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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

A-Hydrocort  
(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)

abagovomab  
A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abarelix  
A synthetic decapeptide and antagonist of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Abarelix directly and competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with prostate hypertrophy or prostate cancer, since testosterone is required to sustain prostate growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abatacept  
A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abegrin  
(Other name for: etaracizumab)

Abelcet  
(Other name for: liposomal amphotericin B)

Aberel  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

abexinostat  
A novel, broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Abexinostat inhibits several isoforms of HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; and the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, upregulated in many tumor types, is an an enzyme that is responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abiraterone acetate  
An orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase (17alpha-hydrolase/C17,20 lyase complex), a member of the cytochrome p450 family that catalyzes the 17alpha-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis. Administration of this agent may suppress testosterone production by both the testes and the adrenals to castrate-range levels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abitrexate  
(Other name for: methotrexate)

Ablavar  
(Other name for: gadofosveset trisodium)

Abraxane  
(Other name for: paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation)

absorbable adhesion barrier gel  
An isotonic, sterile, absorbable adhesion barrier gel composed of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethylcellulose, with protective activity. Upon application of a single layer into the uterine cavity at the end of any hysteroscopic surgery, the absorbable adhesion barrier gel may provide a protective barrier which protects the traumatized tissue and allows for healing. This gel may therefore prevent the formation of post-surgical intrauterine adhesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

absorbable gelatin sponge  
A sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional chemotherapy, absorbable gelatin sponge may be used to embolize arteries in the region of a tumor in order to block or retard blood flow; this blockage results in a locally increased concentration of chemotherapeutic agents delivered to the tumor when chemotherapeutic agents are infused into the embolized arterial circulation upstream of the blockage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-510  
A synthetic peptide that mimics the anti-angiogenic activity of the endogenous protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). ABT-510 inhibits the actions of several pro-angiogenic growth factors important to tumor neovascularization; these pro-angiogenic growth factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-751  
An orally bioavailable antimitotic sulfonamide. ABT-751 binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of microtubules, thereby preventing tumor cell replication. This agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, reducing tumor blood flow and so inducing a cytotoxic effect. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVD regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine, used alone or in combination with radiation therapy, for the primary treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE regimen  
A regimen containing doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate and etoposide used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE-PC regimen  
A regimen consisting of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and cyclophosphamide, given in combination with radiation therapy and used for the treatment of high-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide used in the adjuvant setting for the primary treatment of breast cancer. This regimen is also used for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC-T regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubucin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel (Taxol), administered on either a dose-dense or sequential schedule and used as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

acadesine  
A 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, a purine nucleoside analog, and a nucleotide biosynthesis precursor with B cell pro-apoptotic activity. Following cellular uptake, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICA ribotide (ZMP), which mimics 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK kinase (AMPKK) are activated by ZMP, which appears to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis. Acadesine-induced apoptosis also appears to require cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation and is p53-independent. However, the exact mechanism of acadesine-induced apoptosis is unknown. T cells are significantly less susceptible than B cells to acadesine-induced apoptosis. AMPK regulates several cellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, protein synthesis, and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acai berry juice  
A juice product obtained from the fruit of the acai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Besides high amounts of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, acai berry is rich in phytonutrients such as anthocyanins and flavones which are potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species. The fruit also contains high amounts of the flavone velutin which exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. Velutin is able to inhibit the degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB), thereby blocking the activation of NF-kB, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK. Inhibition of these processes results in suppression of the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

acarbose  
A complex oligosaccharide used as a hypoglycemic agent in diabetes management. Acarbose inhibits enzymes required in catabolism of carbohydrates, specifically pancreatic alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, and the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases, which hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. When acarbose is orally administered, less digestion of complex carbohydrates occur and less glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, thereby producing a smaller rise in postprandial blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate load. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Accutane  
(Other name for: isotretinoin)

acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix  
A human dermis-derived allograft material. Acellular cadaveric dermal matrix (ACDM) is derived from human cadaveric dermis from which the epidermis, all viable cells and major histocompatibility class (MHC) II antigens have been removed to minimize alloimmunogenicity, while the dermal collagen matrix is preserved. ACDM may placed over wounds to aid as a substitute for skin when necessary such as for surgical reconstruction or for protection against wound exposure and breakdown and wound infection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acenocoumarol  
A 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative with anticoagulant activity. As a vitamin K antagonist, acenocoumarol inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, thereby inhibiting the reduction of vitamin K and the availability of vitamin KH2. This prevents gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues near the N-terminals of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, including factor II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S. This prevents their activity and thus thrombin formation. Compared to other coumarin derivatives, acenocoumarol has a short half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aceon  
(Other name for: perindopril erbumine)

acetaminophen  
A p-aminophenol derivative with analgesic and antipyretic activities. Although the exact mechanism through which acetaminophen exert its effects has yet to be fully determined, acetaminophen may inhibit the nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P, resulting in elevation of the pain threshold. The antipyretic activity may result from inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and release in the central nervous system (CNS) and prostaglandin-mediated effects on the heat-regulating center in the anterior hypothalamus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetic acid  
A synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylcysteine  
A synthetic N-acetyl derivative of the endogenous amino acid L-cysteine, a precursor of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione. Acetylcysteine regenerates liver stores of glutathione. This agent also reduces disulfide bonds in mucoproteins, resulting in liquification of mucus. Some evidence suggests that acetylcysteine may exert an anti-apoptotic effect due to its antioxidant activity, possibly preventing cancer cell development or growth. In addition, acetylcysteine has inhibited viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates, thereby producing antiviral activity in HIV patients. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylsalicylic acid  
An orally administered non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation. This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylsalicylic acid/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule  
An orally bioavailable combination pill containing aspirin, simvastatin, atenolol, ramipril and thiazide with preventive activity against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor with antiplatelet, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; simvastatin is a statin with a cholesterol lowering effect; and the beta-blocker atenolol as well as the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the thiazide diuretic all have blood pressure lowering activity. Upon oral administration of aspirin/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule, the combined effects of the active ingredients in this formulation lower the risk of CVD. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Achromycin  
(Other name for: tetracycline hydrochloride)

Aciphex  
(Other name for: rabeprazole sodium)

acitretin  
An orally-active metabolite of the synthetic aromatic retinoic acid agent etretinate with potential antineoplastic, chemopreventive, anti-psoratic, and embryotoxic properties. Acitretin activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), resulting in induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, and inhibition of tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells. This agent may also inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acivicin  
A modified amino acid and structural analog of glutamine. Acivicin inhibits glutamine amidotransferases in the purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in cell lines dependent on glutamine metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aclarubicin  
An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acnestrol  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

ACNU 50  
(Other name for: nimustine)

acodazole  
A synthetic imidazoquinoline with antineoplastic activity. Acodazole intercalates into DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA replication. Use of this agent has been associated with significant cardiotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acoustic coupling fluid  
A brain mimicking fluid with an attenuation coefficient similar to that found in the adult human brain, which can potentially improve the quality of an image acquired during intraoperative ultrasonography. Upon administration into the resection cavity during surgical removal of a brain tumor, the acoustic coupling fluid may both increase the quality of the ultrasound image and improve the visualization of the tumor. This may facilitate the surgical removal of residual tumor while sparing normal, healthy brain tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acridine carboxamide  
A tricyclic acridine-based (or carboxamide-based) drug with dual topoisomerase inhibitor and potential antineoplastic activities. Acridine carboxamide inhibits both topoisomerases I and II and intercalates into DNA, resulting in DNA damage, the disruption of DNA repair and replication, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actemra  
(Other name for: tocilizumab)

ActHIB  
(Other name for: Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine)

Actigall  
(Other name for: ursodiol)

Actimmune  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon gamma)

Actinex  
(Other name for: masoprocol)

actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab conjugated to the alpha-emitting radioisotope actinium Ac 225 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 antigen, delivering a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation to cells expressing CD33. CD33 is a cell surface antigen expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and overexpressed on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actiq  
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)

Activase  
(Other name for: alteplase)

activated marrow infiltrating lymphocytes  
A preparation of cells, which consists of autologous marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs), that are manipulated in vitro, with potential antitumor and immune stimulating activities. MILs are harvested from autologous bone marrow from multiple myeloma patients and, in vitro, are exposed to and activated by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies covalently attached to super-paramagnetic microbeads. After removal of the beads and expansion of the cells in culture, the activated MILs (aMILs) are re-introduced into the patient. The aMILs possess enhanced myeloma specificity, and are able to infiltrate the tumor microenvironment and initiate tumor cell lysis. CD3 and CD28, co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of T-lymphocytes, play a key role in the activation of T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Activella  
(Other name for: estradiol/norethindrone acetate tablet)

ActiVin  
(Other name for: IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract)

Actonel  
(Other name for: risedronate sodium)

Actos  
(Other name for: pioglitazone hydrochloride)

acyclovir  
A synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acyclovir sodium  
The sodium salt form of acyclovir, a synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aczone Gel  
(Other name for: dapsone gel, 5%)

Ad-hCMV-Flt3L  
A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the soluble, immune-mediated stimulatory gene human fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration, Ad-hCMV-Flt3L is transduced into tumor cells and Flt3L is expressed. Flt3L stimulates both the proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their migration to the tumor site. Upon exposure to the tumor-associated antigens (TAA) released from dying glioma cells, which were killed by thymidine kinase-mediated valacyclovir-induced tumor cell death, the DCs initiate a specific immune response against any remaining TAA-expressing tumor cells. Flt3L is a hematopoietic growth factor and ligand for the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-hCMV-TK  
A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter. This agent, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration into the peritumoral region after tumor resection, adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, and HSV-tk is expressed. Tumor cells expressing HSV-tk are sensitive to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV), kills the tumor cells expressing HSV-tk. The release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, directed aganst any remaining tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-REIC/DKK3 vaccine  
A replication incompetent adenoviral vector encoding the full-length tumor suppressor gene Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cells (REIC or DKK3) (ad-REIC/DKK3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, tumor cells express REIC/DKK3 protein. This may result in the activation of c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) and ultimately apoptosis via Bcl2 suppression and caspase-3 activation. Expression of REIC/DKK3 is normal in healthy cells but reduced or absent in many cancer cells; Forced overexpression of REIC/DKK3 in cancer cells may lead to an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and reduction of tumor cell growth while sparing normal, healthy cells naturally expressing endogenous REIC/DKK3. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-sig-hMUC-1/ecdCD40L vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human MUC-1 (hMUC-1) linked to the extracellular domain (ecd) of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) and an adenovirus signal sequence that encodes a secretory signal peptide (Ad-sig) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Due to the presence of the secretory signal peptide expressed by Ad-sig in the vaccine construct, transfected cells may secrete a fusion protein composed of hMUC-1 and the CD40L ecd. The CD40L moiety part of the fusion protein binds to CD40 receptors on dendritic cells (DCs). Subsequently, DCs may be activated and migrate, T-cells may expand, and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress hMUC-1 may follow. MUC-1 is a hypoglycosylated TAA overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5-CMV-NIS  
A recombinant type 5 adenovirus (Ad5), encoding the gene for the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) linked to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, with potential gene transfection activity. Upon intratumoral injection, Ad5-CMV-NIS is taken up by tumor cells, resulting in the cellular expression of NIS. Subsequently, orally administered iodine 131 is taken up by NIS-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the selective accumulation of a cytotoxic dose of beta and gamma radiation in non-thyroidal tumor cells, sparing adjacent normal tissue. NIS, an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein, is an ion pump that actively transports iodide into cells which concentrate iodine; in addition to thyroid epithelial cells, it is found in non-thyroidal tissues including the salivary glands, the gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary glands. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP  
A second generation, replication-competent adenovirus type 5 containing a yeast cytosine deaminase(yCD)/mutant sr39 herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase fusion (yCD/mutTKsr39) gene and the 11.6 kDa adenovirus death protein (ADP) gene with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral administration and transduction of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP into tumor cells and subsequent expression of cytosine deaminase and viral thymidine kinase, administered prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir are converted into their respective metabolites 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and ganciclovir-5-monophosphate (ganciclovir-MP); 5-FU is subsequently metabolized to cytotoxic active metabolites 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate (F-UMP) and 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate (F-dUMP); ganciclovir-TP subsequently is converted by mammalian thymidine kinase to cytotoxic ganciclovir-triphosphate (ganciclovir -TP). Tumor cells adjacent to tumor cells transduced with this agent may be killed through a "bystander effect". ADP may enhance spread and oncolytic activity of replication-competent adenoviruses. In addition to its oncolytic activity, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP may exhibit radiosensitizing activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD  
An RGD-4C–modified, infectivity-enhanced, bicistronic type 5 adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, a therapeutic suicide gene, and the somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Modification with the double cyclic peptide RGD-4C allows the virus to bind to cellular integrins, frequently expressed on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells, instead of the coxsackie and adenovirus (CAR) receptor, which is often nonfunctional in ovarian cancer cells. Upon intratumoral administration, Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD transfects tumor cells and expresses the HSV-tk gene. After subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue prodrug like ganciclovir (GCV), expressed HSV-tk phosphorylates and activates the prodrug, which may result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in HSV-tk-expressing cancer cells. Additionally, as a bystander effect, adjacent non-transfected cells may be killed by the activated antiviral drug. SSTR2 expression allows imaging of gene transfer into tumor cells using a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5CMV-p53 gene  
A replication-defective adenoviral-CMV vector that encodes a wild-type p53 gene. Ad5CMV-p53 induces tumor cells that have been transfected with the vector to produce wild-type p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is deleted or mutated in a significant number of cancers. In transfected tumor cells, the wild-type p-53 gene product exerts an antitumor effect by blocking cell cycle progression at the G1/S regulation point, activating DNA repair proteins in the presence of DNA damage, and initiating apoptosis when DNA damage is irreparable. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells  
Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with the replication-deficient adenoviral vector Ad5F53 encoding the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transmembrane latent membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LMP1/LMP2) with potential immunostimulatory activity. Vaccination with Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells may stimulate a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against LMP1- and LMP2-expressing tumor positive cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP1 and LMP2 are expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin disease. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Adanon  
(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)

Adapin  
(Other name for: doxepin hydrochloride)

Adcetris  
(Other name for: brentuximab vedotin)

Adderall  
(Other name for: dextroamphetamine-amphetamine)

Adderall XR  
(Other name for: dextroamphetamine-amphetamine)

ADE regimen  
An induction chemotherapy regimen consisting of cytarabine (Ara-C), daunorubicin and etoposide used for the treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)

adecatumumab  
A recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the tumor associated antigen (TAA) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential antitumor activity. Adecatumumab binds to EpCAM, which may result in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. EpCAM (CD326), a cell surface protein upregulated on many tumor cell types, promotes the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells; for some cancers, overexpression has been correlated with decreased survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adefovir dipivoxil  
An acyclic nucleotide adenine analogue with potent antiviral activity. Adefovir is activated in vivo to a diphosphate metabolite which is incorporated into viral DNA, leading to viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase inhibition, DNA chain termination and impairment of viral replication. This agent inhibits the reverse transcriptases of hepatitis B, herpes and HIV viruses, induces natural killer cell activity, and stimulates endogenous interferon production. Viral resistance to adefovir develops at a slower rate compared to other antivirals. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102  
An orally bioavailable, synthetic, highly selective adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102 selectively binds to and activates the cell surface-expressed A3AR, deregulating Wnt and NF-kB signal transduction pathways downstream, which may result in apoptosis of A3AR-expressing tumor cells. A3AR, a G protein-coupled receptor, is highly expressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and plays an important role in cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovector encoding MDA7  
A nonreplicating adenoviral vector (adenovector) encoding the melanoma differentiation-associated 7 gene (MDA7) with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection and adenovector-mediated gene transfer of MDA7 into tumor cells, the expressed MDA7 transgene may inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovector-transduced AP1903-inducible MyD88/CD40-expressing autologous PSMA-specific prostate cancer vaccine BPX-201  
A genetically-modified, dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in which the autologous cells are transduced with an adenoviral vector expressing the tumor antigen prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and a fusion protein composed of synthetic ligand inducible adjuvant iMC composed of a drug-inducible costimulatory CD40 receptor (iCD40) and the adaptor protein MyD88, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The iCD40 contains a membrane-localized cytoplasmic CD40 domain fused to the FK506 modified drug-binding protein 12 (FKBP12). Upon intradermal administration of BPX-201, these DCs accumulate in local draining lymph nodes. Twenty-four hours after vaccination, the dimerizing agent AP1903 is administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding domain, leading to iMC oligomerization and activation of iCD40 and MyD88-mediated signaling in iMC-expressing DCs. This signaling pathway activates the DCs and stimulates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against host tumor cells that express PSMA. PSMA, a glycoprotein secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells, is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and is used as a tumor marker for both diagnosis and treatment evaluation. MyD88 is involved in interleukin 1 receptor (IL1R) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine  
A replication-defective, E1- and E2b-deleted oncolytic adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding an epitope of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine expresses a highly immunogenic analogue of CEA [CAP1-(6D)]. Upon administration, this vaccine may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the CEA antigen, thereby resulting in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. CEA, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Deletion of early genes E1 and E2b in Ad5 potentially circumvents pre-existing anti-adenovirus immunity and is capable of inducing strong immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase  
An adenoviral vector engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, which, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, sensitizing tumor cells that overexpress HSV-tk to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequently, a low dose of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV) is given, which may preferentially kill tumor cells containing the adenoviral vector and overexpressing HSV-tk. Release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenoviral-transduced hIL-12-expressing autologous dendritic cells INXN-3001 plus activator ligand INXN-1001  
Autologous dendritic cells tranduced with a replication incompetent adenovirus encoding human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (INXN-3001) in combination with the proprietary orally bioavailable, small molecule activator ligand INXN-1001, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Production of IL-12 is controlled by an inducible DNA element that allows transcription initiation only in the presence of the ligand inducer INXN-1001. Upon intratumoral injection of INXN-3001 and subsequent oral administration of activator ligand, INXN-1001 is able to induce expression of IL-12 in INXN-3001. IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells, inducing the secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As INXN-1001 regulates both the timing and the levels of IL-12 expression, IL-12 toxicity can be reduced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus 5-human guanylyl cyclase C-PADRE vaccine  
A replication-defective, recombinant adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding human guanylyl cyclase C (hGCC) and the synthetic Pan DR epitope (PADRE), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon intramuscular administration, the Ad5-hGCC-PADRE vaccine expresses hGCC, which may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the hGCC antigen. This results in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and leads to tumor death. The hGCC protein is normally restricted to intestinal epithelial cells but is overexpressed by metastatic colorectal tumors. PADRE is a helper T-lymphocyte epitope that is able to augment the magnitude and duration of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus B7-1  
A gene-viral vector complex comprised of an adenovirus vector and B7-1 gene targeting the CD80 antigen. Adenovirus B7-1 is used as a component in antineoplastic vaccines to elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding E.coli PNP  
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (Ad/PNP) used as a prodrug activating agent. Administered intratumorally, Ad/PNP expresses the enzyme PNP, which may catalyze systematically administrated fludarabine phosphate prodrug into its active form 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). F-Ade inhibits DNA polymerase alpha, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA primase, thereby interrupting DNA synthesis and inhibiting tumor cell growth. Localized prodrug activation provides targeted chemotherapy, thereby potentially reducing systemic side effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1  
A replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 with potential membrane water channel activity. Upon transfection of salivary glands, adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 (AdhAQP1) directs human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) expression in the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of salivary secretory cells, which may result in increased saliva production. hAQP1, a water channel protein, is one of several highly conserved water channel proteins that mediate water permeability in cells of water-transporting tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding rat Her-2/neu  
A replication-defective oncolytic adenovirus, encoding rat Her-2/neu (ErbB-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus encoding rat HER-2/neu may induce an immune response against tumor cells expressing the HER-2/neu antigen, which may result in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Her-2/neu, a tumor-associated antigen and member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding recombinant human endostatin  
A replication-defective, recombinant oncolytic adenovirus encoding human endostatin with potential antineoplastic activity. Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is an important angiogenesis inhibitor. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus infects and replicates in tumor cells. The expressed endostatin may inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis which may result in a reduction of tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding tyrosinase, MART-1/MAGE-A6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding three full-length human melanoma associated antigens (MAAs), tyrosinase, melan-A (MART-1) and the melanoma antigen A6 (MAGEA6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration, adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-transduced autologous DC vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. Tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, catalyzes the first step of melanin synthesis in melanocytes. Vaccination with multi-antigen modified DC may improve the efficacy of the DC immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector encoding HER-2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against HER-2-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. HER-2, a tyrosine kinase receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) (also known as neu and ErbB2), is overexpressed by some breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus vector  
One of a number of genetically-engineered adenoviruses designed to insert a gene of interest into a eukaryotic cell where the gene of interest is subsequently expressed. Unlike most other vectors, adenovirus vectors have the ability to infect post-mitotic cells. Thus, these agents are especially useful for gene transfer into neuronal cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-interferon-gamma TG1042  
A replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding human interferon-gamma (IFN-g) cDNA with potential antineoplastic and immunoregulatory activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the prolonged expression of IFN-g by adenovirus-interferon-gamma TG1042 promotes a T helper type 1 (Th1-type) immune response and inhibits the Th2-mediated cytokine production observed in many cutaneous lymphomas. IFN-g also mediates interleukin-12 (IL-12) production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs); activates macrophages, cytotoxic T-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells; upregulates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules; and stimulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Altogether, these IFN-g-mediated effects may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-mediated human interleukin-12  
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (Ad.hIL-12), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. Synergistically, IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NKs), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-mediated human interleukin-12 INXN-2001 plus veledimex  
A replication incompetent adenovirus encoding the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (INXN-2001) in combination with the proprietary activator ligand veledimex, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Production of IL-12 is controlled by an inducible DNA element that allows transcription initiation only in the presence of the ligand inducer. Upon intratumoral administration of INXN-2001 and oral administration of veledimex, veledimex is able to induce expression of IL-12 from INXN-2001. IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NKs), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

adenovirus-p53 transduced dendritic cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding p53 peptide, with potential immunomodulating activity. Intradermal vaccination with adenoviral-p53 transduced dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing mutant p53, resulting in tumor cell lysis. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is mutated in many tumor cells, resulting in the loss of apoptosis regulation and abnormal cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-PSA prostate cancer vaccine  
A cancer vaccine composed of a genetically engineered, replication-deficient type 5 adenovirus carrying the human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous vaccination with the adenovirus-PSA prostate cancer vaccine, the adenovirus infects cells and expresses PSA. In turn, PSA may activate the immune system and may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against PSA-expressing tumor cells. PSA, a tumor associated antigen, is expressed by prostate epithelial cells and is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus/cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus-specific allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
Allogeneic tri-viral specific, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (Adv, CMV and EBV or ACE), cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) with potential antiviral activity. Donor-derived T-cells were exposed to dendritic cells nucelofected with DNA plasmids encoding Hexon and Penton (Adv), pp65 and IE1 (CMV), and LMP2, EBNA1 and BZLF1 (EBV), all are critical proteins for the proliferation of these viruses, and subsequently maintained in the presence of interleukins 4 and 7 with a novel culture device to expand and sustain the repertoire of CTLs. After an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), infusion of these CTLs primed towards Adv, CMV and EBV may prevent viral infection by these pathogens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

AdGMCAIX-transduced autologous dendritic cells  
Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant, replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing the fusion gene granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX or CA9) (GMCA-9), with potential immunomodulating activity. The autologous DCs are transduced ex vivo and express the GMCA-9 fusion protein on the cell surface. Upon intradermal administration of the AdGMCAIX-transduced autologous DCs back into the patient, the DCs activate the immune system to both mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated response against tumor cells positive for the CA9 antigen, and generate memory T cells. This may result in decreased tumor growth. CA9, also known as G250, is a renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated antigen and a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that contains a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1-restricted epitope; it is found in a majority of renal cell carcinomas while absent in most normal tissues. The cytokine GM-CSF enhances the immunogenicity of CA9-based DC vaccines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ADH-1  
A small, cyclic pentapeptide vascular-targeting agent with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. ADH-1 selectively and competitively binds to and blocks N-cadherin, which may result in disruption of tumor vasculature, inhibition of tumor cell growth, and the induction of tumor cell and endothelial cell apoptosis. N-cadherin, a cell- surface transmembrane glycoprotein of the cadherin superfamily of proteins involved in calcium-mediated cell-cell adhesion and signaling mechanisms; may be upregulated in some aggressive tumors and the endothelial cells and pericytes of some tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adipose-derived regenerative cells  
A population of cells derived from adipose tissue with stem cell and wound repair activities. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) consists of several cell types, such as adult stem cells, vascular endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, among others. These cells contribute to wound repair through a variety of mechanisms by promoting blood vessel growth and blocking apoptosis. In addition, ADRC can differentiate into several tissue types, such as bone, cartilage, fat, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ado-trastuzumab emtansine  
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of the recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated to the maytansinoid DM1 via a nonreducible thioether linkage (MCC) with potential antineoplastic activity. The trastuzumab moiety of this ADC binds to HER2 on tumor cell surface surfaces; upon internalization, the DM1 moiety is released and binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics and inhibiting cell division and the proliferation of cancer cells that overexpress HER2. Linkage of antibody and drug through a nonreducible linker has been reported to contribute to the improved efficacy and reduced toxicity of this ADC compared to similar ADCs constructed with reducible linkers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adozelesin  
An alkylating agent that bind to the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific manner and form covalent adducts with adenines, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adrenocorticotropic hormone  
A hormone secreted by the anterior portion of the pituitary gland and regulates hormone, primarily cortisol, secreted by the adrenal gland. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AdRTVP-1-transduced prostate cancer cell-based vaccine  
A cell-based vaccine comprised of prostate cancer cells transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding human RTVP-1 (AdRTVP-1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. RTVP-1, also referred to as glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIP1), is down-regulated in prostate tumors. Regulated by tumor suppressor p53, the expression of RTVP-1 functions as a tumor suppressor, and is abundant in normal human prostate epithelial cells as well as in differentiated macrophages. Administration of AdRTVP-1-transduced prostate cancer cell-based vaccine leads to an induction of apoptosis through the expression of RTVP-1, which may result in a reduction in prostate cancer cellular proliferation. In addition, this vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against prostate specific tumor- associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Adrucil  
(Other name for: fluorouracil)

ADVEXIN  
(Other name for: Ad5CMV-p53 gene)

AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine  
A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AEE788  
An orally bioavailable multiple-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. AEE788 inhibits phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF2), resulting in receptor inhibition, the inhibition of cellular proliferation, and induction of tumor cell and tumor-associated endothelial cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AEG35156  
A second-generation synthetic antisense oligonucleotide with potential antineoplastic activity. AEG35156 selectively blocks the cellular expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a pivotal inhibitor of apoptosis that is overexpressed in many tumors. This agent reduces total levels of XIAP in tumor cells, working synergistically with cytotoxic drugs to overcome tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. XIAP interferes with both the intrinsic and extrinsic program-death signaling pathways, which may render tumor cells resistant to apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aeroseb-Dex  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Aeroseb-HC  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

aerosol sargramostim  
An aerosol inhalation formulation containing a yeast-derived glycosylated recombinant form of human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential immunostimulating activity. Sargramostim binds to specific cell surface receptors, modulating the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production. This agent also activates neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and promotes antigen presentation, upregulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated, lymphokine-activated killer cell function. Aerosol inhalation may help achieve high concentrations of sargramostim in the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aerosolized aldesleukin  
An aerosol formulation of aldesleukin, a recombinant form of interleukin-2 (IL-2), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon IL-2 inhalation, this cytokine activates lymphokine-activated killer cells and natural killer cells, and induces expression of cytotoxic cytokines, such as interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta. This may eventually halt tumor cell growth. Localized administration of IL-2 may decrease toxicity and increase efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aerosolized liposomal rubitecan  
An aerosolized liposomal preparation of a water-insoluble derivative of camptothecin with potential antineoplastic activity. 9-nitro-20 (S)-camptothecin and its active metabolite 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) selectively stabilize topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during S-phase, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. This agent is formulated with dilauroylphosphatidylcholine and nebulized in particle sizes of 1.2-1.6 micrometer mass median aerodynamic diameter. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aerrane  
(Other name for: isoflurane)

Aezea®  
(Other name for: cenersen)

afamelanotide  
A synthetic peptide analogue of the naturally occurring alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) with potential photoprotective activity. Mimicking the action of a-MSH, afamelanotide stimulates melanocytes to increase the production and release of melanin. Increased melanocyte melanin may protect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-initiated cellular DNA damage, oxidation of membrane proteins, and alterations in intracellular signaling processes in epidermal cells. Endogenously, a-MSH is released by skin cells in response to UVR exposure, stimulating melanocytes to produce and release melanin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

afatinib dimaleate  
The dimaleate salt form of afatinib, an orally bioavailable anilino-quinazoline derivative and inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB; EGFR) family, with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, afatinib selectively and irreversibly binds to and inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptors 1 (ErbB1; EGFR), 2 (ErbB2; HER2), and 4 (ErbB4; HER4), and certain EGFR mutants, including those caused by EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations or exon 21 (L858R) mutations. This may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in tumor cells overexpressing these RTKs. Additionally, afatinib inhibits the EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation which is resistant to treatment with first-generation EGFR inhibitors. EGFR, HER2 and HER4 are RTKs that belong to the EGFR superfamily; they play major roles in both tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization and are overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Affinitac  
(Other name for: ISIS 3521)

Affinitak  
(Other name for: ISIS 3521)

afimoxifene  
A tamoxifen metabolite with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Afimoxifene has a higher affinity for the estrogen receptor than tamoxifen, and functions as an antagonist in breast cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Afinitor  
(Other name for: everolimus)

Afinitor Disperz  
(Other name for: everolimus tablets for oral suspension)

Aflodac  
(Other name for: sulindac)

AFP gene hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine  
A cancer vaccine composed of naked plasmid DNA of the gene for the tumor-associated antigen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a macromolecule that acts as a specific immunologic target for hepatocellular carcinoma. This agent exerts an antitumor effect by inducing cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to attack AFP-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AFP464  
A synthetic lysyl prodrug of the amino-substituted flavone derivate aminoflavone with antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. AFP464 is rapidly converted to aminoflavone in plasma. Aminoflavone activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway leading to an increase in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) expression and, to a lesser extent, an increase in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) expression. Subsequently, aminoflavone is metabolized to toxic metabolites by the cytochromome P450 enzymes that it induces; these toxic metabolites covalently bind to DNA, resulting in the phosphorylation of p53, the induction of the p53 downstream target p21Waf1/Cip1, and apoptosis. Pulmonary toxicity may be dose-limiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

afuresertib  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Afuresertib binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AG-024322  
A cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. AG-024322 selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (particularly CDK1,2 and 4), enzymes that regulate cell cycle progression. Inhibition of CDK may result in cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Agaricus blazei Murill extract  
A dietary supplement containing an extract of the Basidiomycete fungus Agaricus blazei Murill with potential chemopreventive, antineoplastic and immunopotentiating activities. Agaricus blazei Murill extract contains high levels of phytochemicals, especially beta-D-glucans. Beta-D-glucans may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation; increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and immunoglobulin levels; and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, potentially boosting anti-tumor host immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

agatolimod sodium  
The tricosasodium salt of a synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide containing 3 CpG motifs with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulatory activity. Agatolimod selectively targets Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), thereby activating dendritic and B cells and stimulating cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses against tumor cells bearing tumor antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

agonistic anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383  
An agonistic monoclonal antibody against receptor OX40 (CD134), with potential immunostimulatory activity. Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor, by mimicking the action of endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L). OX40 receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and effector T lymphocytes. In the presence of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this may promote an immune response against the TAA-expressing tumor cells. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, is expressed on T-lymphocytes and provides a co-stimulatory signal for the proliferation and survival of activated T cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Agrylin  
(Other name for: anagrelide hydrochloride)

AIM2(-1)/HT001(-1)/TAF1B(-1) frameshift peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing the three frame shift peptides (FSP) AIM2(-1), HT001(-1) and TAF1B(-1), with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, the AIM2(-1)/HT001(-1)/TAF1B(-1) FSP vaccine may induce an immune response against microsatellite instability (MSI) colorectal cancer-associated antigens. Frame shift mutations of AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2, an interferon-inducible protein), HT001 (asteroid homolog 1 or ASTE1, with an unknown function) and TAF1B (TATA box-binding protein-associated RNA polymerase I B, a transcription factor) are seen in MSI-positive colorectal cancers and may be associated with malignant transformation, tumor progression and the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These FSPs all have one-base deletions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AK 3012  
A proprietary topical formulation. Upon subcutaneous administration, the active ingredient in AK 3012 may inhibit actinic keratosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Aknoten  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

AKT 1/2 inhibitor BAY1125976  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) isoforms 1 and 2 (AKT1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. AKT1/2 inhibitor BAY1125976 selectively binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation and activity of AKT1/2 in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This may lead to both the reduction of cell proliferation and the induction of cell apoptosis in AKT-overexpressing tumor cells. The AKT signaling pathway is often deregulated in cancer and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201  
A 20-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) against the proto-oncogene Akt with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt-1 antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201 binds to Akt-1 mRNA, inhibiting translation of the transcript; suppression of Akt-1 expression may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress Akt-1. Akt-1 is a serine-threonine protein kinase that stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AKT inhibitor ARQ 092  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. AKT inhibitor ARQ 092 binds to and inhibits the activity of AKT in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This may lead to the reduction in tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The AKT signaling pathway is often deregulated in cancer and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor AZD5363  
A novel pyrrolopyrimidine derivative, and an orally available inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. AKT inhibitor AZD5363 binds to and inhibits all AKT isoforms. Inhibition of AKT prevents the phosphorylation of AKT substrates that mediate cellular processes, such as cell division, apoptosis, and glucose and fatty acid metabolism. A wide range of solid and hematological malignancies show dysregulated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling due to mutations in multiple signaling components. By targeting AKT, the key node in the PIK3/AKT signaling network, this agent may be used as monotherapy or combination therapy for a variety of human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor GDC-0068  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GDC-0068 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP-competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor GSK2141795  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GSK2141795 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor LY2780301  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor LY2780301 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor MK2206  
An orally bioavailable allosteric inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor MK2206 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor SR13668  
An orally bioavailable indole-3-carbinol (I3C) analogue inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Akt inhibitor SR13668 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt/ERK inhibitor ONC201  
A water soluble, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, Akt/ERK inhibitor ONC201 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt and ERK, which may result in inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal transduction pathway as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK-mediated pathway. This may lead to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL death receptor type 5 (DR5) signaling in AKT/ERK-overexpressing tumor cells. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and MAPK/ERK pathway are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play a key role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, ONC201 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Alba-Dex  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

albuterol sulfate  
The sulfate salt of the short-acting sympathomimetic agent albuterol, a 1:1 racemic mixture of (R)-albuterol and (S)-albuterol with bronchodilator activity. Albuterol stimulates beta2-adrenergic receptors in the lungs, thereby activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP concentrations relax bronchial smooth muscle, relieve bronchospasms, and reduce inflammatory cell mediator release, especially from mast cells. To a lesser extent albuterol stimulates beta1-adrenergic receptors, thereby increasing the force and rate of myocardial contraction. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aldactone  
(Other name for: spironolactone)

Aldara  
(Other name for: imiquimod)

aldesleukin  
A recombinant analog of the endogenous cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with immunoregulatory and antineoplastic activities. Aldesleukin binds to and activates the IL-2 receptor, followed by heterodimerization of the cytoplasmic domains of the IL-2R beta and gamma(c) chains; activation of the tyrosine kinase Jak3; and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the IL-2R beta chain, resulting in an activated receptor complex. Various cytoplasmic signaling molecules are recruited to the activated receptor complex and become substrates for regulatory enzymes that are associated with the receptor complex. This agent enhances lymphocyte mitogenesis; stimulates long-term growth of human IL-2 dependent cell lines; enhances lymphocyte cytotoxicity; induces lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell and natural killer (NK) cell activities; and induces expression of interferon-gamma. Aldesleukin may induce T cell-mediated tumor regression in some tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aldoxorubicin  
A 6-maleimidocaproyl hydrazone derivative prodrug of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOXO-EMCH) with antineoplastic activity. Following intravenous administration, aldoxorubicin binds selectively to the cysteine-34 position of albumin via its maleimide moiety. Doxorubicin is released from the albumin carrier after cleavage of the acid-sensitive hydrazone linker within the acidic environment of tumors and, once located intracellularly, intercalates DNA, inhibits DNA synthesis, and induces apoptosis. Albumin tends to accumulate in solid tumors as a result of high metabolic turnover, rapid angiogenesis, hyervasculature, and impaired lymphatic drainage. Because of passive accumulation within tumors, this agent may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin while minimizing systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alectinib  
An orally available inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, alectinib binds to and inhibits ALK kinase, ALK fusion proteins as well as the gatekeeper mutation ALKL1196M known as one of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to small-molecule kinase inhibitors. The inhibition leads to disruption of ALK-mediated signaling and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alefacept  
A recombinant dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular CD2-binding domain of the human leukocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3; CD58) linked to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with potential immunosuppressive activity. Alefacept binds to the CD2 receptor expressed on the majority of T lymphocytes, blocking the binding of endogenous LFA-3, located on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to the CD2 receptor; the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes in response to LFA-3 binding is thus inhibited. In addition, binding of the IgG1 moiety of this agent to the Fc gamma receptor on the surface of natural killer (NK)cells may bridge NK cells and target T lymphocytes, initiating NK cell-mediated apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alemtuzumab  
A recombinant DNA-derived humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD52. Alemtuzumab is an IgG1 kappa with human variable framework and constant regions, and complementarity-determining regions derived from a rat monoclonal antibody. This agent selectively binds to CD52, thereby triggering a host immune response that results in lysis of CD52 + cells. CD52 is a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of essentially all normal and malignant B and T cells, a majority of monocytes, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells, a subpopulation of granulocytes, and tissues of the male reproductive system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alendronate sodium  
The sodium salt of alendronate, a second generation bisphosphonate and synthetic analog of pyrophosphate with bone anti-resorption activity. Alendronate sodium binds to and inhibits the activity of geranyltranstransferase (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase), an enzyme involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids (FPP and GGPP) that are donor substrates of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation during the post-translational modification of small GTPase signalling proteins, which is important in the process of osteoclast turnover. As a result, osteoclast activity is inhibited and bone resorption and turnover are reduced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Alfenta  
(Other name for: alfentanil hydrochloride)

alfentanil hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of alfentanil, a synthetic short-acting opioid with analgesic and local anesthesia enhancing activity. Alfentanil hydrochloride primarily binds to mu-opioid receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor, thereby mimicking the actions of morphine, the prototypical mu receptor agonist. This agent induces anti-nociception responses mediated through inhibiting the release of various neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon are also inhibited. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Alferon  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon alpha-2a)

Alferon N  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon alfa)

alfuzosin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of alfuzosin, a quinazoline compound with smooth muscle-relaxing activity. Alfuzosin selectively binds to and antagonizes post-synaptic alpha1-adrenoreceptors in smooth muscle of the prostate, bladder base, bladder neck, prostatic capsule, and prostatic urethra, initiating relaxation of smooth muscle and resulting in improvement of urine flow and the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This agent also blocks alpha1-adrenoreceptors in peripheral vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilatation and a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

algenpantucel-L  
A cancer vaccine comprised of irradiated allogeneic pancreatic cancer cells transfected to express murine alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase with potential antitumor activity. Vaccination is associated with the expression of murine alpha-1,3-galactosyl (alpha-gal) carbohydrate residues on cell membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids of the vaccine pancreatic cancer cell allograft; murine alpha-gal epitopes, not present on human cells, then induce a hyperacute rejection of the vaccine pancreatic cancer cell allograft. The hyperacute rejection involves the binding of pre-existing human anti-alpha-gal antibodies (which naturally occur against gut flora) to murine alpha-gal epitopes, resulting in the rapid activation of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) towards allograft cells. The host immune system then attacks endogenous pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in ADCC towards endogenous pancreatic cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALIMTA  
(Other name for: pemetrexed disodium)

alisertib  
A second-generation, orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora A kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Alisertib binds to and inhibits Aurora A kinase, which may result in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Aurora A kinase localizes to the spindle poles and to spindle microtubules during mitosis, and is thought to regulate spindle assembly. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases occurs in a wide variety of cancers, including colon and breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alitretinoin  
An orally- and topically-active naturally-occurring retinoic acid with antineoplastic, chemopreventive, teratogenic, and embryotoxic activities. Alitretinoin binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR); these activated receptors act as transcription factors, regulating gene expression that results in the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, and apoptosis of both normal cells and tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALK inhibitor RO5424802  
An orally available inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ALK inhibitor RO5424802 binds to and inhibits ALK kinase, which leads to a disruption of ALK-mediated signaling and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. Additionally, ALK mutations are associated with acquired resistance to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALK inhibitor X-396  
An orally available small molecule inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, X-396 binds to and inhibits ALK kinase, ALK fusion proteins and ALK point mutation variants. Inhibition of ALK leads to the disruption of ALK-mediated signaling and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK-expressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK is not expressed in healthy adult human tissue but ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors; ALK mutations are associated with acquired resistance to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALK-FAK inhibitor CEP-37440  
An orally available dual kinase inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ALK-FAK inhibitor CEP-37440 selectively binds to and inhibits ALK kinase and FAK kinase. The inhibition leads to disruption of ALK- and FAK-mediated signal transduction pathways and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK- and FAK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development; its dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a variety of tumors. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase FAK, a signal transducer for integrins, is upregulated and constitutively activated in various tumor types; it plays a key role in tumor cell migration, proliferation, survival, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALK/ROS1 inhibitor PF-06463922  
An orally available, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and C-ros oncogene 1 (Ros1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ALK/ROS1 inhibitor PF-06463922 binds to and inhibits both ALK and ROS1 kinases. The kinase inhibition leads to disruption of ALK- and ROS1-mediated signaling and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK- and ROS1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, PF-06463922 is able to cross the blood brain barrier. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development; ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. ROS1, overexpressed in certain cancer cells, plays a key role in cell growth and survival of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALK/TRK inhibitor TSR-011  
An orally available inhibitor of both the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the tropomyosin-related kinases (TRK) TRKA, TRKB, and TRKC, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ALK/TRK inhibitor TSR-011 binds to and inhibits both ALK and TRK kinases. The inhibition leads to disruption of ALK- and TRK-mediated signaling and impedes tumor cell growth in ALK/TRK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development; ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. TRK, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases activated by neurotrophins, is mutated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ALK5 inhibitor TEW-7197  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine kinase, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor type 1 (TGFBR1), also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ALK5 inhibitor TEW-7197 inhibits the activity of TGFBR1 and prevents TGF-beta/TGFBR1-mediated signaling. This suppresses tumor growth in TGFBR1-overexpressing tumor cells. TGFBR1, which is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Expression of TGF-beta promotes tumor cell proliferation, enhances the migration of tumor cells and suppresses the response of the host immune system to tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Alka Seltzer Gold  
(Other name for: sodium bicarbonate/potassium bicarbonate/anhydrous citric acid)

Alkagin  
(Other name for: zinc oxide/aluminum starch octenylsuccinate/glycyrrhetinic phytosome/vitamin E/botanical extracts-based skin protectant paste)

Alkeran  
(Other name for: melphalan)

AllerNaze  
(Other name for: triamcinolone acetonide)

allodepleted haploidentical T cells expressing inducible Caspase 9  
Allodepleted haploidentical T-lymphocytes transduced with the Gal-V pseudotyped retrovirus vector encoding SFG.iCasp9-2A-deltaCD19, with potential immune reconstitution property. SFG.iCasp9-2A-deltaCD19 contains the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9) linked with a 2A-like cleavable peptide to the selectable marker, truncated human CD19 (deltaCD19). iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9 using a short linker (SGGGS). Donor T cell therapy may help control transplant-related viral infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, even the addition of allodepleted donor T cells can lead to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the event that GVHD begins to develop, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered, which binds to the FKBP12-F36V domain activating caspase 9. This results in the death of T cells causing GVHD while sparing the virus reactive T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AlloDerm  
(Other name for: acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix)

allogeneic acute myeloid leukemia antigen-expressing dendritic cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of allogeneic, immortalized dendritic precursor cells derived from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon ex vivo stimulation and expansion of the precursor cells into mature, fully functional dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequent administration, the allogeneic AML antigen-expressing DC vaccine may elicit a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) and antibody response against AML antigen-expressing cells, resulting in tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
A population of allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to human adenovirus (Ad) with potential immunomodulating and anti-adenoviral activities. Upon immunoprophylactic adoptive cell therapy, infusion of allogeneic Ad-specific CTLs may help reconstitute Ad-specific CTL responses in patients at risk of developing Ad infections after allogeneic stem cell transplant or in Ad-infected immunocompromised hosts. These allogeneic Ad-specific CTLs are prepared by multiple rounds of stimulation with donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines that have been transduced with Ad5f35, a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying no transgene. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic B7.1/HLA-A1 transfected tumor cell vaccine  
An allogeneic whole cell vaccine, derived from irradiated allogenic tumor cells manipulated to express human B7.1 (CD80 antigen) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A1, with potential antitumor activity. Vaccination with allogeneic B7.1/HLA-A1 transfected tumor cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against similar host tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic CD19-specific CAR-modified CD8 positive central memory-derived virus-specific T cells  
A preparation of allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- and human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ central memory-derived T effector-lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) anti-CD19/CD3 zeta chain fusion protein coupled to the intracellular signal domain of CD28 antigen, with potential immunostimulating, anti-viral and antineoplastic activities. Upon infusion, allogeneic CD19-specific CAR-modified CD8+ central memory-derived virus-specific T cells directs the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells, stimulating a selective toxicity to tumor cells which may eventually result in tumor cell lysis. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. The viral specific T-cells exert antiviral immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic CD4+ memory Th1-like T cells/microparticle-bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28  
A preparation consisting of allogeneic, differentiated Th1-like T cells bound to T cell-stimulating monoclonal antibodies with potential antitumor activity. More specifically, allogeneic CD4+ memory Th1-like T cells/microparticle-bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28 are composed of a proprietary preparation of mismatched, allogeneic differentiated CD4+ memory Th1-like T cells bound to paramagnetic, epoxy-covered 4.5 micron microparticles with covalently bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies at a 2:1 bead:cell ratio. The CD4+ memory Th1-like T cells are derived from precursors found in the circulation of a normal donor. Stimulated by the microparticle-bound monoclonal antibodies, the infused T cells produce pro-inflammatory, anti-tumor cytokines such as like IFN-gamma, TNF-beta, and IL-2, disabling tumor immune avoidance mechanisms and stimulating the host immune system to both reject the infused T cells and kill tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic CMV/AdV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
A population of allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and adenovirus (AdV) with potential antiviral activity. Allogeneic CMV/AdV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are prepared by exposing donor-derived CTLs to a lethally irradiated Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoblastoid B cell line (EBV-LCL) that has been transduced with a clinical-grade adenoviral vector (Ad5f35CMVpp65) as a source of CMV and AdV antigens. Infusion of these CTLs into stem cell transplant recipients may prevent CMV and AdV viral disease. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
A population of allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to the herpes virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) with potential immunomodulating and antiviral activities. Upon immunoprophylactic adoptive cell therapy infusion with allogeneic cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, these CTLs may help reconstitute CMV-specific CTL responses in CMV-infected immunocompromised hosts after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, thereby potentially preventing the occurrence of CMV viral disease or reducing the amount of antiviral drug therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic dendritic cell vaccine COMBIG-DC  
A cancer vaccine consisting of allogeneic, immortalized dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor specific antigens and activated, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration of the allogeneic dendritic cell vaccine COMBIG-DC, these activated DCs attract natural killer (NK) cells, induce an anti-inflammatory response leading to the induction of NK-cell-mediated tumor cell death. Upon release of tumor associated antigens (TAAs) from the lysed tumor cells, these antigens are taken up by antigen presenting cells which activate the immune system to elicit a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against the TAAs, resulting in the death of TAAs-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

allogeneic dendritic cell-myeloma idiotype vaccine  
A cell-based vaccine composed of allogeneic dendritic cells pulsed ex-vivo with an autologous myeloma idiotype with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, allogeneic dendritic cell-myeloma idiotype vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against myeloma cells, resulting in cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
A preparation of lymphocytes harvested from a patient with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumor. Ex vivo, the lymphocytes are activated against EBV-specific antigens and then returned to the patient, where they mount a specific immune response against EBV-positive tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic glioblastoma stem-like cell line lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysates from an allogeneic glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cell line, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration allogeneic glioblastoma stem-like cell line lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine exposes the immune system to GBM stem cell antigens, which may result in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against GBM cells. This leads to GBM cell lysis. GBM stem-like cells contain a specific range of antigens that are essential for the neoplastic growth and survival of GBM cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting breast cancer vaccine  
An allogenic vaccine consisting of irradiated breast cancer cells transfected with the granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene. Upon vaccination, the genetically modified cells secrete GM-CSF, thereby potentiating a tumor-specific T cell response against breast cancer cell-asociated antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting lethally irradiated whole melanoma cell vaccine  
An allogeneic cancer vaccine composed of lethally irradiated whole melanoma cancer cells that are genetically modified to secrete the immunostimulatory cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal injections, allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting lethally irradiated whole melanoma cell vaccine secretes GM-CSF. In turn, GM-CSF may stimulate the body's immune system against tumor cells by enhancing the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and promoting antigen presentation to both B- and T-lymphocytes. In addition, GM-CSF promotes antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccine PANC 10.05 pcDNA-1/GM-Neo  
An allogeneic cancer vaccine composed of lethally irradiated, whole pancreatic cancer cells transfected with a plasmid carrying the gene for cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Allogeneic GM-CSF–secreting tumor vaccine PANC 10.05 pcDNA-1/GM-Neo secretes GM-CSF thereby activating dendritic cells, promoting antigen presentation to B- and T-cells, and promoting a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. This may eventually kill tumor cells. The pancreatic tumor cells are derived from the PANC 10.05 tumor cell line. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccine PANC 6.03 pcDNA-1/GM-Neo  
An allogeneic cancer vaccine composed of lethally irradiated, whole pancreatic cancer cells transfected with a plasmid carrying the gene for cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Allogeneic GM-CSF–secreting tumor vaccine PANC 6.03 pcDNA-1/GM-Neo secretes GM-CSF thereby activating dendritic cells, promoting antigen presentation to B- and T-cells, and promoting a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. This may eventually kill tumor cells. The pancreatic tumor cells are derived from the PANC 6.03 tumor cell line. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic GM-CSF-transfected myeloma cell vaccine  
An allogeneic tumor cell vaccine containing myeloma cancer cells transfected with the granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination, allogeneic GM-CSF-based myeloma cellular vaccine secretes GM-CSF, which may potentiate a tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against myeloma cancer cell-associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic HLA A2/4-1BB ligand-expressing melanoma vaccine  
An allogeneic melanoma cell vaccine derived from a cell line with high expression of melanoma associated antigens and genetically modified to express both HLA-A2 and 4-1BB ligand, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the 4-1BB ligand of the allogeneic HLA-A2/4-1BB ligand-expressing melanoma vaccine binds to 4-1BB on activated T-lymphocytes, which induces a strong immune response against HLA-A2 positive melanoma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic IL13-zetakine/HyTK-expressing-glucocorticoid resistant cytotoxic T lymphocytes GRm13Z40-2  
A preparation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) negative, allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing a membrane-tethered interleukin 13 (IL13) cytokine chimeric T-cell antigen receptor (zetakine), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon transfection of donor T-lymphocytes with a plasmid encoding a fusion protein of the IL13-zetakine and the selection-suicide expression enzyme HyTK, these modified CTLs are expanded and introduced into a patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This agent specifically targets IL13 receptor alpha2, a glioma-restricted cell-surface epitope; the CTLs exert their cytolytic effect thereby killing IL13Ra2-expressing glioma cells. In addition, IL13-zetakine redirected CTLs induce production of certain cytokines. Furthermore, due to the fact that these CTLs are GR negative, they can be used concomitantly with glucocorticoid therapy. The IL13-zetakine consists of an extracellular IL-13 E13Y mutein-human IgG4 hinge-Fc chimera fused to human cytoplasmic CD3-zeta via the transmembrane domain of human CD4. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic irradiated melanoma cell vaccine CSF470  
An allogeneic cancer vaccine composed of a mixture of lethally irradiated whole melanoma cancer cells obtained from four different melanoma cell lines, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal injections, allogeneic irradiated melanoma cell vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system to exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against the melanoma cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic large multivalent immunogen breast cancer vaccine  
A cancer vaccine, containing human-specific large multivalent immunogens (LMIs) isolated from the membrane fraction of cells from a breast cancer cell line, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, allogeneic large multivalent immunogen breast cancer vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against tumor cells that express the breast cancer cell-specific LMIs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic large multivalent immunogen melanoma vaccine LP2307  
A cancer vaccine, containing human-specific large multivalent immunogen (LMI) isolated from plasma membrane fractions of the melanoma cell lines MSM-M1 and MSM-M2, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, allogeneic large multivalent immunogen melanoma vaccine LP2307 may stimulate a CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against melanoma tumor cells that express melanoma-specific LMI. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic LMP1-/LMP2- specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes  
A preparation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), specifically reactive to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane proteins (LMP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are collected from a donor and are exposed ex vivo to dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding EBV LMP1/2 to generate LMP1/2-specific CTL which are subsequently expanded. Administration of allogeneic LMP1-/LMP2- specific CTL to patients with LMP1/2-positive tumors may result in a specific CTL response against tumor cells expressing LMP1 and LMP2, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As tumor associated antigens (TAAs), LMP1 and LMP2 are expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic melanoma vaccine AGI-101H  
A cancer vaccine derived from two gentically modified human melanoma cell lines with potential antineoplastic activity. Allogeneic melanoma vaccine AGI-101H consists of a 1:1 mixture of cells from two genetically modified human melanoma cell lines, designated as Mich1H6 and Mich2H6, that have been gamma-irradiated to render the cells non-proliferative. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic immune response against melanoma tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

allogeneic multipotent adult progenitor cells  
A biologic product that consists of undifferentiated stem cells, obtained from adult bone marrow or other non-embryonic tissue sources, that are expanded in vitro and deposited in master cell banks for "off-the-shelf" use, with potential hematopoiesis-inducing and immunomodulating activities. Allogeneic multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are non-immunogenic due to the lack of major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule expression, and so elicit no immune response upon administration. In vivo, bone marrow-derived adult stem cells are capable of maturing into a broad range of cell types and may help restore the immune system by producing multiple therapeutic molecules in response to inflammation and tissue damage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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