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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

E-101 solution  
An oxidant-generating coupled-enzyme system-based, topical solution comprised of two enzymes, Aspergillus niger-derived glucose oxidase (GO) and porcine myeloperoxidase (p-MPO), as well as glucose, sodium chloride and stabilizing amino acids, with potential broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. Following direct administration of E-101 solution into the surgical incisional wound via microspray, the enzyme GO converts oxygen into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In turn, p-MPO catalyzes the reaction of H2O2 with hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is formed through oxidation of the chloride ion, to generate singlet oxygen (O2*). As p-MPO binds to microorganisms, O2* is able to exert direct oxidative damage to microorganisms, resulting in potent antimicrobial activity. E-101 may act as an anti-bactericidal agent against a variety of microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant strains. This may prevent infection at the surgical site. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

E-Mycin  
(Other name for: erythromycin)

E-Z Prep  
(Other name for: povidone-iodine)

E-Z Scrub  
(Other name for: povidone-iodine)

E. coli CD-expressing genetically modified neural stem cells  
Genetically-modified neural stem cells (NSCs) transfected with the Escherichia coli (E. coli) suicidal gene cytosine deaminase (CD), with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon intracerebral injection, E. coli CD-expressing genetically modified NSCs express the E. coli cytosine deaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Co-administration of this agent with 5-FC and upon local activation of 5-FU in the brain tumor, 5-FU disrupts DNA synthesis in tumor cells thereby impeding cellular proliferation with minimal systemic exposure and toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

E2F1 pathway activator ARQ 171  
A second-generation E2F1 pathway activator with potential antineoplastic activity. ARQ 171 induces the expression of E2F transcription factor 1, thereby activating the E2F1-mediated checkpoint process. As a result, this agent exerts anti-tumor activity through checkpoint activation independent of p53 mediated tumor suppression. E2F1, down-regulated in cancer cells, regulates expression of genes involved in the cell cycle progression from G1 into S phase. The G1/S checkpoint process selectively induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells with irreparable DNA damages and triggers subsequent apoptosis, while allowing cell division to proceed in cells without or with minor reparable DNA damage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

E7820  
A small molecule and aromatic sulfonamide derivative with potential antiangiogenic and antitumor activities. E7820 inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing integrin alpha 2, a cell adhesion molecule expressed on endothelial cells. Inhibition of integrin alpha 2 leads to an inhibition of cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, vascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ebselen-containing oral capsule SPI-1005  
An oral capsule containing a proprietary formulation of the organoselenium compound ebselen, with potential anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activity. Upon oral administration of SPI-1005, this agent mimics the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and can utilize glutathione to reduce other unstable molecules, thus preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reducing oxidative stress on the cell. In the cochlea, this agent may prevent drug-induced injury to the auditory hair cells thereby preventing hearing loss. GPx is the main antioxidant enzyme in the cochlea and protects the inner ear from loud sounds and biochemical damage. In addition, ebselen is able to inhibit the activity of many enzymes involved in inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

echinomycin  
A polypeptide quinoxaline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces echinatus. Echinomycin intercalates into DNA at two locations simultaneously in a sequence-specific fashion, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ecotrin  
(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)

ecromeximab  
A low-fucose, human-mouse chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the ganglioside GD3, a surface antigen expressed on many malignant melanoma cells, with potential antineoplastic activity. Ecromeximab binds to GD3-positive cells, thereby initiating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against GD3-positive cells. This agent is prepared by fusing murine immunoglobulin (Ig) light and heavy variable regions derived from the murine IgG3 antibody KM-641 to a human constant (Fc) region. The low fucose content of the oligosaccharide side chains of this antibody may enhance binding of the antibody Fc region to lymphocyte Fc receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

eculizumab  
A human monoclonal antibody directed against terminal complement protein C5. Eculizumab binds to terminal complement protein C5, thereby blocking C5 cleavage into pro-inflammatory components and blocking the complement-mediated destruction of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) red blood cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

edatrexate  
A polyglutamatable folate antagonist analogue of methotrexate with antineoplastic activity. Edatrexate inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, thereby increasing cellular levels of polyglutamates, inhibiting thymidylate synthase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase, impairing synthesis of purine nucleotides and amino acids, and resulting in tumor cell death. Edatrexate may overcome tumor resistance to methotrexate, which loses its activity after it is polyglutamated. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Edecrin  
(Other name for: ethacrynic acid)

edotecarin  
A synthetic indolocarbazole with antineoplastic activity. Edotecarin inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase I through stabilization of the DNA-enzyme complex and enhanced single-strand DNA cleavage, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

edoxaban tosylate  
The tosylate salt form of edoxaban, an orally active inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa (activated factor X) with anticoagulant activity. Edoxaban is administered as edoxaban tosylate. This agent has an elimination half-life of 9-11 hours and undergoes renal excretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

edrecolomab  
A murine monoclonal IgG2a antibody to tumor-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, or 17-1A) antigen. Edrecolomab attaches to EpCAM, a human cell surface glycoprotein that is found on normal epithelial cells and some tumor cells, such as those of colon and breast carcinomas. Upon binding, this agent recruits the body's immune effector cells, which may exhibit antitumor cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EF5  
A fluorinated derivative of the 2-nitroimidazole etanidazole. EF5 is effective in accessing oxygen levels in tumor tissue through its adduct formation to intracellular macromolecules in the absence of oxygen. Reduction of this agent is carried out by a diverse group of enzymes in the cytoplasm, microsomes and mitochondria. Tissue hypoxia detection via EF5 has been reported in several cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and the head and neck, and in sarcoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

efalizumab  
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against CD11a, the alpha subunit of human leukocyte-function-associated antigen type 1 (LFA-1), with immunosuppressant activity. Efalizumab binds to CD11a, which is expressed on all leukocytes, resulting in a reduction in the cell surface expression of CD11a. In addition, this agent inhibits the binding of LFA-1 to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), resulting in the inhibition of leukocyte adherence and the suppression of cell-mediated immunity. LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 is involved in the activation of T lymphocytes, adhesion of T lymphocytes to endothelial cells, and migration of T lymphocytes to sites of inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

efaproxiral  
A synthetic small molecule with radiosensitizing activity. Efaproxiral increases oxygen levels in hypoxic tumor tissues by binding non-covalently to the hemoglobin tetramer and decreasing hemoglobin-oxygen binding affinity. Increasing tumor oxygenation reduces tumor radioresistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

efatutazone dihydrochloride  
The dihydrochloride salt of efatutazone, an orally bioavailable agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) with potential antineoplastic activity. Efatutazone binds to and activates PPAR-gamma, a nuclear hormone receptor and a ligand-activated transcription factor controling gene expression involved in macromolecule metabolism and cell differentiation, specifically adipocyte differentiation. Mediated through activation of PPAR-gamma, this agent is capable of inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis, thereby leading to a reduction in cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

efavirenz  
A synthetic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor with antiviral activity. Efavirenz binds directly to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, blocking its function in viral DNA replication. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs, this agent has been shown to significantly reduce HIV viral load, retarding or preventing damage to the immune system and reducing the risk of developing AIDS. Efavirenz induces activity of the cytochrome P450 system, accelerating its own metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Effexor  
(Other name for: venlafaxine)

eflornithine  
A difluoromethylated ornithine compound with antineoplastic activity. Eflornithine irreversibly inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme required for polyamine biosynthesis, thereby inhibiting the formation and proliferation of tumor cells. Polyamines are involved in nucleosome oligomerization and DNA conformation, creating a chromatin environment that stimulates neoplastic transformation of cells. This agent has been shown to induce apoptosis in leiomyoma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

eflornithine hydrochloride ointment  
An ointment formulation of the hydrochloride salt of an ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor with hair-growth inhibitory and potential chemopreventive activities. When administered topically, eflornithine irreversibly inhibits skin ODC activity, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of polyamines; inhibition of polyamine synthesis may result in diminished hair growth and epidermal cell turnover. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EFS-ADA lentiviral vector-transduced CD34-positive autologous lymphocytes  
A preparation of autologous, CD34-positive stem/progenitor cells transduced with a lentrivral vector encoding the human adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene under the control of the human elongation factor alpha short promoter (EFS), with potential to restore ADA expression and function. Autologous hematopoietic CD34+ cells are isolated from the patient’s own bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood, and transduced with the EFS-ADA lentiviral vector ex vivo. Upon re-infusion of the EFS-ADA vector-transduced lymphocytes back into the patient, these cells may both restore ADA activity and prevent severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to ADA deficiency. ADA, an enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine, plays a key role in the development and functioning of the immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Efudex  
(Other name for: fluorouracil)

Eg5 kinesin-related motor protein inhibitor 4SC-205  
A small-molecule inhibitor of the human kinesin-related motor protein Eg5 with potential antineoplastic activity. Eg5 kinesin-related motor protein inhibitor 4SC-205 selectively inhibits the activity of Eg5, which may result in mitotic disruption, apoptosis and cell death. The ATP-dependent Eg5 kinesin-related motor protein (also known as KIF11 or kinesin spindle protein-5) is a plus-end directed kinesin motor protein essential for the regulation of spindle dynamics, including assembly and maintenance, during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eg5 kinesin-related motor protein inhibitor ARQ 621  
A small-molecule inhibitor of the kinesin-related motor protein Eg5 with potential antineoplastic activity. Eg5 kinesin-related motor protein inhibitor ARQ 621 selectively inhibits the activity of Eg5, which may result in mitotic disruption, apoptosis and cell death. The ATP-dependent Eg5 kinesin-related motor protein (also known as KIF11 or kinesin spindle protein-5) is a plus-end directed kinesin motor protein involved in the regulation of spindle dynamics, including assembly and maintenance, during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGb761  
A standardized ginkgo biloba extract with antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. EGb761 has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of certain tumor cells in vitro. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGEN-001  
A novel non-viral vector consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding the human gene for interleukin 12 (IL-12) and a biocompatible, biodegradable delivery polymer with potential antineoplastic activity. EGEN-001 is designed to increase the local concentration of IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment. IL-12 stimulates T-cell-independent production of IFN-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); enhances natural killer (NK) cell lytic activity; acts as a growth factor for T- and NK-cells; and is important for T-cell differentiation. IL-12 may potentiate antitumoral functions of the host immune system, resulting in immune-mediated tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR antisense DNA  
A synthetic sequence of DNA constructed in the antisense orientation to a sequence of DNA in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of the erbB gene family. EGFR antisense DNA suppresses the expression of EGFR by tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and decreasing tumor growth. This agent also appears to reduce the invasiveness of certain breast cancer cells. Members of the erbB gene family are overexpressed in many cancers and play roles in carcinogenesis and the regulation of cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes  
Autologous human T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) chimeric T cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) gene coupled to the signaling domains from both CD3 zeta and CD137 (4-1BB), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the chimeric EGFR antigen receptor-modified autologous T lymphocytes bind to the EGFR antigen on tumor cell surfaces; subsequently, EGFR-expressing tumor cells may be lysed. Following binding to EGFR, the 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances both activation and signaling. Inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may also increase the antitumor activity when compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR inhibitor ABT-414  
An epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, ABT-414 inhibits the activity of EGFR, thereby preventing EGFR-mediated signaling. This may inhibit tumor growth in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in certain tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR inhibitor ASP8273  
An orally available, irreversible, third-generation, mutant-selective, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ASP8273 covalently binds to and inhibits the activity of mutant forms of EGFR, including the T790M EGFR mutant, thereby preventing EGFR-mediated signaling. This may both induce cell death and inhibit tumor growth in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. ASP8273 preferentially inhibits mutated forms of EGFR including T790M, a secondarily acquired resistance mutation, and may have therapeutic benefits in tumors with T790M-mediated resistance when compared to other EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. As this agent is selective towards mutant forms of EGFR, its toxicity profile may be reduced as compared to non-selective EGFR inhibitors which also inhibit wild-type EGFR. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR inhibitor AZD3759  
An orally available inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AZD3759 binds to and inhibits the activity of EGFR as well as certain mutant forms of EGFR. This prevents EGFR-mediated signaling, and may lead to both induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth in EGFR-overexpressing cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR inhibitor AZD9291  
A third-generation, orally available, irreversible, mutant-selective, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AZD9291 covalently binds to and inhibits the activity of mutant forms of EGFR, including the T790M EGFR mutant, thereby preventing EGFR-mediated signaling. This may both induce cell death and inhibit tumor growth in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. AZD9291 preferentially inhibits mutated forms of EGFR including T790M, a secondarily-acquired resistance mutation, and may have enhanced anti-tumor effects in tumors with T790M-mediated resistance when compared to other EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. As this agent is selective towards mutant forms of EGFR, its toxicity profile may be reduced when compared to non-selective EGFR inhibitors which also inhibit wild-type EGFR. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR inhibitor CO-1686  
An orally available small molecule, irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. EGFR inhibitor CO-1686 binds to and inhibits mutant forms of EGFR, including T790M, thereby leading to cell death of resistant tumor cells. Compared to other EGFR inhibitors, CO-1686 inhibits T790M, a secondary acquired resistance mutation, as well as other mutant EGFRs and may have therapeutic benefits in tumors with T790M-mediated resistance to other EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This agent shows minimal activity against wild-type EGFR, hence does not cause certain dose-limiting toxicities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

EGFR inhibitor EGF816  
An orally available, irreversible, third-generation, mutant-selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, EGF816 covalently binds to and inhibits the activity of mutant forms of EGFR, including the T790M EGFR mutant, thereby preventing EGFR-mediated signaling. This may both induce cell death and inhibit tumor growth in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. EGF816 preferentially inhibits mutated forms of EGFR including T790M, a secondarily acquired resistance mutation, and may have therapeutic benefits in tumors with T790M-mediated resistance when compared to other EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. As this agent is selective towards mutant forms of EGFR, its toxicity profile may be reduced as compared to non-selective EGFR inhibitors which also inhibit wild-type EGFR. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR inhibitor HM61713  
An orally available small molecule, mutant-selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. EGFR inhibitor HM61713 binds to and inhibits mutant forms of EGFR, thereby leading to cell death of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. As this agent is selective towards mutant forms of EGFR, its toxicity profile may be reduced as compared to non-selective EGFR inhibitors, which also inhibit the EGFR wild type form. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFR/HER2 inhibitor AV-412  
A second-generation, orally bioavailable dual kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. EGFR/HER2 inhibitor AV-412 binds to and inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and tumor regression in EGFR/HER2-expressing tumors. This agent may be active against EGFR/HER2-expressing tumor cells that are resistant to first-generation kinase inhibitors. EGFR and HER2 are receptor tyrosine kinases that play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EGFRBi-armed autologous activated T cells  
Autologous activated T cells, loaded with a bispecific antibody produced by heteroconjugation of anti-CD3 and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, with potential antineoplastic activity. Binding of EGFRBi-armed autologous activated T cells to EGFR-positive tumor cells may result in increased T cell-mediated cytotoxicity towards tumor cells expressing EGFR. Arming activated T cells with this bispecific antibody may significantly increase T cell secretion of anti-tumor associated cytokines such as IL2, RANTES, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

eicosapentaenoic acid  
An essential, polyunsaturated, 20-carbon omega-3 fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may activate caspase 3, resulting in apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. In addition, this agent may inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), resulting in inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and prostaglandin-mediated inflammatory processes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

eIF4E antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 183750  
A second-generation antisense oligonucleotide targeting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) with potential antitumor activity. Antisense oligonucleotide ISIS EIF4ERx suppresses the expression of eIF4E in fast dividing tumor cells. Blocking the expression of eIF4E results in inhibition of the synthesis of tumor angiogenic factors, thereby leading to the inhibition of cellular proliferation and apoptosis in tumor cells. eIF4E is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, is involved in the mRNA-ribosome binding step of eukaryotic protein synthesis and is the rate-limiting component of the eukaryotic translation apparatus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

elacytarabine  
The lipophilic 5'-elaidic acid ester of the deoxycytidine analog cytosine arabinoside (cytarabine; Ara-C) with potential antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, CP-4055 is converted intracellularly into cytarabine triphosphate by deoxycytidine kinase and subsequently competes with cytidine for incorporation into DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Compared to cytarabine, CP-4055 shows increased cellular uptake and retention, resulting in increased activation by deoxycytidine kinase to cytarabine triphosphate, decreased deamination and deactivation by deoxycytidine deaminase, and increased inhibition of DNA synthesis. This agent also inhibits RNA synthesis, an effect not seen with cytarabine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eldecort  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

Eldisine  
(Other name for: vindesine)

Eldopar  
(Other name for: levodopa)

electrokinetically modified water  
Orally available, nanobubble-based, electrokinetically modified water (EMW) composed of reverse osmosis water where the minerals calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and potassium bicarbonate have been added and with an increased oxygen concentration compared to normal water. Upon consumption, the EMW may have a beneficial effect on fatigue. This water may protect muscle cells against damage and may improve skeletal muscle function. The water is pretreated with strong, controlled turbulence to create charge-stabilized nanostructures. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

electrolyte-free parenteral nutrition emulsion  
An electrolyte-free emulsion for infusion consisting of a three chamber bag system containing glucose, amino acids and lipids that can be used to provide parenteral nutritional supplementation. The lipid emulsion portion contains soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil and fish oil; the amino acid solution contains alanine, arginine, glycine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, taurine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. The electrolyte-free parenteral nutrition emulsion contains no electrolytes, trace elements and vitamins. The three separate bags containing glucose, amino acids and lipids are mixed together before infusion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

elesclomol  
A small-molecule bis(thio-hydrazide amide) with oxidative stress induction, pro-apoptotic, and potential antineoplastic activities. Elesclomol induces oxidative stress, creating high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, in both cancer cells and normal cells. Because tumor cells have elevated levels of ROS compared to normal cells, the increase in oxidative stress beyond baseline levels elevates ROS beyond sustainable levels, exhausting tumor cell antioxidant capacity, which may result in the induction of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Normal cells are spared because the increase in the level of oxidative stress induced by this agent is below the threshold at which apoptosis is induced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

elesclomol sodium  
The water soluble sodium salt of a small-molecule bis(thio-hydrazide amide) with oxidative stress induction, pro-apoptotic, and potential antineoplastic activities. Elesclomol induces oxidative stress, creating high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, in both cancer cells and normal cells. Because tumor cells have elevated levels of ROS compared to normal cells, the increase in oxidative stress beyond baseline levels elevates ROS beyond sustainable levels, exhausting tumor cell antioxidant capacity, which may result in the induction of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Normal cells are spared because the increase in the level of oxidative stress induced by this agent is below the threshold at which apoptosis is induced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Elidel  
(Other name for: pimecrolimus cream)

elisidepsin  
A marine-derived, synthetic cyclic depsipeptide with potential antineoplastic activity. Elisidepsin is a derivative of a natural marine compound that belongs to a family of dehydro aminobutyric acid-containing peptides (kahalalides) isolated from the herbivorous marine mollusk Elysia rufescens. Although the primary mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated, this agent exhibits anti-proliferative activity in a wide variety of cancer cell types, including breast, colon, pancreas, lung, and prostate; it appears to induce oncolytic rather than apoptotic cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Elitek  
(Other name for: rasburicase)

Elixophyllin  
(Other name for: theophylline)

ellagic acid/Annona muricata supplement  
A nutritional supplement containing the phytochemical polyphenol, ellagic acid, and an extract of Annona muricata, with potential chemopreventive activity. Although the exact mechanism of action for ellagic acid has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent acts as an anti-oxidant and reduces oxidative stress. This agent also appears to protect the body against certain carcinogens, either through preventing DNA binding or by increasing the rate of their metabolism and deactivation. Certain extracts of Annona muricata, a member of the custard apple plants and belonging to the Annonaceae family, may have antiviral activity, potential targets include human papilloma virus (HPV), and may be cytotoxic against various types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Ellence  
(Other name for: epirubicin hydrochloride)

elliptinium acetate  
Acetate salt of elliptinium, a derivative of the alkaloid ellipticine isolated from species of the plant family Apocynaceae, including Bleekeria vitensis, a plant with anti-cancer properties. As a topoisomerase II inhibitor and intercalating agent, elliptinium stabilizes the cleavable complex of topoisomerase II and induces DNA breakages, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Elmiron  
(Other name for: pentosan polysulfate sodium)

Elocon  
(Other name for: mometasone furoate)

elotuzumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human CS1 (CD2 subset 1, CRACC, SLAMF7) antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Elotuzumab binds to the CS1 antigen, which may trigger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cells expressing CS1. CS1 is a cell surface glycoprotein belonging to the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and is highly expressed by multiple myeloma cells, but minimally expressed by normal cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eloxatin  
(Other name for: oxaliplatin)

elsamitrucin  
A heterocyclic antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Actinomycete strain J907-21. Elsamitrucin intercalates into DNA at guanine-cytosine (G-C)-rich sequences and inhibits topoisomerase I and II, resulting in single-strand breaks and inhibition of DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

elsiglutide  
A synthetic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analogue with potential antidiarrheal and intestinotrophic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, elsiglutide, a 39 amino acid polypeptide, binds to GLP-2 receptors and thereby promotes proliferation of epithelial cells. Regeneration of endothelial cells damaged during chemotherapy may prevent or decrease chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. In addition, elsiglutide may prevent chemotherapy-induced intestinal injury. GLP-2, a peptide hormone primarily produced in the small intestines in response to food, plays a key role in intestinal epithelial growth, metabolism and regeneration of epithelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Elspar  
(Other name for: asparaginase)

eltrombopag olamine  
The orally active ethanolamine salt of eltrombopag, a small-molecule, nonpeptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist with megakaryopoiesis-stimulating activity. Eltrombopag binds to and stimulates the transmembrane domain of the platelet thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R or CD110), a member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Activation of TPO-R leads to the proliferation and differentiation of cells in the megakaryocytic lineage and an increase in platelet production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Emcyt  
(Other name for: estramustine phosphate sodium)

Emend  
(Other name for: aprepitant)

emepepimut-S  
A liposome-encapsulated peptide vaccine consisting of a synthetic peptide derived from the mucin 1 (MUC-1) antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination, emepepimut-S may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against MUC-1-expressing tumor cells, resulting in growth inhibition. MUC-1 antigen is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of many epithelial tumor cells as well as on the cell surfaces of some B-cell lymphoma cells and multiple myeloma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Emergent-EZ  
(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)

Empirin  
(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)

emtricitabine  
A synthetic fluoro derivative of thiacytidine with potent antiviral activity. Emtricitabine is phosphorylated to form emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate within the cell. This metabolite inhibits the activity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase both by competing with the natural substrate deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate and by incorporation into viral DNA causing a termination of DNA chain elongation (due to the lack of the essential 3'-OH group). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Emtriva  
(Other name for: emtricitabine)

Enacard  
(Other name for: enalapril maleate)

enalapril maleate  
The maleate salt form of enalapril, a dicarbocyl-containing peptide and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, enalapril is converted by de-esterification into its active form enalaprilat. Enalaprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II and results in vasodilation. Enalapril also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

enavatuzumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis receptor (TWEAKR) with potential antineoplastic, immunomodulating and antiangiogenic activities. Enavatuzumab binds to TWEAKR and inhibits TWEAK ligand binding and activation of NF-kappaB-mediated cytokine release, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis. TWEAKR is a cell-surface receptor with homology to tumor necrosis factor receptors. Upon binding with its ligand, TWEAKR has been shown to stimulate cytokine release and cell proliferation, migration, and survival; it may also promote apoptosis under some conditions. This receptor may be overexpressed in a variety of tumors including those of the pancreas, colon, lung, kidney, and breast. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Enbrel  
(Other name for: etanercept)

enclomiphene citrate  
The orally bioavailable citrate salt of enclomiphene, the trans-isomer of the nonsteroidal triphenylethylene compound clomiphene, with tissue-selective estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. As a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), enclomiphene binds to hypothalamic estrogen receptors, blocking the negative feedback of endogenous estrogens and stimulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus; released GnRH subsequently stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary, resulting in ovulation. In addition, this agent may bind to estrogen receptors on breast cancer cells, resulting in the inhibition of estrogen-stimulated proliferation in susceptible cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Endometrin  
(Other name for: progesterone vaginal insert)

endothelin B receptor agonist SPI-1620  
A highly selective peptide agonist of the endothelin-B receptor. Endothelin B receptor agonist SPI-1620 binds to endothelin-B receptors on endothelial cells in tumor blood vessels, which, unlike the angioarchitecture of normal blood vessels, are relatively devoid of smooth muscle. This agent may induce a transient, selective increase in blood flow to a tumor, which may result in an increase in the delivery of anticancer agents to the tumor and, so, an increase in anticancer agent efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Engerix-B  
(Other name for: hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant))

Enhanzyn  
(Other name for: Detox-B adjuvant)

eniluracil  
An orally-active fluoropyrimidine analogue. Eniluracil inhibits dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme that catabolizes and inactivates 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the liver. Co-administration of ethynyluracil permits the oral administration of 5-FU. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

enobosarm  
A non-steroidal agent with anabolic activity. Enobosarm is designed to work like testosterone, thus promoting and/or maintaining libido, fertility, prostate growth, and muscle growth and strength. Mimicking testosterone's action, this agent may increase lean body mass, thereby ameliorating muscle wasting in the hypermetabolic state of cancer cachexia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

enoxaparin  
A low molecular weight, synthetic heparin. As an anticoagulant/antithrombotic agent, enoxaprin's mechanism of action is similar to that of heparin, although it exhibits a higher ratio of anti-Factor Xa to anti-Factor IIa activity. This agent also has anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor alpha- or lipopolysaccharide-activated endothelial cells. Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of enoxaparin is associated with lower incidences of osteoporosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ensituximab  
A chimeric monoclonal antibody against human colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma-associated antigens (CPAAs) with potential immunomodulating and anti-tumor activities. Ensituximab binds to CPAAs, which may activate the immune system to exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response against CPAA-expressing tumor cells. CPAAs, cell surface proteins, are upregulated on colon and pancreatic tumor cells. Ensituximab contains the variable region of the heavy and light chain of murine NPC-1 and linked in-frame to constant regions of a human IgG1 isotype. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ensure  
(Other name for: nutritional supplement drink)

entecavir  
A synthetic analog of 2-deoxyguanosine with antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Entecavir is activated in vivo to a 5-triphosphate metabolite. In turn, the triphosphate form competes with the natural substrate deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) for incorporation into viral DNA. The incorporation of the activated triphosphate metabolite of entecavir inhibits the reverse transcriptase (RT) viral RNA-dependent HBV DNA polymerase and, so, the replication of viral DNA and transcription. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Entereg  
(Other name for: alvimopan)

enteric-coated TRPM8 agonist D-3263 hydrochloride  
An enteric-coated orally bioavailable formulation of the hydrochloride salt of a small-molecule agonist for transient receptor potential melastatin member 8 (TRPM8 or Trp-p8) with potential antineoplastic activity. The active ingredient in enteric-coated TRPM8 agonist D-3263 hydrochloride binds to and activates TRPM8, which may result in an increase in calcium and sodium entry; the disruption of calcium and sodium homeostasis; and the induction of cell death in TRPM8-expressing tumor cells. This agent may decrease dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels, which may contribute to its inhibitory effects on prostate cancer and BPH. TRPM8 is a transmembrane calcium channel protein that is normally expressed in prostate cells and appears to be overexpressed in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

enteric-coated zoledronic acid tablet MER-101  
An oral tablet formulation containing zoledronic acid combined with a proprietary absorption enhancer for improved zoledronic acid gastrointestinal absorption with anti-bone-resorption activity. The third-generation bisphosphonate zoledronic acid binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in the bone matrix, slowing their dissolution and inhibiting the formation and aggregation of these crystals. This agent also inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, an enzyme involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids, donor substrates of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation during the post-translational modification of small GTPase signalling proteins, which are important in the process of osteoclast turnover. The proprietary absorption enhancer is a GRAS (generally-recognized-as-safe) food additive. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Entericin  
(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)

entinostat  
A synthetic benzamide derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Entinostat binds to and inhibits histone deacetylase, an enzyme that regulates chromatin structure and gene transcription. This agent appears to exert dose-dependent effects in human leukemia cells including cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21/CIP1/WAF1)-dependent growth arrest and differentiation at low drug concentrations; a marked induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS); mitochondrial damage; caspase activation; and, at higher concentrations, apoptosis. In normal cells, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A expression has been associated with cell-cycle exit and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

entolimod  
A polypeptide derived from the Salmonella filament protein flagellin with potential radioprotective and anticancer activities. As a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist, entolimod binds to and activates TLR5 thereby stimulating tumor necrosis factor production and activating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). This induces NF-kB-mediated signaling pathways and inhibits the induction of apoptosis. This may prevent apoptosis in normal, healthy cells during radiotherapy of cancerous cells and may allow for increased doses of ionizing radiation. In addition, entolimod may inhibit radiation-independent proliferation in TLR5-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

enzalutamide  
An orally bioavailable, organic, non-steroidal small molecule targeting the androgen receptor (AR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Through a mechanism that is reported to be different from other approved AR antagonists, enzalutamide inhibits the activity of prostate cancer cell ARs, which may result in a reduction in prostate cancer cell proliferation and, correspondingly, a reduction in the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. AR over-expression in prostate cancer represents a key mechanism associated with prostate cancer hormone resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

enzastaurin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of enzastaurin, a synthetic macrocyclic bisindolemaleimide with potential antineoplastic activity. Binding to the ATP-binding site, enzastaurin selectively inhibits protein kinase C beta, an enzyme involved in the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated neo-angiogenesis. This agent may decrease tumor blood supply and so tumor burden. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eoquin  
(Other name for: apaziquone)

Eovist  
(Other name for: gadoxetate disodium)

EP-2101  
A proprietary cancer DNA vaccine that contains multiple natural and modified epitopes derived from the four tumor associated antigens, CEA, HER2/neu, p53, and MAGE 2/3. EP-2101 also includes CAP1-6D, a heteroclitic CEA analog, and PADRE, a proprietary universal T-cell epitope that serves to enhance the immunogenicity of the epitopes. This agent has been shown to elicit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against tumor cells expressing these multiple epitopes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EphA2-targeting DOPC-encapsulated siRNA  
A liposomal formulation consisting of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) and encapsulated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) neutral liposomes, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon internalization, EphA2-targeting DOPC-encapsulated siRNA can hybridize to EphA2 DNA and mRNA, thereby interfering with both the transcription and translation of EphA2, and thus inhibiting tumor cell growth. The cell-surface receptor EphA2, a member of the ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in mammalian development, is overexpressed by a variety of different cancer cell types and plays an important role in tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EpiCept NP-1  
(Other name for: ketamine/amitriptyline NP-H cream)

epidermal growth factor ointment  
A topical ointment containing a recombinant form of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) with potential protective activity against EGF receptor (EGFR/HER1) inhibitor-induced cutaneous toxicities. Upon topical application of the EGF ointment, EGF locally activates EGFR, thereby abrogating EGFR inhibition in the skin caused by systemic EGFR inhibiting agents. This may help inhibit the skin rash induced by EGFR antagonists. EGFR, a tyrosine kinase, plays a key role in maintaining epidermal integrity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

epigallocatechin gallate  
A phenolic antioxidant found in a number of plants such as green and black tea. It inhibits cellular oxidation and prevents free radical damage to cells. It is under study as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

epirubicin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the 4'-epi-isomer of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Epirubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also produces toxic free-radical intermediates and interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Epitol  
(Other name for: carbamazepine)

Epivir  
(Other name for: lamivudine)

eplerenone  
A selective aldosterone receptor antagonist. Eplerenone binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor and blocks the binding of aldosterone, thereby decreasing sodium resorption and subsequently increasing water outflow. This leads to a decrease in blood pressure. Eplerenone is used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

EPOCH regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of etoposide, prednisone, vincristine (Oncovin) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin hycrochloride), which may be used in combination with rituximab (R-EPOCH) for the treatment of various aggressive B cell and T cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)

epoetin alfa  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine human erythropoietin (EPO). Produced primarily by cells of the peritubular capillary endothelium of the kidney in response to hypoxia, circulating EPO binds to EPO receptors on the surface of committed erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow resulting in their replication and maturation into functional erythrocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

epoetin beta  
A recombinant therapeutic agent that is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine human erythropoietin (EPO). Produced primarily by cells of the peritubular capillary endothelium of the kidney in response to hypoxia, circulating EPO binds to EPO receptors on the surface of committed erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow resulting in their replication and maturation into functional erythrocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

epoetin zeta  
A recombinant form of the endogenous human cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) with erythropoiesis-stimulating activity. Similar to EPO, epoetin zeta binds to and activates erythropoietin receptors on the surface of committed erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow resulting in their proliferation and differentiation into functional erythrocytes. This may enhance red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels. Epoetin zeta differs from other epoetins in its glycosylation profile. EPO is a glycosylated polypeptide primarily produced by renal peritubular cells and its synthesis is regulated by a serum oxygenation feedback mechanism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Epogen  
(Other name for: epoetin alfa)

epothilone analog UTD1  
A genetically engineered epothilone analog with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, epothilone analog UTD1 binds to tubulin, induces microtubule polymerization and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization, which may result in the inhibition of cell division, the induction of G2/M arrest, and apoptosis. Compared to first-generation epothilones, this agent exhibits greater safety and enhanced activity against certain multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

epothilone D  
A natural polyketide compound isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Also known as desoxyepothilone B, epothilone D binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, resulting in the inhibition of mitosis, cellular proliferation, and cell motility. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

epothilone KOS-1584  
A second-generation epothilone with potential antineoplastic activity. Epothilone KOS-1584 binds to tubulin and induces microtubule polymerization and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization, which may result in the inhibition of cell division, the induction of G2/M arrest, and apoptosis. Compared to first-generation epothilones, this agent exhibits greater safety and efficacy with an enhanced pharmaceutical profile, including enhanced water solubility and tumor penetration, and reduced CNS exposure. In addition, epothilone KOS-1584 is a poor substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

epratuzumab  
A recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD22, a cell surface glycoprotein present on mature B-cells and on many types of malignant B-cells. After binding to CD22, epratuzumab's predominant antitumor activity appears to be mediated through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eprex  
(Other name for: epoetin alfa)

eprodisate disodium  
The orally available disodium salt form of eprodisate, a negatively charged sulfonated inhibitor of fibrillogenesis, that can be used in the treatment of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. Upon administration, eprodisate competitively binds to the glycosaminoglycan binding sites on serum amyloid A (SAA), which inhibits the formation of the glycosaminoglycan-amyloid fibril aggregate. This prevents the formation of amyloid deposits in certain organs, especially the kidneys, in AA amyloidosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ERa36 modulator icaritin  
A metabolite of A metabolite of icariin, a principal flavonoid glycoside in Herba Epimedii (a traditional Chinese medicine herb used in treating osteoporosis) with potential antineoplastic activity. ERa36 modulator icaritin selectively binds to a novel variant of estrogen receptor alpha, a36, and mediates a membrane-initiated "nongenomic" signaling pathway, which is linked to activated signaling pathways like the MAPK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt pathways. This agent induces cell cycle arrest at G1, or G2/M arrest depending upon the dose. Consistently with G1 arrest, icaritin increases protein expressions of pRb, p27(Kip1) and p16(Ink4a), while decreasing phosphorylated pRb, Cyclin D1 and CDK4. Forty percent of ER-negative breast cancer tumors express high levels of ERa36, and this subset of patients is less likely to benefit from tamoxifen treatment compared with those with ERa66-positive/ERa36-negative tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

erastin analogue PRLX 93936  
A structural analogue of erastin with potential antineoplastic activity. Erastin analogue PRLX 93936 appears to inhibit mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDACs (voltage-dependent anion channels) 2 and 3, resulting in an oxidative, non-apoptotic cell death. Erastin analogue PRLX 93936 exhibits greater lethality in cell lines harboring mutations in the GTPase protein oncogenes HRAS and KRAS or the serine-threonine protein kinase oncogene BRAF than in non-tumorigenic cell lines. VDACs 2 and 3 are up-regulated in a wide variety of tumor cell lines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eraxis  
(Other name for: anidulafungin)

erb-38 immunotoxin  
A bivalent fusion protein consisting of disulfide-stabilized Fv fragments of an anti-HER2 (erbB2) monoclonal antibody (e23) and a truncated version of the M(r) 38 fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin that lacks the toxin's cell binding domain. ERB-38 immunotoxin binds specifically to cells that overexpress HER2, the antigenic target of the monoclonal antibody; the exotoxin portion of the immunotoxin then lyses the cells bound by the antibody portion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ErbB-2 inhibitor ARRY-380  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the human epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB-2 (also called HER2) with potential antineoplastic activity. ErbB-2 inhibitor ARRY-380 selectively binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of ErbB-2, which may prevent the activation of ErbB-2 signal transduction pathways, resulting in growth inhibition and death of ErbB-2-expressing tumor cells. ErbB-2 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Erbitux  
(Other name for: cetuximab)

Ergamisol  
(Other name for: levamisole hydrochloride)

ergocalciferol  
Vitamin D2, a fat-soluble vitamin important for many biochemical processes including the absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. In vivo, ergocalciferol is formed after sun (ultraviolet) irradiation of plant-derived ergosterol, another form of vitamin D. Ergocalciferol is the form of vitamin D usually found in vitamin supplements. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

eribulin mesylate  
The mesylate salt of a synthetic analogue of halichondrin B, a substance derived from a marine sponge (Lissodendoryx sp.) with antineoplastic activity. Eribulin binds to the vinca domain of tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of tubulin and the assembly of microtubules, resulting in inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly, induction of cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and, potentially, tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

erismodegib  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule Smoothened (Smo) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Erismodegib selectively binds to the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor Smo, which may result in the suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and, so, the inhibition of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Inappropriate activation of Hh pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation, as is observed in a variety of cancers, may be associated with mutations in the Hh-ligand cell surface receptor Smo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

eritoran tetrasodium  
The tetrasodium salt of a synthetic analogue of the lipid A portion of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with potential immunomodulating activity. Eritoran binds to the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/CD14/MD2 receptor complex present on most cells of the immune system, inhibiting the activation of the receptor complex by LPS, which may result in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and a potentially fatal systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). LPS is found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and binds to the TLR/CD14/MD2 receptor complex of immune cells, especially macrophages, resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Erivedge  
(Other name for: vismodegib)

ERK inhibitor BVD-523  
An orally available inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, BVD-523 inhibits both ERK 1 and 2, thereby preventing the activation of ERK-mediated signal transduction pathways. This results in the inhibition of ERK-dependent tumor cell proliferation and survival. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK pathway is often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ERK inhibitor GDC-0994  
An orally available inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, GDC-0994 inhibits both ERK phosphorylation and activation of ERK-mediated signal transduction pathways. This prevents ERK-dependent tumor cell proliferation and survival. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK pathway is upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

erlotinib hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a quinazoline derivative with antineoplastic properties. Competing with adenosine triphosphate, erlotinib reversibly binds to the intracellular catalytic domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, thereby reversibly inhibiting EGFR phosphorylation and blocking the signal transduction events and tumorigenic effects associated with EGFR activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ertapenem sodium  
The sodium salt of ertapenem, a 1-beta-methyl carbapenem and a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ertapenem binds to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) located on the bacterial cell wall, in particular PBPs 2 and 3, thereby inhibiting the final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis results in weakening and lysis of the cell wall and cell death. In vitro, this agent has shown activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Erapenem is resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, cephalosporinases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ertumaxomab  
A murine monoclonal antibody with two antigen-recognition sites: one for CD3, an antigen expressed on mature T cells, and one for HER-2-neu, a tumor-associated antigen that promotes tumor growth. Ertumaxomab attaches to CD3-expressing T cells and HER-2-neu-expressing tumor cells, selectively cross-linking tumor and immunologic cells which results in the recruitment of cytotoxic T cells to the T cell/tumor cell aggregate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Erwinaze  
(Other name for: asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi)

Ery-Tab  
(Other name for: erythromycin)

ERYC  
(Other name for: erythromycin)

erythrocyte-encapsulated L-asparaginase suspension  
A suspension of erythrocytes encapsulating L-asparaginase with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of erythrocyte-encapsulated L-asparaginase suspension, L-asparagine is hydrolyzed to L-aspartic acid and ammonia in plasma, thereby depleting tumor cells of asparagine. Due to low asparagine synthetase activity in tumor cells, de novo synthesis of asparagine is suppressed within tumor cells. Shortage of asparagine prevents synthesis of important proteins necessary for tumor cell growth. Encapsulation of asparaginase in erythrocytes decreases the immunogenicity of exogenous protein, enhances its circulation time and may limit toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

erythromycin  
A broad-spectrum, topical macrolide antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Erythromycin diffuses through the bacterial cell membrane and reversibly binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. This prevents bacterial protein synthesis. Erythromycin may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal in action, depending on the concentration of the drug at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism involved. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

erythromycin topical cream  
A topical cream formulation containing the broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic erythromycin with anti-bacterial activity. Erythromycin interacts with the 50S subunit of the bacterial 70S ribosomal RNA complex resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis and bacterial cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

escitalopram oxalate  
The oxalate salt of escitalopram, a pure S-enantiomer of the racemic bicyclic phthalane derivative citalopram, with antidepressant activity. As a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram blocks the reuptake of serotonin by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby potentiating CNS serotonergic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Eskalith  
(Other name for: lithium carbonate)

esmolol  
The hydrochloride salt form of esmolol, a short, rapid-acting, selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and with anti-arrhythmic, antihypertensive and potential analgesic activities. Upon intravenous administration, esmolol binds to and blocks the beta-1 receptor in the myocardium thereby preventing the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine. This leads to a reduction in the force and rate of cardiac contractions and thereby preventing tachycardia, arrythmias and/or hypertension. At higher doses, esmolol also blocks beta-2 receptors located in bronchial and vascular smooth muscle, thereby leading to smooth muscle relaxation. In addition, esmolol exerts a peripheral analgesic effect and intraoperative use of this agent may decrease the amount of opioid administration postoperatively. As the ester moiety in esmolol is rapidly hydrolyzed byplasma esterases, this agent has a very short half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

esomeprazole magnesium  
The magnesium salt of esomeprazole, the S-isomer of omeprazole, with gastric proton pump inhibitor activity. In the acidic compartment of parietal cells, esomeprazole is protonated and converted into the active achiral sulphenamide; the active sulphenamide forms one or more covalent disulfide bonds with the proton pump hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase), thereby inhibiting its activity and the parietal cell secretion of H+ ions into the gastric lumen, the final step in gastric acid production. H+/K+ ATPase is an integral membrane protein of the gastric parietal cell. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

esorubicin  
A synthetic derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. Esorubicin intercalates into DNA and inhibits topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ultimately, interfering with RNA and protein synthesis. This agent exhibits less cardiotoxicity than the parent antibiotic doxorubicin, but may cause more severe myelosupression compared to other compounds within the anthracycline class. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Essiac  
An herbal formula containing burdock root (Arctium lappa), Turkey rhubarb root (Rheum palmatum), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), and slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva) with potential immunostimulating, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. The exact chemical profile, their respective concentrations and the mechanism of action of Essiac are largely unknown due to the proprietary nature of the formula and product inconsistency. Several chemical classes in Essiac are consistently represented and may attribute to its therapeutic effect, including anthraquinone derivatives such as rhein and emodin, high molecular polysaccharides, and lignans such as arctigenin. However, all these chemicals are unlikely to occur in high concentrations in Essiac, and its potential therapeutic effect may be attributed to a potential synergistic effect of these various compounds. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Estinyl  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol)

Estrace  
(Other name for: therapeutic estradiol)

estradiol vaginal ring  
A flexible elastomer ring containing 17 beta-estradiol used for estrogen replacement. Upon vaginal insertion, estradiol vaginal ring releases a consistent low-dose of estrogen which binds to and activates nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. By increasing the amount of estradiol locally, symptoms of vaginal dryness or decreased sexual interest may improve. 17 beta-estradiol is the major naturally occurring estrogen produced in the ovaries of premenopausal women. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

estradiol valerate  
The parenterally-administered synthetic valerate ester of estradiol, a steroid sex hormone vital to the maintenance of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics in females. As the primary, most potent estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries, estradiol binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors. This agent exhibits mild anabolic and metabolic properties, and increases blood coagulability. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

estradiol/norethindrone acetate tablet  
An orally bioavailable tablet formulation containing the semisynthetic estrogen estradiol in combination with the acetate form of the synthetic progestin norethindrone, with estrogenic and progesteronic activities. Estradiol binds to and activates intracellular estrogen receptors found in the reproductive tract and other estrogen-responsive tissues. The activated complex enters the nucleus, binds to the estrogen response elements on DNA, and activates the transcription of genes involved in the maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics, the proliferation of the endometrium, and bone metabolism. Norethindrone binds to the intracellular progesterone receptors in the reproductive system and the activated ligand/receptor complex interacts with specific DNA response elements, resulting in an alteration in protein synthesis; inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release; inhibition of ovulation; an increase in cervical mucus production; and induction of the secretory phase of the endometrial cycle. Administration of estradiol/norethindrone acetate may abrogate vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause and prevent bone loss associated with the postmenopause. Because chronic estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone may increase the risk of endometrial carcinoma, administration of a combination estrogen-progestin in postmenopause may reduce the risk for women who require estrogen replacement therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

estramustine phosphate sodium  
The orally available disodium salt, monohydrate, of estramustine phosphate, a synthetic molecule that combines estradiol and nornitrogen mustard through a carbamate link. Estramustine and its major metabolite estramustine bind to microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule dynamics and leading to anaphase arrest in a dose-dependent fashion. This agent also exhibits anti-androgenic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ESTRING  
(Other name for: estradiol vaginal ring)

Estrobene  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

EstroGel  
(Other name for: transdermal estrogen)

estrogen receptor agonist GTx-758  
An orally available, nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor (ER) alpha agonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of GTx-758, this agent suppresses the secretion of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland through feedback inhibition. In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the synthesis of androgens, including testosterone, by the testes. This may result in suppressed total serum testosterone to the levels observed in castration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Estrosyn  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Estybon  
(Other name for: rigosertib sodium)

eszopiclone  
A nonbenzodiazepine cyclopyrrolone and active dextrorotatory stereoisomer of zopiclone with hypnotic and sedative activities and without significant anxiolytic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, eszopiclone binds to and activates the omega-1 subtype of the alpha subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine GABA receptor complex (GABA-A), a chloride ionophore complex in the central nervous system (CNS). This leads to the opening of chloride channels, causing hyperpolarization and inhibition of neuronal firing, which may result in a hypnotic effect and the induction of sleep. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

etanercept  
A recombinant soluble dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding region of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rhTNF) receptor attached to the constant (Fc) region of human immunoglobulin G (FcIgG). The receptor moiety of etanercept binds to circulating TNF (2 molecules of TNF per receptor) and inhibits its attachment to endogenous TNF cell surface receptors, thereby rendering TNF inactive and inhibiting TNF-mediated mechanisms of inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

etanidazole  
A 2-nitroimidazole with radiosensitizing properties. Etanidazole depletes glutathione and inhibits glutathione transferase, thereby enhancing the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation. This agent may also be useful as an imaging agent for identifying hypoxic, drug-resistant regions of primary tumors or metastases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

etaracizumab  
A humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor alpha v beta 3 integrin. Etaracizumab blocks the binding of ligands, such as vitronectin, to alpha v beta 3 integrin, resulting in inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. Alpha v beta 3 integrin is a cell adhesion and signaling receptor that is expressed on the surface of tumor vessel endothelial cells, some tumor cells, and a number of other cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ethacrynic acid  
An aryloxy-acetic acid derivative belonging to the class of loop diuretics. Ethacrynic acid interferes with the chloride binding site of the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter system in the thick ascending loop of Henle, thereby inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. This leads to an increase in the excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and water. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ethambutol  
An antibiotic with bacteriostatic, antimicrobial and antitubercular properties. Ethambutol interferes with the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan, a major polysaccharide of the mycobacterial cell wall. It inhibits the polymerization of cell wall arabinan of arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan by blocking arabinosyl transferases and induces the accumulation of D-arabinofuranosyl-P-decaprenol, an intermediate in arabinan biosynthesis. This results in halting bacterial growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ethanol  
A colorless organic liquid also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol. Ethanol's primary physiologic effects involve the central nervous system. Depending on the dose delivered, ethanol behaves as an anxiolytic, a depressant, or a general anesthetic. Ethanol-induced immunosuppression involves dysregulation of CD4+ T cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ethaselen  
An orally bioavailable organoselenium inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ethaselen specifically binds to the selenocysteine-cysteine redox pair in the C-terminal active site of TrxR1 and inhibits its activity, which may result in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis in TrxR1-overexpressing tumor cells. TrxR1, upregulated in many cancer cell types, plays a key role in various redox-dependent cellular pathways, regulates transcription factor activity, inhibits apoptosis, and promotes cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ethinoral  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol)

ethinyl estradiol  
A semisynthetic estrogen. Ethinyl estradiol binds to the estrogen receptor complex and enters the nucleus, activating DNA transcription of genes involved in estrogenic cellular responses. This agent also inhibits 5-alpha reductase in epididymal tissue, which lowers testosterone levels and may delay progression of prostatic cancer. In addition to its antineoplastic effects, ethinyl estradiol protects against osteoporosis. In animal models, short-term therapy with this agent has been shown to provide long-term protection against breast cancer, mimicking the antitumor effects of pregnancy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone  
An oral contraceptive formulation containing the semisynthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol, combined with the synthetic progestin, norethindrone, with estrogenic and progestogenic activities, respectively. Ethinyl estradiol binds to and activates intracellular estrogen receptors found in the reproductive tract and other estrogen-responsive tissues. The activated complex enters the nucleus, binds to the estrogen response elements on DNA, activates the transcription of genes involved in the maintenance of the female reproductive system, inhibits the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary, and suppresses the development of the ovarian follicle. Norethindrone binds to intracellular progesterone receptors in progesterone-responsive tissues, such as the pituitary and those found in the reproductive system, and the activated ligand/receptor complex interacts with specific progesterone response elements on DNA, which results in the alteration in protein synthesis, the inhibition of ovulation, an increase in cervical mucus production, the induction of the secretory phase of the endometrial cycle, and the inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system and alters the structure of the endometrium to discourage implantation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ethiodized oil  
A synthetic iodine addition product of the ethyl ester of the fatty acids of poppyseed oil. Ethiodized oil contains 37% organically bound iodine and is used as a diagnostic radiopaque medium or, labeled with I-131, as an antineoplastic agent. Selectively retained in tumor vessels for long periods, ethiodized oil is used for imaging organs such as liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. Labeled with I-131 or other beta emitters (Y-90 or P-32), ethiodol can deliver a high internal radiation dose to certain tumors with minimal effect on healthy tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ethosuximide  
A succinimide with anticonvulsant activity. The exact mechanism of action is not entirely understood, but most likely ethosuximide exerts its effects by partial antagonism of T-type calcium channels of the thalamic neurons. This leads to a decrease in burst firing of thalamocortical neurons, which stabilizes the nerve activity in the brain and prevents seizures. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ethyol  
(Other name for: amifostine trihydrate)

Etilamide  
(Other name for: buserelin)

etodolac  
A pyranocarboxylic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic activities. Etodolac inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase I and II, thereby preventing the formation of prostaglandin which is involved in the induction of pain, fever, and inflammation. It also inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking platelet cyclooxygenase and the subsequent formation of thromboxane A2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Etopophos  
(Other name for: etoposide phosphate)

etoposide  
A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, a substance extracted from the mandrake root Podophyllum peltatum. Possessing potent antineoplastic properties, etoposide binds to and inhibits topoisomerase II and its function in ligating cleaved DNA molecules, resulting in the accumulation of single- or double-strand DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription, and apoptotic cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

etoposide phosphate  
A phosphate salt of a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin. Etoposide binds to the enzyme topoisomerase II, inducing double-strand DNA breaks, inhibiting DNA repair, and resulting in decreased DNA synthesis and tumor cell proliferation. Cells in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle are most sensitive to this agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

etoposide prodrug CAP7.1  
A prodrug of etoposide, a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin extracted from the mandrake root Podophyllum peltatum, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of the etoposide prodrug CAP7.1, etoposide is released after enzymatic cleavage of CAP7.1 by specific carboxylesterases (CE) 1 and 2, which are upregulated in certain tumor cell types. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. This drug binds to and inhibits topoisomerase II, an enzyme elevated in tumor cells. This results in the accumulation of double-strand DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription and the induction of apoptotic cell death. The tumor-specific activation of etoposide increases its efficacy while lowering its systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

etoricoxib  
A synthetic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with antipyretic, analgesic ,and potential antineoplastic properties. Etoricoxib specifically binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), resulting in inhibition of the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Inhibition of COX-2 may induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Etrenol  
(Other name for: hycanthone)

Etretin  
(Other name for: acitretin)

Eulexin  
(Other name for: flutamide)

Evacet  
(Other name for: pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride)

Evaux spring water-based topical spray  
A skin spray composed of Evaux thermal spring water, the emulsifier polysorbate 20, the preservatives phenoxyethanol and chlorphenesin, zinc gluconate, and the moisturizer caprylyl glycol with prophylactic and calming activity. Evaux thermal spring water is rich in mineral elements particularly of lithium, strontium and manganese. When sprayed directly onto the skin or scalp, this topical spray may have a calming, moisturizing, healing and nurturing effect. This agent may prevent or decrease skin rashes associated with the administration of EGFR inhibitors or with radiochemotherapy-induced skin reactions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

everolimus  
A derivative of the natural macrocyclic lactone sirolimus with immunosuppressant and anti-angiogenic properties. In cells, everolimus binds to the immunophilin FK Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12) to generate an immunosuppressive complex that binds to and inhibits the activation of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulatory kinase. Inhibition of mTOR activation results in the inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and proliferation associated with antigen and cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15) stimulation and the inhibition of antibody production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

everolimus tablets for oral suspension  
Tablets for oral suspension containing everolimus, a derivative of the natural macrocyclic lactone sirolimus, with immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities. After suspension of the everolimus tablets in water and oral administration, this agent inhibits the activation of the serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by binding to mTOR's cytosolic receptor immunophilin FK Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12). Inhibition of the mTOR complex may result in the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway and an inhibition in the expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor. Ultimately, this may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. This pediatric formulation can dissolve easily in a small volume of water making it easier to swallow and is available in smaller dose increments thereby allowing for greater dosing flexibility. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Evista  
(Other name for: raloxifene)

Evoxac  
(Other name for: cevimeline hydrochloride)

ex vivo-activated autologous lymph node lymphocytes  
Autologous human lymph node T-lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon collection of immune cells from the tumor-draining lymph node, the human lymph node lymphocytes are activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 microbeads, cultured with recombinant, human interleukin-2 (IL-2), expanded and isolated ex vivo. Upon reintroduction into the patient, the ex vivo-activated autologous lymph node lymphocytes recognize and lyse the tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ex vivo-expanded HER2-specific T cells  
T cells specific for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with potential immunopotentiating activity. T cells directed against HER2, overexpressed on many tumor cells, are collected from HER2-expressing tumor tissue, expanded ex vivo and, then re-introduced in the patient. Re-introduction of ex vivo-expanded HER2-specific T cells may enhance the cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells overexpressing HER2, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

exatecan mesylate  
A semisynthetic, water-soluble derivative of camptothecin with antineoplastic activity. Exatecan mesylate inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA and inhibiting religation of DNA breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. This agent does not require enzymatic activation and exhibits greater potency than camptothecin and other camptothecin analogues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

exemestane  
A synthetic androgen analogue. Exemestane binds irreversibly to and inhibits the enzyme aromatase, thereby blocking the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and the peripheral aromatization of androgenic precursors into estrogens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

exenatide  
A 39 amino acid peptide and synthetic version of exendin-4, a hormone found in the saliva of the venomous lizard Gila monster, with insulin secretagogue and antihyperglycemic activity. Exenatide is administered subcutaneously and mimics human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Compared to GLP-1, exenatide has a longer half-life of 2.4 hours. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Exherin  
(Other name for: ADH-1)

exisulind  
An inactive metabolite of the nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory agent sulindac. After oral administration, sulindac undergoes extensive biotransformation including irreversible oxidation to sulindac sulfone. Approximately, one half of an administered dose of sulindac is eliminated through the urine, mostly as the conjugated sulfone metabolite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Exjade  
(Other name for: deferasirox)

expanded umbilical cord blood product HSC835  
An umbilical cord blood product that has been expanded ex vivo and can be used during single umbilical cord blood transplantation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

extended release bupivacaine hydrochloride resorbable matrix formulation  
An extended release (ER) injectable formulation composed of the hydrochloride salt form of bupivacaine, an amide-type, long-acting local anesthetic, in a resorbable sucrose acetate isobutyrate-based matrix, with analgesic activity. Following administration in or around a specific site, ER bupivacaine is released from the matrix over an extended period of time. Upon release, bupivacaine reversibly binds to specific voltage-gated sodium ion channels in the neuronal membrane, resulting in a decrease in the voltage-dependent membrane permeability to sodium ions, membrane destabilization, and depolarization inhibition thus disrupting nerve impulse conduction. This eventually leads to a reversible loss of sensation. This formulation may provide pain relief up to 72 hours. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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