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recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-expressing interferon-beta
A recombinant, replicating oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) carrying the human interferon-beta (IFN-b) gene, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, recombinant VSV expressing IFN-b replicates in the tumor environment specifically, partially due to defective innate antiviral host defense mechanisms in tumor cells, involving type I IFNs, and exerts its cytolytic activity towards the tumor cells. By expressing human IFN-b, an INF-b-mediated antiviral immune response in surrounding normal cells is activated which protects normal cells against virus replication and VSV-mediated cell lysis. However, tumor cells have a defective IFN-b-mediated innate antiviral immune response allowing for VSV to replicate in these cells without interference. In addition, the IFN-b produced by VSV may activate an immune response in surrounding normal cells and may activate T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells and natural killer cells; thus, inducing an anti-tumor immune response against the tumor cells. VSV, a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, is relatively nonpathogenic to healthy humans. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)