place. For example, in carcinoma in situ, abnormal cells are found only in the place where they first formed. They have not spread.

in vitro    listen   (in VEE-troh)
In the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body).

in vitro fertilization    listen   (in VEE-troh FER-tih-lih-ZAY-shun)
A procedure in which eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary and combined with sperm outside the body to form embryos. The embryos are grown in the laboratory for several days and then either placed in a woman’s uterus or cryopreserved (frozen) for future use.

in vivo    listen   (in VEE-voh)
In the body. The opposite of in vitro (outside the body or in the laboratory).

in-transit metastasis    listen   (in-TRAN-zit meh-TAS-tuh-sis)
A type of metastasis in which skin cancer spreads through a lymph vessel and begins to grow more than 2 centimeters away from the primary tumor but before it reaches the nearest lymph node.

inalimarev    listen   (IH-nuh-LIH-muh-rev)
A cancer vaccine made with a form of vaccinia virus that does not cause disease in humans. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. The virus is changed in the laboratory to make human proteins, including the tumor markers called CEA and MUC-1, that may help immune cells in the body kill tumor cells. Also called PANVAC-V and recombinant vaccinia-CEA-MUC-1-TRICOM vaccine.

incidence    listen   (IN-sih-dents)
The number of new cases of a disease diagnosed each year.

incision    listen   (in-SIH-zhun)
A cut made in the body to perform surgery.

incisional biopsy    listen   (in-SIH-zhuh-nul BY-op-see)
A surgical procedure in which a portion of a lump or suspicious area is removed for diagnosis. The tissue is then examined under a microscope to check for signs of disease.

incomplete Freund's adjuvant    listen   (in-kum-PLEET froyndz A-juh-vunt)
A mixture of oil and water that is combined with a specific antigen to boost the immune response to that antigen. It is being studied in immunotherapy and as a way to increase the immune response to cancer vaccines. It is a type of immune modulator. Also called IFA and Montanide ISA-51.

incontinence    listen   (in-KON-tih-nents)
Inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or the escape of stool from the rectum (fecal incontinence).

incubated    listen   (IN-kyoo-bay-ted)
Grown in the laboratory under controlled conditions. For example, white blood cells can be grown in special conditions so that they attack specific cancer cells when returned to the body.

Indian cress    listen   (IN-dee-un kres)
Parts of the flowering plant have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. The scientific name is Nasturtium officinale. Also called watercress.

Indian elm    listen   (IN-dee-un elm)
The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called gray elm, red elm, slippery elm, sweet elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

Indian rhubarb    listen   (IN-dee-un ROO-barb)
The root of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rheum palmatum or Rheum officinale. Also called Chinese rhubarb, da-huang, rhubarb, and Turkish rhubarb.

Indian saffron    listen   (IN-dee-un SA-fron)
An East Indian plant that is a member of the ginger family and is used as a spice and food color. The underground stems are used in some cultures to treat certain stomach problems. The substance in Indian saffron that gives it a yellow color (curcumin) is being studied in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer disease, cystic fibrosis, and psoriasis. The scientific name is Curcuma longa. Also called jiang huang and turmeric.

Indian valerian    listen   (IN-dee-un vuh-LEER-ee-un)
A plant whose roots are used as a sedative and to treat certain medical conditions. It is being studied as a way to improve sleep in cancer patients undergoing treatment. Also called garden heliotrope, garden valerian, Mexican valerian, Pacific valerian, valerian, Valeriana officinalis, and Valerianae radix.

indication    listen   (IN-dih-KAY-shun)
In medicine, a sign, symptom, or medical condition that leads to the recommendation of a treatment, test, or procedure.

indinavir    listen   (in-DIH-nuh-veer)
A drug that interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.

indirect ophthalmoscopy    listen   (IN-duh-REKT OF-thul-MOS-koh-pee)
An exam of the inside of the back of the eye using a beam of light and a hand-held lens. Indirect ophthalmoscopy gives a wider view inside the eye than an exam using an ophthalmoscope does.

indium In 111 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody M5A    listen   (IN-dee-um … MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee …)
A substance being studied in the imaging of some types of cancer. M5A is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called CEA on the surface of some tumor cells. It is linked to a radioisotope called indium In 111. The combined substance is injected into the blood, and a machine is used to find cells in the body that bind to it. Indium In 111 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody M5A is a type of radioimmunoconjugate.

indium In 111 CHX-A DTPA trastuzumab    listen   (IN-dee-um … tras-TOO-zoo-mab)
A substance being studied in the imaging of breast cancer and some other types of cancer. It is made by attaching a radioactive substance called indium 111 to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab binds to the human growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) on some breast cancer cells and on several other types of cancer cells. Indium In 111 CHX-A DTPA trastuzumab is a type of radioimmunoconjugate.

indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan    listen   (IN-dee-um … ih-brih-TOO-moh-mab ty-UK-seh-tan)
A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody that is used to detect certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the detection of other types of B-cell tumors. It is made up of the monoclonal antibody ibritumomab plus the radioisotope indium 111. It binds to the protein called CD20, which is found on B cells. A machine is used to detect which cells in the body have bound the antibody. Indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan and In 111 Zevalin.

indium In 111 pentetreotide    listen   (IN-dee-um … PEN-teh-TREE-oh-tide)
An anticancer drug belonging to a family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals.

individualized education plan    listen   (in-dih-VIH-joo-wuh-lized EH-juh-KAY-shun plan)
An education plan for children with certain disabilities or health conditions, such as cancer. By law, these children must receive special education services and other support they need in school. An individualized education plan describes which special services the child needs and how those needs will be met. This may include special class placement, extra help with class assignments and tests, tutoring, and other services such as counseling, speech therapy, and physical therapy. Individualized education plans are covered in the U.S. law, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Also called IEP.

indole    listen   (IN-dole)
A type of chemical found in plants and in certain vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower. Indoles may promote good health and are being studied in the prevention of certain types of cancer, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer. An indole is a type of phytochemical.

indole-3-carbinol    listen   (IN-dole … KAR-bih-nol)
A substance that is being studied as a cancer prevention drug. It is found in cruciferous vegetables.

indolent    listen   (IN-doh-lent)
A type of cancer that grows slowly.

indolent lymphoma    listen   (IN-doh-lent lim-FOH-muh)
A type of lymphoma that tends to grow and spread slowly, and has few symptoms. Also called low-grade lymphoma.

indomethacin    listen   (IN-doh-MEH-thuh-sin)
A drug that reduces pain, fever, swelling, and redness. It is also being used to reduce tumor-induced suppression of the immune system and to increase the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

induction therapy    listen   (in-DUK-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
The first treatment given for a disease. It is often part of a standard set of treatments, such as surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation. When used by itself, induction therapy is the one accepted as the best treatment. If it doesn’t cure the disease or it causes severe side effects, other treatment may be added or used instead. Also called first-line therapy, primary therapy, and primary treatment.

infantile genetic agranulocytosis    listen   (IN-fun-TILE jeh-NEH-tik ay-GRAN-yoo-loh-sy-TOH-sis)
An inherited disorder in which there is a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infections). Infants with the disorder get infections caused by bacteria, and are at an increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplasia (a bone marrow disorder). Also called congenital neutropenia, genetic infantile agranulocytosis, Kostmann disease, Kostmann neutropenia, and Kostmann syndrome.

infantile rickets    listen   (IN-fun-TILE RIH-kets)
A condition in children in which bones become soft and deformed because they don’t have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet or by not getting enough sunlight. In adults, this condition is called osteomalacia. Also called juvenile rickets, rachitis, and rickets.

infection    listen   (in-FEK-shun)
The invasion and growth of germs in the body. The germs may be bacteria, viruses, yeast, fungi, or other microorganisms. Infections can begin anywhere in the body and may spread all through it. An infection can cause fever and other health problems, depending on where it occurs in the body. When the body’s immune system is strong, it can often fight the germs and cure an infection. Some cancer treatments can weaken the immune system, which may lead to infection.

inferior vena cava    listen   (in-FEER-ee-er VEE-nuh KAY-vuh)
A large vein that empties into the heart. It carries blood from the legs and feet and from organs in the abdomen and pelvis.

infertile    listen   (in-FER-til)
Unable to produce children.

infertility    listen   (IN-fer-TIH-lih-tee)
The inability to produce children.

infiltrating breast cancer    listen   (IN-fil-TRAY-ting brest KAN-ser)
Cancer that has spread from where it began in the breast to surrounding normal tissue. The most common type of infiltrating breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma, which begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). Another type is infiltrating lobular carcinoma, which begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast. Infiltrating breast cancer can spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. Also called invasive breast cancer.

infiltrating cancer    listen   (IN-fil-TRAY-ting KAN-ser)
Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. Also called invasive cancer.

infiltrating ductal carcinoma    listen   (IN-fil-TRAY-ting DUK-tul KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
The most common type of infiltrating breast cancer. It begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple) and spreads outside the ducts to surrounding normal tissue. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma can also spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. Also called invasive ductal carcinoma.

infiltrating lobular carcinoma    listen   (IN-fil-TRAY-ting LAH-byoo-ler KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A type of invasive breast cancer that begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast and spreads to surrounding normal tissue. It can also spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. Also called invasive lobular carcinoma.

inflammation    listen   (IN-fluh-MAY-shun)
Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of the body. This is a protective reaction to injury, disease, or irritation of the tissues.

inflammatory    listen   (in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee)
Having to do with inflammation (redness, swelling, pain, and a feeling of heat that helps protect tissues affected by injury or disease).

inflammatory bowel disease    listen   (in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee BOW-ul dih-ZEEZ)
A general term that refers to the inflammation of the colon and rectum. Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

inflammatory breast cancer    listen   (in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee brest KAN-ser)
A type of breast cancer in which the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm. The skin of the breast may also show the pitted appearance called peau d'orange (like the skin of an orange). The redness and warmth occur because the cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin.

infliximab    listen   (in-FLIK-sih-mab)
A monoclonal antibody that blocks the action of a cytokine called tumor necrosis factor alfa. It is being studied in the treatment and prevention of weight loss and loss of appetite in patients with advanced cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called monoclonal antibodies.

influenza A virus    listen   (IN-floo-EN-zuh … VY-rus)
One of three types of virus that cause the illness called influenza (flu). The influenza A virus can infect people, birds, pigs, horses, and other animals. It is the main cause of most influenza epidemics.

informed consent    listen   (in-FORMD kun-SENT)
A process in which patients are given important information, including possible risks and benefits, about a medical procedure or treatment, a clinical trial, or genetic testing. This is to help them decide if they want to be treated, tested, or take part in the trial. Patients are also given any new information that might affect their decision to continue. Also called consent process.

infrared coagulation    listen   (IN-fruh-RED koh-A-gyuh-LAY-shun)
A technique in which abnormal tissue is exposed to a burst of infrared light (a type of radiation). This causes blood in veins in the tissue to coagulate (harden) and the abnormal tissue to shrink. It is being studied in the prevention of anal cancer in some patients with HIV.

infrared thermography    listen   (IN-fruh-RED ther-MAH-gruh-fee)
In medicine, a procedure in which an infrared camera (one that senses heat) is used to measure temperature differences on the surface of the body. The camera makes pictures that show areas of possible abnormal cell growth because abnormal tissue gives off more heat than normal tissue does.

infusion    listen   (in-FYOO-zhun)
A method of putting fluids, including drugs, into the bloodstream. Also called intravenous infusion.

ingestion    listen   (in-JES-chun)
Taking into the body by mouth.

inguinal orchiectomy    listen   (IN-gwih-nul OR-kee-EK-toh-mee)
An operation in which the testicle is removed through an incision in the groin.

inhalation    listen   (IN-huh-LAY-shun)
In medicine, refers to the act of taking a substance into the body by breathing.

inhaler    listen   (in-HAY-ler)
A device for giving medicines in the form of a spray that is inhaled (breathed in) through the nose or mouth. Inhalers are used to treat certain medical problems, such as bronchitis, angina, emphysema, and asthma. They are also used to help relieve symptoms that occur when a person is trying to quit smoking.

inherited    listen   (in-HAYR-ih-ted)
In medicine, describes the passing of genetic information from parent to child through the genes in sperm and egg cells. Also called hereditary.

inherited bone marrow failure syndrome    listen   (in-HAYR-ih-ted bone MAYR-oh FAYL-yer SIN-drome)
A rare disorder in which a person’s bone marrow is unable to make enough blood cells and there is a family history of the same disorder. There are several different types of inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, and patients with one of them are at high risk of forming acute leukemia or certain solid tumors. Also called IBMFS.

inherited cancer syndrome    listen   (in-HAYR-ih-ted KAN-ser SIN-drome)
A type of inherited disorder in which there is a higher-than-normal risk of certain types of cancer. Inherited cancer syndromes are caused by mutations (changes) in certain genes passed from parents to children. In an inherited cancer syndrome, certain patterns of cancer may be seen within families. These patterns include having several close family members (such as a mother, daughter, and sister) with the same type of cancer, developing cancer at an early age, or having two or more types of cancer develop in the same person. Examples of inherited cancer syndromes are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Lynch syndrome. Also called hereditary cancer syndrome.

inherited erythroblastopenia    listen   (in-HAYR-ih-ted eh-RITH-roh-BLAS-toh-PEE-nee-uh)
A very rare disorder in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough red blood cells. It is usually seen in the first year of life. Patients may have deformed thumbs and other physical problems. They also have an increased risk of leukemia and sarcoma, especially osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Patients with inherited erythroblastopenia may have a mutation (change) in one of the genes that make proteins found in the cell’s ribosomes. Also called Blackfan–Diamond anemia, congenital hypoplastic anemia, congenital pure red cell aplasia, DBA, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and erythrogenesis imperfecta.

iniparib    listen   (ih-nih-PAR-ib)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Iniparib may kill cancer cells. Also called BSI-201.

injection    listen   (in-JEK-shun)
Use of a syringe and needle to push fluids or drugs into the body; often called a "shot."

Inlyta    listen   (in-LY-tuh)
A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (the most common type of kidney cancer). It is used in patients who have not gotten better with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Inlyta blocks the action of proteins called growth factor receptors and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called axitinib.

Innohep    listen   (IH-noh-HEP)
A drug that is used with another drug, warfarin, to treat blood clots that form deep in the veins and to prevent new blood clots from forming. It is a type of anticoagulant. Also called tinzaparin and tinzaparin sodium.

inoperable    listen   (in-AH-peh-ruh-bul)
Describes a condition that cannot be treated by surgery.

inositol    listen   (ih-NOH-sih-TOL)
A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Inositol helps cells make membranes and respond to messages from their environment. It has the same chemical formula as glucose (the chief source of energy for living organisms) but has a different arrangement of atoms. It is found in beans, peas, brown rice, wheat bran and nuts. It is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Inositol is being studied in the prevention of cancer. Also called myoinositol.

inositol hexaphosphate    listen   (ih-NOH-sih-TOL HEK-suh-FOS-fayt)
A substance found in many foods that come from plants, including corn, wheat, rice, and soybeans, and in large amounts in cereals and legumes. It is being studied in the prevention of cancer. Also called IP6 and phytic acid.

INS316      
A substance being studied in the diagnosis of lung diseases, including lung cancer. It helps bring up a sample of mucus from deep in the lungs and improves the quality of the sample for testing. It is a type of nucleoside triphosphate.

insomnia    listen   (in-SOM-nee-uh)
Difficulty in going to sleep or getting enough sleep.

instillation    listen   (in-stih-LAY-shun)
In medicine, a method used to put a liquid into the body slowly or drop by drop.

Institutional Review Board    listen   (IN-stih-TOO-shuh-nul reh-VYOO bord)
A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and patient advocates that reviews and approves the detailed plan for every clinical trial. Institutional Review Boards are meant to protect the people who take part in a clinical trial. They check to see that the trial is well designed, legal, ethical, does not involve unneeded risks, and includes a safety plan for patients. There is an Institutional Review Board at every health care facility that does clinical research. Also called IRB.

insulin    listen   (IN-suh-lin)
A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells, where it can be used by the body for energy.

insulin glargine    listen   (IN-suh-lin GLAR-jeen)
A drug used to control the amount of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes. It is a form of the hormone insulin that is made in the laboratory. Insulin glargine controls blood sugar longer than insulin does. It is a type of therapeutic insulin. Also called insulin glargine recombinant and Lantus.

insulin glargine recombinant    listen   (IN-suh-lin GLAR-jeen ree-KOM-bih-nunt)
A drug used to control the amount of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes. It is a form of the hormone insulin that is made in the laboratory. Insulin glargine recombinant controls blood sugar longer than insulin does. It is a type of therapeutic insulin. Also called insulin glargine and Lantus.

insulin glulisine    listen   (IN-suh-lin GLOO-lih-seen)
A drug used to control the amount of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes mellitus. It is a form of the hormone insulin that is made in the laboratory. Insulin glulisine gets into the blood faster than insulin when it is injected under the skin before or shortly after a meal. It is a type of therapeutic insulin. Also called Apidra.

insulin-like growth factor    listen   (IN-suh-lin-like grothe FAK-ter)
A protein made by the body that stimulates the growth of many types of cells. Insulin-like growth factor is similar to insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas). There are two forms of insulin-like growth factor called IGF-1 and IGF-2. Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer. Insulin-like growth factor is a type of growth factor and a type of cytokine. Also called IGF and somatomedin.

insulin-like growth factor receptor    listen   (IN-suh-lin-like grothe FAK-ter reh-SEP-ter)
A protein found on the surface of some types of cells that binds to insulin-like growth factor (IGF). This causes the cells to grow and divide. Insulin-like growth factor receptor is found at high levels on the surface of several types of cancer cells, which causes these cells to grow rapidly in the presence of IGF. Also called IGFR.

insulinoma    listen   (IN-suh-lih-NOH-muh)
An abnormal mass that grows in the beta cells of the pancreas that make insulin. Insulinomas are usually benign (not cancer). They secrete insulin and are the most common cause of low blood sugar caused by having too much insulin in the body. Also called beta cell neoplasm, beta cell tumor of the pancreas, and pancreatic insulin-producing tumor.

integrative medicine    listen   (IN-teh-gray-tiv MEH-dih-sin)
A type of medical care that combines conventional (standard) medical treatment with complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies that have been shown to be safe and to work. CAM therapies treat the mind, body, and spirit.

intensification therapy    listen   (in-TEN-sih-fih-KAY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is given after cancer has disappeared following the initial therapy. Intensification therapy is used to kill any cancer cells that may be left in the body. It may include radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, or treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells. Also called consolidation therapy and postremission therapy.

intensity-modulated radiation therapy    listen   (in-TEN-sih-tee-MAH-juh-LAY-tid RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of 3-dimensional radiation therapy that uses computer-generated images to show the size and shape of the tumor. Thin beams of radiation of different intensities are aimed at the tumor from many angles. This type of radiation therapy reduces the damage to healthy tissue near the tumor. Also called IMRT.

intercalator    listen   (in-TUR-kuh-LAY-ter)
In biochemistry, a type of molecule that binds to DNA and inserts itself into the DNA structure. Some intercalators are used as treatments for cancer.

intercellular communication    listen   (IN-ter-SEL-yoo-ler kuh-MYOO-nih-KAY-shun)
The transfer of information from one cell to another. Cells signal each other by direct contact with each other or by the release of a substance from one cell that is taken up by another cell. Intercellular communication is important for cells to grow and work normally. Cells that lose the ability to respond to signals from other cells may become cancer cells. Also called cell-cell signaling and cell-to-cell signaling.

interfering thought    listen   (IN-ter-FEER-ing thawt)
An unpleasant memory or idea that occurs often in a person’s everyday thoughts and keeps him or her from thinking about other things. Interfering thoughts can make sleep difficult and make a person unable to carry out daily activities. Also called intrusive thought.

interferon    listen   (in-ter-FEER-on)
A biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infections and other diseases). Interferons interfere with the division of cancer cells and can slow tumor growth. There are several types of interferons, including interferon-alpha, -beta, and -gamma. The body normally produces these substances. They are also made in the laboratory to treat cancer and other diseases.

interferon alfa-2b    listen   (in-ter-FEER-on AL-fuh …)
A drug used to treat AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in certain patients, hairy cell leukemia, and melanoma that has been removed by surgery. It is also used with other anticancer drugs to treat a certain type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Interferon alfa-2b is also used to treat some infections caused by viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Interferon alfa-2b is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells in the immune system) and is made in the laboratory. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier. Also called IFN alpha-2B, Intron A, and recombinant interferon alfa-2b.

interleukin    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukins regulate immune responses. Interleukins made in the laboratory are used as biological response modifiers to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. An interleukin is a type of cytokine. Also called IL.

interleukin-1    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin …)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-1 is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. There are two forms of interleukin-1, alpha and beta, which act the same. Interleukin-1 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-1 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1.

interleukin-1-alfa    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin ... AL-fuh)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-1-alfa, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of interleukin-1, interleukin-1-beta, acts the same as interleukin-1-alfa. Interleukin-1-alfa made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-1-alfa is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1-alfa, IL-1-alpha, and interleukin-1-alpha.

interleukin-1-alpha    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin … AL-fuh)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-1-alpha, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of interleukin-1, interleukin-1-beta, acts the same as interleukin-1-alpha. Interleukin-1-alpha made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-1-alpha is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1-alfa, IL-1-alpha, and interleukin-1-alfa.

interleukin-1-beta    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin ... BAY-tuh)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-1-beta, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of interleukin-1, interleukin-1-alpha, acts the same as interleukin-1-beta. Interleukin-1-beta made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-1-beta is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-1-beta and IL-1B.

interleukin-10    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin …)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-10 is made by activated macrophages and by some T lymphocytes. It reduces inflammation by blocking production of cytokines by immune cells. Interleukin-10 also increases antibody production by plasma cells and helps them live longer. Interleukin-10 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system. It is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-10.

interleukin-11    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-11 is made by support cells in the bone marrow. It causes the growth of several types of blood cells. Oprelvekin (interleukin-11 made in the laboratory) is used as a biological response modifier to increase the number of platelets, especially in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Interleukin-11 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-11.

interleukin-12    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin ...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-12 is made mainly by B lymphocytes and macrophages. It causes other immune cells to make cytokines and increases the growth of T lymphocytes. It may also block the growth of new blood vessels. Interleukin-12 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-12 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-12.

interleukin-13    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin …)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-13 is made by a type of T lymphocyte. It reduces inflammation by blocking production of cytokines by macrophages. It also increases the number and activity of B lymphocytes. Interleukin-13 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. It is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-13.

interleukin-13 PE38QQR immunotoxin    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin … IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by combining interleukin-13 with a toxin from Pseudomonas bacteria. It is a type of recombinant chimeric protein.

interleukin-2    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-2 is made by a type of T lymphocyte. It increases the growth and activity of other T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and affects the development of the immune system. Aldesleukin (interleukin-2 made in the laboratory) is being used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-2 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-2.

interleukin-3    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-3 is made mainly by a type of T lymphocyte. It increases the number of blood cells made by the bone marrow. Interleukin-3 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-3 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-3.

interleukin-4    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-4 is made by a type of T lymphocyte. It causes B lymphocytes to increase and to make antibodies and also increases the production of T lymphocytes. Interleukin-4 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-4 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-4.

interleukin-4 PE38KDEL cytotoxin    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin ... SY-toh-TOK-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by combining interleukin-4 with a bacterial toxin. Interleukin-4 PE38KDEL cytotoxin is a type of recombinant chimeric protein. Also called interleukin-4 PE38KDEL immunotoxin and NBI-3001.

interleukin-4 PE38KDEL immunotoxin    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin ... IH-myoo-noh-TOK-sin)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by combining interleukin-4 with a bacterial toxin. Interleukin-4 PE38KDEL immunotoxin is a type of recombinant chimeric protein. Also called interleukin-4 PE38KDEL cytotoxin and NBI-3001.

interleukin-5    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin …)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-5 is made mainly by some T lymphocytes. It causes B lymphocytes to make more antibodies and increases the number of eosinophils. Interleukin-5 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. It is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-5.

interleukin-6    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-6 is made mainly by some T lymphocytes. It causes B lymphocytes to make more antibodies and also causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. Interleukin-6 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-6 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-6.

interleukin-7    listen   (in-ter-LOO-kin...)
One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-7 is made by cells that cover and support organs, glands, and other structures in the body. It causes the growth of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Interleukin-7 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-7 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-7 and lymphopoietin-1.

intermediate grade    listen   (IN-ter-MEE-dee-ut grayd)
A term used to describe how abnormal cancer cells look under a microscope. Intermediate-grade cancer cells look more abnormal than low-grade cancer cells but not as abnormal as high-grade cancer cells. They also tend to grow and spread more quickly than low-grade cancer cells but not as quickly as high-grade cancer cells. Cancer cell grade, along with cancer type and stage, may be used to help plan treatment and determine prognosis.

intermediate-grade lymphoma    listen   (IN-ter-MEE-dee-ut-grayd lim-FOH-muh)
A type of lymphoma that grows and spreads quickly and has severe symptoms. Also called aggressive lymphoma and high-grade lymphoma.

internal exam    listen   (in-TER-nul eg-ZAM)
A physical exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. First, the area outside the vagina is checked for signs of disease. A speculum is then inserted into the vagina to widen it so the vagina and cervix can be checked for signs of disease. Cell samples may be taken for a Pap test, or to test for sexually transmitted diseases or other infections. The doctor or nurse then inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand to feel for lumps and check the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The rectum may also be checked for lumps or abnormal areas. Also called pelvic exam.

internal radiation therapy    listen   (in-TER-nul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, implant radiation therapy, and radiation brachytherapy.

International Unit    listen   (IN-ter-NA-shuh-nul YOO-nit)
A unit used to measure the activity of many vitamins, hormones, enzymes, and drugs. An International Unit is the amount of a substance that has a certain biological effect. For each substance there is an international agreement on the biological effect that is expected for 1 International Unit. Also called IU.

internist    listen   (in-TER-nist)
A doctor who specializes in internal medicine. An internist works with adult patients to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases without using surgery.

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone    listen   (IN-ter-STIH-shul sel-STIM-yoo-LAY-ting HOR-mone)
A hormone made in the pituitary gland. In females, it acts on the ovaries to make follicles release their eggs and to make hormones that get the uterus ready for a fertilized egg to be implanted. In males, it acts on the testes to cause cells to grow and make testosterone. Also called LH, luteinizing hormone, and lutropin.

interstitial fluid    listen   (IN-ter-STIH-shul FLOO-id)
Fluid found in the spaces around cells. It comes from substances that leak out of blood capillaries (the smallest type of blood vessel). It helps bring oxygen and nutrients to cells and to remove waste products from them. As new interstitial fluid is made, it replaces older fluid, which drains towards lymph vessels. When it enters the lymph vessels, it is called lymph. Also called tissue fluid.

interstitial radiation therapy    listen   (IN-ter-STIH-shul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of internal radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into a tumor or body tissue.

intervention    listen   (IN-ter-VEN-shun)
In medicine, a treatment or action taken to prevent or treat disease, or improve health in other ways.

intervention group    listen   (IN-ter-VEN-shun groop)
The group receiving the study agent that is being tested in a clinical trial or clinical study.

intestinal    listen   (in-TES-tih-nul)
Having to do with the intestines.

intestinal flora    listen   (in-TES-tih-nul FLOR-uh)
Bacteria and other organisms that live inside the intestines. They help digest food. Vitamins such as biotin and vitamin K are made by intestinal flora. Also called gut flora, gut microflora, intestinal microflora, and microflora.

intestinal microflora    listen   (in-TES-tih-nul MY-kroh-FLOR-uh)
Bacteria and other organisms that live inside the intestines. They help digest food. Vitamins such as biotin and vitamin K are made by intestinal microflora. Also called gut flora, gut microflora, intestinal flora, and microflora.

intestinal villi    listen   (in-TES-tih-nul VIH-ly)
Tiny hair-like projections that line the inside of the small intestine. They contain blood vessels and help absorb nutrients.

intestine    listen   (in-TES-tin)
The long, tube-shaped organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion. The intestine has two parts, the small intestine and the large intestine. Also called bowel.

intoplicine    listen   (in-TOP-lih-seen)
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Intoplicine blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.

intoxicating pepper    listen   (in-TOK-sih-KAYT-ing PEH-per)
An herb native to islands in the South Pacific. Substances taken from the root have been used in some cultures to relieve stress, anxiety, tension, sleeplessness, and problems of menopause. Intoxicating pepper may increase the effect of alcohol and of certain drugs used to treat anxiety and depression. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration advises users that intoxicating pepper may cause severe liver damage. The scientific name is Piper methysticum. Also called kava kava, rauschpfeffer, tonga, and yangona.

intra-arterial    listen   (IN-truh-ar-TEER-ee-ul)
Within an artery (blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to tissues and organs in the body).

intra-arterial brachytherapy    listen   (IN-truh-ar-TEER-ee-ul BRAY-kee-THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy used to treat liver cancer that is advanced or has come back. Tiny beads that hold the radioisotope yttrium Y 90 are injected into the hepatic artery (the main blood vessel that carries blood to the liver). The beads collect in the tumor and the yttrium Y 90 gives off radiation. This destroys the blood vessels that the tumor needs to grow and kills the cancer cells. Intra-arterial brachytherapy is a type of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Also called radioembolization.

intracarotid infusion    listen   (IN-truh-kuh-RAH-tid in-FYOO-zhun)
The introduction of fluids and drugs directly into the carotid artery, the main artery in the neck that carries blood from the heart to the brain.

intracavitary    listen   (IN-truh-KA-vih-tayr-ee)
Within a cavity or space, such as the abdomen, pelvis, or chest.

intracavitary radiation therapy    listen   (IN-truh-KA-vih-tayr-ee RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of internal radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into a body cavity such as the chest cavity or the vagina.

intracellular    listen   (IN-truh-SEL-yoo-ler)
Inside a cell.

intracolonic    listen   (IN-truh-koh-LAH-nik)
Within the colon.

intracranial tumor    listen   (IN-truh-KRAY-nee-ul TOO-mer)
A tumor that occurs in the brain.

intracutaneous    listen   (IN-truh-kyoo-TAY-nee-us)
Within the skin. Also called intradermal.

intradermal    listen   (IN-truh-DER-mul)
Within the skin. Also called intracutaneous.

intraductal breast papilloma    listen   (IN-truh-DUK-tul brest PA-pih-LOH-muh)
A benign (not cancer), wart-like growth in a milk duct of the breast. It is usually found close to the nipple and may cause a discharge from the nipple. It may also cause pain and a lump in the breast that can be felt. It usually affects women aged 35-55 years. Having a single papilloma does not increase the risk of breast cancer. When there are multiple intraductal breast papillomas, they are usually found farther from the nipple. There may not be a nipple discharge and the papillomas may not be felt. Having multiple intraductal breast papillomas may increase the risk of breast cancer. Also called intraductal papilloma.

intraductal carcinoma    listen   (IN-truh-DUK-tul KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, intraductal carcinoma may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues. At this time, there is no way to know which lesions could become invasive. Also called DCIS and ductal carcinoma in situ.

intraductal papilloma    listen   (IN-truh-DUK-tul PA-pih-LOH-muh)
A benign (not cancer), wart-like growth in a milk duct of the breast. It is usually found close to the nipple and may cause a discharge from the nipple. It may also cause pain and a lump in the breast that can be felt. It usually affects women aged 35-55 years. Having a single papilloma does not increase the risk of breast cancer. When there are multiple intraductal papillomas, they are usually found farther from the nipple. There may not be a nipple discharge and the papillomas may not be felt. Having multiple intraductal papillomas may increase the risk of breast cancer. Also called intraductal breast papilloma.

intraepithelial    listen   (IN-truh-eh-pih-THEE-lee-ul)
Within the layer of cells that form the surface or lining of an organ.

intrahepatic    listen   (IN-truh-heh-PA-tik)
Within the liver.

intrahepatic bile duct    listen   (IN-truh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt)
A bile duct that passes through and drains bile from the liver.

intrahepatic infusion    listen   (IN-truh-heh-PA-tik in-FYOO-zhun)
The delivery of anticancer drugs directly to the blood vessels of the liver.

intralesional    listen   (IN-truh-LEE-zhuh-nul)
Within an area of cancer, for example, within a tumor in the skin.

intraluminal intubation and dilation    listen   (IN-truh-LOO-mih-nul IN-too-BAY-shun … dy-LAY-shun)
A procedure in which a plastic or metal tube is inserted through the mouth into the esophagus (the tube that carries food to the stomach) to keep it open. This procedure may be used during radiation therapy for esophageal cancer.

intramuscular    listen   (IN-truh-MUS-kyoo-ler)
Within or into muscle. Also called IM.

intramuscular injection    listen   (IN-truh-MUS-kyoo-ler in-JEK-shun)
Injection into muscle.

intraocular    listen   (IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler)
Within the eyeball.

intraocular melanoma    listen   (IN-truh-AH-kyoo-ler MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
A rare cancer of melanocytes (cells that produce the pigment melanin) found in the eye. Also called ocular melanoma.

intraoperative radiation therapy    listen   (IN-truh-AH-pruh-tiv RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
Radiation treatment aimed directly at a tumor during surgery. Also called IORT.

intraoperative ultrasound    listen   (IN-truh-AH-pruh-tiv UL-truh-sownd)
A procedure that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves that are bounced off internal tissues and organs) during surgery. Sonograms (pictures made by ultrasound) of the inside of the body are viewed on a computer to help a surgeon find tumors or other problems during the operation. Also called IOUS.

intrapelvic    listen   (IN-truh-PEL-vik)
Within the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen between the hip bones.

intraperitoneal    listen   (IN-truh-PAYR-ih-toh-NEE-ul)
Within the peritoneal cavity (the area that contains the abdominal organs). Also called IP.

intraperitoneal chemotherapy    listen   (IN-truh-PAYR-ih-toh-NEE-ul KEE-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment in which anticancer drugs are put directly into the abdominal cavity through a thin tube.

intraperitoneal infusion    listen   (IN-truh-PAYR-ih-toh-NEE-ul in-FYOO-zhun)
A method of delivering fluids and drugs directly into the abdominal cavity through a thin tube. Also called peritoneal infusion.

intraperitoneal radiation therapy    listen   (IN-truh-PAYR-ih-toh-NEE-ul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment in which a radioactive liquid is put directly into the abdomen through a thin tube.

intrapleural    listen   (IN-truh-PLOOR-ul)
Within the pleural cavity.

intraspinal    listen   (IN-truh-SPY-nul)
Within the spine (backbone).

intrathecal    listen   (IN-truh-THEE-kul)
Describes the fluid-filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord. Drugs can be injected into the fluid or a sample of the fluid can be removed for testing.

intrathecal chemotherapy    listen   (IN-truh-THEE-kul KEE-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment in which anticancer drugs are injected into the fluid-filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.

intratumoral    listen   (IN-truh-TOO-mer-ul)
Within a tumor.

intrauterine    listen   (IN-truh-YOO-teh-rin)
Inside the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis in which a fetus develops).

intrauterine device    listen   (IN-truh-YOO-teh-rin dee-VISE)
A small, plastic T-shaped device that is placed inside the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis in which a fetus develops) to prevent pregnancy. Intrauterine devices prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg, and prevent fertilized eggs from implanting in the uterus. The use of intrauterine devices is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of endometrial cancer and other conditions. Also called IUD.

intravaginal    listen   (IN-truh-VA-jih-nul)
Having to do with the inside of the vagina (the birth canal).

intravasation    listen   (in-TRA-vuh-SAY-shun)
The movement of a cell or a foreign substance through the wall of a blood or lymph vessel into the vessel itself. In cancer, this is how cancer cells pass through a vessel wall and enter the blood or lymph systems. It is one way that cancer spreads in the body.

intravenous    listen   (IN-truh-VEE-nus)
Into or within a vein. Intravenous usually refers to a way of giving a drug or other substance through a needle or tube inserted into a vein. Also called IV.

intravenous infusion    listen   (IN-truh-VEE-nus in-FYOO-zhun)
A method of putting fluids, including drugs, into the bloodstream. Also called infusion.

intravenous injection    listen   (IN-truh-VEE-nus in-JEK-shun)
Injection into a vein.

intravenous pyelogram    listen   (IN-truh-VEE-nus PY-eh-loh-GRAM)
An x-ray image of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It is made after a substance that shows up on x-rays is injected into a blood vessel. The substance outlines the kidneys, ureters, and bladder as it flows through the system and collects in the urine. An intravenous pyelogram is usually made to look for a block in the flow of urine.

intravenous pyelography    listen   (IN-truh-VEE-nus PY-eh-LAH-gruh-fee)
A procedure in which x-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder are taken at regular times after a substance that shows up on x-rays is injected into a blood vessel. The substance outlines the kidneys, ureters, and bladder as it flows through the system and collects in the urine. Intravenous pyelography is usually done to look for a block in the flow of urine. Also called IVP.

intraventricular infusion    listen   (IN-truh-ven-TRIH-kyoo-ler in-FYOO-zhun)
The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity within the heart or brain.

intravesical    listen   (IN-truh-VEH-sih-kul)
Within the bladder.

Intron A    listen   (IN-tron…)
A drug used to treat AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in certain patients, hairy cell leukemia, and melanoma that has been removed by surgery. It is also used with other anticancer drugs to treat a certain type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Intron A is also used to treat some infections caused by viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions. Intron A is a form of interferon alfa (a substance normally made by cells in the immune system) and is made in the laboratory. It is a type of cytokine and a type of biological response modifier. Also called IFN alpha-2B, interferon alfa-2b, and recombinant interferon alfa-2b.

intrusive thought    listen   (in-TROO-siv thawt)
An unpleasant memory or idea that occurs often in a person’s everyday thoughts and keeps him or her from thinking about other things. Interfering thoughts can make sleep difficult and make a person unable to carry out daily activities. Also called interfering thought.

invasive breast cancer    listen   (in-VAY-siv brest KAN-ser)
Cancer that has spread from where it began in the breast to surrounding normal tissue. The most common type of invasive breast cancer is invasive ductal carcinoma, which begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). Another type is invasive lobular carcinoma, which begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast. Invasive breast cancer can spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. Also called infiltrating breast cancer.

invasive cancer    listen   (in-VAY-siv KAN-ser)
Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. Also called infiltrating cancer.

invasive cervical cancer    listen   (in-VAY-siv SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer that has spread from the surface of the cervix to tissue deeper in the cervix or to other parts of the body.

invasive ductal carcinoma    listen   (in-VAY-siv DUK-tul KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
The most common type of invasive breast cancer. It begins in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple) and spreads outside the ducts to surrounding normal tissue. Invasive ductal carcinoma can also spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. Also called infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

invasive hydatidiform mole    listen   (in-VAY-siv HY-duh-TIH-dih-form …)
A type of cancer that grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. It is formed after conception (fertilization of an egg by a sperm). It may spread to other parts of the body, such as the vagina, vulva, and lung. Also called chorioadenoma destruens.

invasive lobular carcinoma    listen   (in-VAY-siv LAH-byoo-ler KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A type of invasive breast cancer that begins in the lobules (milk glands) of the breast and spreads to surrounding normal tissue. It can also spread through the blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. Also called infiltrating lobular carcinoma.

invasive procedure    listen   (in-VAY-siv proh-SEE-jer)
A medical procedure that invades (enters) the body, usually by cutting or puncturing the skin or by inserting instruments into the body.

inverted papilloma    listen   (in-VER-ted PA-pih-LOH-muh)
A type of tumor in which surface epithelial cells grow downward into the underlying supportive tissue. It may occur in the nose and/or sinuses or in the urinary tract (bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, urethra). When it occurs in the nose or sinuses, it may cause symptoms similar to those caused by sinusitis, such as nasal congestion. When it occurs in the urinary tract, it may cause blood in the urine.

investigational    listen   (in-VES-tih-GAY-shuh-nul)
In clinical trials, refers to a drug (including a new drug, dose, combination, or route of administration) or procedure that has undergone basic laboratory testing and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be tested in human subjects. A drug or procedure may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition, but be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. Also called experimental.

investigational agent    listen   (in-VES-tih-GAY-shuh-nul AY-jent)
A substance that has been tested in a laboratory and has gotten approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be tested in people. An investigational agent may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition but be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. Also called experimental drug and investigational drug.

investigational drug    listen   (in-VES-tih-GAY-shuh-nul drug)
A substance that has been tested in a laboratory and has gotten approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be tested in people. An investigational drug may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition but be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. Also called experimental drug and investigational agent.

investigator    listen   (in-VES-tih-gay-ter)
A researcher in a clinical trial or clinical study.

inviable    listen   (in-VY-uh-bul)
Not able to survive.

involuntary    listen   (in-VAH-lun-TAYR-ee)
An action that is not made by choice. In the body, involuntary actions (such as blushing) occur automatically, and cannot be controlled by choice.

involuntary nervous system    listen   (in-VAH-lun-TAYR-ee NER-vus SIS-tem)
The part of the nervous system that controls muscles of internal organs (such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs, stomach, and intestines) and glands (such as salivary glands and sweat glands). One part of the involuntary nervous system helps the body rest, relax, and digest food and another part helps a person fight or take flight in an emergency. Also called ANS and autonomic nervous system.

iobenguane I 123    listen   (I-oh-BEN-gwayn …)
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. Iobenguane I 123 is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called 123I-MIBG, AdreView, and iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

iobenguane I 131    listen   (I-oh-BEN-gwayn …)
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 131 that is used to find or treat certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. It is also used to relieve pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Radiation from the I 131 may help kill cancer cells or show where they are in the body. Iobenguane I 131 is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called 131I-MIBG and iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

iobenguane scan    listen   (I-oh-BEN-gwayn skan)
A procedure used to find neuroendocrine tumors, such as neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas. A small amount of a substance called radioactive iobenguane is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. Neuroendocrine tumor cells take up the radioactive iobenguane and are detected by a scanner. Also called metaiodobenzylguanidine scan and MIBG scan.

iodine    listen   (I-oh-dine)
An element that is necessary for the body to make thyroid hormone. It is found in shellfish and iodized salt.

iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine    listen   (I-oh-dine … meh-tuh-I-oh-doh-BEN-zul-GWAH-nih-deen)
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 123 that is used to detect certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Radiation from the I 123 may help show where cancer cells are in the body. Iodine I 123 metaiodobenzylguanidine is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called 123I-MIBG, AdreView, and iobenguane I 123.

iodine I 131 ethiodized oil    listen   (I-oh-dine … eh-THY-oh-dized oyl)
A radioactive substance being studied in the treatment of liver cancer. It is a form of poppy seed oil that contains iodine, some of which is the radioactive substance iodine I 131. It builds up in the blood and lymph vessels in the liver and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called iodine I 131 Lipiodol.

iodine I 131 Lipiodol    listen   (I-oh-dine … LIH-pee-oh-dol)
A radioactive substance being studied in the treatment of liver cancer. It is a form of poppy seed oil that contains iodine, some of which is the radioactive substance iodine I 131. It builds up in the blood and lymph vessels in the liver and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called iodine I 131 ethiodized oil.

iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine    listen   (I-oh-dine ... meh-tuh-I-oh-doh-BEN-zul-GWAH-nih-deen)
A drug containing a form of radioactive iodine called I 131 that is used to find or treat certain types of tumors, including pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. It is also used to relieve pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Radiation from the I 131 may help kill cancer cells or show where they are in the body. Iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine is a type of radioimaging agent and a type of radioconjugate. Also called 131I-MIBG and iobenguane I 131.

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody BC8    listen   (I-oh-dine … MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tee-BAH-dee…)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of leukemia and lymphoma. BC8 is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called CD45, which is found on most white blood cells and some types of leukemia and lymphoma cells. It is linked to a radioactive substance called iodine I 131, which may help kill cancer cells. Iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody BC8 is a type of radioimmunoconjugate.

iodine I 131 tositumomab    listen   (I-oh-dine I 131 TAH-sih-TOO-moh-mab)
A drug used with another drug to treat certain types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Iodine I 131 tositumomab is a form of the monoclonal antibody tositumomab that is linked to the radioactive substance iodine I 131. It is a type of radioimmunoconjugate.

iodized oil    listen   (I-oh-dized oyl)
A form of poppy seed oil that contains iodine. Iodized oil is given by injection and builds up in the blood and lymph vessels in tumors. It is used for imaging (taking pictures) of the salivary glands and the lymph system. It is also being studied in the imaging of other organs such as the liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. It is a type of diagnostic imaging agent. Also called ethiodized oil, Ethiodol, and Lipiodol.

iododoxorubicin    listen   (I-oh-doh-DOK-soh-ROO-bih-sin)
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer and for primary systemic amyloidosis (a disease in which proteins are deposited in specific organs). It is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic.

ion    listen   (I-on)
An atom or a molecule that has a positive or negative electrical charge. Examples are sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate. These ions help move nutrients into cells, help move waste out of cells, and help nerves, muscles, the heart, and the brain work the way they should.

ionizing radiation    listen   (I-uh-NY-zing RAY-dee-AY-shun)
A type of radiation made (or given off ) by x-ray procedures, radioactive substances, rays that enter the Earth's atmosphere from outer space, and other sources. At high doses, ionizing radiation increases chemical activity inside cells and can lead to health risks, including cancer.

ionomycin    listen   (I-on-oh-MY-sin)
An antibiotic drug used to treat infection.

IORT      
Radiation treatment aimed directly at a tumor during surgery. Also called intraoperative radiation therapy.

IOUS      
A procedure that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves that are bounced off internal tissues and organs) during surgery. Sonograms (pictures made by ultrasound) of the inside of the body are viewed on a computer to help a surgeon find tumors or other problems during the operation. Also called intraoperative ultrasound.

IP      
Within the peritoneal cavity (the area that contains the abdominal organs). Also called intraperitoneal.

IP6      
A substance found in many foods that come from plants, including corn, wheat, rice, and soybeans, and in large amounts in cereals and legumes. It is being studied in the prevention of cancer. Also called inositol hexaphosphate and phytic acid.

ipilimumab    listen   (ih-pih-LIH-myoo-mab)
A drug used to treat melanoma that has spread to other parts of the body or that cannot be removed by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ipilimumab binds to a substance called CTLA-4, which is found on the surface of T cells (a type of white blood cell). Ipilimumab may block CTLA-4 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called MDX-010 and Yervoy.

ipsilateral    listen   (IP-sih-LA-teh-rul)
On the same side of the body as another structure or a given point.

iq’mik    listen   (IK-mik)
A type of smokeless tobacco that is made by mixing cured tobacco leaves with ashes from a certain type of fungus. It is used mainly in Alaska and is chewed. It contains nicotine and many harmful, cancer-causing chemicals. Using iq’mik can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancer of the mouth and other health problems.

IRB      
A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and patient advocates that reviews and approves the detailed plan for every clinical trial. IRBs are meant to protect the people who take part in a clinical trial. They check to see that the trial is well designed, legal, ethical, does not involve unneeded risks, and includes a safety plan for patients. There is an IRB at every health care facility that does clinical research. Also called Institutional Review Board.

Iressa    listen   (i-REH-suh)
A drug that is used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called gefitinib and ZD1839.

irinotecan    listen   (I-rih-noh-TEE-kan)
The active ingredient in a drug used alone or with other drugs to treat colon cancer or rectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after treatment with fluorouracil. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Irinotecan blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of camptothecin analog.

irinotecan hydrochloride    listen   (I-rih-noh-TEE-kan HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A drug used alone or with other drugs to treat colon cancer or rectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after treatment with fluorouracil. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Irinotecan hydrochloride blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of camptothecin analog. Also called Camptosar and CPT 11.

iris    listen   (I-ris)
The colored tissue at the front of the eye that contains the pupil in the center. The iris helps control the size of the pupil to let more or less light into the eye.

irofulven    listen   (i-roh-FUL-ven)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Irofulven attaches to the cell's DNA and may block cancer cell growth. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene.

iron    listen   (I-urn)
An important mineral the body needs to make hemoglobin, a substance in the blood that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body. Iron is also an important part of many other proteins and enzymes needed by the body for normal growth and development. It is found in red meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans, and foods with iron added, such as cereal.

iron overload    listen   (I-urn OH-ver-lode)
A condition in which the body takes up and stores more iron than it needs. The extra iron is stored in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which may cause liver disease, heart problems, organ failure, and cancer. It may also cause bronze skin, diabetes, pain in the joints and abdomen, tiredness, and impotence. Iron overload may be inherited, or it may be caused by blood transfusions. Also called hemochromatosis.

irradiated    listen   (ih-RAY-dee-AY-ted)
Treated with radiation.

irradiation    listen   (ih-RAY-dee-AY-shun)
The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy). Systemic irradiation uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the blood to tissues throughout the body. Also called radiation therapy and radiotherapy.

irreversible enzyme inhibitor    listen   (eer-ree-VER-sih-bul EN-zime in-HIH-bih-ter)
A substance that permanently blocks the action of an enzyme. In cancer treatment, irreversible enzyme inhibitors may block certain enzymes that cancer cells need to grow and may kill cancer cells. They are being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer.

irreversible toxicity    listen   (eer-ree-VER-sih-bul tok-SIH-sih-tee)
Side effects that are caused by toxic substances or something harmful to the body and do not go away.

irrigation    listen   (EER-ih-GAY-shun)
In medicine, washing out an organ (such as the stomach or colon), a body cavity, or a wound by flushing it with a fluid. Also called lavage.

irritable bowel syndrome    listen   (EER-ih-tuh-bul BOW-ul SIN-drome)
A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person’s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other. Also called IBS, irritable colon, mucus colitis, and spastic colon.

irritable colon    listen   (EER-ih-tuh-bul KOH-lun)
A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person’s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other. Also called IBS, irritable bowel syndrome, mucus colitis, and spastic colon.

Isaac syndrome    listen   (I-zik SIN-drome)
A rare nerve disorder that causes constant muscle activity that cannot be controlled, even during sleep. It often affects the muscles in the arms and legs, but may affect the whole body. Symptoms include muscle twitching, weakness, stiffness, and cramping; increased skin temperature, sweating, and heart rate; and problems with chewing, swallowing, speech, and breathing. The disorder often gets worse over time. Isaac syndrome usually occurs in people aged 15 to 60 years. It may occur with certain types of cancer and is sometimes inherited. Also called neuromyotonia.

ischemia    listen   (is-KEE-mee-uh)
Lack of blood supply to a part of the body. Ischemia may cause tissue damage due to the lack of oxygen and nutrients.

ischemic necrosis    listen   (is-KEE-mik neh-KROH-sis)
A condition in which there is a loss of blood flow to bone tissue, which causes the bone to die. It is most common in the hips, knees, shoulders, and ankles. It may be caused by long-term use of steroid medicines, alcohol abuse, joint injuries, and certain diseases, such as cancer and arthritis. It may also occur at some point in time after cancer treatment that included methotrexate, bisphosphonates, or corticosteroids. Also called aseptic necrosis, avascular necrosis, and osteonecrosis.

iseganan hydrochloride    listen   (i-seh-GAN-an HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A substance being studied in the treatment of oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by cancer therapy and other conditions. Iseganan hydrochloride kills certain bacteria, fungi, and viruses by making holes in their outer membranes and causing them to burst. It is a type of synthetic antimicrobial peptide and a type of synthetic protegrin analog.

ISIS 2503      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

ISIS 3521      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

ISIS 5132      
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

islet cell    listen   (I-let sel)
A pancreatic cell that produces hormones (e.g., insulin and glucagon) that are secreted into the bloodstream. These hormones help control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Also called endocrine pancreas cell and islet of Langerhans cell.

islet cell carcinoma    listen   (I-let sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
A rare cancer that forms in islet cells (hormone-making cells) of the pancreas. Islet cells make several different hormones that affect body functions, including controlling the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and helping digest food in the stomach. Functional islet cell carcinomas make extra amounts of these hormones, which can cause symptoms. Nonfunctional islet cell carcinomas do not make extra amounts of hormones, but they may cause symptoms as they grow and spread. Also called pancreatic endocrine cancer.

islet cell tumor    listen   (I-let sel TOO-mer)
A tumor that forms in islet cells (hormone-making cells) of the pancreas. Islet cell tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Islet cells make several different hormones that affect body functions, including controlling the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and helping digest food in the stomach. Functional islet cell tumors make extra amounts of these hormones, which can cause symptoms. Nonfunctional islet cell tumors do not make extra amounts of hormones, but they may cause symptoms as they grow and spread. Also called pancreatic endocrine tumor and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

islet of Langerhans cell    listen   (I-let … LANG-er-hanz sel)
A pancreatic cell that produces hormones (e.g., insulin and glucagon) that are secreted into the bloodstream. These hormones help control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Also called endocrine pancreas cell and islet cell.

isoflavone    listen   (I-soh-FLAY-vone)
An estrogen-like substance made by some plants, including the soy plant. Soy isoflavones are being studied in the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density).

isointense    listen   (I-soh-in-tents)
Having the same intensity as another object. Used to describe the results of imaging tests, such as x-rays, MRIs, or CT scans.

isolated hepatic perfusion    listen   (I-soh-LAY-ted heh-PA-tik per-FYOO-zhun)
A procedure in which a catheter is placed into the artery that provides blood to the liver. A second catheter is placed into the vein that takes blood away from the liver. This temporarily separates the liver's blood supply from blood circulating throughout the rest of the body and allows high doses of anticancer drugs to be directed to the liver only.

isolated limb infusion    listen   (I-soh-LAY-ted LIM in-FYOO-zhun)
A procedure used to deliver anticancer drugs directly to an arm or leg but not to the rest of the body. The flow of blood to and from the limb is temporarily stopped with a tourniquet (a tight band around the limb). Catheters (small, flexible tubes) attached to a pump are put into an artery and a vein in the limb so that blood can be circulated through the pump into the limb. Anticancer drugs are injected into the catheters. Wrapping the limb in a heated blanket or warming the drugs or blood may help the drugs work better.

isolated limb perfusion    listen   (I-soh-LAY-ted LIM per-FYOO-zhun)
A procedure that may be used to deliver anticancer drugs directly to an arm or leg. The flow of blood to and from the limb is temporarily stopped with a tourniquet (a tight band around the limb), and anticancer drugs are put directly into the blood of the limb. This allows the person to receive a high dose of drugs in the area where the cancer occurred. Also called limb perfusion.

isolated lung perfusion    listen   (I-soh-LAY-ted ... per-FYOO-zhun)
A surgical procedure during which the circulation of blood to the lungs is separated from the circulation of blood through the rest of the body, and a drug is delivered directly into the lung circulation. This allows a higher concentration of chemotherapy to reach tumors in the lungs.

isolation    listen   (I-soh-LAY-shun)
State of being separated from others. Isolation is sometimes used to prevent disease from spreading.

isomer    listen   (I-soh-mer)
One of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different arrangements of the atoms within the molecules and that may have different physical/chemical properties.

isosulfan blue    listen   (I-soh-SUL-fan …)
A dye made in the laboratory that helps identify the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node that cancer spreads to from a primary tumor). Isosulfan blue is injected at the edge of a tumor and travels through the lymph fluid to lymph nodes near the tumor. The sentinel lymph node is identified by removing lymph nodes that are stained with the blue dye and looking for cancer cells under a microscope.

isotope    listen   (I-soh-tope)
A form of a chemical element in which the atoms have the same number of protons (part of the nucleus of an atom) but with a different number of neutrons (part of the nucleus of an atom). For example, carbon 12, carbon 13, and carbon 14 are isotopes of carbon. They all have six protons in the nucleus, but each has different number of neutrons. Isotopes may be used in certain medical tests and procedures.

isotretinoin    listen   (I-soh-TREH-tih-noyn)
A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called 13-cis retinoic acid.

ispinesib    listen   (is-PIN-eh-sib)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. Ispinesib blocks a protein that tumor cells need to divide. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor. Also called SB-715992.

isthmus    listen   (iz-muhs)
A narrow part inside the body that connects two larger structures.

Istodax    listen   (IH-stoh-dax)
A drug used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in patients who have been treated with other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Istodax blocks certain enzymes, which may help kill cancer cells. It is a type of depsipeptide and a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called FR901228 and romidepsin.

ITP      
A condition in which platelets (blood cells that cause blood clots to form) are destroyed by the immune system. The low platelet count causes easy bruising and bleeding, which may be seen as purple areas in the skin, mucous membranes, and outer linings of organs. Also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

itraconazole    listen   (IH-truh-KAH-nuh-zole)
A drug used to prevent or treat fungal infections. It belongs to the family of drugs called antifungal agents.

IU    listen  
A unit used to measure the activity of many vitamins, hormones, enzymes, and drugs. An IU is the amount of a substance that has a certain biological effect. For each substance there is an international agreement on the biological effect that is expected for 1 IU. Also called International Unit.

IUD      
A small, plastic T-shaped device that is placed inside the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis in which a fetus develops) to prevent pregnancy. IUDs prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg, and prevent fertilized eggs from implanting in the uterus. The use of IUDs is also being studied in the prevention and treatment of endometrial cancer and other conditions. Also called intrauterine device.

IV      
Into or within a vein. IV usually refers to a way of giving a drug or other substance through a needle or tube inserted into a vein. Also called intravenous.

IVP      
A procedure in which x-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder are taken at regular times after a substance that shows up on x-rays is injected into a blood vessel. The substance outlines the kidneys, ureters, and bladder as it flows through the system and collects in the urine. IVP is usually done to look for a block in the flow of urine. Also called intravenous pyelography.

ixabepilone    listen   (IK-suh-BEH-pih-lone)
A drug used to treat metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with certain other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ixabepilone stops the growth of tumor cells by blocking cell division. It is a type of epothilone analog. Also called BMS-247550 and Ixempra.

Ixempra    listen   (ik-SEM-pruh)
A drug used to treat metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with certain other anticancer drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ixempra stops the growth of tumor cells by blocking cell division. It is a type of epothilone analog. Also called BMS-247550 and ixabepilone.

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