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NCI Drug Dictionary

  

C-11 choline  
A radiotracer consisting of choline labeled with the positron-emitting isotope carbon C 11 with potential imaging use. Upon administration, C-11 choline incorporates into tumor cells through an active, carrier-mediated transport mechanism for choline and then is phosphorylated intracellularly by choline kinase, an enzyme frequently upregulated in human tumors, yielding phosphoryl C-11 choline. In turn, phosphoryl C-11 choline is integrated into phospholipids in the cell membrane as part of phosphatidylcholine. As the proliferation of cancer cells is much higher than normal cells, tumor cells exhibit an increased rate of C-11 choline uptake and incorporation, allowing tunor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-Met inhibitor AMG 208  
A selective small-molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor AMG 208 inhibits the ligand-dependent and ligand-independent activation of c-Met, inhibiting its tyrosine kinase activity, which may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress c-Met. C-Met encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, plays an important role in epithelial cell proliferation and has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-Met inhibitor AMG 337  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor AMG 337 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met protein, the product of the proto-oncogene c-Met, is a receptor tyrosine kinase also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR); this protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-Met inhibitor INCB028060  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor INCB028060 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-Met inhibitor JNJ-38877605  
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor JNJ-38877605 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-Met inhibitor LY2801653  
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor LY2801653 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR)) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J selectively binds to c-Met, which inhibits c-Met phosphorylation and disrupts c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

c-myb antisense oligonucleotide G4460  
A 24-base phosphorothiolate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) for the proto-oncogene c-myb with potential antineoplastic activity. C-myb antisense oligonucleotide G4460 binds to codon sequences 2 to 9 of c-myb mRNA, inhibiting translation of the transcript. Suppression of c-myb expression with this agent may result in the restoration of normal differentiation pathways, increased antiproliferative effects, and the induction of apoptosis in early progenitor hematopoietic cells and in tumor cells that overexpress c-myb. Tumor-cell overexpression of c-myb blocks differentiation, promotes proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

C-VISA BikDD: liposome  
A formulation composed of DOTAP:cholesterol liposome nanoparticles complexed with the plasmid C-VISA BiKDD, with potential antineoplastic activity. C-VISA BikDD: liposome consists of a pancreatic-cancer-specific expression vector “VISA” (VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier) and a pancreatic-cancer-specific promoter CCKAR (cholecystokinin type A receptor) (CCKAR-VISA or C-VISA) which drives expression of the gene BikDD, a mutant form of the potent proapoptotic gene Bik (Bcl-2 interacting killer). Upon administration and transduction into pancreatic tumor cells, expression of BikDD by C-VISA BikDD:liposome may induce pancreatic tumor cell apoptosis and suppress pancreatic tumor cell proliferation. BikDD binds with greater affinity to anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2, bcl-xl, bcl-w and Mcl-1 and is more potent than wild-type Bik. DOTAP:cholesterol liposome is composed of cationic lipid dioleoyl-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and cholesterol at molar ratio of 1:1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cabazitaxel  
A semi-synthetic derivative of the natural taxoid 10-deacetylbaccatin III with potential antineoplastic activity. Cabazitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, resulting in the inhibition of microtubule depolymerization and cell division, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Unlike other taxane compounds, this agent is a poor substrate for the membrane-associated, multidrug resistance (MDR), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant tumors. In addition, cabazitaxel penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cabergoline  
A synthetic ergoline derivative and a long-acting dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor. Cabergoline exerts an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion by acting on dopamine receptors present in pituitary lactotrophs. This drug also binds to dopamine D2 receptors in the corpus striatum, thereby mimicking the actions of dopamine on motor control. Cabergoline also possesses antioxidant and neuroprotective properties due to its free radical scavenging activity. Cabergoline is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cabozantinib-s-malate  
The s-malate salt form of cabozantinib, an orally bioavailable, small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Cabozantinib strongly binds to and inhibits several RTKs, which are often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, including hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), RET (rearranged during transfection), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor types 1 (VEGFR-1), 2 (VEGFR-2), and 3 (VEGFR-3), mast/stem cell growth factor (KIT), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3), TIE-2 (TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TRKB) and AXL. This may result in an inhibition of both tumor growth and angiogenesis, and eventually lead to tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CAF regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and fluorouracil, which may be used in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer or alone for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

caffeine  
A naturally occurring xanthine derivative with central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activity. Due to the structural similarity to adenosine, caffeine binds to and blocks adenosine receptors, thereby preventing the inhibitory effects of adenosine on nerve cells. This leads to stimulation of medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain; and the release of epinephrine. Physiologic responses can include bradycardia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, CNS excitablility, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, increased blood flow to muscles, decreased blood flow to skin and inner organs, and release of glucose by the liver. Due to the interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine can also indirectly increase the levels of dopamine in the brain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calaspargase pegol  
An intravenous formulation containing E. coli-derived L-asparaginase II conjugated with succinimidyl carbonate monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (SC-PEG), with potential antineoplastic activity. L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting cells of asparagine; asparagine depletion blocks protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and ultimately induces tumor cell death. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells which, unlike normal cells, cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Pegylation decreases enzyme antigenicity and increases its half life. SC is used as a PEG linker to facilitate attachment to asparaginase and enhances the stability of the formulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcipotriene  
A synthetic vitamin D derivative usually formulated for topical dermatological use, antipsoriatic calcipotriene (calcipotriol) competes equally with active 1,25-hydroxy-2D3 (the natural form of vitamin D) for 1,25-hydroxy-2D3 receptors in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. It induces differentiation and suppresses proliferation of keratinocytes, reversing abnormal keratinocyte changes in psoriasis, and leads to normalization of epidermal growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

calcitriol  
A synthetic physiologically-active analog of vitamin D, specifically the vitamin D3 form. Calcitriol regulates calcium in vivo by promoting absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidneys, and, along with parathyroid hormone, regulation of bone growth. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Calcitriol also induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cell differentiation, and apoptosis, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of some tumor cell types. This agent may be chemopreventive for colon and prostate cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal  
A clay compound consisting of aluminosilicate and calcium ions with potential antidiarrheal activity. Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal consists of microscopically large flat plates of aluminosilicate separated by calcium ions that may sorb toxic chemotherapeutic drugs and their metabolites and inflammatory proteins such as TNF-alpha, which may help minimize chemotherapy-mediated or radiation therapy-mediated damage to the intestinal epithelium and so therapy-related diarrhea. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium carbonate  
The carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium chloride  
A crystalline, white substance, soluble in water, calcium chloride is the chloride salt of calcium, a bivalent metallic element with many crucial biological roles. Calcium is a major constituent of the skeleton but plays many roles as an intracellular and plasma ion as well. In medicine, calcium chloride is also used as a 10% solution in injection, for calcium replenishment. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

calcium citrate  
The citrate salt of calcium. An element necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the citrate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium glucarate  
The orally bioavailable calcium salt of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential chemopreventive activity. After absorption, glucaric acid is converted to d-glucaro-1,4-lactone which inhibits beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme found in certain bacteria that reside in the human gut. The detoxification of various toxin and sex hormone metabolites depends upon their conjugation to glucuronic acid in the liver and subsequent excretion of glucuronic acid conjugated metabolites in the bile. Bacterial beta-glucuronidase may catalyze the deconjugation of glucuronic acid conjugated metabolites of toxins and sex hormones, thus prolonging exposure to unconjugated and unexcreted toxin and sex hormone metabolites. Accordingly, calcium glucarate supplementation may indirectly inhibit sex hormone-mediated and toxin-mediated tumorigenesis by inhibiting bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. Elevated bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity may be associated with an increased risk for sex hormone-mediated and toxin-mediated cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium gluconate  
The gluconate salt of calcium. An element or mineral necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the gluconate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium-41 chloride aqueous solution  
An orally bioavailable aqueous solution containing the chloride salt of the radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) with phosphate-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration of calcium-41 chloride aqueous solution, calcium-41 is preferentially taken up by osteoblasts, which generate mineralized osteoid containing calcium. Calcium-41 accumulation and turnover in bone can be measured with bone scintigraphy and urinary isotope excretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calcium-46 chloride aqueous solution  
An orally bioavailable aqueous solution containing the chloride salt of the radioisotope calcium-46 (46Ca) with phosphate-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration of calcium-46 chloride aqueous solution, calcium-46 is preferentially taken up by osteoblasts, which generate mineralized osteoid containing calcium. Calcium-46 accumulation and turnover in bone can be measured with bone scintigraphy and urinary isotope excretion testing. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Calendula officinalis/Plantago major/Cochlearia armoracia/ Hamamelis virginiana herbal toothpaste  
A phytochemical-based toothpaste containing Calendula officinalis, Plantago major, Cochlearia armoracia, Hamamelis virginiana with potential soothing activity. Calendula officinalis/Plantago major/Cochlearia armoracia/ Hamamelis virginiana herbal toothpaste may relieve the discomfort associated with radiation-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calfactant  
A sterile suspension composed of an extract of bovine pulmonary surfactant with surfactant activity. Calfactant contains phospholipids, neutral lipids, and hydrophobic surfactant-associated proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C). Upon intratracheal administration, this agent, mimicking endogenous pulmonary surfactant, lines the alveoli and smallest bronchioles, keeping alveoli open during expiration by lowering surface tension. Resulting improvements in lung compliance and respiratory gas exchange may lead to improvements in ventilation and oxygenation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

calusterone  
A 17-alkylated orally active androgenic steroid. Calusterone may alter the metabolism of estradiol and reduce estrogen production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Campath  
(Other name for: alemtuzumab)

Camptogen  
(Other name for: rubitecan)

Camptosar  
(Other name for: irinotecan hydrochloride)

camptothecin analogue TLC388  
A synthetic analogue of camptothecin with potential antineoplastic and radio-sensitizing activities. Camptothecin analogue TLC388 selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during S-phase, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. Topoisomerase I relaxes negative super-coiled DNA during replication and transcription. This agent has been chemically modified to enhance the potency and stability of camptothecin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

camptothecin-20(S)-O-propionate hydrate  
The hydrated, crystalline propionate ester (attached in position C-20) prodrug of camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon entry into cells, camptothecin-20(S)-O-propionate is hydrolyzed by esterases into the active form camptothecin. Camptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery, thus inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. Camptothecin readily undergoes hydrolysis at physiological pH, changing its conformation from the active, S-configured lactone structure to an inactive carboxylate form. The ester chain in the vicinity of the S-configured lactone moiety, a key determinant for the chemotherapeutic efficacy of the camptothecins, inhibits protein binding, rendering this agent resistant to hydrolysis and prolonging its half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

canarypox-hIL-12 melanoma vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of a replication-defective recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) that encodes the gene for human interleukin-12 (hIL-12). Produced mainly by B-cells, IL-12 is an endogenous cytokine that activates natural killer (NK) cells, promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, induces the release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and may exhibit antitumor and anti-angiogenic effects. Vaccination with canarypox-hIL-12 melanoma vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount an immune response against tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and/or metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cancer stemness inhibitor BBI608  
An orally available cancer cell stemness inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Even though the exact target has yet to be fully elucidated, BBI608 appears to target and inhibit multiple pathways involved in cancer cell stemness. This may ultimately inhibit cancer stemness cell (CSC) growth as well as heterogeneous cancer cell growth. CSCs, self-replicating cells that are able to differentiate into heterogeneous cancer cells, appear to be responsible for the malignant growth, recurrence and resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cancer stemness kinase inhibitor BBI503  
An orally available cancer cell stemness kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact target has not been fully elucidated, BBI503 targets and inhibits one or more pathways involved in cancer stem cell survival. As a result, cancer stem cell (CSC) growth as well as heterogeneous cancer cell growth is inhibited. CSCs, self-replicating cells able to differentiate into heterogeneous cancer cells, appear to be responsible for both tumor relapse and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cancidas  
(Other name for: caspofungin acetate)

candesartan cilexetil  
A synthetic, benzimidazole-derived angiotensin II receptor antagonist prodrug with antihypertensive activity. After hydrolysis of candesartan cilexetil to candesartan during gastrointestinal absorption, candesartan selectively competes with angiotensin II for the binding of the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1) in vascular smooth muscle, blocking angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction and inducing vasodilatation. In addition, antagonism of AT1 in the adrenal gland inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis and secretion by the adrenal cortex; sodium and water excretion increase, followed by a reduction in plasma volume and blood pressure. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

canertinib dihydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of an orally bio-available quinazoline with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. Canertinib binds to the intracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB family), irreversibly inhibiting their signal transduction functions and resulting in tumor cell apoptosis and suppression of tumor cell proliferation. This agent also acts as a radiosensitizing agent and displays synergistic activity with other chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

canfosfamide hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a modified glutathione analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Canfosfamide is selectively activated by glutathione S-transferase P1-1 into an alkylating metabolite that forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in tumor cell DNA, which may induce a cellular stress response and cytotoxicity, and decrease tumor proliferation. S-transferase P1-1 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in many human malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cannabinol  
A cannabinoid isolated from the plant Cannabis that is a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), with potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities. Cannabinol preferentially binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB2, which is mainly expressed on a variety of immune cells, such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Stimulation of CB2 receptors by cannabinol may both trigger apoptosis in these cells and inhibit the production of a variety of cytokines. Cannabinol exerts minimal affinity for CB1 and has a weak effect on the central nervous system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cantuzumab ravtansine  
An immunotoxin of a humanized monoclonal antibody C242 (MoAb HuC242) conjugated with a derivative of cytotoxic agent maytansine, DM4, with potential antitumor activity. Cantuzumab ravtansine is generated based on MoAb C242, which is raised against a cell surface superantigen, CA242, found in a variety of human tumor cells. Upon binding and entry, the immunoconjugate releases the maytansinoid agent DM4, which binds to tubulin, thereby affecting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. As a result, this agent prevents cell division and reduces cell growth of cancer cells that express CA242. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Canvaxin  
(Other name for: polyvalent melanoma vaccine)

capecitabine  
A fluoropyrimidine carbamate belonging to the class of antineoplastic agents called antimetabolites. As a prodrug, capecitabine is selectively activated by tumor cells to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP) by both tumor cells and normal cells. FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by reducing normal thymidine production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablet  
A rapidly disintegrating film-coated tablet composed of the fluoropyrimidine carbamate antimetabolite capecitabine with antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, capecitabine is converted to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR) by hepatic carboxylesterase and then to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) by cytidine deaminase and is eventually activated by thymidine phosphorylase to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by reducing normal thymidine triphosphate production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablet (RDT) contains the water insoluble, disintegrating agent crospovidone which very rapidly disperses and swells in water making this RDT easier to swallow than the traditional capecitabine tablet. A rapidly disintegrating film-coated tablet composed of the fluoropyrimidine carbamate antimetabolite capecitabine with antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, capecitabine is converted to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR) by hepatic carboxylesterase and then to 5’-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) by cytidine deaminase and is eventually activated by thymidine phosphorylase to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP). FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by reducing normal thymidine triphosphate production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablet (RDT) contains the water insoluble, disintegrating agent crospovidone which very rapidly disperses and swells in water makin

Capesaris  
(Other name for: estrogen receptor agonist GTx-758)

Caphosol  
(Other name for: supersaturated calcium phosphate rinse)

Capoten  
(Other name for: captopril)

CAPOX regimen  
A regimen consisting of capecitabine and oxaliplatin used as a treatment for advanced stage colorectal cancer. This regimen differs from a similar regimen, XELOX, with regards to the dosing schedule for oxaliplatin.

Caprelsa  
(Other name for: vandetanib)

Captisol-enabled Melphalan IV  
(Other name for: melphalan hydrochloride/sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin complex)

captopril  
A sulfhydryl-containing analog of proline with antihypertensive activity and potential antineoplastic activity. Captopril competitively inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), thereby decreasing levels of angiotensin II, increasing plasma renin activity, and decreasing aldosterone secretion. This agent may also inhibit tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting endothelial cell matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endothelial cell migration. Captopril may also exhibit antineoplastic activity independent of effects on tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

caracemide  
An agent derived from acetohydroxamic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Caracemide inhibits ribonuclease reductase, resulting in decreased DNA synthesis and tumor growth; it also inhibits acetylcholinesterase. In vivo, caracemide contributes to the formation of the neurotoxin methyl isocyanate; this effect, along with the agent's acetylcholinesterase activity, may be responsible for the severe central nervous system toxicity observed in clinical trials. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbamazepine  
A tricyclic compound chemically related to tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) with anticonvulsant and analgesic properties. Carbamazepine exerts its anticonvulsant activity by reducing polysynaptic responses and blocking post-tetanic potentiation. Its analgesic activity is not understood; however, carbamazepine is commonly used to treat pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Carbocaine  
(Other name for: mepivacaine hydrochloride)

carbogen  
An inhalant consisting of hyperoxic gas (95%-98% oxygen and 2%-5% carbon dioxide) with radiosensitizing properties. Inhaled carbogen reduces diffusion-limited tumor hypoxia, increasing tumor radiosensitivity due to the increased availability of molecular oxygen for cytotoxic radiation-induced oxygen free radical production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbohydrate supplement drink  
A nutritional supplement drink containing 12.5% carbohydrates, which may enhance recovery following gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. Oral intake of the carbohydrate drink before surgery may prevent insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia. It may also maintain adequate protein balance and muscle function. Ultimately, giving carbohydrates immediately before surgery may improve overall recovery time and return of GI function. It may also decrease muscle loss. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 11 alpha-methyltryptophan  
A radiopharmaceutical containing an analogue of tryptophan, alpha-methyltryptophan (AMT), labeled with carbon 11 (11C), used to measure serotonin synthesis in the human brain using positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration and once it crosses the blood-brain barrier and into the cytoplasm of serotonergic neurons, carbon C 11 alpha-methyltryptophan acts as a substrate for the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and undergoes conversion to carbon C 11 alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptophan, also known as C 11 alpha-methyl-serotonin (AMS). C 11 AMS accumulates in serotonergic nerve terminals in proportion to the synthesis rate of serotonin because C 11 AMS cannot be broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase, and thus the synthesis rate of serotonin can be imaged using PET. C 11 AMT is not incorporated into proteins, nor are metabolites released into the blood pool, making C 11 AMT an excellent tracer for serotonin synthesis in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 11 erlotinib hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of the quinazoline derivative erlotinib labeled with the positron-emitting isotope carbon C 11, with potential use in imaging. Competing with adenosine triphosphate, erlotinib reversibly binds to the intracellular catalytic tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Following exposure to this agent, EGFR expression status can be determined and EGFR overexpressing tumor cells can be visualized using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This may be useful in determining the tumor cell response to a particular EGFR kinase inhibitor in individual patients. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types, and plays a significant role in tumor cell progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 11 N-desmethyl-loperamide  
A radiopharmaceutical containing N-desmethyl loperamide (dLop) labeled with carbon 11 (11C), used to measure the activity of efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, carbon C 11 N-desmethyl-loperamide acts as a substrate for the efflux transporter P-gp. Upon uptake by P-gp at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent PET imaging, this radioligand may allow for prediction of P-gp function and expression in brain tumor patients. As P-gp activity may influence response to therapy, measuring P-gp activity may be beneficial when choosing chemotherapy. P-gp, encoded by the MDR-1 gene and a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transmembrane transporters, is overexpressed by some MDR tumors and may contribute to multidrug resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 11 temozolomide  
A radioconjugate composed of temozolomide, a imidazotetrazine analog of dacarbazine, labeled with the radioisotope carbon C11, with potential positron emission tomography (PET) imaging activity. As a cytotoxic alkylating agent, temozolomide is hydrolyzed at physiologic pH to the pharmacologically active compound, 5-(3-methyl-(triazen-1-yl)-imidazole)-4-carboxamide (MTIC). MTIC is further hydrolyzed to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) and a methyldiazonium cation. The cation is able to methylate DNA, particularly at the O6 and N7 positions of guanine residues, resulting in cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. Temozolomide is metabolized to MITC at all sites, crosses the blood-brain-barrier and penetrates well into the central nervous system. Upon PET, the biodistribution, uptake in cancer cells and the efficacy of temozolomide can be assessed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

carbon C 13 dextromethorphan  
A radioconjugate consisting of dextromethorphan, a synthetic, methylated dextrorotatory analogue of levorphanol, conjugated with carbon-13 [(13)C] with radiotracer activity. (13)C-dextromethorphan can be used in a breath-test phenotype assay of CYP2D6 activity, based on the principle that CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation cleaves a (13)CH3 that enters the body's carbon pool to be eliminated ultimately as (13)CO2 in expired air, which can be measured. The (13)C-dextromethorphan breath test may prove useful in identifying poor CYP2D6 metabolizers of such important clinical drugs as tamoxifen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 13 lycopene  
Carbon C 13 labeled lycopene used as a tracer for carotenoid metabolism studies in vivo. After oral administration of carbon C 13 lycopene, in combination with C 13 labeled phytoene and phytofluene, the absorption kinetics, distribution patterns, metabolism and targets of these carotenoids can be measured upon imaging of the non-radioactive C 13. Lycopene, a carotenoid pigment found in high concentrations in tomatoes as well as in other fruits and vegetables, serves as an antioxidant in vivo; its intake has been associated with a reduced risk of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

carbon C 13 octanoate  
The sodium salt form of the medium-chain fatty acid octanoate, and labeled with the isotope carbon C13, used in the octanoate breath test (OBT) to assess hepatic mitochondrial function. Upon ingestion of carbon C13 octanoate, this agent is metabolized in the liver via mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Upon determination of the ratio between 13C/12C of CO2 in exhaled breath, liver function can be accessed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 13 phytoene  
A 40-carbon hydrocarbon precursor of carotenoids radiolabeled to carbon C 13 and potentially used for tracer purposes of phytoene in vivo. Upon administration, phytoene is taken up and accumulates in various tissues. Upon imaging of the radioisotope, the distribution patterns and metabolism of phytoene can be further elucidated which may aid in the understanding of the bioactivity of this agent. Phytoene is a colorless precursor of many carotenoids, including the antioxidant lycopene. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 13 phytofluene  
A 40-carbon hydrocarbon precursor of carotenoids radiolabeled to carbon C 13 and potentially used for tracer purposes of phytofluene in vivo. Upon administration, phytofluene is taken up and accumulates in various tissues. Upon imaging of the radioisotope, the distribution patterns and metabolism of phytofluene can be further elucidated which may aid in the understanding of the bioactivity of this agent. Phytofluene is a colorless precursor of many carotenoids, including the antioxidant lycopene. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14 dacomitinib  
A radioconjugate consisting of an orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (erbB or HER) family of tyrosine kinases radiolabeled with carbon-14 with potential antineoplastic and beta-emitting radioisotope activity. Dacomitinib specifically and irreversibly binds to and inhibits human Her-1, Her-2, and Her-4, resulting in the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. The HER receptor family of tyrosine kinases, often overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types, may contribute to tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Dacomitinib radiolabeled with carbon C-14 may be used as a radiotracer in pharmacological studies of dacomitinib metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14 eribulin acetate  
A radioconjugate containing the acetate salt of eribulin, labeled with the beta particle-emitting radioisotope carbon C 14 , with radioisotopic and potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, eribulin binds to the vinca domain of tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of tubulin and the assembly of microtubules, resulting in inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly, induction of cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and, potentially, tumor regression. The radioisotope moiety of this agent acts as a radioactive tracer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14 ombrabulin  
A synthetic water-soluble analogue of combretastatin A4, derived from the South African willow bush (Combretum caffrum), labeled with carbon C 14 with potential antineoplastic activity. The ombrabulin moiety of carbon C 14 ombrabulin binds to the colchicine binding site of endothelial cell tubulin, thereby inhibiting tubulin polymerization and inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. As apoptotic endothelial cells detach from their substrata, tumor blood vessels collapse; the acute disruption of tumor blood flow may result in tumor necrosis. The radioisotope moiety of this agent acts as a radioactive tracer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14 oxaliplatin  
A radioconjugate composed of the platinum agent oxaliplatin labeled with the isotope carbon C 14, that can be used to predict the response to oxaliplatin therapy using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Upon intravenous administration of a microdose of carbon C 14 oxaliplatin, the oxaliplatin moiety covalently links to DNA and forms mono- and di-DNA adducts. The platinum-DNA adduct formation can be measured through quantification of C14-labeled drug-DNA adducts by using AMS. By measuring the microdose-induced DNA damage, the response to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy can be assessed and predicted. Measurements that indicate either low drug-DNA adduct formation or increased DNA repair (C14 removal from DNA) are correlated with increased resistance to platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14 selumetinib  
A radioconjugate containing the orally available selumetinib, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK or MAPK/ERK kinase) types 1 and 2, labeled with the radioisotope carbon C 14. Upon oral administration, selumetinib selectively inhibits MEK1/2, which prevents the activation of MEK1/2 dependent effector proteins and transcription factors. This leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in MEK1/2-overexpressing tumor cells. MEK 1 and 2 are dual-specificity kinases that are essential mediators in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in various cancer cells. Selumetinib radiolabeled with carbon C-14 may be used as a radiotracer for pharmacokinetic studies of this agent, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14 telotristat etiprate  
An orally bioavailable, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor prodrug labeled with carbon C 14, which could be used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of telotristat etiprate. Upon administration, telotristat etiprate is converted to its active moiety, telotristat (LP-778902), which binds to and blocks the activity of TPH. This may result in a reduction in peripheral serotonin (5-HT) production and improvement of serotonin-mediated gastrointestinal adverse side effects, such as severe diarrhea. TPH, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis, is overexpressed in carcinoid tumor cells. Telotristat radiolabeled with carbon C 14 facilitates the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of this agent, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon C 14-labeled ixazomib  
A radioconjugate comprised of the orally-available, reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor ixazomib that is labeled with the isotope carbon C 14. Upon administration, the ixazomib moiety hydrolyzes and generates its active form, MLN2238, which inhibits the activity of the 20S catalytic core subunit of the proteasome. This blocks the targeted proteolysis normally performed by the proteasome, which results in an accumulation of unwanted or misfolded proteins. The accumulation of protein may disrupt various cell signaling pathways, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth. In addition, this agent targets tumor suppressor microRNA-33b (miR-33b). Labeling with the radioactive tracer carbon C 14 allows for evaluation of ixazomib’s absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carbon-11 acetate  
The acetate salt of the radioisotope carbon-11. Although the mechanism is unclear, carbon-11 acetate preferentially accumulates in tumor tissue, serving as a tracer for imaging tumors with positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboplatin  
A second-generation platinum compound with a broad spectrum of antineoplastic properties. Carboplatin contains a platinum atom complexed with two ammonia groups and a cyclobutane-dicarboxyl residue. This agent is activated intracellularly to form reactive platinum complexes that bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, thereby inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These carboplatin-induced DNA and protein effects result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. This agent possesses tumoricidal activity similar to that of its parent compound, cisplatin, but is more stable and less toxic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboplatin-Taxol regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol) used for the treatment of endometrial, epithelial ovarian, head and neck, and advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancers. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboplatin-Taxol-bevacizumab regimen  
A chemoimmunotherapy regimen consisting of carboplatin, paclitaxel (Taxol) and bevacizumab used for the treatment of advanced-stage, nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboxyamidotriazole  
An orally-active agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Carboxyamidotriazole binds to and inhibits non-voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, blocking both Ca2+ influx into cells and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and resulting in the disruption of calcium channel-mediated signal transduction and inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, endothelial proliferation, and angiogenesis. This agent may also inhibit tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboxyamidotriazole orotate  
The orotate salt form of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), an orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities. Carboxyamidotriazole binds to and inhibits non-voltage-operated calcium channels, blocking both Ca2+ influx into cells and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, resulting in the disruption of calcium channel-mediated signal transduction. CAI inhibits PI3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. This may inhibit endothelial proliferation, tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboxylesterase-expressing allogeneic neural stem cells  
A preparation of allogeneic neural stem cells (NSC), derived from a human fetal cell line, that are adenovirally-transduced to express a modified form of the human enzyme carboxylesterase (CE) hCE1m6, with potential adjuvant activity. Upon intracranial administration, NSCs localize to tumor sites, due to their tumor-trophic nature, and transiently express hCE1m6. Intravenous co-administration of the prodrug irinotecan allows for the selective conversion by hCE1m6 to its active metabolite and topoisomerase I inhibitor, SN-38, in the vicinity of tumor sites. This leads to a local anti-neoplastic effect and causes reduced toxicity and increased therapeutic efficacy of irinotecan. Since NSCs freely cross the blood-brain barrier, these cells can also be intravenously administered to target brain tumor cells. hCE1m6 shows increased activity as compared to unmodified human CE. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carboxyphenyl retinamide  
A synthetic phenylretinamide analogue of retinol (vitamin A) with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Carboxyphenyl retinamide induces cell differentiation and inhibits tumor cell growth and carcinogenesis. This agent may also induce cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in some cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carcinoembryonic antigen peptide 1  
A nine amino acid peptide fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein that is overexpressed in several cancer cell types, including gastrointestinal, breast, and non-small cell lung. Autologous vaccination with activated autologous dendritic cells (DC) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which have been exposed to CEA peptide 1 in vitro may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing CEA, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carcinoembryonic antigen peptide 1-6D  
A 9-residue human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). CEA:571-579 peptide, which has the amino acid sequence YLSGANLNL, may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against tumors expressing CEA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carcinoembryonic antigen peptide 1-6D virus-like replicon particles vaccine  
A cancer vaccine, consisting of alphavirus vector-derived virus-like replicon particles expressing the 9-amino-acid carcinoembryonic antigen peptide (CAP) 1-6D, with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carcinoembryonic antigen RNA-pulsed DC cancer vaccine  
A vaccine comprising autologous dendritic cells pulsed with mRNA-encoded Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) that targets tumor cells expressing CEA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing measles virus  
An attenuated oncolytic Edmonston (Ed) strain of measles virus (MV) encoding the soluble extracellular N-terminal domain of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (MV-CEA) with potential antineoplastic activity. The cellular receptor of MV is human CD46 antigen, a type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein found on nearly all human tissues and overexpressed on many cancer cell types. Mediated through CD46, both haemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins of MV are required for the attachment to and fusion of host cell membranes, thereby leading to syncytia and cell lysis. The expressed CEA, a tumor associated antigen, can be detected in serum and used as a sensitive marker to monitor viral gene expression in order to easily optimize individual therapy. Compared to wild-type MV, the Ed strain of MV has a lower affinity for the MV receptor signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (CD150), mainly expressed in B- and T-lymphocytes, but a higher affinity for CD46. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cardiolite  
(Other name for: Tc 99m sestamibi)

Cardizem  
(Other name for: diltiazem hydrochloride)

Cardura  
(Other name for: doxazosin mesylate)

carfilzomib  
An epoxomicin derivate with potential antineoplastic activity. Carfilzomib irreversibly binds to and inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome, an enzyme responsible for degrading a large variety of cellular proteins. Inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis results in an accumulation of polyubiquinated proteins, which may lead to cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

caricotamide/tretazicar  
A combination therapy consisting of the prodrug tretazicar and the enzyme co-substrate caricotamide with potential antineoplastic activity. In the presence of separately and simultaneously administered caricotamide, tretazicar is converted to the short-lived cytotoxic DNA cross-linking agent dinitrobenzamide by NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2), resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. NQO2 has been found to be elevated in certain cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carlumab  
A recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against human CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Carlumab binds to and inhibits CLL2, which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis and, so, tumor cell proliferation. Endothelium-derived CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein; MCP1) is a member of the beta-chemokine family, can stimulate monocyte/macrophage migration and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and plays a role in angiogenesis and tumor cell migration; CCL2 induction of angiogenesis may involve the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) gene expression which, in turn, induces vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) gene expression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Carmubris  
(Other name for: carmustine)

carmustine  
An antineoplastic nitrosourea. Carmustine alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This agent also carbamoylates proteins, including DNA repair enzymes, resulting in an enhanced cytotoxic effect. Carmustine is highly lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier readily. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carmustine sustained-release implant wafer  
A sustained release (SR) implant wafer containing the lipophilic nitrosourea carmustine (BCNU) with antineoplastic activity. Upon intracranial administration of the implant wafer and subsequent release of BCNU from the wafer, this agent alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in the disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This wafer contains the biodegradable copolymer PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as the major drug delivery vehicle which is slowly degraded into water and carbon dioxide thereby continuously releasing BCNU over approximately 3-4 weeks. Compared to systemic administration of BCNU alone, this local SR formulation is able to maintain higher drug concentrations locally over a longer period of time while minimizing exposure to other tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Carnitor  
(Other name for: levocarnitine)

carrot/Ji-Lin ginseng/licorice root/tangerine peel soy beverage  
A soy-based powdered nutritional supplement drink containing carrot, Jilin ginseng, licorice root and tangerine peel with potential antioxidant, immunomodulating and protective activities. Besides vitamin C, E and other phytochemicals, carrot/Jilin ginseng/licorice root/tangerine peel/soy beverage contains a high amount of soy protein. This beverage may have a beneficial effect on overall nutrition and the immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cartilade  
(Other name for: shark cartilage)

carubicin  
An anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Actinomadura carminata. Carubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

carvedilol  
A synthetic antihypertensive methoxyphenoxy- 2-propanol derivative with no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, Carvedilol acts as a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent (S(-) enantiomer) and as an alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker (R(+) and S(-) enantiomers). Its acts more strongly on beta-receptors than on alpha 1-receptors, reduces peripheral vascular resistance by vasodilation, and prevents reflex tachycardia (beta-blockade) so that heart rate is either unchanged or decreased. Carvedilol also reduces renin release through beta-blockade. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsule  
An extended-release capsule formulation containing the phosphate salt of carvedilol, a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent with alpha 1-adrenergic blocking activity. Carvedilol is a racemic mixture; the S(-) enantiomer non-selectively binds to and blocks beta-adrenergic receptors, exerting negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, leading to a reduction in cardiac output. Both R(+) and S(-) enantiomers bind to and block alpha 1-adrenergic receptors with equal potency, causing vasodilation and a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance. This agent has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

caseinate protein isolate  
An isolate comprised of the sodium or calcium salt of the glycoprotein casein, the primary protein found in milk and other dairy products, with anti-catabolic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Casodex  
(Other name for: bicalutamide)

casopitant mesylate  
The mesylate salt of a centrally-acting neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist with antidepressant and antiemetic activities. Casopitant competitively binds to and blocks the activity of the NK1 receptor, thereby inhibiting NK1-receptor binding of the endogenous tachykinin neuropeptide substance P (SP), which may result in antiemetic effects. SP is found in neurons of vagal afferent fibers innervating the brain-stem nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema, which contains the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), and may be elevated in response to chemotherapy. The NK1 receptor is a G-protein receptor coupled to the inositol phosphate signal-transduction pathway and is found in both the nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

caspofungin acetate  
The acetate salt of an antimycotic echinocandin lipopeptide, semisynthetically derived from a fermentation product of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis. Caspofungin inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, resulting in decreased synthesis of beta(1,3)-D-glucan (an essential component of the fungal cell wall), weakening of the fungal cell wall, and fungal cell wall rupture. This agent is active against Aspergillus and Candida species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Catapres  
(Other name for: clonidine hydrochloride)

cathepsin-activatable Cy5 fluorescent imaging probe LUM015  
A cathepsin-activatable fluorescent probe with imaging activity. The cathepsin-activatable fluorescent probe LUM015 contains the Cy5 fluorophore linked, via a pan-cathepsin protease cleavable peptide, to a fluorescent quencher. Upon injection, the peptide in LUM015 can be cleaved by cathepsins overexpressed by tumor cells, which releases the quencher and activates the fluorophore. Upon imaging, tumor cells expressing cathepsin family proteases can be detected. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cationic liposome-encapsulated paclitaxel  
A cationic liposome preparation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel, the active ingredient in cationic liposome-encapsulated paclitaxel, binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, resulting in the inhibition of mitosis and cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Cationic liposome encapsulation of paclitaxel allows the delivery of high doses of paclitaxel to target tissues while minimizing systemic toxicity. Tumor endothelial cells may preferentialy bind and internalize cationic liposomes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

catumaxomab  
A trifunctional bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Catumaxomab has two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T cell surface antigen; and one for human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a cell surface antigen expressed by a variety of epithelial tumor cells. In addition, the modified Fc portion of this antibody binds Fc receptors on antingen presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Catumaxomab brings T cells, EpCAM-expressing epithelial tumor cells and APCs together into tricellular complexes, which may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against EpCAM-expressing epithelial tumor cells. Fc-mediated binding of APCs in the tricellular complex potentiates EpCAM antigen presentation to T cells and the activation of anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell functions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Caverject  
(Other name for: alprostadil)

CB10-277  
A synthetic derivative of dimethylphenyl-triazene related to dacarbazine, with antineoplastic properties. Related to the agent dacarbazine, CB10-277 is converted in vivo to a monomethyl triazene form that alkylates DNA, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and repair; in addition, this agent may act as a purine analogue, resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis, and may interact with protein sulfhydryl groups. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CBP/beta-catenin antagonist PRI-724  
A potent, specific inhibitor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in cancer stem cells with potential antineoplastic activity. Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor PRI-724 specifically inhibits the recruiting of beta-catenin with its coactivator CBP (the binding protein of the cAMP response element-binding protein CREB); together with other transcription factors beta-catenin/CBP binds to WRE (Wnt-responsive element) and activates transcription of a wide range of target genes of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Blocking the interaction of CBP and beta-catenin by this agent prevents gene expression of many proteins necessary for growth, thereby potentially suppressing cancer cell growth. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway regulates cell morphology, motility, and proliferation; aberrant regulation of this pathway leads to neoplastic proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CBT-1  
(Other name for: MDR modulator CBT-1)

CC-1088  
An analog of thalidomide with potential antineoplastic activity that belongs to the functional class of agents called selective cytokine inhibitory drugs (SelCIDs). SelCIDs inhibit phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE 4), an enzyme involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) production. CC-1088 inhibits production of the cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (a pro-angiogenic factor) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CC-401  
A second generation ATP-competitive anthrapyrazolone c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Based on the chemistry of SP600125, another anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of JNK, CC-401 competitively binds the ATP binding site of JNK, resulting in inhibition of the phosphorylation of the N-terminal activation domain of transcription factor c-Jun; decreased transcription activity of c-Jun; and a variety of cellular effects including decreased cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CC-8490  
A benzopyran with potential antineoplastic activity. CC-8490 acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. This agent also inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of glioblastoma cells via a mechanism independent of estrogen receptor-related mechanisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CCL21-expressing H1944 cell vaccine  
A cancer cell vaccine comprised of the allogeneic human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1944 that has been transduced ex vivo with adenoviral vector encoding human cytokine chemokine C-C motif ligand 21 (CCL21), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CCL21-expressing H1944 cell vaccine expresses the chemokine CCL21, which may induce an antitumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response in the tumor microenvironment. CCL21 has been shown to attract antigen presenting cells (APCs), like leukocytes and DCs, and natural killer (NK) cells and their T-cell effectors to induce a cytotoxic immune response. H1944 cells contain tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CCR2 antagonist PF-04136309  
An orally available human chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, CCR2 antagonist PF-04136309 specifically binds to CCR2 and prevents binding of the endothelium-derived chemokine ligand CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or MCP1) to its receptor CCR2, which may result in inhibition of CCR2 activation and signal transduction. This may inhibit inflammatory processes as well as angiogenesis, tumor cell migration, and tumor cell proliferation. The G-protein coupled receptor CCR2 is expressed on the surface of monocytes and macrophages, stimulates the migration and infiltration of these cell types, and plays an important role in inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell migration and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

CD-expressing Bifidobacterium APS001F  
A recombinant anaerobic bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum, encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon injection, the CD-expressing bifidobacterium preferentially localizes and grows in the hypoxic environment of the tumor and expresses CD, an enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of the prodrug flucytosine (5-FC) into the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Upon administration of 5-FC, and subsequent localized conversion into 5-FU and its cytotoxic active metabolites, the tumor is specifically exposed to cytotoxic agents while the exposure to normal tissues is minimal. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

CD133 antigen peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine comprised of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted peptides derived from the CD133 antigen, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration, the CD133 antigen peptide-pulsed autologous DC vaccine may stimulate an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD133-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. CD133, a cancer stem cell marker, is expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and overexpressed on many types of cancer cells; it is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and increased cancer survival. HLA-A2 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T-cells. Epitope design that is restricted to those epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A2 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

CD138CAR-CD137/TCRzeta-expressing T lymphocytes2013-08-07  
T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for syndecan-1 (CD138) (CART-138 T cells) coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCRzeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD138CAR- CD137/TCRzeta -expressing T lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to syndecan-1-expressing tumor cells and induces selective toxicity in those tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of syndecan-1. Syndecan-1, a type 1 transmembrane proteoglycan and tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. It plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD19CAR-CD28zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T lymphocytes  
Allogeneic T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to the costimulatory signaling domain CD28, the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD28 zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T lymphocytes directs the T-lymphocytes to and induces selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, is required for T-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. Furthermore, inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD28 costimulatory domain and TCR zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen, which is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T lymphocytes  
Allogeneic T-lymphocytes transduced with a modified lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing allogeneic T-lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19 and the inclusion of this signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T lymphocytes  
Autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a modified lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes direct the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19 and the inclusion of this signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3-zeta (or CD247) is a transmembrane signaling adaptor polypeptide that regulates the assembly of complete TCR complexes and their expression on the cell surface. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD19CAR-CD3zeta-expressing autologous T lymphocytes  
Autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a modified lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD19CAR-CD3zeta-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes are directed to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity only in these tumor cells. The CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3-zeta (or CD247) is a transmembrane signaling adaptor polypeptide that regulates the assembly of complete T-cell receptor complexes and their expression on the cell surface. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD20-targeted polypeptide TRU-015  
A proprietary antibody-based single-chain polypeptide with B cell-depleting activity. Significantly smaller than a whole antibody, CD20-targeted polypeptide TRU-015 binds specifically to the B cell-specific cell surface antigen CD20 with full immunoglobulin Fv fragment-type target binding activity and full immunoglobulin Fc fragment-type effector function. This agent transiently depletes CD20-bearing B cells by inducing B cell -directed complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and B cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD3/CD28 costimulated vaccine-primed autologous T-cells  
A population of T cells that have been sensitized to vaccine tumor antigen(s) in vivo; collected from the patient; co-stimulated with antibodies to the T-cell cell surface proteins CD3 and CD28 and expanded ex vivo; and then infused into the same patient. CD3, part of the T cell receptor complex, and CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, are both required for full T-cell activation. Adoptive transfer of CD3/CD28 costimulated vaccine-primed autologous T-cells may induce the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and associated antitumor effects and a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD33CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes  
Autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD33 scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCRzeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, CD33-specific CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes target CD33-expressing tumor cells and induce selective toxicity in CD33-expressing tumor cells. Following binding to CD33, the 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances both activation and signaling. Inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may also increase the antitumor activity when compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. CD33 is expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells as well as on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD34/TK75-transduced donor lymphocytes  
A preparation of donor T-lymphocytes that are transfected with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric suicide gene consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human CD34 and mutant 75 of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK75) with potential controllable immunomodulating activity. Donor T cell therapy following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation may result in a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) and help control transplant-related viral infections. In the event that graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) develops due to donor lymphocyte infusion, CD34/TK75-transduced donor lymphocytes may be selectively eliminated by administration of the prodrug antiviral agent ganciclovir GCV. In CD34/T75-transduced donor lymphocytes, GCV is phosphorylated by expressed HSV-TK75 to its monophosphate form and, subsequently, converted into its active triphosphate form, which specifically kills the donor lymphocytes. The expressed CD34 moiety of the chimeric suicide gene serves as a selection marker; mutant 75 of HSV-TK confers increased GCV sensitivity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells  
Regulatory T cells that express CD4 and CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor) antigens, with immunomodulating activity.. CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4+ T cells expressing high levels of CD25 and the transcription factor Foxp3, are essential in maintaining immunologic homeostasis, preventing autoimmunity by suppressing self-reactive T cells; CD4+CD25+ Tregs may induce tolerance to allogeneic organ transplants such as hematopoetic stem cell transplants (HSCTs). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody CP-870,893  
A fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) agonist of the cell surface receptor CD40 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Similar to the CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154), CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody CP-870,893 binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types, triggering the cellular proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), activating B cells and T cells, and enhancing the immune response; in addition, this agent may activate CD40 present on the surfaces of some solid tumor cells, resulting in apoptosis and decreased tumor growth. CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on various immune cells, many B-cell malignancies, and some solid tumors, mediating both indirect tumor cell killing through the activation of the immune system and direct tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CD95 ECD/IgG-Fc fusion protein APG101  
A human, soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the CD95 receptor fused to the Fc-domain of the human IgG antibody, with potential antineoplastic activity. CD95 ECD/IgG-Fc fusion protein APG101 binds to the CD95 ligand (CD95L) and blocks the binding of CD95L to the CD95 receptor. In tumor cells, blockage of CD95L-mediated signaling pathways may prevent cell migration and invasive cell growth; in healthy cells, blockage of CD95L-mediated signaling pathways may prevent apoptosis and may protect cell damage. Activation of the CD95 receptor plays an important role in the initiation of apoptosis in healthy cells or the invasive growth of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDC7 kinase inhibitor BMS-863233  
An orally bioavailable cell division cycle 7 homolog (CDC7) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDC7 kinase inhibitor BMS-863233 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. CDC7, a serine-threonine kinase overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication by activating origins of replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDC7 kinase inhibitor NMS-1116354  
An orally bioavailable cell division cycle 7 homolog (CDC7) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDC7 kinase inhibitor NMS-1116354 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. The serine-threonine kinase CDC7 initiates DNA replication by phosphorylating MCM2 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 2) at Ser40 and Ser53. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDK inhibitor P276-00  
A flavone and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. P276-00 selectively binds to and inhibits Cdk4/cyclin D1, Cdk1/cyclin B and Cdk9/cyclin T1, serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. Inhibition of these kinases leads to cell cycle arrest during the G1/S transition, thereby leading to an induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDK inhibitor SNS-032  
A 2-aminothiazole-derived, small-molecule cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK inhibitor SNS-032 selectively binds to CDKs 2, 7, and 9, preventing their phosphorylation and activation; inhibition of CDK activity may result in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis and decreased tumor cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent has been shown to sensitize radioresistant tumor cells to ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDK2/TRKA inhibitor PHA-848125 AC  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and thropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA), with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK2/TRKA inhibitor PHA-848125 AC potently inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and exhibits activity against other CDKs including CDK1 and CDK4, in addition to TRKA. Inhibition of these kinases may result in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells that express these kinases. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in some cancer cell types. The neurotrophin receptor TRKA is mutated in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDK4 inhibitor P1446A-05  
A protein kinase inhibitor specific for the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4 inhibitor P1446A-05 specifically inhibits CDK4-mediated G1-S phase transition, arresting cell cycling and inhibiting cancer cell growth. The serine/threonine kinase CDK4 is found in a complex with D-type G1 cyclins and is the first kinase to become activated upon mitogenic stimulation, releasing cells from a quiescent stage into the G1/S growth cycling stage; CDK-cyclin complexes have been shown to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) transcription factor in early G1, displacing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and blocking transcriptional repression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDK4/6 dual inhibitor LY2835219  
An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that targets the CDK4 (cyclin D1) and CDK6 (cyclin D3) cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4/6 dual inhibitor LY2835219 specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation in early G1. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of the serine/threonine kinases CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011  
An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor targeting cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin D3/CDK6 cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011 specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDKI AT7519  
An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. AT7519M selectively binds to and inhibits cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), which may result in cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are serine/theronine kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in some types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDKI R547  
An orally bioavailable diaminopyrimidine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) with potential antineoplastic activity. CDKI R547 selectively binds to and inhibits CDKs, especially CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin E, and CDK4/cyclin D1. The inhibition of CDKs results in cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Through CDK inhibition, this agent also reduces phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, thus preventing activation of transcription factor E2F and so further suppressing tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are ATP-dependent serine/threonine kinases that are important regulators of cell cycle progression and are frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CDKs/JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor TG02 citrate  
An orally bioavailable citrate salt form of TG02, a multi-kinase inhibitor for cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) subtypes 1, 2, 7 and 9, Janus-associated kinase 2 (JAK2), FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, FLK2, STK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CDK/JAK2/FLT3 Inhibitor TG02 binds to and inhibits the CDK subtypes, JAK2, and FLT3. TG02 also inhibits, to a lesser extent, TYK2, TYRO3, STAT5 and P38delta. This may result in both an induction of apoptosis and an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that overexpress these kinases. JAK2, often upregulated or mutated in a variety of cancer cells, mediates STAT3 activation and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. FLT3, a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ce-Vi-Sol  
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)

CEA-Scan  
(Other name for: arcitumomab)

CEA/tetanus toxoid T helper epitope fusion protein-expressing DNA plasmid vaccine  
A plasmid vaccine encoding wild type human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) fused to a tetanus toxoid T helper epitope, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination and subsequent intradermal electroporation, CEA/tetanus toxoid T helper epitope fusion protein-expressing DNA plasmid vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. The tetanus toxoid helper peptide epitope, obtained from the bacterial Clostridium tetani toxoid, binds to class II MHC molecules and increases the helper T-cell response thereby inducing an increased and long-term immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CeaVac  
(Other name for: monoclonal antibody 3H1 anti-idiotype vaccine)

cebranopadol  
An orally available antagonist of the nociceptin receptor opioid receptor like -1 (ORL-1), with potential analgesic activity. Upon oral administration, cebranopadol binds to ORL-1 and prevents its interaction with nociceptin. This leads to a decrease of nociceptin/ORL-1-mediated signaling and interferes with the sensation of pain, which results in an analgesic effect. Nociceptin is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cecon  
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)

cediranib maleate  
The maleate salt of an indole ether quinazoline derivative with antineoplastic activities. Competing with adenosine triphosphate, cediranib binds to and inhibits all three vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-1,-2,-3) tyrosine kinases, thereby blocking VEGF-signaling, angiogenesis, and tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

CeeNU  
(Other name for: lomustine)

cefazolin sodium  
The sodium salt of cefazolin, a beta-lactam antibiotic and first-generation cephalosporin with bactericidal activity. Cefazolin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity, which results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cefepime hydrochloride  
The hydrochoride salt of a semi-synthetic, beta-lactamase-resistant, fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived from an Acremonium fungal species with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Administered parenterally, cefipime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity, resulting in a reduction of bacterial cell wall stability and cell lysis. This agent is more active against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens compared to third-generation cephalosporins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cefixime  
A broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived semisynthetically from the marine fungus Cephalosporium acremonium with antibacterial activity. As does penicillin, the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis, resulting in a reduction in bacterial cell wall stability and bacterial cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cefmetazole sodium  
The sodium salt of the second-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin cefmetazole with antibacterial activity. Cefmetazole binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and prevents the crosslinking of peptidoglycan, which may result in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, the loss of cell wall integrity, and bacterial cell wall rupture. PBPs are transpeptidases that are responsible for peptidoglycan crosslinking. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cefotaxime  
A third generation semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefotaxime inhibits mucopeptide synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin binding proteins thereby interfering with the final transpeptidation step required for cross-linking of peptidoglycan units which are a component of bacterial cell walls. This results in a reduction of cell wall stability and causes cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cefpodoxime proxetil  
A third generation semi-synthetic cephalosporin and a beta-lactam antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefpodoxime's effect is dependent on its binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Binding results in the inhibition of the transpeptidase enzymes, thereby preventing cross-linking of the pentaglycine bridge with the fourth residue of the pentapeptide and interrupting consequent synthesis of peptidoglycan chains. As a result, cefpodoxime inhibits bacterial septum and cell wall synthesis formation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ceftazidime sodium  
The sodium salt of ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftazidime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall, resulting in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftazidime is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftazidine also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ceftobiprole medocaril  
A water-soluble prodrug of ceftobiprole, a pyrrolidinone cephalosporin antibiotic, with bactericidal activity. Ceftobiprole binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes involved in the terminal stages of bacterial cell wall assembly and cell wall reshaping during bacterial growth and division. This agent exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Ceftobiprole is refractory to hydrolysis by class A and class C lactamases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ceftriaxone sodium  
The sodium salt form of ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftriaxone binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftriaxone is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftriaxone also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Celebrex  
(Other name for: celecoxib)

celecoxib  
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a diaryl-substituted pyrazole structure. Celecoxib selectively inhibits cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity (COX-2); COX-2 inhibition may result in apoptosis and a reduction in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Celestone  
(Other name for: betamethasone)

Celexa  
(Other name for: citalopram hydrobromide)

Celiptium  
(Other name for: elliptinium acetate)

cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83  
A proprietary agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83 IC83 inhibits cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes, which may result in enhanced cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents and diminished tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes are involved in the recognition and repair of damaged DNA and are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cellcept  
(Other name for: mycophenolate mofetil)

Cenolate  
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)

CEOP regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone which may be used in the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)

cephalexin  
A beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cephalexin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to second and third generation cephalosporins, cephalexin is more active against gram-positive and less active against gram-negative organisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ceramide  
One of a number of a class of sphingolipids, N-acyl derivatives with long chains. Ceramide is the core molecule for the synthesis of sphingomyelin, an essential lipid for myelination and neurotransmission; it may function as a second messenger to stimulate differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cerazette  
(Other name for: desogestral)

Cereport  
(Other name for: lobradimil)

Cerespan  
(Other name for: papaverine)

Cerubidine  
(Other name for: daunorubicin hydrochloride)

Cervarix  
(Other name for: human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 virus-like particle/AS04 vaccine)

Cervene  
(Other name for: TGFa-PE38 immunotoxin)

cesium Cs 131  
An unstable radioisotope of cesium (Cs) with radiocytotoxic application. Cs-131 is a gamma photon-emitting radionuclide with high energy and a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days. When used in prostate brachytherapy, Cs-131 demonstrated advantages over other commonly used isotopes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cesium Cs 137  
A radioactive isotope of cesium with an atomic mass of 139 and potential application in radiotherapy. Cesium Cs 137 is prevalent due to its spontaneous production, which occurs as a result of nuclear fission of other radioactive materials, such as uranium and plutonium. This radionuclide has a relatively long half-life, 30 years, and decays by emitting beta particles. Both Cs 137 and its metastable nuclear isomer, barium-137m, emit gamma radiation of moderate energy and so are used in sterilization procedures in the food industry or in hospital environments. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cetacort  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

Cetane  
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)

cetuximab  
A recombinant, chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Cetuximab binds to the extracellular domain of the EGFR, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization may result in an inhibition in signal transduction and anti-proliferative effects. This agent may inhibit EGFR-dependent primary tumor growth and metastasis. EGFR is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cetuximab-IRDye 800  
An immunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody cetuximab conjugated to the N-hydroxysuccinamide (NHS) ester form of the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye IRDye 800CW (cetuximab-IRDye 800) with potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of cetuximab-IRDye 800 binds to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon binding, IRDye 800 may be detected using NIR imaging, which facilitates the visualization and quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Cevalin  
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)

cevimeline hydrochloride  
A cholinergic analogue with glandular secretion stimulatory activity. Cevimeline binds to and activates muscarinic receptors, thereby increasing the secretions in exocrine salivary and sweat glands. This cholinergic agonist also increases the tone of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Cevimeline is being studied as a treatment for dry mouth caused by radiation therapy to the head and neck. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382  
A small molecule and orally available inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R; cFMS) with potential antineoplastic activity. cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382 binds to and inhibits the activity of cFMS. By preventing colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-cFMS signaling, this agent may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in cFMS-overexpressing tumor cells. cFMS, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and plays an essential role in macrophage differentiation and regulation of cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

chamomile  
The flower-heads of either the plant Anthemis nobilis or the plant Matricaria chamomilla. Chamomile has a warm aromatic odour and a very bitter taste and contains volatile oils which are a mixture of butyl and amyl angelates and valerates. Due to its coumarin constituents, large doses may interfere with coagulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Chantix  
(Other name for: varenicline)

checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor LY2606368  
An inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY2606368 selectively binds to chk1, thereby preventing activity of chk1 and abrogating the repair of damaged DNA. This may lead to an accumulation of damaged DNA and may promote genomic instability and apoptosis. LY2606368 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1, a serine/threonine kinase, mediates cell cycle checkpoint control and is essential for DNA repair and plays a key role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762  
A synthetic small molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinases (Chks) with potential chemosensitizing activity. AZD7762 binds to and inhibits Chks, which may prevent cell cycle arrest and subsequent nucleotide excision repair in DNA-damaged tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Chks are protein kinases that regulate either G1/S or G2/M transitions in the cell cycle. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, Chks become activated and initiate cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or the completion of DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Chemophase  
(Other name for: recombinant human hyaluronidase)

chidamide  
An orally bioavailable benzamide type inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoenzymes 1, 2, 3 and 10, with potential antineoplastic activity. Chidamide selectively binds to and inhibits HDAC leading to an increase of acetylation levels of histone protein H3. This agent also inhibits the expression of signaling kinases in the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways and may result in cell cycle arrest and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. This may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. HDACs, a class of enzymes that deacetylate chromatin histone proteins, are upregulated in many tumor types and play key roles in gene expression. Compared to some other benzamide type HDAC inhibitors, chidamide is more stable, more resistant to degradation and has a longer half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

chimeric Ad11p/Ad3 oncolytic virus  
A complex, replication-selective, E1B and partial E3 gene deleted, adenovirus type 11p (Ad11p)/Ad3 chimeric oncolytic virus with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intralesional injection of chimeric Ad11p/Ad3 oncolytic virus, the adenovirus selectively and rapidly replicates in cancer cells; however, it is unable to replicate in normal, healthy cells. This induces a selective adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity in cancer cells, which leads to cancer cell lysis. Following the lysis of infected cells, the replicated virus is released and can infect adjacent cells, which both induces further tumor cell oncolysis and may activate the immune system to kill the infected tumor cells. The E1B protein causes p53 inactivation in host cells, which promotes viral replication. Deletion of E1B prevents replication in normal, healthy cells that express wild-type p53. The mutation and subsequent inactivation of p53 in cancer cells enables the E1B-deleted adenovirus to selectively replicate in cancer cells. Partial deletion of the E3 gene, which encodes the adenovirus death protein, enhances the safety profile of the administered adenovirus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Chinese herbal formulation PHY906  
An oral traditional Chinese herbal formulation in powder form containing a spray dried aqueous extract from the herbs Scutellaria baicalensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Paeonia lactiflora with potential immunomodulating and chemoprotective activities. Although the mechanism of actions remain to be fully elucidated, PHY906 possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities such as the enhancement of oral uptake of pharmacologically active agents, inhibition of CYP3A4, modulation of certain cytokines, macrophages and lymphocytes, and inhibition of expression of MMP, NF-kB, beta-glucuronidase, the NK-1 receptor, and the delta-opioid receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Chinese herbs  
Herbs used in Chinese Herbal Therapy for toxicity attenuation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ChiRhoStim  
(Other name for: synthetic human secretin)

chk1 inhibitor PF-477736  
A proprietary compound targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential chemopotentiation activity. Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 inhibits chk1, an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that is a key component in the DNA replication-monitoring S/G2 checkpoint system. By overriding the last checkpoint defense against DNA damaging agent-induced lethal damage, chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents against tumor cells with intrinsic checkpoint defects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776  
An agent targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) with potential radiosensitization and chemosensitization activities. Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776 specifically binds to and inhibits Chk1, which may result in tumor cells bypassing Chk1-dependent cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases to undergo DNA repair prior to entry into mitosis; tumor cells may thus be sensitized to the DNA-damaging effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1 is an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that in response to DNA damage phosphorylates cdc25 phosphatases, resulting in inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK-cyclin complexes and cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

chlorambucil  
An orally-active antineoplastic aromatic nitrogen mustard. Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

chlorambucil-prednisone regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of chlorambucil and prednisone used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)

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