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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

(61)Cu-ATSM  
A lipophilic copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazone) labeled with the positron-emitting isotope (61)Cu with hypoxia-selective and radioisotopic activities. With a high membrane permeability and redox potential, (61)Cu-ATSM easily enters and selectively resides in hypoxic cells. The extent of (61)Cu-ATSM retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

1-methyl-d-tryptophan  
A methylated tryptophan with anti-immunosuppressive activity. 1-methyl-d-tryptophan inhibits the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, and may increase or maintain tryptophan levels important to T cell function. Tryptophan depletion is associated with immunosuppression involving T cell arrest and anergy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

11C topotecan  
A semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin, a cytotoxic, quinoline-based alkaloid extracted from the Asian tree Camptotheca acuminata radiolabeled with carbon 11 (11C) with antineoplastic and radiotracer properties. During the S phase of the cell cycle, topotecan inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks that inhibit DNA replication and trigger apoptotic cell death. Quantitation of 11C topotecan accumulated in tumor tissues by positron emission tomography (PET) may help predict responses to topotecan therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

123-I-MIP-1095  
An iodine 123-radiolabled small molecule that exhibits high affinity for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential use in molecular imaging. 123-I-MIP-1095, a radiolabeled glutamate-urea-lysine analogue, selectively binds PSMA, which allows imaging of PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells with gamma scintigraph. PSMA is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of various solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

131I-TM-601  
An iodine 131 (I 131) radioconjugate of the synthetic chlorotoxin (CTX) TM-601 with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. CTX is a 36 amino acid neurotoxin found in the venom of the giant yellow scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus that preferentially binds malignant cells of neuroectodermal origin. The recombinant version of this peptide, TM-601, is expressed in and purified from E. coli and then covalently linked to I 131 to produce 131I-TM-601. 131I-TM-601 binds to tumor cells of neuroectodermal origin and is internalized; administered once, it may be used as a radioimaging agent; repeated administration may result in a tumor-specific, cumulative radiocytotoxic dose of I 131. In addition, TM-601 alone, similar to native CTX, may inhibit angiogenesis due to its ability to bind to and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), an endopeptidase involved in tissue remodeling processes such as angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

14C BMS-275183  
The orally bioavailable C-4 methyl carbonate analogue of paclitaxel, labeled with radioactive carbon 14, with radioisotope and potential antineoplastic activities. 14C BMS-275183 binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule disassembly, which may result in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and inhibition of cell division, and subsequently cell death. This agent may be useful for treating multi-drug resistant (MDR) tumors because it does not appear to be a substrate for P-glycoprotein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

16, 16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2  
A stable derivative of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with potential hematopoietic activity. Administration of 16,16 dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) appears to lead to increased formation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Even though the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent may stimulate hematopoiesis by activating the Wnt signaling pathway, which increases cellular levels of beta-catenin, a subunit of the cadherin protein complex. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

18-F-fluoroacetate  
A radioconjugate and an acetate analog labeled with fluorine F 18 ((18)F-FAC), a positron-emitting isotope, with potential prostate tumor tracer property using positron emission tomography (PET). Although the mechanism of action is unclear, fluorine F 18 acetate preferentially accumulates in tumor tissue, serving as a tracer for imaging tumors with PET. Fluorine 18 has a longer radioactive half-life (110 min) vs. the half-life of carbon-11 acetate (20.4 min). Furthermore, (18)F-FAC showed a rapid clearance from liver and extensive excretion to bile and urine in comparison with carbon-11 acetate, therefore this tracer may be a useful alternative to C-11 acetate for the detection of prostate tumors by PET. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

18F-FHBG  
A fluorine-18-labeled acycloguanosine derivative substrate for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk). 18F-FHBG is used as a reporter probe to image the expression of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene in gene transfer therapy. HSV1-tk and and HSV1-tk-metabolized 18F-FHBG co-localize, allowing positron emission tomography (PET) localization of HSV1-tk gene-transfected tissue and the assessment of gene transfer efficiency. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside  
A radiofluorinated 2-nitroimidazole derivative with hypoxia-specific tracer activity. 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside is reduced under hypoxic conditions and is often seen in various malignant tumors, forming highly reactive intermediates. In its reduced form, 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside covalently binds to macromolecules, thereby accumulating in hypoxic cells and allowing radioisotopic imaging of these particular cells. Compared to 18F-misonidazole, 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside has a lower octanol:water partition coefficient; it therefore has less tendency to accumulate in lipophilic tissues and exhibits a faster renal clearance, leading to an improved imaging ability of hypoxic tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

18F-fluoromethylcholine  
A radiotracer consisting of methylcholine labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope fluorine F 18 (18F-FMCH) with potential imaging use. Upon administration, 18F-fluoromethylcholine incorporates into tumor cells through an active, carrier-mediated transport mechanism for choline and then is phosphorylated intracellularly by choline kinase, an enzyme frequently upregulated in human tumors, yielding phosphoryl 18F-fluoromethylcholine. In turn, phosphoryl 18F-fluoromethylcholine is integrated into phospholipids in the cell membrane as part of phosphatidylcholine. As the proliferation of cancer cells is much higher than normal cells, tumor cells exhibit an increased rate of 18F-FMCH uptake and incorporation, allowing tumor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

18F-fluoromisonidazole  
A radiofluorinated 2-nitroimidazole derivate with hypoxia-specific tracer activity. Misonidazole is reduced under hypoxic conditions and in reduced form covalently binds to macromolecules in hypoxic cells. 18F (fluorine-18) radiofluorination of misonidazole to form 18F-fluoromisonidazole allows radioisotopic imaging of reduced misonidazole bound to macromolecules in hypoxic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

18F-labeled mini-PEG spacered RGD dimer  
A radiotracer containing a pegylated dimeric Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide (NH2-mini-PEG-E[c(RGDyK)]2 or PRGD2) radiolabeled with fluorine 18F-fluorobenzoate (18F-FB), with potential alphaVbeta3 integrin imaging activity upon positron emission topography (PET). Upon administration, the RGD moiety of 18F-labeled mini-PEG spacered RGD dimer (18F-FPRGD2) binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin. Upon PET, alphaVbeta3-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and the degree of tumor angiogenesis can be determined. This agent exhibits increased integrin receptor binding affinity, tumor cell uptake and increased radiolabeling yield as compared to the non-pegylated form (18F-FRGD2). Integrins, transmembrane glycoproteins, may be upregulated on proliferating tumor vessel endothelial cells and various cancer cells; their overexpression has been associated with neovascularization, differentiation, proliferation of tumor cells, metastasis and an overall poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2'-F-ara-deoxyuridine  
A deoxyuridine prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon cellular uptake, 2’-F-ara-deoxyuridine (FAU) is phosphorylated by thymidine kinase to FAU monophosphate and subsequently methylated in the 5'-position by thymidylate synthase (TS) to its activated form, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl) 5-methyluracil monophosphate (FMAUMP). FMAUMP is incorporated into DNA leading to an inhibition of DNA synthesis and so cell growth. The catalytic activity of TS is critical to activation of FAU and subsequent incorporation into DNA. FAU may be beneficial in the case of tumors with high TS activity that are resistant to TS inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2-0, 3-0 desulfated heparin  
A non-anticoagulant heparin derivative in which the 2-O and 3-O sulfate groups of heparin are removed, with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH) prevents the interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) to its ligands, such as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), Mac-1(CD11b/CD18), the nuclear protein high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), carboxymethyl lysine-bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) and members of the S100 calgranulin family. In addition, this agent inhibits the enzymes heparanase, cathepsin G, and human leukocyte elastase, which are involved in inflammation and metastasis. ODSH also inhibits selectins, thereby preventing the adhesion of tumor cells to endothelium and platelets. Altogether, this may inhibit tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. Unlike heparin, this agent does not induce heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). RAGE, a receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays a key role in inflammation and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2-fluoropropionyl-labeled pegylated dimeric RGD peptide  
A radiopharmaceutical agent comprised of a pegylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-based peptide labeled with 2-fluoropropionyl, with potential alphaVbeta3 integrin imaging activity upon positron emission topography (PET). The RGD moiety of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled pegylated dimeric RGD peptide targets and binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin. Upon PET imaging, alphaVbeta3 integrin-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and expression levels can be quantified. Compared to other fluorine F 18 labeled RGD-containing peptides, this agent shows increased affinity to alphaVbeta3 integrin, enhanced tumor uptake as well as improved pharmacokinetics. alphaVbeta3 integrin, overexpressed on certain tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells, plays a key role in angiogenesis, tumor proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2-hydroxyflutamide depot  
A depot formulation containing a bioresorbable, controlled-release, calcium sulphate-based paste of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen 2-hydroxyflutamide (2-HOF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon injection into the tumor site in the prostate, 2-hydroxyflutamide depot slowly releases 2-HOF, which competitively binds to androgen receptors (ARs), blocking the binding of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This may inhibit androgen-dependent DNA and protein synthesis, resulting in tumor cell growth arrest and decreased cellular proliferation. In addition, 2-HOF inhibits nuclear uptake of androgen in androgen-responsive tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2-hydroxyoleic acid  
An orally bioavailable, synthetic analog of the fatty acid oleic acid, with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA) activates sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), thereby increasing the concentration of sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the tumor cell membrane and decreasing membrane levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). This restores the normal, healthy levels and ratios of membrane lipids. By restoring normal membrane lipid structure and composition, this agent inhibits membrane-protein associated signaling and the aberrant activity of signaling pathways in certain tumor cells, including the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/AKt pathways. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation, induces tumor cell differentiation, and eventually can cause cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2-methoxyestradiol  
An orally bioavailable estradiol metabolite with potential antineoplastic activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol inhibits angiogenesis by reducing endothelial cell proliferation and inducing endothelial cell apoptosis. This agent also inhibits tumor cell growth by binding to tubulin, resulting in antimitotic activity, and by inducing caspase activation, resulting in cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

2G-1 TCR retroviral vector-transduced lymphocytes  
A preparation of autologous human T-lymphocytes isolated from renal cell cancer (RCC) patient and transduced with 2G-1 TCR, a retroviral vector encoding the alpha and beta chains of a T-cell receptor that recognizes TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) bound to death receptor 4 (DR4), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. After transduction, expansion in culture, and introduction into the RCC patient, 2G-1 TCR retroviral vector-transduced lymphocytes may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against RCC cells with TRAIL bound to DR4 on their surfaces. TRAIL, a member of the TNF superfamily, is a homotrimeric type II membrane protein that rapidly induces oligomerization of receptor intracellular death domains and apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells when bound to its receptors; DR4 (TRAIL receptor 1), a member of the TNF receptor family, is overexpressed by a variety of malignant cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

3'-aminomethyl nicotine-P. aeruginosa r-exoprotein A conjugate vaccine  
A hapten-carrier immunoconjugate composed of the hapten trans-3′-aminomethyl nicotine conjugated to a recombinant P. aeruginosa exoprotein A, rendered nontoxic through amino acid depletion, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon vaccination with 3'-aminomethyl nicotine-P. aeruginosa r-exoprotein A conjugate vaccine, the immune system may produce anti-nicotine antibodies. Antibody-bound nicotine cannot pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) to activate brain nicotine receptors. Nicotine, a small organic molecule that is not immunogenic, must be haptenized and conjugated to a carrier protein, such as nontoxic recombinant P. aeruginosa exoprotein A, to induce an antibody response. Aluminium hydroxide may be used as an adjuvant for this vaccine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

3'-C-ethynylcytidine  
A synthetic cytidine nucleoside containing a covalently bound ethynyl group with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. 3'-C-ethynylcytidine is metabolized in tumor cells to ethynylcytidine triphosphate (ECTP), which inhibits RNA synthesis by competitive inhibition of RNA polymerases I, II and III; subsequently, RNase L is activated, resulting in apoptosis. RNase L is a potent antiviral and antiproliferative endoribonuclease that cleaves singled stranded RNA, causes 28s rRNA fragmentation, and activates Janus Kinase (JAK), a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis signaling molecule. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  
A ring-substituted amphetamine derivative, structurally related to the hallucinogen mescaline, with entactogenic, neurotoxic, and motor-stimulatory activities. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces an acute, rapid enhancement in both the release of serotonin from and the inhibition of serotonin reuptake by serotonergic nerve endings in the brain. Once within the cell, MDMA depletes stores of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) via acute oxidative inactivation; in turn, depleted stores of TPH leave cell terminals open to damage from oxidative stress, possibly a source of MDMA neurotoxicity. This agent also induces norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine release and can act directly on a number of receptors, including alpha 2-adrenergic and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A receptors. MDMA may suppress the dyskinesia associated with long-term use of L-dopamine (L-DOPA) without affecting the efficacy of L-DOPA treatment. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

3-deazauridine  
A synthetic analogue of nucleoside uridine lacking a ring nitrogen in the 3-position. 3-deazauridine inhibits cytidine synthase, thereby reducing intracellular levels of cytidine and deoxycytidine and disrupting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may trigger apoptosis and enhance differentiation of neoplastic cells.. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

4'-iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin  
An iodinated doxorubicin analogue with antiamyloid activity. 4'-Iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin (IDOX) binds with high affinity to five types of natural amyloid fibrils including immunoglobulin light chains, amyloid A, transthyretin (methionine-30 variant), ß-protein (Alzheimer), and ß2-microglobulin. This agent may inhibit fibril growth, increasing the solubility of amyloid tissue deposits and facilitating their clearance. IDOX has also been shown to insulin amyloid fibrillogenesis in vitro. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

4-nitroestrone 3-methyl ether  
A synthetic derivative of estradiol. 4-nitroestrone 3-methyl ether inhibits estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), a progesterone-induced secretory endometrial enzyme which affects estrogen receptor levels. This agent has been shown to be an effective growth inhibitor of some chemically induced animal mammary tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

4-peptide melanoma vaccine  
An emulsion of 4 melanoma peptides with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, 4-peptide melanoma vaccine may stimulate an immune response against 4 different melanoma associated antigens. This may lead to a reduction in tumor cell proliferation of cancer cells expressing these antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

5-[18F]fluorouracil  
The fluorine-18 (18F)-radiolabeled pyrimidine analog 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with positron-emitting activity. Upon administration, 5-[18F]fluorouracil distribution in tumor tissue may be measured with positron emission tomography (PET). The degree of 5-[18F]fluorouracil uptake in tumor tissue may help to predict the response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy or to determine the response to other therapeutic agents used to treat 5-FU-sensitive tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

5-FITC-labeled colon-heptapeptide  
A radioconjugate consisting of a 7 amino acid peptide sequence, KCCFPAQ, that specifically targets human colon cancer and that is labeled, via the linker, GGGSK, with the fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate (5-FITC), with potential imaging activity. Following spray application to the colon wall during colonoscopy in areas that look abnormal, the colon heptapeptide moiety of 5-FITC-labeled colon-heptapeptide specifically targets and binds to a cell surface target overexpressed on pre-cancerous or cancerous colon cells. Upon internalization, the FITC moiety allows for fluorescent imaging and the area of interest for biopsies can then be visualized. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

5-FITC-labeled GI-heptapeptide  
A radioconjugate consisting of the 7 amino acid peptide sequence ASYNYDA (GI heptapeptide) and labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (5-FITC), with potential imaging activity. Upon topical application to the esophageal mucosa using a spray, the heptapeptide moiety of 5-FITC-labeled GI-heptapeptide binds to abnormal cells in the esophagus; the FITC moiety allows for imaging with white light and the area of interest for biopsies can then be visualized. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine  
A fluorinated pyrimidine analogue antimetabolite with potential antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, 5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine is converted by intracellular deaminases to the cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FU is subsequently metabolized to active metabolites including 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). FdUMP binds to and inhibits thymidylate synthase, thereby reducing the production of thymidine monophosphate, which leads to depletion of thymidine triphosphate and the inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell division. FUTP competes with uridine triphosphate (UTP) for incorporation into the RNA strand, which results in the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis and cell proliferation. Other fluorouracil metabolites also get incorporated into both DNA and RNA, with further inhibition of cellular growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

5-fluorouracil/salicylic acid topical solution  
A topical formulation containing 0.5 % of antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 10% of salicylic acid, with potential antimitotic and keratolytic activity. Upon cutaneous application, 5-FU in the 5-fluorouracil/salicylic acid topical solution impedes pyrimidine metabolism thereby inhibiting cell growth, while the salicylic acid induces anti-inflammatory response and results in keratolytic effect. This may result in the breakdown of keratinocytes and prevent proliferation of keratinocytes locally. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

50% oxygen/50% nitrous oxide premix  
An equimolar gas mixture of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with potential analgesic activity. Upon inhalation, 50% oxygen/50% nitrous oxide premix produces rapidly reversible analgesia. The exact mechanism through which nitrous oxide exerts its analgesic effect has yet to be fully elucidated, but it appears to be associated with the neuronal release of endogenous opioid peptides. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

6,8-bis(benzylthio)octanoic acid  
A racemic mixture of the enantiomers of a synthetic alpha-lipoic lipoic acid analogue with potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, 6,8-bis(benzylthio)octanoic acid has been shown to inhibit metabolic and regulatory processes required for cell growth in solid tumors. Both enantiomers in the racemic mixture exhibit antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

6-azauridine  
A synthetic triazine analogue of uridine with antimetabolite activity. 6-azauridine inhibits de novo pyrimidine synthesis and DNA synthesis and is converted intracellularly into mono, di-, and triphosphate derivatives, which incorporate into RNA and inhibit protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/ fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases isoform 3 inhibitor ACT-PFK-158  
An inhibitor of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases (PFK-2/FBPase) isoform 3 (PFKFB3) and derivative of 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-[4-pyridinyl]-2-propen-1-one (3PO), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PFKFB3 inhibitor PFK-158 binds to and inhibits the activity of PFKFB3, which leads to the inhibition of both the glycolytic pathway in and glucose uptake by cancer cells. This prevents the production of macromolecules and energy that causes the enhanced cellular proliferation in cancer cells as compared to that of normal, healthy cells. Depriving cancer cells of nutrients and energy leads to the inhibition of cancer cell growth. PFKFB3, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, is highly expressed and active in human cancer cells; it plays a key role in increasing both glycolytic flux in and proliferation of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

7-cyanoquinocarcinol  
A semisynthetic analogue of the Streptomyces melanovinaceus-derived tetracyclic antitumor antibiotic quinocarmycin with potential antineoplastic activity. Quinocarmycin belongs to the naphthyridinomycin/saframycin class of antitumor antibiotics. These antibiotics appear to act through DNA alkylation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

7-hydroxystaurosporine  
A synthetic derivative of staurosporine with antineoplastic activity. 7-hydroxystaurosporine inhibits many phosphokinases, including the serine/threonine kinase AKT, calcium-dependent protein kinase C, and cyclin-dependent kinases. This agent arrests tumor cells in the G1/S of the cell cycle and prevents nucleotide excision repair by inhibiting the G2 checkpoint kinase chk1, resulting in apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate ointment  
An ointment formulation containing the sulfate salt of 8-hydroxyquinoline in a petrolatum and lanolin base with skin-protecting activity. Upon topical application, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate exhibits antiseptic activity while lanolin moisturizes and softens skin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

851B gel  
A topical gel containing a peptide derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV). Application of 851B gel may stimulate the host immune system to trigger a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to cells that express HPV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

852A  
A synthetic imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist with immunostimulating and potential antitumor activities. TLR7 agonist 852A binds to and activates TLR7, thereby stimulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) through the TLR7-MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Activation of pDC results in secretion of interferon alpha, the production of proimflammatory cytokines, the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and enhanced T and B-cell stimulatory responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

[18F]-labeled substance P antagonist receptor quantifier  
A radioconjugate consisting of the positron emitting radioisotope fluorine F 18 conjugated to the substance P antagonist receptor quantifier (SPA-RQ) used in radioimaging. [18F]-labeled substance P antagonist receptor quantifier is an antagonist of the neurokinin 1 (substance P) receptor (NK1R) and can function as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for detecting NK1R-expressing cells and tissues. NK1Rs are frequently expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells from glioblastoma and breast and pancreatic carcinomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

[18F]-ML-10  
A small molecular-weight, malonic acid-based probe [(2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid or ML-10] labeled with the radioactive isotope fluorine F 18 with potential apoptosis radioimaging use. Upon administration, [F18]-ML-10 binds selectively to apoptotic cells due to apoptotic cell membrane features that differ from those of normal, healthy and necrotic cell membranes. Upon entering the apoptotic cell, this agent accumulates within the cytoplasm where it can be imaged using positron emission tomography (PET). Detection of apoptotic cells using this imaging technology may be useful in monitoring tumor responses to cytotoxic therapies. ML-10 appears to mimic the alkyl-malonic acid motif present in gamma -carboxyglutamic (Gla), an amino acid that plays a crucial role in the binding of clotting factors to negatively-charged phospholipids exposed on the surfaces of apoptotic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

[18F]L-FAC  
A deoxycytidine analog and high-affinity substrate for deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), labeled with fluorine F 18, with potential diagnostic activity upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. [18F]L-FAC is preferentially taken up by and accumulated in cells with high deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) levels, such as in tumor cells with dysregulated nucleoside metabolism. Upon uptake through the nucleoside transporter, [18F]L-FAC is phosphorylated by DCK and, subsequently, the 18F moiety can be visualized upon PET imaging. As many nucleoside analog prodrugs are chemotherapeutic agents that require DCK for activation, [18F]L-FAC can potentially be used as a marker to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy of these prodrugs. In addition, as DCK is upregulated in certain immune cells, such as activated T-cells, [18F]L-FAC can also be used to measure immune activation in response to immunomodulating agents. DCK, a rate-limiting enzyme in the nucleoside salvage pathway for DNA synthesis, is overexpressed in certain solid tumors, lymphoid and myeloid malignancies and certain immune cells, such as proliferating T-lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

[18F]L-FMAC  
A radioconjugate composed of 2′-deoxy-2′-18F-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([18F]L-FMAC), a L-deoxycytidine analog and high-affinity substrate for deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), labeled with fluorine F 18, with potential diagnostic activity during positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Upon administration, [18F]L-FMAC is preferentially taken up by and accumulated in cells with high DCK levels, including tumor cells with dysregulated nucleoside metabolism. After phosphorylation by DCK, the 18F moiety can be visualized by PET imaging. As many nucleoside analog prodrugs are chemotherapeutic agents that require DCK for their phosphorylation and activation, [18F]L-FMAC can potentially be used as a marker to measure DCK activity and to predict the chemotherapeutic efficacy of DCK-dependent prodrugs. DCK, a rate-limiting enzyme in the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway for DNA synthesis, is overexpressed in certain solid tumors, lymphoid and myeloid malignancies and certain immune cells, such as proliferating T-lymphocytes. The L-enantiomer is less susceptible to deamination by cytidine deaminase (CDA) than the D-enantiomer and increases the stability of this radioconjugate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

[F-18]HX4  
A 2-nitroimidazole labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope fluorine F 18. HX4, the 2-nitroimidazole moiety of [F-18]HX4, is selectively bioreduced and bound in hypoxic tumor cells, permitting the imaging of hypoxic tumor cells with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

[F18]VM4-037  
A radiopharmaceutical consisting of a sulfonamide covalently attached to the positron-emitting isotope fluorine F 18 with CA-IX-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration, the sulfonamide moiety of [F18]VM4-037 binds to the cell-surface tumor-associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX isoenzyme (CA-IX); CA-IX-expressing tumor cells can then be visualized using positron emission tomography (PET). CA-IX has been found to be elevated in a variety of hypoxic tumors; elevated CA-IX has been positively correlated with tumor growth, tumor invasion and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

A-Hydrocort  
(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)

abagovomab  
A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abarelix  
A synthetic decapeptide and antagonist of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Abarelix directly and competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with prostate hypertrophy or prostate cancer, since testosterone is required to sustain prostate growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abatacept  
A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abegrin  
(Other name for: etaracizumab)

Abelcet  
(Other name for: liposomal amphotericin B)

Aberel  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

abexinostat  
A novel, broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Abexinostat inhibits several isoforms of HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; and the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, upregulated in many tumor types, is an an enzyme that is responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

abiraterone acetate  
An orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase (17alpha-hydrolase/C17,20 lyase complex), a member of the cytochrome p450 family that catalyzes the 17alpha-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis. Administration of this agent may suppress testosterone production by both the testes and the adrenals to castrate-range levels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abitrexate  
(Other name for: methotrexate)

Ablavar  
(Other name for: gadofosveset trisodium)

Abraxane  
(Other name for: paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation)

absorbable adhesion barrier gel  
An isotonic, sterile, absorbable adhesion barrier gel composed of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethylcellulose, with protective activity. Upon application of a single layer into the uterine cavity at the end of any hysteroscopic surgery, the absorbable adhesion barrier gel may provide a protective barrier which protects the traumatized tissue and allows for healing. This gel may therefore prevent the formation of post-surgical intrauterine adhesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

absorbable gelatin sponge  
A sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional chemotherapy, absorbable gelatin sponge may be used to embolize arteries in the region of a tumor in order to block or retard blood flow; this blockage results in a locally increased concentration of chemotherapeutic agents delivered to the tumor when chemotherapeutic agents are infused into the embolized arterial circulation upstream of the blockage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-510  
A synthetic peptide that mimics the anti-angiogenic activity of the endogenous protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). ABT-510 inhibits the actions of several pro-angiogenic growth factors important to tumor neovascularization; these pro-angiogenic growth factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-751  
An orally bioavailable antimitotic sulfonamide. ABT-751 binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of microtubules, thereby preventing tumor cell replication. This agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, reducing tumor blood flow and so inducing a cytotoxic effect. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVD regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine, used alone or in combination with radiation therapy, for the primary treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE regimen  
A regimen containing doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate and etoposide used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE-PC regimen  
A regimen consisting of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and cyclophosphamide, given in combination with radiation therapy and used for the treatment of high-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide used in the adjuvant setting for the primary treatment of breast cancer. This regimen is also used for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC-T regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubucin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel (Taxol), administered on either a dose-dense or sequential schedule and used as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

acadesine  
A 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, a purine nucleoside analog, and a nucleotide biosynthesis precursor with B cell pro-apoptotic activity. Following cellular uptake, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICA ribotide (ZMP), which mimics 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK kinase (AMPKK) are activated by ZMP, which appears to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis. Acadesine-induced apoptosis also appears to require cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation and is p53-independent. However, the exact mechanism of acadesine-induced apoptosis is unknown. T cells are significantly less susceptible than B cells to acadesine-induced apoptosis. AMPK regulates several cellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, protein synthesis, and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acai berry juice  
A juice product obtained from the fruit of the acai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Besides high amounts of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, acai berry is rich in phytonutrients such as anthocyanins and flavones which are potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species. The fruit also contains high amounts of the flavone velutin which exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. Velutin is able to inhibit the degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB), thereby blocking the activation of NF-kB, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK. Inhibition of these processes results in suppression of the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

acarbose  
A complex oligosaccharide used as a hypoglycemic agent in diabetes management. Acarbose inhibits enzymes required in catabolism of carbohydrates, specifically pancreatic alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, and the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases, which hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. When acarbose is orally administered, less digestion of complex carbohydrates occur and less glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, thereby producing a smaller rise in postprandial blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate load. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Accutane  
(Other name for: isotretinoin)

acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix  
A human dermis-derived allograft material. Acellular cadaveric dermal matrix (ACDM) is derived from human cadaveric dermis from which the epidermis, all viable cells and major histocompatibility class (MHC) II antigens have been removed to minimize alloimmunogenicity, while the dermal collagen matrix is preserved. ACDM may placed over wounds to aid as a substitute for skin when necessary such as for surgical reconstruction or for protection against wound exposure and breakdown and wound infection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acenocoumarol  
A 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative with anticoagulant activity. As a vitamin K antagonist, acenocoumarol inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, thereby inhibiting the reduction of vitamin K and the availability of vitamin KH2. This prevents gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues near the N-terminals of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, including factor II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S. This prevents their activity and thus thrombin formation. Compared to other coumarin derivatives, acenocoumarol has a short half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aceon  
(Other name for: perindopril erbumine)

acetaminophen  
A p-aminophenol derivative with analgesic and antipyretic activities. Although the exact mechanism through which acetaminophen exert its effects has yet to be fully determined, acetaminophen may inhibit the nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P, resulting in elevation of the pain threshold. The antipyretic activity may result from inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and release in the central nervous system (CNS) and prostaglandin-mediated effects on the heat-regulating center in the anterior hypothalamus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetic acid  
A synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylcysteine  
A synthetic N-acetyl derivative of the endogenous amino acid L-cysteine, a precursor of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione. Acetylcysteine regenerates liver stores of glutathione. This agent also reduces disulfide bonds in mucoproteins, resulting in liquification of mucus. Some evidence suggests that acetylcysteine may exert an anti-apoptotic effect due to its antioxidant activity, possibly preventing cancer cell development or growth. In addition, acetylcysteine has inhibited viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates, thereby producing antiviral activity in HIV patients. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylsalicylic acid  
An orally administered non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation. This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acetylsalicylic acid/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule  
An orally bioavailable combination pill containing aspirin, simvastatin, atenolol, ramipril and thiazide with preventive activity against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor with antiplatelet, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; simvastatin is a statin with a cholesterol lowering effect; and the beta-blocker atenolol as well as the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the thiazide diuretic all have blood pressure lowering activity. Upon oral administration of aspirin/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule, the combined effects of the active ingredients in this formulation lower the risk of CVD. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Achromycin  
(Other name for: tetracycline hydrochloride)

Aciphex  
(Other name for: rabeprazole sodium)

acitretin  
An orally-active metabolite of the synthetic aromatic retinoic acid agent etretinate with potential antineoplastic, chemopreventive, anti-psoratic, and embryotoxic properties. Acitretin activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), resulting in induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, and inhibition of tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells. This agent may also inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acivicin  
A modified amino acid and structural analog of glutamine. Acivicin inhibits glutamine amidotransferases in the purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in cell lines dependent on glutamine metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aclarubicin  
An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acnestrol  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

ACNU 50  
(Other name for: nimustine)

acodazole  
A synthetic imidazoquinoline with antineoplastic activity. Acodazole intercalates into DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA replication. Use of this agent has been associated with significant cardiotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acoustic coupling fluid  
A brain mimicking fluid with an attenuation coefficient similar to that found in the adult human brain, which can potentially improve the quality of an image acquired during intraoperative ultrasonography. Upon administration into the resection cavity during surgical removal of a brain tumor, the acoustic coupling fluid may both increase the quality of the ultrasound image and improve the visualization of the tumor. This may facilitate the surgical removal of residual tumor while sparing normal, healthy brain tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acridine carboxamide  
A tricyclic acridine-based (or carboxamide-based) drug with dual topoisomerase inhibitor and potential antineoplastic activities. Acridine carboxamide inhibits both topoisomerases I and II and intercalates into DNA, resulting in DNA damage, the disruption of DNA repair and replication, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actemra  
(Other name for: tocilizumab)

ActHIB  
(Other name for: Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine)

Actigall  
(Other name for: ursodiol)

Actimmune  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon gamma)

Actinex  
(Other name for: masoprocol)

actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab conjugated to the alpha-emitting radioisotope actinium Ac 225 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 antigen, delivering a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation to cells expressing CD33. CD33 is a cell surface antigen expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and overexpressed on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actiq  
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)

Activase  
(Other name for: alteplase)

activated marrow infiltrating lymphocytes  
A preparation of cells, which consists of autologous marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs), that are manipulated in vitro, with potential antitumor and immune stimulating activities. MILs are harvested from autologous bone marrow from multiple myeloma patients and, in vitro, are exposed to and activated by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies covalently attached to super-paramagnetic microbeads. After removal of the beads and expansion of the cells in culture, the activated MILs (aMILs) are re-introduced into the patient. The aMILs possess enhanced myeloma specificity, and are able to infiltrate the tumor microenvironment and initiate tumor cell lysis. CD3 and CD28, co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of T-lymphocytes, play a key role in the activation of T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Activella  
(Other name for: estradiol/norethindrone acetate tablet)

ActiVin  
(Other name for: IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract)

Actonel  
(Other name for: risedronate sodium)

Actos  
(Other name for: pioglitazone hydrochloride)

acyclovir  
A synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

acyclovir sodium  
The sodium salt form of acyclovir, a synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aczone Gel  
(Other name for: dapsone gel, 5%)

Ad-hCMV-Flt3L  
A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the soluble, immune-mediated stimulatory gene human fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration, Ad-hCMV-Flt3L is transduced into tumor cells and Flt3L is expressed. Flt3L stimulates both the proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their migration to the tumor site. Upon exposure to the tumor-associated antigens (TAA) released from dying glioma cells, which were killed by thymidine kinase-mediated valacyclovir-induced tumor cell death, the DCs initiate a specific immune response against any remaining TAA-expressing tumor cells. Flt3L is a hematopoietic growth factor and ligand for the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-hCMV-TK  
A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter. This agent, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration into the peritumoral region after tumor resection, adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, and HSV-tk is expressed. Tumor cells expressing HSV-tk are sensitive to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV), kills the tumor cells expressing HSV-tk. The release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, directed aganst any remaining tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-REIC/DKK3 vaccine  
A replication incompetent adenoviral vector encoding the full-length tumor suppressor gene Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cells (REIC or DKK3) (ad-REIC/DKK3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, tumor cells express REIC/DKK3 protein. This may result in the activation of c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) and ultimately apoptosis via Bcl2 suppression and caspase-3 activation. Expression of REIC/DKK3 is normal in healthy cells but reduced or absent in many cancer cells; Forced overexpression of REIC/DKK3 in cancer cells may lead to an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and reduction of tumor cell growth while sparing normal, healthy cells naturally expressing endogenous REIC/DKK3. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-sig-hMUC-1/ecdCD40L vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human MUC-1 (hMUC-1) linked to the extracellular domain (ecd) of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) and an adenovirus signal sequence that encodes a secretory signal peptide (Ad-sig) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Due to the presence of the secretory signal peptide expressed by Ad-sig in the vaccine construct, transfected cells may secrete a fusion protein composed of hMUC-1 and the CD40L ecd. The CD40L moiety part of the fusion protein binds to CD40 receptors on dendritic cells (DCs). Subsequently, DCs may be activated and migrate, T-cells may expand, and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress hMUC-1 may follow. MUC-1 is a hypoglycosylated TAA overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5-CMV-NIS  
A recombinant type 5 adenovirus (Ad5), encoding the gene for the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) linked to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, with potential gene transfection activity. Upon intratumoral injection, Ad5-CMV-NIS is taken up by tumor cells, resulting in the cellular expression of NIS. Subsequently, orally administered iodine 131 is taken up by NIS-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the selective accumulation of a cytotoxic dose of beta and gamma radiation in non-thyroidal tumor cells, sparing adjacent normal tissue. NIS, an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein, is an ion pump that actively transports iodide into cells which concentrate iodine; in addition to thyroid epithelial cells, it is found in non-thyroidal tissues including the salivary glands, the gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary glands. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP  
A second generation, replication-competent adenovirus type 5 containing a yeast cytosine deaminase(yCD)/mutant sr39 herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase fusion (yCD/mutTKsr39) gene and the 11.6 kDa adenovirus death protein (ADP) gene with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral administration and transduction of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP into tumor cells and subsequent expression of cytosine deaminase and viral thymidine kinase, administered prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir are converted into their respective metabolites 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and ganciclovir-5-monophosphate (ganciclovir-MP); 5-FU is subsequently metabolized to cytotoxic active metabolites 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate (F-UMP) and 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate (F-dUMP); ganciclovir-TP subsequently is converted by mammalian thymidine kinase to cytotoxic ganciclovir-triphosphate (ganciclovir -TP). Tumor cells adjacent to tumor cells transduced with this agent may be killed through a "bystander effect". ADP may enhance spread and oncolytic activity of replication-competent adenoviruses. In addition to its oncolytic activity, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP may exhibit radiosensitizing activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD  
An RGD-4C–modified, infectivity-enhanced, bicistronic type 5 adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, a therapeutic suicide gene, and the somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Modification with the double cyclic peptide RGD-4C allows the virus to bind to cellular integrins, frequently expressed on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells, instead of the coxsackie and adenovirus (CAR) receptor, which is often nonfunctional in ovarian cancer cells. Upon intratumoral administration, Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD transfects tumor cells and expresses the HSV-tk gene. After subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue prodrug like ganciclovir (GCV), expressed HSV-tk phosphorylates and activates the prodrug, which may result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in HSV-tk-expressing cancer cells. Additionally, as a bystander effect, adjacent non-transfected cells may be killed by the activated antiviral drug. SSTR2 expression allows imaging of gene transfer into tumor cells using a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5CMV-p53 gene  
A replication-defective adenoviral-CMV vector that encodes a wild-type p53 gene. Ad5CMV-p53 induces tumor cells that have been transfected with the vector to produce wild-type p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is deleted or mutated in a significant number of cancers. In transfected tumor cells, the wild-type p-53 gene product exerts an antitumor effect by blocking cell cycle progression at the G1/S regulation point, activating DNA repair proteins in the presence of DNA damage, and initiating apoptosis when DNA damage is irreparable. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells  
Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with the replication-deficient adenoviral vector Ad5F53 encoding the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transmembrane latent membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LMP1/LMP2) with potential immunostimulatory activity. Vaccination with Ad5F35-LMP1/LMP2-transduced autologous dendritic cells may stimulate a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against LMP1- and LMP2-expressing tumor positive cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP1 and LMP2 are expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin disease. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Adanon  
(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)

Adapin  
(Other name for: doxepin hydrochloride)

Adcetris  
(Other name for: brentuximab vedotin)

Adderall  
(Other name for: dextroamphetamine-amphetamine)

Adderall XR  
(Other name for: dextroamphetamine-amphetamine)

ADE regimen  
An induction chemotherapy regimen consisting of cytarabine (Ara-C), daunorubicin and etoposide used for the treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)

adecatumumab  
A recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the tumor associated antigen (TAA) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential antitumor activity. Adecatumumab binds to EpCAM, which may result in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. EpCAM (CD326), a cell surface protein upregulated on many tumor cell types, promotes the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumor cells; for some cancers, overexpression has been correlated with decreased survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adefovir dipivoxil  
An acyclic nucleotide adenine analogue with potent antiviral activity. Adefovir is activated in vivo to a diphosphate metabolite which is incorporated into viral DNA, leading to viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase inhibition, DNA chain termination and impairment of viral replication. This agent inhibits the reverse transcriptases of hepatitis B, herpes and HIV viruses, induces natural killer cell activity, and stimulates endogenous interferon production. Viral resistance to adefovir develops at a slower rate compared to other antivirals. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102  
An orally bioavailable, synthetic, highly selective adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenosine A3 receptor agonist CF102 selectively binds to and activates the cell surface-expressed A3AR, deregulating Wnt and NF-kB signal transduction pathways downstream, which may result in apoptosis of A3AR-expressing tumor cells. A3AR, a G protein-coupled receptor, is highly expressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and plays an important role in cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovector encoding MDA7  
A nonreplicating adenoviral vector (adenovector) encoding the melanoma differentiation-associated 7 gene (MDA7) with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection and adenovector-mediated gene transfer of MDA7 into tumor cells, the expressed MDA7 transgene may inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovector-transduced AP1903-inducible MyD88/CD40-expressing autologous PSMA-specific prostate cancer vaccine BPX-201  
A genetically-modified, dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in which the autologous cells are transduced with an adenoviral vector expressing the tumor antigen prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and a fusion protein composed of synthetic ligand inducible adjuvant iMC composed of a drug-inducible costimulatory CD40 receptor (iCD40) and the adaptor protein MyD88, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The iCD40 contains a membrane-localized cytoplasmic CD40 domain fused to the FK506 modified drug-binding protein 12 (FKBP12). Upon intradermal administration of BPX-201, these DCs accumulate in local draining lymph nodes. Twenty-four hours after vaccination, the dimerizing agent AP1903 is administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding domain, leading to iMC oligomerization and activation of iCD40 and MyD88-mediated signaling in iMC-expressing DCs. This signaling pathway activates the DCs and stimulates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against host tumor cells that express PSMA. PSMA, a glycoprotein secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells, is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and is used as a tumor marker for both diagnosis and treatment evaluation. MyD88 is involved in interleukin 1 receptor (IL1R) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine  
A replication-defective, E1- and E2b-deleted oncolytic adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding an epitope of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector Ad5-CEA(6D) vaccine expresses a highly immunogenic analogue of CEA [CAP1-(6D)]. Upon administration, this vaccine may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the CEA antigen, thereby resulting in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. CEA, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Deletion of early genes E1 and E2b in Ad5 potentially circumvents pre-existing anti-adenovirus immunity and is capable of inducing strong immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase  
An adenoviral vector engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, which, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, sensitizing tumor cells that overexpress HSV-tk to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequently, a low dose of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV) is given, which may preferentially kill tumor cells containing the adenoviral vector and overexpressing HSV-tk. Release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenoviral-transduced hIL-12-expressing autologous dendritic cells INXN-3001 plus activator ligand INXN-1001  
Autologous dendritic cells tranduced with a replication incompetent adenovirus encoding human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (INXN-3001) in combination with the proprietary orally bioavailable, small molecule activator ligand INXN-1001, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Production of IL-12 is controlled by an inducible DNA element that allows transcription initiation only in the presence of the ligand inducer INXN-1001. Upon intratumoral injection of INXN-3001 and subsequent oral administration of activator ligand, INXN-1001 is able to induce expression of IL-12 in INXN-3001. IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells, inducing the secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As INXN-1001 regulates both the timing and the levels of IL-12 expression, IL-12 toxicity can be reduced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus 5-human guanylyl cyclase C-PADRE vaccine  
A replication-defective, recombinant adenoviral serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding human guanylyl cyclase C (hGCC) and the synthetic Pan DR epitope (PADRE), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon intramuscular administration, the Ad5-hGCC-PADRE vaccine expresses hGCC, which may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing the hGCC antigen. This results in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and leads to tumor death. The hGCC protein is normally restricted to intestinal epithelial cells but is overexpressed by metastatic colorectal tumors. PADRE is a helper T-lymphocyte epitope that is able to augment the magnitude and duration of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus B7-1  
A gene-viral vector complex comprised of an adenovirus vector and B7-1 gene targeting the CD80 antigen. Adenovirus B7-1 is used as a component in antineoplastic vaccines to elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding E.coli PNP  
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (Ad/PNP) used as a prodrug activating agent. Administered intratumorally, Ad/PNP expresses the enzyme PNP, which may catalyze systematically administrated fludarabine phosphate prodrug into its active form 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). F-Ade inhibits DNA polymerase alpha, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA primase, thereby interrupting DNA synthesis and inhibiting tumor cell growth. Localized prodrug activation provides targeted chemotherapy, thereby potentially reducing systemic side effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1  
A replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 with potential membrane water channel activity. Upon transfection of salivary glands, adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 (AdhAQP1) directs human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) expression in the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of salivary secretory cells, which may result in increased saliva production. hAQP1, a water channel protein, is one of several highly conserved water channel proteins that mediate water permeability in cells of water-transporting tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding rat Her-2/neu  
A replication-defective oncolytic adenovirus, encoding rat Her-2/neu (ErbB-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus encoding rat HER-2/neu may induce an immune response against tumor cells expressing the HER-2/neu antigen, which may result in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Her-2/neu, a tumor-associated antigen and member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding recombinant human endostatin  
A replication-defective, recombinant oncolytic adenovirus encoding human endostatin with potential antineoplastic activity. Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is an important angiogenesis inhibitor. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus infects and replicates in tumor cells. The expressed endostatin may inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis which may result in a reduction of tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus encoding tyrosinase, MART-1/MAGE-A6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding three full-length human melanoma associated antigens (MAAs), tyrosinase, melan-A (MART-1) and the melanoma antigen A6 (MAGEA6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration, adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-transduced autologous DC vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. Tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, catalyzes the first step of melanin synthesis in melanocytes. Vaccination with multi-antigen modified DC may improve the efficacy of the DC immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector encoding HER-2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, adenovirus HER2-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against HER-2-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. HER-2, a tyrosine kinase receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) (also known as neu and ErbB2), is overexpressed by some breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus vector  
One of a number of genetically-engineered adenoviruses designed to insert a gene of interest into a eukaryotic cell where the gene of interest is subsequently expressed. Unlike most other vectors, adenovirus vectors have the ability to infect post-mitotic cells. Thus, these agents are especially useful for gene transfer into neuronal cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-interferon-gamma TG1042  
A replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding human interferon-gamma (IFN-g) cDNA with potential antineoplastic and immunoregulatory activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the prolonged expression of IFN-g by adenovirus-interferon-gamma TG1042 promotes a T helper type 1 (Th1-type) immune response and inhibits the Th2-mediated cytokine production observed in many cutaneous lymphomas. IFN-g also mediates interleukin-12 (IL-12) production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs); activates macrophages, cytotoxic T-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells; upregulates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules; and stimulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Altogether, these IFN-g-mediated effects may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-mediated human interleukin-12  
A replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (Ad.hIL-12), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the adenovirus selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. Synergistically, IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NKs), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-mediated human interleukin-12 INXN-2001 plus veledimex  
A replication incompetent adenovirus encoding the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) (INXN-2001) in combination with the proprietary activator ligand veledimex, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Production of IL-12 is controlled by an inducible DNA element that allows transcription initiation only in the presence of the ligand inducer. Upon intratumoral administration of INXN-2001 and oral administration of veledimex, veledimex is able to induce expression of IL-12 from INXN-2001. IL-12 expressed by the adenovirus may activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NKs), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and inducing cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

adenovirus-p53 transduced dendritic cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding p53 peptide, with potential immunomodulating activity. Intradermal vaccination with adenoviral-p53 transduced dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing mutant p53, resulting in tumor cell lysis. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is mutated in many tumor cells, resulting in the loss of apoptosis regulation and abnormal cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus-PSA prostate cancer vaccine  
A cancer vaccine composed of a genetically engineered, replication-deficient type 5 adenovirus carrying the human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous vaccination with the adenovirus-PSA prostate cancer vaccine, the adenovirus infects cells and expresses PSA. In turn, PSA may activate the immune system and may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against PSA-expressing tumor cells. PSA, a tumor associated antigen, is expressed by prostate epithelial cells and is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adenovirus/cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus-specific allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
Allogeneic tri-viral specific, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (Adv, CMV and EBV or ACE), cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) with potential antiviral activity. Donor-derived T-cells were exposed to dendritic cells nucelofected with DNA plasmids encoding Hexon and Penton (Adv), pp65 and IE1 (CMV), and LMP2, EBNA1 and BZLF1 (EBV), all are critical proteins for the proliferation of these viruses, and subsequently maintained in the presence of interleukins 4 and 7 with a novel culture device to expand and sustain the repertoire of CTLs. After an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), infusion of these CTLs primed towards Adv, CMV and EBV may prevent viral infection by these pathogens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

AdGMCAIX-transduced autologous dendritic cells  
Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a recombinant, replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing the fusion gene granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX or CA9) (GMCA-9), with potential immunomodulating activity. The autologous DCs are transduced ex vivo and express the GMCA-9 fusion protein on the cell surface. Upon intradermal administration of the AdGMCAIX-transduced autologous DCs back into the patient, the DCs activate the immune system to both mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated response against tumor cells positive for the CA9 antigen, and generate memory T cells. This may result in decreased tumor growth. CA9, also known as G250, is a renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated antigen and a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that contains a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1-restricted epitope; it is found in a majority of renal cell carcinomas while absent in most normal tissues. The cytokine GM-CSF enhances the immunogenicity of CA9-based DC vaccines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ADH-1  
A small, cyclic pentapeptide vascular-targeting agent with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. ADH-1 selectively and competitively binds to and blocks N-cadherin, which may result in disruption of tumor vasculature, inhibition of tumor cell growth, and the induction of tumor cell and endothelial cell apoptosis. N-cadherin, a cell- surface transmembrane glycoprotein of the cadherin superfamily of proteins involved in calcium-mediated cell-cell adhesion and signaling mechanisms; may be upregulated in some aggressive tumors and the endothelial cells and pericytes of some tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adipose-derived regenerative cells  
A population of cells derived from adipose tissue with stem cell and wound repair activities. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) consists of several cell types, such as adult stem cells, vascular endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, among others. These cells contribute to wound repair through a variety of mechanisms by promoting blood vessel growth and blocking apoptosis. In addition, ADRC can differentiate into several tissue types, such as bone, cartilage, fat, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ado-trastuzumab emtansine  
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of the recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated to the maytansinoid DM1 via a nonreducible thioether linkage (MCC) with potential antineoplastic activity. The trastuzumab moiety of this ADC binds to HER2 on tumor cell surface surfaces; upon internalization, the DM1 moiety is released and binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics and inhibiting cell division and the proliferation of cancer cells that overexpress HER2. Linkage of antibody and drug through a nonreducible linker has been reported to contribute to the improved efficacy and reduced toxicity of this ADC compared to similar ADCs constructed with reducible linkers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adozelesin  
An alkylating agent that bind to the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific manner and form covalent adducts with adenines, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

adrenocorticotropic hormone  
A hormone secreted by the anterior portion of the pituitary gland and regulates hormone, primarily cortisol, secreted by the adrenal gland. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Adriamycin PFS  
(Other name for: doxorubicin hydrochloride)

Adriamycin RDF  
(Other name for: doxorubicin hydrochloride)

AdRTVP-1-transduced prostate cancer cell-based vaccine  
A cell-based vaccine comprised of prostate cancer cells transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding human RTVP-1 (AdRTVP-1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. RTVP-1, also referred to as glioma pathogenesis-related protein 1 (GLIP1), is down-regulated in prostate tumors. Regulated by tumor suppressor p53, the expression of RTVP-1 functions as a tumor suppressor, and is abundant in normal human prostate epithelial cells as well as in differentiated macrophages. Administration of AdRTVP-1-transduced prostate cancer cell-based vaccine leads to an induction of apoptosis through the expression of RTVP-1, which may result in a reduction in prostate cancer cellular proliferation. In addition, this vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against prostate specific tumor- associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Adrucil  
(Other name for: fluorouracil)

ADVEXIN  
(Other name for: Ad5CMV-p53 gene)

AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine  
A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AEE788  
An orally bioavailable multiple-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. AEE788 inhibits phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF2), resulting in receptor inhibition, the inhibition of cellular proliferation, and induction of tumor cell and tumor-associated endothelial cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AEG35156  
A second-generation synthetic antisense oligonucleotide with potential antineoplastic activity. AEG35156 selectively blocks the cellular expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a pivotal inhibitor of apoptosis that is overexpressed in many tumors. This agent reduces total levels of XIAP in tumor cells, working synergistically with cytotoxic drugs to overcome tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. XIAP interferes with both the intrinsic and extrinsic program-death signaling pathways, which may render tumor cells resistant to apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aeroseb-Dex  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Aeroseb-HC  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

aerosol sargramostim  
An aerosol inhalation formulation containing a yeast-derived glycosylated recombinant form of human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential immunostimulating activity. Sargramostim binds to specific cell surface receptors, modulating the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production. This agent also activates neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and promotes antigen presentation, upregulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated, lymphokine-activated killer cell function. Aerosol inhalation may help achieve high concentrations of sargramostim in the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aerosolized aldesleukin  
An aerosol formulation of aldesleukin, a recombinant form of interleukin-2 (IL-2), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon IL-2 inhalation, this cytokine activates lymphokine-activated killer cells and natural killer cells, and induces expression of cytotoxic cytokines, such as interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta. This may eventually halt tumor cell growth. Localized administration of IL-2 may decrease toxicity and increase efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aerosolized liposomal rubitecan  
An aerosolized liposomal preparation of a water-insoluble derivative of camptothecin with potential antineoplastic activity. 9-nitro-20 (S)-camptothecin and its active metabolite 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) selectively stabilize topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during S-phase, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. This agent is formulated with dilauroylphosphatidylcholine and nebulized in particle sizes of 1.2-1.6 micrometer mass median aerodynamic diameter. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aerrane  
(Other name for: isoflurane)

afamelanotide  
A synthetic peptide analogue of the naturally occurring alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) with potential photoprotective activity. Mimicking the action of a-MSH, afamelanotide stimulates melanocytes to increase the production and release of melanin. Increased melanocyte melanin may protect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-initiated cellular DNA damage, oxidation of membrane proteins, and alterations in intracellular signaling processes in epidermal cells. Endogenously, a-MSH is released by skin cells in response to UVR exposure, stimulating melanocytes to produce and release melanin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

afatinib dimaleate  
The dimaleate salt form of afatinib, an orally bioavailable anilino-quinazoline derivative and inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB; EGFR) family, with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, afatinib selectively and irreversibly binds to and inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptors 1 (ErbB1; EGFR), 2 (ErbB2; HER2), and 4 (ErbB4; HER4), and certain EGFR mutants, including those caused by EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations or exon 21 (L858R) mutations. This may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in tumor cells overexpressing these RTKs. Additionally, afatinib inhibits the EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation which is resistant to treatment with first-generation EGFR inhibitors. EGFR, HER2 and HER4 are RTKs that belong to the EGFR superfamily; they play major roles in both tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization and are overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Affinitac  
(Other name for: ISIS 3521)

Affinitak  
(Other name for: ISIS 3521)

afimoxifene  
A tamoxifen metabolite with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Afimoxifene has a higher affinity for the estrogen receptor than tamoxifen, and functions as an antagonist in breast cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Afinitor  
(Other name for: everolimus)

Afinitor Disperz  
(Other name for: everolimus tablets for oral suspension)

Aflodac  
(Other name for: sulindac)

AFP gene hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine  
A cancer vaccine composed of naked plasmid DNA of the gene for the tumor-associated antigen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a macromolecule that acts as a specific immunologic target for hepatocellular carcinoma. This agent exerts an antitumor effect by inducing cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to attack AFP-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AFP464  
A synthetic lysyl prodrug of the amino-substituted flavone derivate aminoflavone with antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. AFP464 is rapidly converted to aminoflavone in plasma. Aminoflavone activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway leading to an increase in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) expression and, to a lesser extent, an increase in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) expression. Subsequently, aminoflavone is metabolized to toxic metabolites by the cytochromome P450 enzymes that it induces; these toxic metabolites covalently bind to DNA, resulting in the phosphorylation of p53, the induction of the p53 downstream target p21Waf1/Cip1, and apoptosis. Pulmonary toxicity may be dose-limiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

afuresertib  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Afuresertib binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AG-024322  
A cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. AG-024322 selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (particularly CDK1,2 and 4), enzymes that regulate cell cycle progression. Inhibition of CDK may result in cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Agaricus blazei Murill extract  
A dietary supplement containing an extract of the Basidiomycete fungus Agaricus blazei Murill with potential chemopreventive, antineoplastic and immunopotentiating activities. Agaricus blazei Murill extract contains high levels of phytochemicals, especially beta-D-glucans. Beta-D-glucans may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation; increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and immunoglobulin levels; and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, potentially boosting anti-tumor host immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

agatolimod sodium  
The tricosasodium salt of a synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide containing 3 CpG motifs with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulatory activity. Agatolimod selectively targets Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), thereby activating dendritic and B cells and stimulating cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses against tumor cells bearing tumor antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Agrylin  
(Other name for: anagrelide hydrochloride)

AIM2(-1)/HT001(-1)/TAF1B(-1) frameshift peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing the three frame shift peptides (FSP) AIM2(-1), HT001(-1) and TAF1B(-1), with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, the AIM2(-1)/HT001(-1)/TAF1B(-1) FSP vaccine may induce an immune response against microsatellite instability (MSI) colorectal cancer-associated antigens. Frame shift mutations of AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2, an interferon-inducible protein), HT001 (asteroid homolog 1 or ASTE1, with an unknown function) and TAF1B (TATA box-binding protein-associated RNA polymerase I B, a transcription factor) are seen in MSI-positive colorectal cancers and may be associated with malignant transformation, tumor progression and the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These FSPs all have one-base deletions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AK 3012  
A proprietary topical formulation. Upon subcutaneous administration, the active ingredient in AK 3012 may inhibit actinic keratosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Aknoten  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

AKT 1/2 inhibitor BAY1125976  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) isoforms 1 and 2 (AKT1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. AKT1/2 inhibitor BAY1125976 selectively binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation and activity of AKT1/2 in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This may lead to both the reduction of cell proliferation and the induction of cell apoptosis in AKT-overexpressing tumor cells. The AKT signaling pathway is often deregulated in cancer and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201  
A 20-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) against the proto-oncogene Akt with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt-1 antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201 binds to Akt-1 mRNA, inhibiting translation of the transcript; suppression of Akt-1 expression may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress Akt-1. Akt-1 is a serine-threonine protein kinase that stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

AKT inhibitor ARQ 092  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. AKT inhibitor ARQ 092 binds to and inhibits the activity of AKT in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This may lead to the reduction in tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The AKT signaling pathway is often deregulated in cancer and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor AZD5363  
A novel pyrrolopyrimidine derivative, and an orally available inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. AKT inhibitor AZD5363 binds to and inhibits all AKT isoforms. Inhibition of AKT prevents the phosphorylation of AKT substrates that mediate cellular processes, such as cell division, apoptosis, and glucose and fatty acid metabolism. A wide range of solid and hematological malignancies show dysregulated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling due to mutations in multiple signaling components. By targeting AKT, the key node in the PIK3/AKT signaling network, this agent may be used as monotherapy or combination therapy for a variety of human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor GDC-0068  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GDC-0068 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP-competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor GSK2141795  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor GSK2141795 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor LY2780301  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor LY2780301 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor MK2206  
An orally bioavailable allosteric inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Akt inhibitor MK2206 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt inhibitor SR13668  
An orally bioavailable indole-3-carbinol (I3C) analogue inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Akt inhibitor SR13668 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Akt/ERK inhibitor ONC201  
A water soluble, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, Akt/ERK inhibitor ONC201 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt and ERK, which may result in inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal transduction pathway as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK-mediated pathway. This may lead to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL death receptor type 5 (DR5) signaling in AKT/ERK-overexpressing tumor cells. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and MAPK/ERK pathway are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play a key role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, ONC201 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Alba-Dex  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

albuterol sulfate  
The sulfate salt of the short-acting sympathomimetic agent albuterol, a 1:1 racemic mixture of (R)-albuterol and (S)-albuterol with bronchodilator activity. Albuterol stimulates beta2-adrenergic receptors in the lungs, thereby activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP concentrations relax bronchial smooth muscle, relieve bronchospasms, and reduce inflammatory cell mediator release, especially from mast cells. To a lesser extent albuterol stimulates beta1-adrenergic receptors, thereby increasing the force and rate of myocardial contraction. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aldactone  
(Other name for: spironolactone)

Aldara  
(Other name for: imiquimod)

aldesleukin  
A recombinant analog of the endogenous cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with immunoregulatory and antineoplastic activities. Aldesleukin binds to and activates the IL-2 receptor, followed by heterodimerization of the cytoplasmic domains of the IL-2R beta and gamma(c) chains; activation of the tyrosine kinase Jak3; and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the IL-2R beta chain, resulting in an activated receptor complex. Various cytoplasmic signaling molecules are recruited to the activated receptor complex and become substrates for regulatory enzymes that are associated with the receptor complex. This agent enhances lymphocyte mitogenesis; stimulates long-term growth of human IL-2 dependent cell lines; enhances lymphocyte cytotoxicity; induces lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell and natural killer (NK) cell activities; and induces expression of interferon-gamma. Aldesleukin may induce T cell-mediated tumor regression in some tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

aldoxorubicin  
A 6-maleimidocaproyl hydrazone derivative prodrug of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOXO-EMCH) with antineoplastic activity. Following intravenous administration, aldoxorubicin binds selectively to the cysteine-34 position of albumin via its maleimide moiety. Doxorubicin is released from the albumin carrier after cleavage of the acid-sensitive hydrazone linker within the acidic environment of tumors and, once located intracellularly, intercalates DNA, inhibits DNA synthesis, and induces apoptosis. Albumin tends to accumulate in solid tumors as a result of high metabolic turnover, rapid angiogenesis, hyervasculature, and impaired lymphatic drainage. Because of passive accumulation within tumors, this agent may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin while minimizing systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alectinib  
An orally available inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, alectinib binds to and inhibits ALK kinase, ALK fusion proteins as well as the gatekeeper mutation ALKL1196M known as one of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to small-molecule kinase inhibitors. The inhibition leads to disruption of ALK-mediated signaling and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

alefacept  
A recombinant dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular CD2-binding domain of the human leukocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3; CD58) linked to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with potential immunosuppressive activity. Alefacept binds to the CD2 receptor expressed on the majority of T lymphocytes, blocking the binding of endogenous LFA-3, located on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to the CD2 receptor; the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes in response to LFA-3 binding is thus inhibited. In addition, binding of the IgG1 moiety of this agent to the Fc gamma receptor on the surface of natural killer (NK)cells may bridge NK cells and target T lymphocytes, initiating NK cell-mediated apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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