In English | En español
Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

D-cycloserine  
An analogue of the amino acid D-alanine with broad-spectrum antibiotic and glycinergic activities. D-cycloserine interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis by competitively inhibiting two enzymes, L-alanine racemase and D-alanine:D-alanine ligase, thereby impairing peptidoglycan formation necessary for bacterial cell wall synthesis. This agent may be bactericidal or bacteriostatic, depending on its concentration at the infection site and the susceptibility of the organism. In addition, D-cycloserine is an excitatory amino acid and partial agonist at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor in the central nervous system (CNS); binding to the central NMDA receptor may result in amelioration of neuropathic pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

D-methionine formulation MRX-1024  
A proprietary oral formulation of D-methionine with antioxidant and antimucositis activities. D-methionine formulation MRX-1024 may selectively protect the oral mucosa from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy without compromising antitumor activity. D-methionine may be converted into the L- isomer in vivo, particlualry in instances of L-methionine deprivation; both isomers have antioxidant activity which may be due, in part, to their sulfur moieties and chelating properties. L-methionine, an essential amino acid, also may help to maintain the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione in cells undergoing oxidative stress and may provide a source of L-cysteine for glutathione synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

D1/3-MAGE-3-His fusion protein  
A recombinant fusion protein derived from the melanoma antigen MAGE-3 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Recognized by specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, D1/3-MAGE-3-His fusion protein may boost antitumoral immune responses when used in a vaccine formulation. This recombinant chimeric protein is produced by fusing MAGE-3 with a lipidated protein D derived from H. influenzae at its N-terminus and a sequence of several histidine residues at its C-terminus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DAB389 epidermal growth factor  
A recombinant fusion protein composed of the diphtheria toxin with the receptor-binding domain replaced by human epidermal growth factor (EGF). When administered, EGF binds to the endothelial cell growth factor receptor, EGFR, which is upregulated in many solid tumors. After binding to the EGF receptor, the agent is internalized by the cell, where the diphtheria toxin moiety exerts its cytotoxic effect, inhibiting protein synthesis through ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dabigatran etexilate mesylate  
An orally available mesylate salt form of the etexilate prodrug of dabigatran, a benzimidazole and direct thrombin inhibitor with anticoagulant activity. Upon administration, dabigatran etexilate is hydrolyzed by esterases and is converted into dabigatran. Dabigatran reversibly binds to and inhibits the activity of thrombin, a serine protease that converts fibrinogen into fibrin. This disrupts the coagulation cascade and inhibits the formation of blood clots. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dabrafenib  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of B-raf (BRAF) protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Dabrafenib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of B-raf, which may inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells which contain a mutated BRAF gene. B-raf belongs to the the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases and plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which may be constitutively activated due to BRAF gene mutations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dacarbazine  
A triazene derivative with antineoplastic activity. Dacarbazine alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dacetuzumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD40 receptor with potential antineoplastic activity. Dacetuzumab specifically binds to and inhibits the CD40 receptor, thereby inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cellular proliferation via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cells that overexpress this receptor. The CD40 receptor, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super-family, is highly expressed on most B lineage hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DACH polymer platinate AP5346  
A low molecular weight polymer-conjugated platinum complex with potential antineoplastic activity. This polymer drug delivery system consists of cytotoxic diaminocyclohexane (DACH)-platinum (Pt) coupled to a water-soluble biocompatible hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer via a pH sensitive linker. Due to decreased pH in tumor sites, the linker is cleaved and the chelated active moiety DACH-Pt is released in tumor cells. DACH-Pt alkylates macromolecules and causes both inter- and intra-strand platinum-DNA crosslinks, which impede DNA replication and transcription, resulting in cell-cycle independent cytotoxicity. The HPMA-based drug delivery system increases the concentration and prolongs the half-life of DACH-Pt in tumor sites, while minimizing adverse effects on normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DACH-platin micelle NC-4016  
Polymeric micellar nanoparticles containing diaminocyclohexane platinum (DACH-platin or DACH-Pt) with potential antineoplastic activity. DACH-platin micelle NC-4016 is prepared through the formation of a polymer-metal complex between DACH-platin and the polyethylene glycol-poly (glutamic acid) block copolymer, PEG-P(Glu). DACH-platin, an active metabolite of the platinum-based antineoplastic agent oxaliplatin, is highly hydrophobic and toxic when administered systemically. The use of polymeric micelles incorporating DACH-platin may both increase cell permeability and enhance the retention of the agent. This allows an extended half-life in the blood circulation and a selective and high accumulation of DACH-platin at tumor sites. This results in increased anticancer efficacy while reducing side effects due to DACH-platin toxicity. Upon intravenous administration and internalization by tumor cells, DACH-platin binds to and causes both inter- and intra-strand cross-links in DNA, forming platinum adducts and triggering tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daclatasvir  
An orally available inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex, with potential activity against HCV. Although the exact mechanism of action of daclatasvir has yet to be fully determined, this agent, upon oral administration and after intracellular uptake, appears to bind to domain I of the NS5A protein. This inhibits the activity of the NS5A protein and results in the disruption of the viral RNA replication complex, blockage of viral HCV RNA production, and inhibition of viral replication. NS5A, a zinc-binding and proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein, plays a crucial role in HCV RNA replication. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daclizumab  
A recombinant monoclonal antibody interleukin-2 receptor antagonist. Daclizumab binds specifically to the alpha subunit of the human interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expressed on the surface of activated lymphocytes in vivo, thereby inhibiting IL-2 binding and IL-2-mediated lymphocyte activation, a critical cellular immune response pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dacogen  
(Other name for: decitabine)

dacomitinib  
An orally bioavailable, highly selective, second-generation small-molecule inhibitor of the pan-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of tyrosine kinases (ErbB family) with potential antineoplastic activity. Dacomitinib specifically and irreversibly binds to and inhibits human EGFR subtypes, resulting in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFRs play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization, and are often overexpressed or mutated in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dactinomycin  
A chromopeptide antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces parvulus. Dactinomycin intercalates between adjacent guanine-cytosine base pairs, blocking the transcription of DNA by RNA polymerase; it also causes single-strand DNA breaks, possibly via a free-radical intermediate or an interaction with topoisomerase II. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dakin's solution  
A highly diluted solution of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% w/v) with topical anti-infective activity. Dakin's solution is used as an antiseptic to clean infected topical wounds. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dalantercept  
A soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1) fused to a human Fc domain (ALK1-Fc fusion protein), with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, dalantercept binds to various ALK1 ligands, preventing activation of tumor cell ALK1 receptors and so inhibiting the ALK1 signaling pathway; growth factor-induced angiogenesis is thus inhibited, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. ALK1 is a type I cell surface receptor with serine/threonine kinase activity that mediates signaling by members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily and plays a key role in angiogenesis; ligands for this receptor include TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2. The Fc moiety of this fusion protein mediates clearance of ligand-fusion protein complexes by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Daliresp  
(Other name for: roflumilast)

dalotuzumab  
A recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Dalotuzumab binds to membrane-bound IGF1R, preventing binding of the ligand IGF1 and the subsequent triggering of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of this survival signaling pathway may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The activation of IGF1R, a tyrosine kinase and a member of the insulin receptor family, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF1R signaling has been highly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dalteparin  
A low molecular weight, synthetic heparin. As an anticoagulant/antithrombotic agent, dalteparin binds to antithrombin and enhances the inhibition of Factor Xa. Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of dalteparin is associated with lower incidences of osteoporosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

danazol  
A synthetic androgen derived from ethinyl testosterone. Danazol indirectly reduces estrogen production by decreasing pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and binds to sex hormone receptors in target tissues, thereby exhibiting antiestrogenic, anabolic and weakly androgenic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daniquidone  
A water-insoluble heterocyclic amide with potential antineoplastic activity. Daniquidone inhibits topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair, and RNA and protein synthesis. The acetylated form of daniquidone is highly toxic and is capable of inducing unscheduled DNA synthesis; rapid acetylators are more likely to experience toxicity with this agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Danocrine  
(Other name for: danazol)

danusertib  
A small-molecule 3-aminopyrazole derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Dalotuzumab binds to and inhibits the Aurora kinases, which may result in cell growth arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells in which Aurora kinases are overexpressed. This agent may preferentially bind to and inhibit Aurora B kinase. Aurora kinases, a family of serine-threonine kinases, are important regulators of cellular proliferation and division. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daporinad  
A small molecule with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Daporinad binds to and inhibits nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase), inhibiting the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) from niacinamide (vitamin B3), which may deplete energy reserves in metabolically active tumor cells and induce tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent may inhibit tumor cell prioduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), resulting in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The coenzyme NAD+ plays an essential role in cellular redox reactions, including the redox reaction linking the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dapsone gel, 5%  
A gel containing 5% (w/w) dapsone, a synthetic derivative of diamino-sulfone with anti-infective properties. A structural analog of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), dapsone inhibits dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), an enzyme important in folate synthesis, resulting in a depletion of the folate pool and a reduction in the amount of thymidylate available for DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daptomycin  
A semi-synthetic cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic isolated form the bacterium Streptomyces roseosporus with broad-spectrum anitbiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Daptomycin has a distinct mechanism of action, in which it binds to bacterial membrane and causes rapid depolarization of the cell membrane due to calcium-dependant potassium efflux; the loss of membrane potential leads to inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, resulting in bacterial cell death. This agent does not penetrate the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Daraprim  
(Other name for: pyrimethamine)

daratumumab  
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD-38 with potential antineoplastic activity. The binding of daratumumab to natural killer (NK) cells mimics the normal CD38-CD31 interaction on the NK cell surface. CD38 is also present on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and plasma leukemia cells; this agent may preferentially bind these cells, triggering antitumoral antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). CD38, a cell surface glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and has been shown to regulate the cytotoxic response of activated NK cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

darbepoetin alfa  
A recombinant analog of the endogenous cytokine erythropoietin, an erythropoiesis-stimulating protein. Due to the addition of two carbohydrate chains, darbepoetin alfa exhibits a three-fold greater half-life than does erythropoietin. Similar to erythropoietin, darbopoietin alfa binds to and activates epoetin receptors, thereby inducing the differentiation and maturation of erythrocyte progenitors, stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, and stimulating B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

darinaparsin  
A small-molecule organic arsenical with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action is unclear, darinaparsin, a highly toxic metabolic intermediate of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) that occurs in vivo, appears to generate volatile cytotoxic arsenic compounds when glutathione (GSH) concentrations are low. The arsenic compounds generated from darinaparsin disrupt mitochondrial bioenergetics, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducing ROS-mediated tumor cell apoptosis; in addition, this agent or its byproducts may initiate cell death by interrupting the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and may exhibit antiangiogenic effects. Compared to inorganic arsenic compounds such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), darinaparsin appears to exhibit a wide therapeutic window. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dasatinib  
An orally bioavailable synthetic small molecule-inhibitor of SRC-family protein-tyrosine kinases. Dasatinib binds to and inhibits the growth-promoting activities of these kinases. Apparently because of its less stringent binding affinity for the BCR-ABL kinase, dasatinib has been shown to overcome the resistance to imatinib of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells harboring BCR-ABL kinase domain point mutations. SRC-family protein-tyrosine kinases interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways; tumorigenic forms can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by way of virally-encoded kinase genes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

daunorubicin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of an anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic with therapeutic effects similar to those of doxorubicin. Daunorubicin exhibits cytotoxic activity through topoisomerase-mediated interaction with DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DaunoXome  
(Other name for: liposomal daunorubicin citrate)

DAVANAT  
(Other name for: galactomannan derivative)

DC-cholesterol liposome  
A cationic cholesterol derivative mixed with dimethylaminoethane-carbamoyl and sonicated to form small unilamellar vesicles that can complex with DNA, DNA/protein complexes and other drug complexes and mediates the delivery into the cytosol from the endosome compartment. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DC-OVA vaccine  
An autologous, multivalent dendritic cell vaccine targeting ovarian cancer with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. DC-OVA vaccine is produced in vitro by pulsing autologous dendritic cells with killed autologous primary ovarian tumors as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs); the pulsed DCs are then matured using various cytokines. Upon administration, DC-OVA vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against ovarian cancer TAA-expressing ovarian cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DCR ligand-bearing liposome-encapsulated melanoma antigens vaccine  
A cancer cell-based vaccine containing liposome encapsulated melanoma antigens and an immunomodulatory factor, attached, via a metal chelator, to a dendritic cell receptor (DCR) ligand-containing a metal-affinity tag, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of DCR ligand-bearing liposome-encapsulated melanoma antigens vaccine, the DCR ligand moiety of this vaccine targets receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), thereby presenting the antigens to DCs which may, in turn, stimulate the DCs and may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against melanoma cancer cell associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DDAVP  
(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)

DEC-205/NY-ESO-1 fusion protein CDX-1401  
A fusion protein consisting of a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the endocytic dendritic cell (DC) receptor, DEC-205, linked to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) NY-ESO-1 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The monoclonal antibody moiety of DEC-205/NY-ESO-1 fusion protein CDX-1401 binds to the endocytic DC receptor, which may result in DC endocytic internalization of this agent, specifically delivering the NY-ESO-1 moiety. DC processing of NY-ESO-1 may boost the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response (CTL) against cancer cells expressing NY-ESO-1. NY-ESO-1, a cell surface protein expressed in normal fetal and adult testes, is upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Decaderm  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Decadrol  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Decadron  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Decasone R.p.  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Decaspray  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Decavac  
(Other name for: diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid vaccine adsorbed)

decitabine  
A cytidine antimetabolite analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Decitabine incorporates into DNA and inhibits DNA methyltransferase, resulting in hypomethylation of DNA and intra-S-phase arrest of DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Declomycin  
(Other name for: demeclocycline hydrochloride)

Deenar  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

defactinib  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Defactinib inhibits FAK, which may prevent the integrin-mediated activation of several downstream signal transduction pathways, including those involving RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt, thus inhibiting tumor cell migration, proliferation, survival, and tumor angiogenesis. The tyrosine kinase FAK, a signal transducer for integrins, is normally activated by binding to integrins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) but may be upregulated and constitutively activated in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deferasirox  
A synthetic, orally bioavailable, achiral, tridentate triazole derived from salicylic acid with iron-chelating activity. Deferasirox chelates iron at a 2:1 (ligand:iron) ratio. Because of its oral availablity,and long plasma half-life, this agent may be superior to desferrioxamine (desferal, DFO), which is orally inactive and has a short plasma half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deferiprone  
An orally bioavailable bidentate ligand with iron chelating activity. Deferiprone binds to iron in a 3:1 (ligand:iron) molar ratio. By binding to iron, deferiprone is able to remove excess iron from the body. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deferoxamine mesylate  
The mesylate salt of an iron-chelating agent that binds free iron in a stable complex, preventing it from engaging in chemical reactions. Deferoxamine chelates iron from intra-lysosomal ferritin and ferrioxamine, a water-soluble complex excreted by the kidneys and in the feces via the bile. This agent does not readily chelate iron bound to transferrin, hemoglobin, myoglobin or cytochrome. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

defibrotide  
A polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic properties. Defibrotide induces the release of prostaglandin 12 and reduces the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, thereby interfering with platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

defined green tea catechin extract  
A defined, decaffeinated green tea extract, containing polyphenolic flavonol catechins, isolated from the plant Camellia sinensis with antiviral, antioxidant, and potential chemopreventive activities. The primary catechins found in green tea are epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3 gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most potent. As potential chemopreventive agents, catechins scavenge free radicals; inhibit enzymes involved in cell replication and DNA synthesis; interfere with cell-to-cell contact adhesion; and inhibit various intracellular communication pathways required for cell division. In addition, it has been postulated that EGCG may "trap" growth factors such platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on cell membranes, immobilizing growth factors on cell membranes and preventing ligand-receptor crosslinking and growth factor receptor activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Definity  
(Other name for: perflutren lipid microspheres)

degarelix  
A long-acting, synthetic peptide with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonistic properties. Degarelix targets and blocks GnRH receptors located on the surfaces of gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary, thereby reducing secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by pituitary gonadotroph cells and so decreasing testosterone production by interstitial (Leydig) cells in the testes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deglycosylated ricin A chain-conjugated anti-CD19/anti-CD22 immunotoxins  
A combination preparation of 1:1 mixture of the immunotoxins HD37-dgA and RFB4-dgA with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-CD19 IgG monoclonal antibody HD37 and anti-CD22 IgG monoclonal antibody RFB4 are attached individually to a deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgA) via N-succinimidyl-oxycarbonyl-alpha-methyl-alpha-(2-pyridyldithio) toluene (SMPT) linker. Deglycosylated ricin A chain-conjugated anti-CD19/anti-CD22 immunotoxins bind to CD19- and CD22-expressing tumor cells, specifically delivering cytotoxic ricin A chain to leukemia cells expressing these antigens. Ricin A chain is toxic to ribosomal activity and protein synthesis, and inhibits cell growth. CD19 and CD22 molecules are cell surface antigens present on the majority of B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Del-Vi-A  
(Other name for: retinol)

Deladumone  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

delanzomib  
An orally bioavailable synthetic P2 threonine boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, with potential antineoplastic activity. Delanzomib represses the proteasomal degradation of a variety of proteins, including inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha), resulting in the cytoplasmic sequestration of the transcription factor NF-kappaB; inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and transcriptional up-regulation of a variety of cell growth-promoting factors; and apoptotic cell death in susceptible tumor cell populations. In vitro studies indicate that this agent exhibits a favorable cytotoxicity profile toward normal human epithelial cells, bone marrow progenitors, and bone marrow-derived stromal cells relative to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The intracellular protein IkappaBalpha functions as a primary inhibitor of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Delatestryl  
(Other name for: therapeutic testosterone)

delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol  
An analogue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with antiemetic, anxiolytic, appetite-stimulating, analgesic, and neuroprotective properties. Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC) binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB1, located in the central nervous system; CB1 receptor activation inhibits adenyl cyclase, increases mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, modulates several potassium channel conductances and inhibits N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. This agent exhibits a lower psychotropic potency than delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the primary form of THC found in cannabis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Delta-Cortef  
(Other name for: prednisolone)

demcizumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the N-terminal epitope of Notch ligand DLL4 (delta-like 4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Demcizumab binds to the membrane-binding portion of DLL4 and prevents its interaction with Notch-1 and Notch-4 receptors, thereby inhibiting Notch-mediated signaling and gene transcription, which may impede tumor angiogenesis. Activation of Notch receptors by DLL4 stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD); after cleavage, NICD is translocated into the nucleus and mediates the transcriptional regulation of a variety of genes involved in vascular development. The expression of DLL4 is highly restricted to the vascular endothelium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

demeclocycline hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of demeclocycline, a broad-spectrum, tetracycline derivative exhibiting antimicrobial, aquaretic and chelating activities. In bacteria, demeclocycline binds reversibly to the 30S ribosomal subunit and blocks the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the mRNA-ribosome complex, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis and bacterial cell death. In mammals, this agent interferes with the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) at the level of the renal collecting tubule, resulting in aquaresis. In addition, demeclocycline, which like other tetracyclines chelates calcium in bone and exhibits a yellow fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light, may be used as a fluorescent bone-labeling agent in bone histomorphometry. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Demerol  
(Other name for: meperidine hydrochloride)

demineralized bone matrix  
Demineralized allograft bone with osteoinductive activity. Demineralized bone matrices are prepared by acid extraction of allograft bone, resulting in loss of most of the mineralized component but retention of collagen and noncollagenous proteins, including growth factors. The efficacy of a demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a bone-graft substitute or extender may be related to the total amount of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) present, and the ratios of the different BMPs present. BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily of proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DEMSER  
(Other name for: metyrosine)

Dendrid  
(Other name for: idoxuridine)

dendritic cell-autologous lung tumor vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of lymphocytes harvested from a patient with lung cancer and induced to become antigen-presenting cells (APCs) known as dendritic cells. The dendritic cells are transduced with the gene encoding an antigen specific to the patient's cancer and then returned to the patient. In the host, the altered cells stimulate the immune system to mount a primary T cell response against lung tumor cells expressing the target antigen. Dendritic cell-autologous lung tumor vaccines have been investigated for use in cancer immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dendritic cell-CEA peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of dendritic cells harvested from a patient with cancer and pulsed or transduced with a peptide fragment of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a tumor-associated antigen expressed by a wide range of cancers. When the altered dendritic cells are returned to the patient, they may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells expressing CEA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dendritic cell-gp100-MART-1 antigen vaccine  
An autologous dendritic cell vaccine with antineoplastic property. Dendritic cells harvested from cancer patients are pulsed with human gp100 melanoma antigen and MART-1 antigen (a melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells); both antigens are up-regulated in melanomas. Vaccination with this vaccine may elicit the host immune response against MART-1 or gp100 expressing cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dendritic cell-idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin vaccine  
A cell-based vaccine composed of allogeneic dendritic cells (DC), pulsed with patient-specific non-Hodgkin's lymphoma idiotype (Id) determinants conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against Id-expressing lymphoma cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dendritic cell-MART-1 peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of dendritic cells harvested from a patient with cancer and pulsed or transduced with a peptide fragment of MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells), an antigen expressed by melanoma cells. When the altered dendritic cells are returned to the patient, they stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells expressing MART-1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dendritic cell-targeting lentiviral vector ID-LV305  
An engineered lentiviral vector targeting dendritic cells (DCs) and containing nucleic acids encoding for the human tumor-associated cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration, the DC-targeting lentiviral vector ID-LV305 targets and binds to dermal DCs via the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) receptor. Upon internalization of the vector, the NY-ESO-1 protein is expressed, stimulates DC maturation and activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against NY-ESO-1-expressing cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. NY-ESO-1 is expressed in normal testes and on the surfaces of various tumor cells, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

denenicokin  
A recombinant peptide similar to or identical to endogenous human cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) with potential antineoplastic activity. Denenicokin binds to and activates IL-21 receptors, expressed on T-cells, B-cells, dendritic cells (DC), and natural killer (NK) cells, modulating the proliferation and/or differentiation of T and B cells, promoting T cell survival, and increasing the cytolytic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

denibulin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of denibulin, a small molecular vascular disrupting agent, with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Denibulin selectively targets and reversibly binds to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin and inhibits microtubule assembly. This results in the disruption of the cytoskeleton of tumor endothelial cells, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest, blockage of cell division and apoptosis. This causes inadequate blood flow to the tumor and eventually leads to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation., a small molecule vascular disrupting agent (VDA), with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activity. Denibulin selectively targets and reversibly binds to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin and inhibits microtubule assembly. This results in the disruption of the cytoskeleton of tumor endothelial cells (EC), ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest, blockage of cell division and apoptosis. This causes inadequate blood flow to the tumor and eventually leads to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

denileukin diftitox  
A cytotoxic recombinant protein consisting of interleukin-2 (IL-2) protein sequences fused to diphtheria toxin. The IL-2 protein sequence moiety of denileukin difitox directs the cytocidal action of diphtheria toxin to cells that express IL-2 receptors. After the toxin moiety is internalized into target IL-2 receptor-expressing cells, its catalytic domain catalyzes the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a posttranslationally modified histidine residue of elongation factor 2 (EF-2), called diphthamine. This covalent modification inactivates EF-2 and disrupts polypeptide chain elongation, resulting in cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

denosumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa beta ligand (RANKL) with antiosteoclast activity. Denosumab specifically binds to RANKL and blocks the interaction of RANKL with RANK, a receptor located on osteoclast cell surfaces, resulting in inhibition of osteoclast activity, a decrease in bone resorption, and a potential increase in bone mineral density. RANKL, a protein expressed by osteoblastic cells, plays an important role in osteoclastic differentiation and activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deoxycytidine analogue TAS-109  
An analogue of the nucleoside deoxycytidine with potential antineoplastic activity. Nucleoside analogue TAS-109 is incorporated into DNA and directly inhibits the activity of DNA polymerase, which may result in inhibition of DNA replication and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases, DNA fragmentation, and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Depade  
(Other name for: naltrexone hydrochloride)

Depakene  
(Other name for: valproic acid)

depAndro  
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)

DEPDC1/MPHOSH1 peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing HLA-A*2402-restricted epitopes derived from DEP domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) and M phase phosphoprotein 1 (MPHOSPH1) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, DEPDC1/MPHOSH1 peptide vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing DEPDC1 and MPHOSPH1, tumor antigens that are overexpressed in bladder cancer cells. HLA-A*2402 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*2402 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Depen  
(Other name for: penicillamine)

Deplin  
(Other name for: L-methylfolate)

Depo-Medrol  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

Depo-Provera  
(Other name for: medroxyprogesterone)

Depo-Testosterone  
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)

DepoCyt  
(Other name for: liposomal cytarabine)

Depotest  
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)

derma-membrane-structure topical cream  
A topical cream formulation containing physiological lipids with potential anti-xerotic activity. Derma-membrane-structure topical cream contains ingredients that mirror the lipid component of the the skin, including hydrated phosphatidyl choline, but does not contain conventional emulsifiers that may disrupt the skin-lipid barrier. This cream can also be used as a vehicle or base for topically applied medications. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dermacort  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

DermaMatrix  
(Other name for: acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix)

Deronil  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Desferal  
(Other name for: deferoxamine mesylate)

desflurane  
A fluorinated ether with general anesthetic and muscle relaxant activities. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been established, desflurane, administered by inhalation, appears to act on the lipid matirx of the neuronal membrane, resulting in disruption of neuronal transmission in the brain. This agent may also enhance the synaptic activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

desipramine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of desipramine, a secondary amine tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). In the central nervous system (CNS), desipramine hydrochloride blocks the re-uptake of neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine and serotonin. This leads to an increase in the amount of these neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and prolongs their activities postsynaptically. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deslorelin  
A synthetic nonapeptide analogue of the natural gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) with potential antineoplastic activity. Deslorelin binds to and activates pituitary gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. Continuous, prolonged administration of goserelin in males results in pituitary GnRH receptor desensitization and inhibition of pituitary secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), leading to a significant decline in testosterone production; in females, prolonged administration results in a decrease in estradiol production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

desmopressin acetate  
An analogue of the hormone vasopressin with antidiuretic and antihemorrhagic properties. Desmopressin acetate has selective affinity for the V2 receptor and acts on the distal kidney tubule by increasing the cellular permeability thereby stimulating water reabsorption. This antidiuretic agent is used in the treatment of central diabetes insipidus. An unrelated action of desmopressin acetate is to increases circulating factor VIII and is used in patients with haemophilia and von Willebrand's disease. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

desogestral  
A synthetic progestogen structurally related to levonorgestrel, with progesterone hormone receptor agonistic activity, used as a contraceptive and hormone replacement agent. Upon administration, desogestrel binds intracellular progesterone receptors in progesterone responsive tissue and the resultant complex interacts with DNA causing either gene transcription or gene repression. This eventually leads to an inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus and a subsequent inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release. This prevents ovulation and alters the cervical mucus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

desvenlafaxine succinate  
The succinate salt form of desvenlafaxine, a synthetic phenethylamine bicyclic derivative with antidepressant activity. Desvenlafaxine is a selective reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine due to its high binding affinities to the pre-synaptic serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. By blocking both transporters, this agent prolongs neurotransmitter activities of both serotonin and norepinephrine, thereby alleviating depressive state. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

detorubicin  
A semi-synthetic derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic daunorubicin. Detorubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also produces toxic free-radical intermediates and interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Detorubicin is less toxic than daunorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Detox-B adjuvant  
A cancer vaccine adjuvant that consists of an oil droplet emulsion of monophosphoryl lipid A and mycobacterial cell wall skeleton. Detox-B adjuvant is a non-specific immunostimulant that may enhance the host immune response to certain cancer vaccines. Detox-B differs from Detox adjuvant in that Detox-B contains lecithin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DetoxPC  
A detoxified, nonspecific immunostimulant consisting of a combination of the active monophosphoryl lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from the bacterium Salmonella minnesota combined with a residue of the cell wall of the bacterium Mycobacterium phlei. Detox-PC differs from Detox adjuvant and Detox-B in that Detox-PC contains egg phosphatidylcholine and alpha-tocopherol. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deuterated 3-methylhistidine  
A derivative of the amino acid histidine labeled with heavy hydrogen (D) used in diagnostic procedures. Upon intake of deuterated 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), this agent is incorporated into muscle protein and then is subsequently excreted unchanged in the urine. By measuring the amount of 3-MH in the urine, via analysis of deuterium, the rate of protein muscle catabolism can be determined and the risk of skeletal muscle atrophy or cachexia can be assessed. 3-methylhistidine is a myofibrillar-specific amino acid and is mainly found in muscle myosin and actin; proteolysis of myofibrils releases 3-MH that is excreted unchanged in the urine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deuterated phenanthrene  
A noncarcinogenic and structural analogue of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene labeled with deuterium ([D10]Phe) with potential use in assessing an individual’s capacity for PAH metabolism by the diol epoxide pathway. Upon oral or inhalation administration, [D10]Phe is metabolized into the tetraol end product ([D10]PheT) via the diol epoxide pathway, and can be quantified in urine. [D10]PheT can be used as a biomarker to assess PAHs metabolic activation and may therefore determine an individual’s susceptibility to carcinogenicity upon PAH exposure. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

deuterium oxide  
A stable, non-radioactive isotopic form of water, containing 2 atoms of deuterium (D) and one atom of oxygen (2D2O), with DNA-labeling activity. Upon ingestion of deuterium oxide, 2H is incorporated into the deoxyribose moiety of DNA of newly divided cells. Rapidly dividing cells, as in the case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), can be labeled with deuterium oxide and measured using gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dex-4  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Dexace  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Dexameth  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

dexamethasone  
A synthetic adrenal corticosteroid with potent anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to binding to specific nuclear steroid receptors, dexamethasone also interferes with NF-kB activation and apoptotic pathways. This agent lacks the salt-retaining properties of other related adrenal hormones. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dexamethasone intravitreal implant  
An intravitreal implant containing the corticosteroid dexamethasone embedded in a biodegradable polymer matrix, with anti-inflammatory and macular edema-relieving activity. Upon insertion into the vitreous cavity, dexamethasone intravitreal implant is dissolved slowly and dexamethasone is released over an extended period of time. Dexamethasone inhibits inflammation thereby preventing leakage from the capillaries and a reduction of retinal edema. This may ultimately prevent vision impairment. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dexanabinol  
A synthetic, terpene-based cannabinoid derivative devoid of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 agonist activity and with potential neuroprotective, antiinflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Functioning as an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, dexanabinol protects neuronal cells against NMDA and glutamate neurotoxicity. This agent also scavenges peroxy radicals and protects neurons from the damages of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, dexanabinol inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), thereby preventing the expression of NF-kB target genes, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase. As a result, this agent may restore apoptotic processes in cancerous cells. NF-kB is activated in a variety of cancer cells and plays a key role in the regulation of apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

dexmedetomidine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of dexmedetomidine, an imidazole derivate and active d-isomer of medetomidine with analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative activities. Dexmedetomidine selectively binds to and activates presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors located in the brain, thereby inhibiting the release of norepinephrine from synaptic vesicles. This leads to an inhibition of postsynaptic activation of adrenoceptors, which inhibits sympathetic activity, thereby leading to analgesia, sedation and anxiolysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dexpanthenol cream  
An alcoholic analogue of D-pantothenic acid and cholinergic agent. Dexpanthenol acts as a precursor of coenzyme A necessary for acetylation reactions and is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism of the actions of dexpanthenol is unclear, it may enhance the effect of acetylcholine. Dexpanthenol acts on the gastrointestinal tract and increases lower intestinal motility. It is also applied topically to the skin to relieve itching and to promote healing. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dexpanthenol mouthwash  
A mouthwash containing 5% dexpanthenol, the alcoholic analogue of the dextrorotatory isomer of pantothenic acid with potential antimucositis activity. Although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, upon rinsing with this solution dexpanthenol is converted to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) which is required for coenzyme A synthesis as well as for the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Coenzyme A is involved in fatty acids and sphingolipids synthesis crucial for cell membrane integrity. This mouthwash may have a protective and healing effect on the oral mucosa, may improve hydration and may potentially prevent or reduce radiation/chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

dexrazoxane hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a bisdioxopiperazine with iron-chelating, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and antineoplastic activities. After hydrolysis to an active form that is similar to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), dexrazoxane chelates iron, limiting the formation of free radical-generating anthracycline-iron complexes, which may minimize anthracycline-iron complex-mediated oxidative damage to cardiac and soft tissues. This agent also inhibits the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II, which may result in tumor cell growth inhibition. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dextri-Maltose  
(Other name for: maltodextrin)

dextroamphetamine-amphetamine  
A combination of two synthetic agents with central nervous system stimulant activity. Both agents are non-catecholamine, sympathomimetic agents that elevate blood pressure and cause bronchodilation. These agents are commonly abused psychostimulant drugs that induce psychologic dependence manifested by elevated mood, increased wakefulness, concentration, physical performance and a feeling of well-being. Tolerance to various effects develops unequally, so that tachycardia and enhanced alertness diminish while psychotoxic effects (hallucinations and delusions) may occur. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dextromethorphan hydrobromide  
The hydrobromide salt form of dextromethorphan, a synthetic, methylated dextrorotary analogue of levorphanol, a substance related to codeine and a non-opioid derivate of morphine. Dextromethorphan exhibits antitussive activity and is devoid of analgesic or addictive property. This agent crosses the blood-brain-barrier and activates sigma opioid receptors on the cough center in the central nervous system, thereby suppressing the cough reflex. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the d-isomer of the synthetic opiate propoxyphene with weak narcotic analgesic activity. Dextropropoxyphene mimics the effects of endogenous opiates by binding to mu receptors located throughout the central nervous system. The binding results in GTP to GDP exchanges on the mu-G-protein complex, by which the effector adenylate cyclase is inactivated, decreasing intracellular cAMP. This, in turn, inhibits the release of various nociceptive neurotransmitters, such as substance P, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and somatostatin. In addition, dextropropoxyphene closes N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and opens calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels, which results in neuronal hyperpolarization, a reduction in neuronal excitability, and a further decrease in the perception of pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dexverapamil  
The R-enantiomer of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. Dexverapamil competitively inhibits the multidrug resistance efflux pump P-glycoprotein (MDR-1), thereby potentially increasing the effectiveness of a wide range of antineoplastic drugs which are inactivated by MDR-1 mechanisms. This agent exhibits decreased calcium antagonistic activity and toxicity compared to racemic verapamil. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dezone  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

DHA-paclitaxel  
A prodrug comprised of the naturally occurring omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) covalently conjugated to the anti-microtubule agent paclitaxel. Because tumor cells take up DHA, DHA-paclitaxel is delivered directly to tumor tissue, where the paclitaxel moiety binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. Paclitaxel also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2). DHA-paclitaxel exhibits improved pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles when compared to conventional paclitaxel and has demonstrated antineoplastic activity in animal models of cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DHAP regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine (ARA-C) and cisplatin (Platinol), used for the treatment of relapsed and refractory Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DHEA mustard  
A steroidal alkylating agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Alkylating agents exert cytotoxic and, in some cases, chemotherapeutic effects by transferring alkyl groups to DNA, thereby damaging DNA and interfering with DNA replication and cell division. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dHER2+AS15 vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a truncated recombinant HER2/neu peptide (dHER2) combined with the immunoadjuvant AS15 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, dHER2+AS15 vaccine may stimulate the host immune response to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress the HER2/neu protein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) HER2/neu is often overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types; dHER2 includes amino acids 1-645 or 1-653 of the extracellular domain (ECD) and an immunogenic carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation portion of the intracellular domain (ICD). AS15 is an adjuvant formulation that contains the adjuvant systems AS01B and AS07A; AS01 B is composed of liposomes containing 3D-MPL and QS21 and AS07A is composed of the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) agonist CpG 7909. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DI-Leu16-IL2 immunocytokine  
A recombinant fusion protein consisting of de-immunized and humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Leu16 fused to human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL2) with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of DI-Leu16-IL2 immunocytokine binds to tumor cells expressing the CD20 antigen, which may result in an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) towards CD20-expressing tumor cells; the localized IL2 moiety of this fusion protein may stimulate natural killer (NK) and T-lymphocyte mediated immune responses, enhancing the ADCC response. De-immunization involves the modification of potential helper T cell epitopes that bind to MHC class II molecules; humanization involves combining recombinant murine variable (V) regions with human immunoglobulin light and heavy chain constant regions. CD20 antigen, a hydrophobic transmembrane protein located on normal pre-B and mature B lymphocytes, is overexpressed by various cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diacetylmorphine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a diacetyl derivative of the opiate morphine, a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy (Papaver sp.). Once administered, diamorphine (or diacetylmorphine) is rapidly hydrolyzed to 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and then to the end-product morphine which binds to opiate receptors located throughout the mammalian nervous and gastrointestinal systems. Inducing a potent analgesia, the use of diamoprhine is often escalated due to a tolerance effect, resulting in abuse that is associated with fatal overdose, abortion, venous sclerosis, and opportunistic infections, among other adverse effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diammonium glycyrrhizinate  
The diammonium salt of glycyrrhizin and the active constituent in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese liquorice or Gan-Cao) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) is slowly metabolized within the cells into glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits enzymes that control cortisol metabolism and contributes to this agent's anti-inflammatory effect. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, DG may prevent or reduce hepatotoxicity via the scavenging of free radicals. This agent also upregulates the expression of transcription coactivator PGC-1alpha and modulates hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase and glutathion peroxidase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dianhydrogalactitol  
A bifunctional hexitol derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Dianhydrogalactitol alkylates and cross-links DNA via an epoxide group during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function and cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Diastyl  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

diazepinomicin  
A small-molecule inhibitor of the RAS/RAF/MAPK signaling pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Diazepinomicin binds to and inhibits Ras kinase, thereby preventing the phosphorylation and activation of proteins downstream of the Ras signal transduction pathway, including serine/threonine kinase RAF (BRAF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK-2). This agent also selectively binds to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a receptor highly expressed in certain tumor cell types cells, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PBR-expressing cells. Diazepinomicin can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diaziquone  
A synthetic bifunctional quinone derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Diaziquone alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This agent can also form free radicals, thereby initiating DNA damage via DNA strand breaks. Due to its lipophilicity, diaziquone readily crosses the blood brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diazooxonorleucine  
An L-glutamine diazo analogue amino acid antibiotic isolated from a species of the bacterial genus Streptomyces with potential antineoplastic activity. Diazooxonorleucine inhibits several glutamine-dependent biosynthetic pathways involved in the the syntheses of D-glucosamine phosphate, purines and pyrimidines. This agent inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase, a key enzyme for the synthesis of releasable glutamine, depleting cells of this essential amino acid and reducing their capacity to proliferate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diazoxide  
A benzothiadiazine derivate with antihypertensive and hyperglycemic activities. Diazoxide increases membrane permeability to potassium ions in vascular smooth muscle, thereby stabilizing the membrane action potential and preventing vascular smooth muscle contraction; this results in peripheral vasodilatation and decreases in peripheral vascular resistance. This agent also inhibits insulin release by interacting with ATP-sensitive potassium channels of pancreatic islet beta-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dibenzyline  
(Other name for: phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride)

dichloromethotrexate  
A chlorinated methotrexate derivative. Dichloromethotrexate inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, thereby preventing the synthesis of purine nucleotides and thymidylates and inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent is metabolized and excreted by the liver. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diclofenac sodium gel  
A gel formulation of the sodium salt of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal benzeneacetic acid derivative with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Diclofenac binds to and chelates both isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and-2), thereby blocking the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) to pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. This agent may also inhibit lipoxygenases, resulting in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory leukotriene synthesis from AA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

didanosine  
A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine in which the 3' hydroxyl on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. In vivo, didanosine is converted to the active triphosphate form, which is incorporated into DNA. The absence of the 3' hydroxyl inhibits DNA elongation because phosphodiester bonds cannot be made with the substituted hydrogen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

didemnin B  
A cyclic depsipeptide extracted from the Caribbean tunicate Trididemnum cyanophorum. Didemnin B activates caspase, thereby inducing apoptosis, and prevents eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2)-dependent translocation, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. This agent also has immunosuppressive and antiviral properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dideoxyadenosine  
A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine and a prodrug of didanosine in which the 3' hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Dideoxyadenosine competitively inhibits adenylyl cyclase, thereby reducing levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). By inhibiting cAMP-mediated gene activation in tumor cells, this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dienogest  
An orally-active, semisynthetic, fourth generation, nonethinylated progestogen with potential antiproliferative, antiandrogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities that is used in hormone therapy and as a female contraceptive. Upon oral administration, dienogest binds intracellular progesterone receptors which then translocate to the nucleus where the drug-receptor complex interacts with progesterone response elements, thus altering the expression of target genes. Dienogest reduces the production of estradiol, prevents ovulation and alters the cervical mucus and endometrium. In addition, dienogest appears to suppress the expression of cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. Altogether, this may prevent the growth of endometrial epithelial cells and may reduce symptoms associated with leiomyoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diethyldithiocarbamate  
A sulfhydryl-containing carbamate that is the primary in vivo metabolite of disulfiram. Diethyldithiocarbamate chelates zinc, thereby inhibiting metalloproteinases, thereby preventing the degradation of the extracellular matrix and inhibiting an initial step in cancer metastasis and angiogenesis. A known inhibitor of superoxide dismutase, this agent can either potentiate or protect against cell oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation, depending on the time of administration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diethylstilbestrol  
DES; the acronym for diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal form of estrogen. A well-known teratogen and carcinogen, DES inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thereby blocking the testicular synthesis of testosterone, lowering plasma testosterone, and inducing a chemical castration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Difflam  
(Other name for: benzydamine hydrochloride)

Diflucan  
(Other name for: fluconazole)

diflunisal  
A difluorophenyl derivate of salicylic acid and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Diflunisal competitively inhibits both cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and -2, with higher affinity for COX-1, and subsequently blocks the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin precursors. This leads to an inhibition of the formation of prostaglandins that are involved in pain, inflammation and fever. Diflunisal differs from other salicylates, in that it is not metabolized to salicylic acid, hence it has a longer half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

digoxin  
A cardiac glycoside. Digoxin inhibits the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) pump, thereby increasing intracellular calcium and enhancing cardiac contractility. This agent also acts directly on the atrioventricular node to suppress conduction, thereby slowing conduction velocity. Apparently due to its effects on intracellular calcium concentrations, digoxin induces apoptosis of tumor cells via a pathway involving mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspases 8 and 3. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dihydro-5-azacytidine  
A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxycytidine. Dihydro-5-azacytidine inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby interfering with abnormal DNA methylation patterns that are associated with genetic instability in some tumor cells. Inhibition of this enzyme may restore expression of tumor-suppressor genes and result in antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dihydrolenperone  
A butyrophenone that has been investigated for antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dihydrotestosterone  
The most potent androgen, required for sex development. Dihydrotestosterone is synthesized from testosterone in the prostate gland, testes, hair follicles and adrenal glands by 5-alpha reductase. Dihydrotestosterone exerts its action similar to testosterone, which binds to and activates specific nuclear androgen receptors. After translocation into the nucleus, the activated hormone-receptor complex binds to the androgen response elements on the DNA and activates gene expressions that are required for sex development. Dihydrotestosterone is responsible for the formation of male primary sex characteristics and most male secondary sex characteristics during puberty, such as muscular growth, facial and body hair growth, and deepening of the voice. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diindolylmethane  
A phytonutrient and plant indole found in cruciferous vegetables including broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and kale, with potential antiandrogenic and antineoplastic activities. As a dimer of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane (DIM) promotes beneficial estrogen metabolism in both sexes by reducing the levels of 16-hydroxy estrogen metabolites and increasing the formation of 2-hydroxy estrogen metabolites, resulting in increased antioxidant activity. Although this agent induces apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro, the exact mechanism by which DIM exhibits its antineoplastic activity in vivo is unknown. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dilaudid  
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)

Dilaudid HP  
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)

diltiazem hydrochloride  
A benzothiazepine calcium channel blocking agent. Diltiazem hydrochloride inhibits the transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions into select myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing dilatation of coronary and systemic arteries and decreasing myocardial contractility. Because of its vasodilatory activity, this agent has been shown to improve the microcirculation in some tumors, thereby potentially improving the delivery of antineoplastic agents to tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dimericine  
(Other name for: liposomal T4N5 lotion)

dimerizer drug AP1903  
A lipid-permeable tacrolimus analogue with homodimerizing activity. Dimerizer drug AP1903 homodimerizes an analogue of human protein FKBP12 (Fv) which contains a single acid substitution (Phe36Val) so that AP1903 binds to wild-type FKBP12 with 1000-fold lower affinity. This agent is used to homodimerize the Fv-containing drug-binding domains of genetically engineered receptors such as the iCD40 receptor of the autologous dendritic cell vaccine BP-GMAX-CD1, resulting in receptor activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dimesna  
A synthetic derivative of dithio-ethane sulfonate with uroprotective properties. In the kidney, dimesna undergoes reduction to the free thiol compound, mesna, which reacts chemically with the urotoxic ifosfamide metabolites acrolein and 4-hydroxy-ifosfamide, resulting in their detoxification. This agent also inhibits cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dimethyl sulfoxide  
A polar organic solvent. DMSO is a free radical scavenger that has been used to treat extravasation damage caused by anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dimethylbusulfan  
An aliphatic analogue of busulfan with potential antineoplastic activity. As an alkylating agent, dimethylbusulfan induces neutropenia and has been shown to exhibit antitumor effects in some animal models. Alkylating agents exert cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic effects by transferring alkyl groups to DNA, thereby damaging DNA and interfering with DNA synthesis and cell division. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dimorphone  
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)

dinaciclib  
A pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine with potential antineoplastic activity. Dinaciclib selectively inhibits cyclin dependent kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK5, and CDK9; inhibition of CDK1 and CDK2 may result in cell cycle repression and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dinitrophenyl  
A small molecule containing 2 phenol rings, characterized as a hapten for use in vaccine preparation. Dinitrophenyl by itself will not elicit any immune response nor bind to antigen. Dinitrophenyl compound is commonly used to couple with peptides in vaccine preparation to enhance the immunogenicity of otherwise weak immunogenic antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dinoprost tromethamine  
A synthetic analogue of the naturally occurring prostaglandin F2 alpha. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates myometrial activity, relaxes the cervix, inhibits corpus luteal steroidogenesis, and induces luteolysis by direct action on the corpus luteum. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dinutuximab  
A chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Dinutuximab binds to the ganglioside GD2 and induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against GD2-expressing tumor cells. GD2 is overexpressed in malignant melanoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Dioscorea nipponica Makino extract DNE3  
An extract of the plant Dioscorea nipponica Makino and inhibitor of both the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) and members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family of lipid kinases, with potential antineoplastic and anti-metastatic activities. Dioscorea nipponica Makino extracted with ethyl acetate (DNE3) binds to and inhibits PI3K and Akt. This inhibits PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling and prevents both growth and survival of PI3K/Akt-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, DNE3 increases the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), inhibits the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibits the serine protease urokinase (urokinase-type plasminogen activator; u-PA). This inhibits tumor cell invasion, migration, motility, and adhesion. This agent also inhibits the activation of both cAMP response element-binding (CREB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1), and increases the expression of IkappaB (IkB), which inhibits the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). These processes further contribute to this agent's anti-tumor potential in susceptible tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Diovan  
(Other name for: valsartan)

diphencyprone  
A synthetic, potent allergic contact sensitizer with potential immunostimulatory activity. After sensitization process by repeated topical application of diphencyprone to a specific area, further application of this agent to the affected area may stimulate an immune response and may potentially be useful to clear the affected area from infection or cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diphenhydramine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of diphenhydramine, an ethanolamine and first-generation histamine antagonist with anti-allergic activity. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride competitively blocks H1receptors, thereby preventing the actions of histamine on bronchial smooth muscle, capillaries, and gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. This prevents histamine-induced bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and GI smooth muscle spasms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diphenhydramine hydrochloride/dexamethasone/nystatin magic mouthwash  
An oral suspension containing diphenydramine hydrochloride, dexamethasone and nystatin, with anithistaminic, antiinflammatory, and antifungal activities. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride/dexamethasone/nystatin magic mouthwash inhibits the cytokine-mediated inflammation and yeast colonization of the oral mucosa associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diphtheria toxin/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed  
A vaccine containing detoxified tetanus toxoid, detoxified diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis antigens, adsorbed on aluminum phosphate, with active immunizing activity against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. The acellular pertussis vaccine components, produced by Bordetella pertussis, are detoxified pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM). Intramuscular injection with this vaccine activates the immune system to develop antibodies against tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin and B. pertussis antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid vaccine adsorbed  
A vaccine containing detoxified tetanus toxoid and detoxified diphtheria toxoid adsorbed on aluminum phosphate with active immunizing activity against diphtheria and tetanus. Intramuscular injection with this vaccine activates the immune system to develop antibodies against tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis adsorbed, recombinant hepatitis B/inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined  
A vaccine consisting of detoxified tetanus toxoid, detoxified diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, inactivated poliovirus (IPV) types 1,2 and 3 and hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen, with active immunizing activities against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis. The acellular pertussis components in this vaccine, produced by Bordetella pertussis, are detoxified pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN). Upon intramuscular injection, this vaccine activates the immune system to develop antibodies against tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, B. pertussis antigens, polioviruses and HBV. The diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis antigens (inactivated PT, FHA, and pertactin) are adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide; the hepatitis B antigen is adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Diprivan  
(Other name for: propofol)

dipyridamole  
A synthetic agent derivative of pyrimido-pyrimidine, with antiplatelet properties. Dipyridamole inhibits adenosine uptake by platelets and endothelial cells, triggering an accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and inhibiting the stimulation of platelet aggregation by agents such as platelet activating factor and collagen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl  
A lipophilic disaccharide tripeptide derivative of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) with immunomodulatory activity. Disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl (DTP-GDP)stimulates macrophage activity and increases serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), neopterin, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, which may activate host immune system antitumor functions. DTP-GDP may be packaged in liposomes for improved delivery. The immunomodulatory effects of this agent may be superior to those of MDP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Disalcid  
(Other name for: sodium salicylate)

distilled water  
An ultra-pure form of water with potential antineoplastic activity. Derived by boiling impure water and condensing the resultant steam in a sterile container, distilled water has been shown to kill bladder cancer cells in vitro through osmotic lysis (cytolysis). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

disulfiram  
A carbamoyl derivate used in the treatment of alcoholism. Disulfiram irreversibly inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase that oxidizes the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde into acetic acid. This leads to an accumulation of acetaldehyde that produces a variety of very unpleasant symptoms referred to as the disulfiram-alcohol reaction. This reaction includes , but is not limited to, flushing, headache, respiratory difficulty, nausea,vomiting, sweating, thirst, chest pain, tachycardia, blurred vision and hypotension. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Divine 9 with Carragel  
(Other name for: carrageenan-containing gel)

DJ-927  
A semi-synthetic, orally bioavailable taxane derivative with potential antineoplastic properties. Oral taxane derivative DJ-927 binds to tubulin, promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization and preventing microtubule depolymerization, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. As it represents poor substrate for P-glycoprotein-related drug resistance mechanisms, this agent may be useful for treating multi-drug resistant tumors. As the first oral taxane derivative, oral taxane derivative DJ-927 is more potent than paclitaxel and docetaxel. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DKK1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody DKN-01  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. DKK1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody DKN-01 binds to and inhibits DKK1, which restores Wnt pathway signaling. Reactivation of the Wnt signaling pathway may result in the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts within the bone matrix and the reversal of tumor-induced osteolytic disease. Elevated levels of circulating DKK1, a potent Wnt signaling pathway antagonist, is associated with a number of neoplastic diseases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DLK1/ EPHA2/HBB/NRP1/RGS5/TEM1 peptide-pulsed alpha-type-1 polarized dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of mature polarized dendritic cells (alphaDC1) pulsed with six human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-presented tumor blood vessel antigen (TBVA)-derived peptides, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Dendritic cells (DCs) were treated with a “type-1 polarizing cytokine cocktail”, including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), interferon-alpha (IFN-a), IFN-gamma and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C) to produce mature alpha type-1 polarized DCs (alphaDC1) that are capable of producing high levels of interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70). The alphaDC1 are subsequently pulsed with TBVA-derived peptides, including delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) 310-318, EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2) 883-891, beta-globin (HBB) 31-39, neuropilin-1 (NRP1) 433-441, regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5) 5-13 and tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) 691-700. Upon administration, these DCs are able to induce a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the TBVAs expressed on tumor-associated stromal cells, which results in stromal cell lysis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Disrupting the surrounding tumor vasculature inhibits tumor cell growth and survival. alphaDC1 are able to induce a potent tumor antigen-specific CTL response due to their high co-stimulatory activity and the secretion of anti-cancer cytokines, such as IL-12p70. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DM-CHOC-PEN  
A cholesterol carbonate derivative of 4-demethylpenclomedine (DM-PEN) with potential antineoplastic alkylating activity. Upon intravenous administration of 4-demethylcholesteryloxycarbonylpenclomedine, the carbonium moiety binds to and alkylates DNA at the N7 guanine position, thereby causing DNA crosslinks. This prevents DNA replication, inhibits cellular proliferation and triggers apoptosis. In addition, due to its lipophilic cholesteryl moiety this agent is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and therefore can be given intravenously compared to other alkylating agents that need to be given intra-cranially. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DM4-conjugated anti-Cripto monoclonal antibody BIIB015  
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface-associated protein Cripto and conjugated to the maytansinoid DM4 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of DM4-conjugated anti-Cripto monoclonal antibody BIIB015 binds to the tumor associated antigen (TAA) Cripto; upon internalization, the DM4 moiety binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of Cripto-expressing tumor cells. Constitutively expressed during embryogenesis, Cripto belongs to the EGF-CFC family of growth factor-like molecules and plays a key role in signaling pathways of certain transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members; as a TAA, Cripto is overexpressed in carcinomas such as those of the breast, ovary, stomach, lung, and pancreas while its expression is absent in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA interference oligonucleotide PNT2258  
A liposomal formulation of the 24-mer oligonucleotide PNT100, with potential antineoplastic activity. PNT2258 targets and complements to untranscribed DNA sequence upstream of BCL2 promoters, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription of the BCL2 gene. This may promote and restore the apoptotic pathway in BCL2-overexpressing tumor cells. BCL2, an anti-apoptotic protein, is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-110  
A dinucleotide antimetabolite of a decitabine linked via phosphodiester bond to a guanosine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following metabolic activation by phosphorylation and incorporation into DNA, SGI-110 inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby causing genome-wide and non-specific hypomethylation and inducing cell cycle arrest at S-phase. This agent is resistant to cytidine deaminase, hence may result in gradual release of decitabine both extra- and intracellularly, leading to more prolonged exposures to decitabine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA minor groove binding agent PM060184  
A marine-derived, synthetically produced compound with potential antineoplastic activity. DNA minor groove-binding agent PM060184 covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA minor groove binding agent SG2000  
A sequence-selective pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer with potential antineoplastic activity. Following intravenous administration, DNA minor groove binding agent SG2000 preferentially and covalently binds to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences, with the imine/carbinolamine moieties of SG2000 binding to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces interstrand cross-links and inhibits both DNA replication and gene transcription, which leads to the inhibition of cell growth. With a preference for binding to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences, SG2000 adducts do not appear to be susceptible to p53-mediated DNA excision repair. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA plasmid encoding interleukin-12 INO-9012  
A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) with potential immunoactivating activity. Upon intramuscular delivery by electroporation of DNA plasmid encoding interleukin-12 INO-9012, IL-12 is translated in cells and activates the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NK cells), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and promoting cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells. This may result in both immune-mediated tumor cell death and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

DNA plasmid vector pPRA-PSM vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a DNA plasmid encoding epitopes of the human preferential antigen of melanoma (PRAME) and the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon direct administration of this vaccine into lymph nodes, peptides expressed by DNA plasmid vector pPRA-PSM may activate the immune system, resulting in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing cells. PRAME and PSMA are tumor associated antigens upregulated in a number of cancer cell types. As part of the MKC1106-PP regimen exploiting the 'prime-boost strategy', this plasmid is responsible for priming the immune response and is used in conjunction with a peptide vaccine consisting of PRAME and PSMA that boosts the immune system against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA-dependent protein kinase-targeting siDNA DT01  
A proprietary preparation of small interfering DNA (siDNA) molecules with potential chemo/radiosensitizing activity. By mimicking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), DNA-dependent protein kinase-targeting siDNA DT01 inhibits the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) process, one of the main DNA repair mechanisms, via binding to and activating DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a core component of the NHEJ complex. DNA-PK activation causes hyper-phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX on DNA and results in a different phosphorylated pattern of H2AX upon ionizing radiation treatment. This ultimately interferes with the repair of DNA DSBs during chemo- or radiotherapy, thereby increasing tumor cell death. The enhanced ability of tumor cells to repair DSBs plays a major role in the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNA-PK/TOR kinase inhibitor CC-115  
A dual inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. CC-115 binds to and inhibits the activity of DNA-PK and both raptor-mTOR (TOR complex 1 or TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TOR complex 2 or TORC2), which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation of cancer cells expressing DNA-PK and TOR. DNA-PK, a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the PI3K-related kinase subfamily of protein kinases, is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks via the DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in a variety of tumors, plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

DNAi® drug PNT2258  
(Other name for: DNA interference oligonucleotide PNT2258)

DNP-modified autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumor cells modified with the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Administration of DNP-modified autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor cell vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against renal cell carcinoma tumor cells. DNP conjugation may enhance the immunogenicity of weakly immunogenic antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

DNR-expressing nasopharyngeal carcinoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
A preparation of autologous, dominant-negative receptor (DNR)-expressing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), with potential antineoplastic activity. The DNR-expressing NPC-specific CTLs specifically target Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), latent membrane proteins (LMP) and BamHIA rightward frame 1 (BARF1), and are transduced with a retroviral vector expressing DNR, a dominant-negative form of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) receptor, which blocks TGF-beta-mediated signaling. Upon administration, the CTLs recognize and target NPC cells, which may result in both CTL-mediated cell lysis and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Tumor-expressed TGF-beta inhibits T-lymphocyte activation and expansion; resistance to TGF-beta allows for optimal CTL activity. EBV infection plays a key role in NPC tumorigenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

dobutamine  
A synthetic catecholamine with sympathomimetic activity. Dobutamine is a direct-acting inotropic agent and an adrenergic agonist that stimulates primarily the beta-1 adrenoceptor, with lesser effect on beta-2 or alpha receptors. Via beta-1 adrenoceptor of the heart, this agent induces positive inotropic effect with minimal changes in chronotropic activities or systemic vascular resistance. Dobutamine also causes vasodilation by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors in blood vessels, augmented by reflex vasoconstriction resulting in increased cardiac output. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Back to TopBack to Top

1 2   Next >