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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

G-quadruplex stabilizer BMVC  
A carbazole derivative (3,6-bis[2-(1-methylpyridinium)vinyl]carbazole diiodide) that selectively targets to the G-quadruplex DNA structure, used as a fluorescent probe for cancer cytological diagnosis and with potential antitumor activity. G-quadruplex stabilizer BMVC, preferentially uptaken by cancer cells, binds to and stabilizes the telomeric G-quadruplex structure at the end of DNA; when visualized with fluorescent imaging device, BMVC emits bright fluorescent light and can be used to differentiate tumor cells from normal cells. The BMVC/G-quadruplex complexes also interfere with the activity of telomerase, which is highly active in tumor cells and plays a key role in tumorigenesis while expressed at very low levels in most somatic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

G2 checkpoint inhibitor CBP501  
A peptide with G2 checkpoint-abrogating activity. G2 checkpoint inhibitor CBP501 inhibits multiple serine/threonine kinases, including MAPKAP-K2, C-Tak1, and CHK1, that phosphorylate serine 216 of the dual-specific phosphatase Cdc25C (cell division checkpoint 25 C); disruption of Cdc25C activity results in the inhibition of Cdc25C dephosphorylation of the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase complex Cdc2/cyclin B, preventing entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

G207  
A neuroattenuated, replication-competent, recombinant herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intracerebral administration, oncolytic HSV-1 G207 preferentially replicates within glioma cells, which may elicit tumor-specific systemic immune and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in addition to direct cytopathic effects. Derived from wild-type HSV-1 strain F, this agent has been neuroattenuated by deletions in both copies of the gamma34.5 gene, the major determinant of HSV neurovirulence. In addition, the HSV-1 gene UL39, encoding the viral ribonucleotide reductase large subunit infected cell protein 6 (ICP6), has been inactivated through the insertion of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. By inactivating UL39, viral ribonucleotide reductase activity is disrupted, resulting in the inhibition of nucleotide metabolism and viral DNA synthesis in nondividing cells but not in dividing cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

G250 peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing of a synthetic form of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated antigen G250 with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with G250 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells positive for the G250 antigen, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Found in the majority of renal cell carcinomas, G250 is a cell surface tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that contains an HLA-A2.1-restricted epitope that is recognized by CTLs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ga-68-labeled F(ab') 2- trastuzumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of a trastuzumab fragment labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope gallium Ga 68 with radioisotopic and antibody activities. Upon administration, Ga-68-labeled F(ab')2-trastuzumab may bind to HER2-positive tumor cells, allowing radioimmunolocalization with positron emission tomography (PET). Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), overexpressed by many adenocarcinomas, particularly breast adenocarcinomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gabapentin  
A synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid with anticonvulsant activity. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, gabapentin appears to inhibit excitatory neuron activity. This agent also exhibits analgesic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gadobenate dimeglumine  
A gadolinium-based paramagnetic contrast agent. When placed in a magnetic field, gadobenate dimeglumine produces a large magnetic moment and so a large local magnetic field, which can enhance the relaxation rate of nearby protons; as a result, the signal intensity of tissue images observed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be enhanced. Because this agent is preferentially taken up by normal functioning hepatocytes, normal hepatic tissue is enhanced with MRI while tumor tissue is unenhanced. In addition, because gadobenate dimeglumine is excreted in the bile, it may be used to visualize the biliary system using MRI. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gadobutrol  
A gadolinium-based, hydrophilic, macrocyclic, electrically neutral contrast agent used in contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI). Gadobutrol is a non-ionic, paramagnetic complex consisting of gadolinium (Gd3+) chelated with the macrocyclic compound dihydroxy-hydroxymethylpropyl-tetraazacyclododecane-triacetic acid (butrol). Following intravenous administration, gadobutrol may increase MRI sensitivity for the detection of tumors and inflammatory and demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) which are associated with areas with blood-brain barrier defects due to altered perfusion or an enlarged extracellular space. This agent is eliminated in an unchanged form via the kidneys; extra-renal elimination is negligible. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gadofosveset trisodium  
The trisodium salt form of gadofosveset, an injectable, intravascular, amphiphilic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) used with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) imaging. Gadofosveset is a stable gadolinium diethylenet triaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) chelate derivative with a diphenylcyclohe xylphosphate group. Upon injection, gadofosveset binds reversibly to endogenous serum albumin which increases its intravascular retention time compared to non-protein binding contrast agents. The serum albumin binding also increases T1-relaxivity of gadofosveset. This produces an increase in signal intensity of blood, thereby enhancing the visualization of blood vessels upon MRA and may aid in the diagnosis of certain blood vessels and heart disorders. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gadolinium-chelate  
A coordination complex consisting of a gadolinium ion bound to a hexadentate organic chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Chelates of gadolinium are frequently utilized as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and can be used to track nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gadopentetate dimeglumine  
A gadolinium complex of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid with ionic paramagnetic properties. Gadopentetate dimeglumine may provide contrast enhancement during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracranial lesions with abnormal vascularity or of abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gadoterate meglumine  
A gadolinium chelate paramagnetic contrast agent. When placed in a magnetic field, gadoterate meglumine produces a large magnetic moment and so a large local magnetic field, which can enhance the relaxation rate of nearby protons; as a result, the signal intensity of tissue images observed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be enhanced. Because this agent is preferentially taken up by normal functioning hepatocytes, normal hepatic tissue is enhanced with MRI while tumor tissue is unenhanced. In addition, because gadobenate dimeglumine is excreted in the bile, it may be used to visualize the biliary system using MRI. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gadovist  
(Other name for: gadobutrol)

gadoxetate disodium  
A paramagnetic contrast agent consisting of the disodium salt of the gadolinium ion chelated with the lipophilic moiety ethoxybenzyl (EOB) bound to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). When placed in a magnetic field, gadolinium produces a large magnetic moment and so a large local magnetic field, which can enhance the relaxation rate of nearby protons; as a result, the signal intensity of tissue images observed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be enhanced. Because this agent is preferentially taken up by normal functioning hepatocytes, normal hepatic tissue is enhanced with MRI while tumor tissue is unenhanced. In addition, because this agent is excreted in the bile, it may be used to visualize the biliary system using MRI. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gag:267-274 peptide vaccine  
A peptide vaccine containing the amino acids 267 through 274 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag core protein (gag:267-274), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon vaccination, the immune system may exert a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the xenoantigen gag:267-274 and produces pro-inflammatory cytokines. The concomitant administration of a cancer peptide vaccine may benefit from an already activated immune system and may augment an immune response against the administered tumor associated antigen(s). Gag:267-274 peptide is highly immunogenic and may potentially be used as a cancer immunoadjuvant. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

galactomannan derivative  
A carbohydrate polymer composed of mannose and galactose, with chemotherapeutic enhancing activity. Galactomannan derivative binds to galectins on cell surfaces and may promote the transport of certain chemotherapeutics, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), into tumor cells. This may increase the antineoplastic effect of 5-FU when administered concomitantly. Galectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, upregulated on the surface of certain types of tumor cells, and may mediate cell association, survival and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

galactose  
A hexose which is almost identical to glucose except that orientation of -H and -OH on carbon 4 are exchanged, making it an epimer at C-4 of glucose (in Fisher projection). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

galantamine hydrobromide  
The hydrobromide salt form of galantamine, a tertiary alkaloid obtained synthetically or naturally from the bulbs and flowers of Narcissus and several other genera of the Amaryllidaceae family with anticholinesterase and neurocognitive-enhancing activities. Galantamine competitively and reversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase, thereby increasing the concentration and enhancing the action of acetylcholine (Ach). In addition, galantamine is a ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which may increase the presynaptic release of Ach and activate postsynaptic receptors. This agent may improve neurocognitive function in mild and moderate Alzheimer' s disease and may reduce abstinence-induced cognitive symptoms that promote smoking relapse. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

galectin inhibitor GR-MD-02  
A carbohydrate-based galectin inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Galectin inhibitor GR-MD-02 binds to the carbohydrate-binding domain of galectins, especially galectin-3, and may result in an induction of apoptosis mediated through activation of both mitochondria and caspases. This may reduce tumor growth in galectin-overexpressing tumor cells. Galectins, often overexpressed on tumor cells, play a key role in cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis and evasion of immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

galectin-1 inhibitor OTX008  
A calixarene-based compound and galectin-1 (Gal-1) inhibitor with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, galectin-1 inhibitor OTX008 binds Gal-1 which leads to Gal-1 oxidation and proteosomal degradation through a not yet fully elucidated mechanism, and eventually downregulates Gal-1. This decreases tumor cell growth and inhibits angiogenesis. Gal-1, a multifunctional carbohydrate-binding protein, is often overexpressed on tumor cells and plays a key role in cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis and evasion of immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

galeterone  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule androgen receptor modulator and CYP17 lyase inhibitor with potential antiandrogen activity. Galeterone exhibits three distinct mechanisms of action: 1) as an androgen receptor antagonist, 2) as a CYP17 lyase inhibitor and 3) by decreasing overall androgen receptor levels in prostate cancer tumors, all of which may result in a decrease in androgen-dependent growth signaling. Localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17 (P450C17 or CYP17A1) exhibits both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, and plays a key role in the steroidogenic pathway that produces progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

galiximab  
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against CD80, the natural ligand for the T-cell antigen CD28 which mediates T-cell and B-cell adhesion. Galiximab binds to CD80 expressed on the cell surfaces of follicular lymphomas, resulting in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). CD80 is expressed on activated B-cells and gamma-interferon-stimulated monocytes and is often expressed at low levels on the surfaces of follicular lymphoma cells and other lymphoid malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium citrate Ga 67  
The citrate salt of the radioisotope gallium Ga 67. Although the mechanism is unknown, gallium Ga 67 concentrates in lysosomes and is bound to a soluble intracellular protein in certain viable primary and metastatic tumors and focal sites of inflammation, allowing scintigraphic localization. Ga-67 scintigraphy (GS) cannot differentiate between tumor and acute inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68 OPS202  
A radioconjugate consisting of the somatostatin antagonistic peptide OPS202 that is labeled with the positron-emitting radionuclide gallium Ga 68, which may be used as a somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging agent in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) to image neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Gallium Ga 68 OPS202 binds to SSTR subtype 2 present on the cell membranes of many types of NETs. This allows for visualization of SSTR-positive cells upon imaging. SSTR subtypes have been shown to be present in large numbers on NETs and their metastases, while most other normal tissues express low levels of SSTR subtypes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

gallium Ga 68-DOTA-exendin-4  
A radiopharmaceutical composed of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 linked by the macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to the positron-emitting radionuclide gallium Ga 68, with potential use in diagnostic imaging upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration of gallium Ga 68-DOTA-exendin-4, the exendin-4 moiety binds to GLP-1R and is subsequently internalized. The radionuclide moiety can be detected using PET and GLP-1R-expressing tumors can be localized. GLP-1R, located on beta cells, is overexpressed on insulinomas, which are insulin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68-DOTANOC  
A gallium Ga 68-radiolabeled analogue of somatostatin that may be used in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) to image neuroendocrine tumors and metastases. Gallium Ga 68-DOTANOC is a conjugate of the somatostatin analogue 1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC) and gallium Ga 68-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The somatostatin analogue NOC has a high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtypes 2, 3, and 5; these receptor subtypes have been shown to be present in large numbers on neuroendocrine tumors and their metastases, while most other normal tissues express low levels of these somatostatin receptor subtypes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68-DOTATATE  
A radioconjugate consisting of the somatostatin analogue tyrosine-3-octreotate (Tyr3-octreotate or TATE) labeled with the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer gallium Ga 68 via the macrocyclic chelating agent dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA), which may be used as a somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging agent in conjunction with PET to image neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Gallium Ga 68-DOTATATE binds to SSTRs, with a much higher affinity for type 2 SSTR, present on the cell membranes of many types of NETs. This allows for visualization of SSTR-positive cells upon imaging. SSTR subtypes have been shown to be present in large numbers on NETs and their metastases, while most other normal tissues express low levels of SSTR subtypes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68-edotreotide  
A radioconjugate consisting of the octreotide derivative edotreotide labeled with gallium 68 (Ga-68) with potential application in somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET). Similar to octreotide, gallium Ga 68-edotreotide binds to SSTRs, especially type 2 receptors, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor cells and their metastases, thereby allowing for imaging of SSTR-expressing cells upon PET. Gallium Ga 68-edotreotide is produced by substituting tyrosine for phenylalanine at the 3 position of the somatostatin analogue octreotide (Tyr3-octreotide or TOC) and chelating the substituted octreotide to Ga-68 via the macrocyclic chelating agent dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

gallium Ga 68-labeled affibody molecule ABY-025  
A radioconjugate composed of an optimized affibody conjugated, via its C-terminal cysteine, to maleimide-DOTA, and linked to the radioisotope gallium Ga 68, with potential use as a tracer for human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2; ErbB2)-expressing tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). Upon intravenous administration of the gallium Ga 68-labeled affibody ABY-025, the affibody targets HER2-expressing tumor cells. This facilitates both detection of HER2-expressing tumor cells and assessment of responses to HER2-targeting chemotherapeutic agents during PET imaging. The affibody is an optimized antibody mimetic based on a 6.5-kDa 3-helical bundle Z domain derived from the staphylococcal protein A (Z her2:342); the nonbinding surface of the Z domain is reengineered (Z her2:2891) to increase binding affinity for HER2 and to improve tumor imaging. HER2 is overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68-labeled BNOTA-PRGD2  
A radiopharmaceutical agent comprised of a pegylated arginine-glycine-aspartic acid dimer (PRGD2) labeled with gallium Ga 68, with potential alphaVbeta3 integrin imaging activity upon positron emission topography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This radiopharmaceutical is prepared by conjugating PRGD2 with chelator S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (BNOTA) which is capable of forming a six-coordinate complex with Ga 68. After intravenous administration, gallium Ga 68-labeled BNOTA-PRGD2 binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin on the cell membrane via the cyclic tri-amino acids RGD motif. Upon PET imaging, alphaVbeta3 integrin-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and expression levels can be quantified. Compared to other radiolabeled RGD-containing peptides, this agent shows increased affinity to alphaVbeta3 integrin, enhanced tumor uptake as well as improved pharmacokinetics. alphaVbeta3 integrin is overexpressed on certain tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells while minimally or not expressed on healthy, normal cells and plays a key role in angiogenesis, tumor proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

gallium Ga 68-labeled DOTA Di-HSG peptide IMP-288  
A radiolabeled divalent histamine-succinyl-glycine (HSG) hapten-peptide linked with the macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to the radionuclide gallium (Ga) 68 with potential use in diagnostic imaging. After pretargeting with a bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiMoAB) directed against both a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and the HSG hapten-peptide, the HSG portion of administered gallium Ga 68-labeled di-HSG-DOTA peptide IMP-288 binds the anti-HSG portion of the BiMoAB; Ga-68 radioisotopic activity localized to tumor cells bearing the TAA can then be visualized upon positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68-labeled MLN6907  
A radioconjugate containing a monoclonal antibody directed against guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) labeled with the radioisotope gallium Ga 68, with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of MLN6907 selectively binds to GCC, a transmembrane receptor normally found on intestinal cells and dopaminergic neurons in the brain, that is also overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Upon internalization of the agent and PET, tumors expressing GCC can be visualized. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium Ga 68-labeled NODAGA-MJ9  
A radiopharmaceutical agent comprised of a peptide targeting the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) chelated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7 acetic acid (NODAGA) and radiolabeled with gallium Ga 68, with potential tumor imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). After administration of gallium Ga 68-labeled-NODAGA-MJ9, the MJ9 moiety binds to GRPR located on tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, GRPR-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and expression levels can be quantified. GRPR is overexpressed on certain tumor cells and plays a key role in tumor proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gallium nitrate  
A hydrated nitrate salt of the group IIIa element gallium with potential use in the treatment of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate localizes preferentially to areas of bone resorption and remodeling and inhibits osteoclast-mediated resorption by enhancing hydroxyapatite crystallization and reduction of bone mineral solubility. This agent also increases calcium and phosphorous deposition into bone and may increase collagen synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gamboge resin extract TSB-9-W1  
An orally bioavailable extract from the yellow to brown gum-resin of the gamboge tree (genus Garcinia) belonging to the Clusiaceae (or Guttiferae) family, with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Gamboge resin extract TSB-9-W1 contains various active ingredients, including gambogic acid, formoxanthone A, betulin, betulinic acid, morellic acid, isomorellic acid, isogambogic acid, isomorellinol and desoxymorellin. Upon oral administration, the various active components of the gamboge resin extract TSB-9-W1 may bind to and inhibit the activity of a variety of cancer-related proteins, may induce apoptosis, and may exert cytotoxic activity on tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. TSB-9 is derived from TSB-14, which is the acetone-extract of gamboge resin, and pulverized into powder form; TSB-9 is 90% extract and 10% brown sugar. TSB-9-W1 is a milled form of TSB-9 with a particle size of 5 micrometers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gamimune N  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

gamma secretase inhibitor PF-03084014  
A selective gamma secretase (GS) inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. Gamma secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 binds to GS, blocking proteolytic activation of Notch receptors; Notch signaling pathway inhibition may follow, which may result in the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress Notch. The integral membrane protein GS is a multi-subunit protease complex that cleaves single-pass transmembrane proteins, such as Notch receptors, at residues within their transmembrane domains. Overexpression of the Notch signaling pathway has been correlated with increased tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gamma-delta tocotrienol  
An orally available nutritional supplement containing the gamma and delta forms of the vitamin E family member tocotrienol, with hypocholesterolemic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, and potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, gamma-delta tocotrienol accumulates in cancer cells and may exert their anti-cancer activity in part through 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase downregulation and/or degradation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis. In addition, this agent may inhibit angiogenesis partially through the blockage of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the inhibition of tumor cell-induced vessel formation. Altogether, this may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. Further, this agent prevents free radical formation and inhibits lipid peroxidation. Tocotrienols contain 3 double bonds, absent in tocopherols, on its farnesyl isoprenoid side chain that likely contribute to its anti-cancer activities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gamma-secretase/Notch signalling pathway inhibitor RO4929097  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule gamma secretase (GS) inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. Gamma secretase inhibitor RO4929097 binds to GS and blocks activation of Notch receptors, which may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. The integral membrane protein GS is a multi-subunit protease complex that cleaves single-pass transmembrane proteins, such as Notch receptors, at residues within their transmembrane domains. Overexpression of the Notch signaling pathway has been correlated with increased tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gammacorten  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Gammagard S/D  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

Gammar-P  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

ganciclovir  
A synthetic guanine derivative with antiviral activity. As the active metabolite of ganciclovir, ganciclovir-5-triphosphate (ganciclovir-TP) appears to inhibit viral DNA synthesis by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerases and incorporation into viral DNA, resulting in eventual termination of viral DNA elongation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ganetespib  
A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ganetespib binds to and inhibits Hsp90, resulting in the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic client proteins, the inhibition of cell proliferation and the elevation of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72); it may inhibit the activity of multiple kinases, such as c-Kit, EGFR, and Bcr-Abl, which as client proteins depend on functional HsP90 for maintenance. Hsp90, a 90 kDa molecular chaperone upregulated in a variety of tumor cells, plays a key role in the conformational maturation, stability and function of "client" proteins within the cell, many of which are involved in signal transduction, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, including kinases, transcription factors and hormone receptors. Hsp72 exhibits anti-apoptotic functions; its up-regulation may be used as a surrogate marker for Hsp90 inhibition. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ganite  
(Other name for: gallium nitrate)

ganitumab  
A recombinant, fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ganitumab binds to membrane-bound IGF-1R, preventing binding of the ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent triggering of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of this survival signaling pathway may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF-1R is a tyrosine kinase and a member of the insulin receptor family. IGF-1R activation stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF-1R signaling has been highly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gardasil  
(Other name for: quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine)

garlic  
A bulbous herb isolated from the plant Allium sativum with potential antineoplastic activity. Garlic contains a number of different organosulfur compounds, some of which have displayed antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GarliPure Maximum Allicin  
(Other name for: garlic)

GastroMARK  
(Other name for: ferumoxsil oral suspension)

gataparsen sodium  
A second-generation antisense oligonucleotide directed against survivin mRNA with potential antitumor activity. Gataparsen sodium hybridizes to survivin mRNA, thereby blocking translation of survivin protein, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Silencing the expression of survivin may result in the restoration of the apoptotic process in tumor cells, facilitating chemotherapeutic treatment. Survivin, expressed during embryonal development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, shorter survival times, and a decreased response to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gavilimomab  
A murine IgM monoclonal antibody (MoAb) developed for the potential treatment of graft versus host disease (GvHD). Gavilimomab recognizes human CD147 antigen, weakly expressed on human leukocytes and up-regulated on activated lymphocytes. This MoAb is capable of neutralizing inflammatory reactions via a complement-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. However, gavilimomab does not offer an improvement over antithymocyte globulin in the treatment of acute steroid resistant GVHD. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gavinostat  
An orally bioavailable hydroxymate inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and antineoplastic activities. Gavinostat inhibits class I and class II HDACs, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling and an altered pattern of gene expression. At low, nonapoptotic concentrations, this agent inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and interferon-gamma. HDAC inhibitor ITF2357 has also been shown to activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, inducing apoptosis in hepatoma cells and leukemic cells. This agent may also exhibit anti-angiogenic activity, inhibiting the production of angiogenic factors such as IL-6 and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) by bone marrow stromal cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gazyva  
(Other name for: obinutuzumab)

GD2 lactone/GD3 lactone-KLH conjugate bivalent vaccine  
A cancer vaccine, containing epitopes of the gangliosides GD2 and GD3 conjugated with the immunostimulant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with GD2 lactone/GD3 lactone-KLH conjugate bivalent vaccine may elicit antibodies against tumor cells expressing either epitope, resulting in complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Located primarily in the nervous system, gangliosides, such as GD2 and GD3, are cell membrane components involved in cellular recognition and cell-cell communication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gefitinib  
An anilinoquinazoline with antineoplastic activity. Gefitinib inhibits the catalytic activity of numerous tyrosine kinases including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may result in inhibition of tyrosine kinase-dependent tumor growth. Specifically, this agent competes with the binding of ATP to the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, thereby inhibiting receptor autophosphorylation and resulting in inhibition of signal transduction. Gefitinib may also induce cell cycle arrest and inhibit angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gelclair  
(Other name for: polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate gel)

Gelfoam  
(Other name for: absorbable gelatin sponge)

GEM640  
(Other name for: AEG35156)

gemcitabine 5'-elaidic acid ester  
A lipophilic, unsaturated fatty acid ester derivative of gemcitabine (dFdC), an antimetabolite deoxynucleoside analogue, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon hydrolysis intracellularly by esterases, the prodrug gemcitabine is converted into the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine di- and tri-phosphate (dFdCDP and dFdCTP) by deoxycytidine kinase. dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, thereby decreasing the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA synthesis; dFdCTP is incorporated into DNA, resulting in DNA strand termination and apoptosis. Due to its lipophilicity, gemcitabine 5'-elaidic acid ester exhibits an increased cellular uptake and accumulation, resulting in an increased conversion to active metabolites, compared to gemcitabine. In addition, this formulation of gemcitabine may be less susceptible to deamination and deactivation by deoxycytidine deaminase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemcitabine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of an analogue of the antimetabolite nucleoside deoxycytidine with antineoplastic activity. Gemcitabine is converted intracellularly to the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine di- and triphosphate (dFdCDP, dFdCTP). dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, thereby decreasing the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA synthesis; dFdCTP is incorporated into DNA, resulting in DNA strand termination and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemcitabine hydrochloride emulsion  
An orally available nanoparticle-based formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of gemcitabine, a broad-spectrum antimetabolite and deoxycytidine analogue, with antineoplastic activity. The formulation consists of an oil-in-water emulsion in which gemicitabine is solubilized in the excipient matrix containing a mixture of oil and (co)surfactants. Upon oral administration, gemcitabine is converted into the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine diphosphate (dFdCDP) and difluorodeoxycytidine triphosphate (dFdCTP) by deoxycytidine kinase. dFdCTP competes with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) and is incorporated into DNA, resulting in premature termination of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. Further, dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and reduces the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA synthesis. Compared to gemcitabine alone, the emulsion allows for increased oral bioavailability and decreases its susceptibility to deamination and deactivation by cytidine deaminase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemcitabine prodrug LY2334737  
An orally available valproic acid ester of gemcitabine, a broad-spectrum antimetabolite with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, gemcitabine prodrug LY2334737 is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and releases gemcitabine systemically over a period of time consistent with formation rate-limited kinetics. In turn, gemcitabine is converted into the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine diphosphate and triphosphate (dFdCDP and dFdCTP) by deoxycytidine kinase. dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, thereby decreasing the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA replication; dFdCTP is incorporated into DNA, resulting in premature termination of DNA replication and eventually the induction of apoptosis. Compared to gemcitabine, this prodrug is able to avoid hydrolysis in enterocytes and the portal circulation thus avoiding first pass metabolism and increasing systemic gemcitabine availability. In addition, the slow release of gemcitabine may enhance efficacy while lowering toxicity. CES2, a serine ester hydrolase, is expressed in certain tumors which may allow for increased conversion of gemcitabine at the tumor site, thus increasing cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of gemcitabine hydrochloride and cisplatin used in the treatment of advanced-stage non-small cell lung, advanced-stage bladder, advanced-stage cervical, pancreatic, and epithelial ovarian cancers; this regimen is also used in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemcitabine-erlotinib regimen  
A first-line chemotherapy regimen consisting of gemcitabine and erlotinib used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemcitabine-oxaliplatin regimen  
A regimen consisting of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin used for the treatment of biliary adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular cancer, and testicular cancer. This regimen is currently being studied in a variety of other cancers. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemcitabine-phosphoramidate NUC-1031  
A pyrimidine analogue and a proprietary prodrug based on an aryloxy phosphoramidate derivative of gemcitabine with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration and cellular uptake, NUC-1031 is converted into the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine di- and triphosphate (dFdCDP, dFdCTP). dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, thereby decreasing the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA replication; dFdCTP is incorporated into DNA, resulting in premature termination of DNA replication and eventually induction of apoptosis. With the phosphoramidate moiety on the gemcitabine monophosphate group, NUC-1031 has improved properties over its parent molecule: 1) is more lipophilic and accumulates in cancer cells by passive diffusion and does not require a nucleoside transporter, 2) as the agent is delivered in the monophosphate form, the first phosphorylation step by deoxycytidine kinase is not required, 3) this agent is not susceptible to deactivation by cytidine deaminase cleavage of the monophosphorylated form. Altogether, this may help overcome resistance to gemcitabine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemfibrozil  
A fibric acid derivative with hypolipidemic effects. Gemfibrozil interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARalpha) resulting in PPARalpha-mediated stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) synthesis. This enhances triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance and reduces the expression of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III). The reduction in hepatic production of apoC-III results in subsequent reduction of serum levels of very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In addition, gemfibrozil-mediated PPARalpha stimulation of apoA-I and apoA-II expression results in an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gemigliptin  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), with hypoglycemic and potential renoprotective activities. Upon administration, gemigliptin binds to DPP-4 and inhibits the breakdown of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). This prolongs incretin activity, increases postprandial insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, decreases glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying and lowers blood glucose levels. In addition, gemigliptin exerts a renoprotective effect, probably through enhanced GLP-1 signaling, may prevent apoptosis and acute kidney injury induced by nephrotoxic agents, and may protect against diabetic nephropathy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

gemtuzumab ozogamicin  
A recombinant, humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody attached to the cytotoxic antitumor antibiotic calicheamicin. In this conjugate, the antibody binds to and is internalized by tumor cells expressing CD33 antigen (a sialic acid-dependent glycoprotein commonly found on the surface of leukemic blasts), thereby delivering the attached calicheamicin to CD33-expressing tumor cells. Calicheamicin binds to the minor groove of DNA, causing double strand DNA breaks and resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gemzar  
(Other name for: gemcitabine hydrochloride)

Genasense  
(Other name for: oblimersen sodium)

Gencept  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

genetically engineered HSV-1 expressing IL-12  
A genetically engineered, replication selective, infected cell protein (ICP) 34.5 gene-deleted, oncolytic human simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) expressing the human immunostimulating cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral administration of HSV-1 expressing IL-12, the IL-12-expressing HSV-1 preferentially infects and replicates in tumor cells of neuronal origin causing viral-mediated tumor cell lysis. The released virus particles, in turn, infect and replicate in neighboring tumor cells. In addition, the IL-12-expressing HSV-1 promotes the secretion of IL-12 by the tumor cells. IL-12 promotes the activation of natural killer cells, which induces both the secretion of interferon-gamma and a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the tumor cells. This results in both immune-mediated tumor cell death and further inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Deletion of the gene encoding for ICP34.5 imparts tumor selectivity by preventing replication in healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Genexol-PM  
(Other name for: paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle)

genistein  
A soy-derived isoflavone and phytoestrogen with antineoplastic activity. Genistein binds to and inhibits protein-tyrosine kinase, thereby disrupting signal transduction and inducing cell differentiation. This agent also inhibits topoisomerase-II, leading to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, and induces G2/M cell cycle arrest. Genistein exhibits antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and immunosuppressive activities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Genotropin  
(Other name for: somatotropin)

Gesterol 100  
(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)

ghrelin peptide analogue  
A ghrelin peptide analogue with potential anti-cachexia activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, ghrelin peptide analogue binds to and stimulates the G protein-coupled growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the appetite-stimulating and growth hormone-releasing effects of endogenous ghrelin. Stimulation of GHSR may also reduce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin-6, which may play direct roles in cancer-related loss of appetite. Ghrelin, naturally secreted by gastric endocrine cells, is a 28 amino acid peptide and an endogenous ligand for GHSR. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GI-4000 vaccine  
A vaccine containing a heat-killed recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast transfected with mutated forms of Ras, an oncogene frequently found in solid tumors, with potential immunostimulant and antitumor activity. Upon administration, GI-4000 vaccine elicits an immune response by stimulating a specific cytotoxic T-cell response against the mutated forms of Ras. This may lead to a destruction of cancer cells expressing a Ras mutation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gilotrif  
(Other name for: afatinib dimaleate)

gimatecan  
An orally bioavailable, semi-synthetic lipophilic analogue of camptothecin, a quinoline alkaloid extracted from the Asian tree Camptotheca acuminate, with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Gimatecan binds to and inhibits the activity of topoisomerase I, stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I-DNA, which inhibits the religation of single-stranded DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase I; lethal double-stranded DNA breaks occur when the topoisomerase I-DNA complex is encountered by the DNA replication machinery, DNA replication is disrupted, and the tumor cell undergoes apoptosis. Although the mechanism of its antiangiogenic activity has yet to be full elucidated, this agent may inhibit endothelial cell migration, tumor neovascularization, and the expression of proangiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gimeracil  
A pyridine derivative with antitumor activity. Gimeracil enhances the antitumor activity of fluoropyrimidines by competitively and reversibly inhibiting the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase causing decreased degradation of the fluoropyrimidines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ginger extract  
An extract of the rhizome of the perennial plant Zingiber officinale with potential antineoplastic activity. Ginger extract contains a number of different phenolic compounds, some of which have displayed antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. This agent also exhibits antiemetic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

girentuximab  
A chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against G250, a cell surface antigen found in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. Following binding, girentuximab may be internalized by G250 antigen-expressing renal carcinoma cells; mAb G250 may be useful as a carrier for radioisotopes and other antineoplastic therapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GITRL RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulatory activity. GITRL RNA-transfected autologous DC vaccine is prepared by transfecting DCs with RNAs encoding tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 18 (TNFSF18 or GlTRL); expression of GlTRL results in modulating T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. Co-vaccination of this vaccine with melanoma antigen specific vaccine may eliminate the adverse effects associated with systemic administration of immune modulators, while also enhancing vaccine-induced immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gleevec  
(Other name for: imatinib mesylate)

glembatumumab vedotin  
An antibody-drug conjugate, consisting of the fully human monoclonal antibody CR011 directed against glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) and conjugated via a cathepsin B-sensitive valine-citrulline (vc) linkage to the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody CR011 moiety binds to glycoprotein nmb (GPNMB), expressed on the surfaces of a variety of cancer cell types; upon endocytosis, the synthetic dolastin analogue MMAE is released via enzymatic cleavage into the tumor cell cytosol, where it binds to tubulin and inhibits tubulin polymerization, which may result in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. The vc linkage system is highly stable in serum, rendering the cytotoxicity of glembatumumab vedotin specific for GPNMB-positive cells. GPNMB is a transmembrane protein overexpressed on the surfaces of various cancer cell types, including melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gliadel  
(Other name for: polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant)

Gliadel wafer  
(Other name for: polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant)

glioblastoma cancer vaccine ERC1671  
A cancer vaccine composed of a combination of autologous glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells, allogeneic GBM tumor cells, generated from three different GBM donor cancer patients, and the lysates of all of these cells, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration of GBM cancer vaccine ERC1671, the mixture of the autologous and allogeneic cells and lysates stimulates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against GBM-associated antigens, which leads to the destruction of glioblastoma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glioblastoma multiforme multipeptide vaccine IMA950  
A cancer vaccine comprising 11 peptides associated with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with glioblastoma multiforme multi-antigen vaccine IMA950 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response as well as a T-helper (Th) immune response against tumor cells expressing these peptides, potentially resulting in decreased tumor growth of GBM. Peptides in IMA950 comprise the following: brevican (BCAN); chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4); fatty acid binding protein 7, brain (FABP7); insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3); neuroligin 4, X-linked (NLGN4X); neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM); protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1 ( PTPRZ1); tenascin C (TNC); Met proto-oncogene (MET); baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5); and hepatitis B virus core antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glioma-associated antigen peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of autologous dendritic cells pulsed with synthetic glioma-associated antigen (GAA) peptides with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against GAA peptide-expressing glioma cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glioma-associated peptide-loaded dendritic cell vaccine SL-701  
A cell-based cancer vaccine comprised of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with various synthetic glioma-associated antigen (GAA) peptides, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, the glioma-associated peptide-loaded DC vaccine SL-701 exposes the immune system to various GAA peptides. This may stimulate both anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against the GAA-expressing glioma cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Globo H-KLH immunostimulant OPT-822  
A carbohydrate-based immunostimulant comprised of the Globo H hexasaccharide 1 (Globo H) epitope linked to the immunostimulant carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of Globo H-KLH immunostimulant OPT-822, the carbohydrate antigen Globo H may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against Globo H-expressing tumor cells, thereby decreasing tumor cell proliferation. Globo H is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) commonly found on a variety of tumor cells including breast cancer cells. KLH improves antigenic immune recognition and T-cell responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Globo-H-GM2-Lewis-y-MUC1-32(aa)-sTn(c)-TF(c)-Tn(c)-KLH conjugate vaccine  
A heptavalent vaccine consisting of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens globohexaosylceramide (globo-H), GM2, Lewis-y, MUC1-32(aa), sTn(c), TF(c), and Tn(c) conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), an immunomodulator. This vaccine may induce the production of IgG and IgM antibodies and an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumors expressing these antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

globulin component macrophage-activating factor  
A recombinant form of GC (group-specific component) protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GC-MAF) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, globulin component macrophage-activating factor is able to stimulate macrophages to kill cancer cells, inhibit angiogenesis and stimulate the immune system. This decreases tumor cell proliferation. GC, also known as vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), is converted to GC-MAF by enzymes located in the membrane of B- and T-lymphocytes. However, deglycosylated GC protein cannot be converted to GC-MAF. Endogenous GC-MAF is often not activated in patients with cancer due to an increased activity of nagalase (also called alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase), an enzyme secreted by cancer cells that mediates the deglycosylation of GC; thus preventing macrophage activation and immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glucarpidase  
A zinc-dependent enzyme isolated from a strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas. Because glucarpidase rapidly hydrolyzes methotrexate into inactive metabolites, it may be useful as a rescue agent for methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity. In antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), this agent is conjugated with an antibody that binds to a specific tumor cell type, allowing for glucarpidase-catalyzed activation of a co-administered prodrug at the site of the tumor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Glucidex  
(Other name for: maltodextrin)

Glucodry  
(Other name for: maltodextrin)

Glucophage  
(Other name for: metformin hydrochloride)

glucosamine sulfate/chondroitin sulfate tablet  
An oral tablet formulation of a dietary supplement containing the sulfate salts of the amino sugar glucosamine and the glucosaminoglycan chondroitin with potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic activities. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are naturally occurring substances that play a key role in cartilage formation and repair. Glucosamine is an essential substrate for glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid, needed for formation of the joint proteoglycan structural matrix, and may prevent chondrocytic catabolic activity and inhibit production of inflammatory mediators. Chondroitin is the major glycosaminoglycan in cartilage, responsible for the elasticity of cartilage; it may reduce the IL-1beta-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) translocation in chondrocytes, inhibiting NF-kB-mediated inflammatory processes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glucuronic acid  
A carboxylic acid with structural similarity to glucose with detoxifying activity. The xenobiotic metabolism of various substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids involves glucuronidation, a process in which water-soluble, excretable glucuronides of these substances are formed via glycosidic linkages to glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid, formed in the liver through the linkage of glucuronic acid to uridine diphosphate (UDP) via a glycosidic bond, is an intermediate in the process of glucuronidation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glutaminase inhibitor CB-839  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of glutaminase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CB-839 selectively and irreversibly inhibits glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that is essential for the conversion of the amino acid glutamine into glutamate. By blocking glutamine utilization, proliferation in rapidly growing cells is impaired. Glutamine-dependent tumors rely on the conversion of exogenous glutamine into glutamate and glutamate metabolites to both provide energy and generate building blocks for the production of macromolecules, which are needed for cellular growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glutamine  
A nonessential amino acid. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of urea (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purines (necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids). Glutamic acid-to-glutamine conversion, in which an ammonia group is added to glutamic acid (catalyzed by glutamine synthase), is of central importance in the regulation of toxic levels of ammonia in the body. This agent is a substrate for the production of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA) and is also an important source of energy for the nervous system. Glutamine may become a conditionally essential amino acid during certain catabolic states. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glutathione  
A tripeptide comprised of three amino acids (cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine) present in most mammalian tissue. Glutathione acts as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and a detoxifying agent. Glutathione is also important as a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, in the uptake of amino acids, and in the synthesis of leukotrienes. As a substrate for glutathione S-transferase, this agent reacts with a number of harmful chemical species, such as halides, epoxides and free radicals, to form harmless inactive products. In erythrocytes, these reactions prevent oxidative damage through the reduction of methemoglobin and peroxides. Glutathione is also involved in the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds in proteins and in the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glutathione disulfide NOV-002  
A stabilized formulation of disodium glutathione disulfide (GSSG; oxidized glutathione) and cisplatin (1000:1) with potential chemoprotective and immunomodulating activities. Mimicking endogenous GSSG, glutathione disulfide NOV-002 acts as a competitive substrate for gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT), which may result in the S-glutathionylation of proteins, predominantly actin, a redox stress on endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ER stress-induced apoptosis; S-glutathionylation may be stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) liberated by a glutathione disulfide NOV-002-induced increase in GGT activity. Glutathione disulfide NOV-002 may also induce phosphorylation of proteins such as ERK and p38, two kinases that play critical regulatory roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The cisplatin component of this agent does not provide an effective therapeutic concentration of cisplatin in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glutathione pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride formulation 2B3-101  
A glutathione (GSH) pegylated, liposome-encapsulated preparation of the hydrochloride salt form of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin, with potential anetineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the glutathione pegylated liposomal formulation 2B3-101 specifically delivers doxorubicin into the brain. Doxorubicin intercalates between DNA base pairs and interferes with topoisomerase II activity, which inhibits both DNA replication and RNA synthesis, resulting in cancer cell death and tumor regression. Doxorubicin also generates reactive oxygen species, which causes cell membrane lipid peroxidation leading to cytotoxicity. The pegylated liposomal delivery of doxorubicin improves drug penetration into tumors and prolongs circulation time, thereby increasing doxorubicin's efficacy and decreasing its toxicity. Conjugation of GSH to the PEG molecules directs the liposomes to the GSH transporters on the blood brain barrier (BBB) and improves the delivery of doxorubicin into the brain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycerin enema  
An enema solution containing 5% glycerin, a trihydroxy alcohol with osmotic laxative activity. Upon rectal administration, glycerin enema creates an osmotic gradient thereby attracting water into the rectum. This increases volume, increases peristalsis, stimulates evacuation, and relieves constipation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycine  
A non-essential, non-polar, non-optical, glucogenic amino acid. Glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, triggers chloride ion influx via ionotropic receptors, thereby creating an inhibitory post-synaptic potential. In contrast, this agent also acts as a co-agonist, along with glutamate, facilitating an excitatory potential at the glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Glycine is an important component and precursor for many macromolecules in the cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycooptimized trastuzumab-GEX  
A glycoengineered form of a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Glycooptimized trastuzumab-GEX specifically binds to the extracellular domain of HER2, thereby inducing an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HER2-expressing tumor cells. This eventually results in apoptosis and growth inhibition of tumor cells. HER2, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR superfamily, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumors. This agent has a specific glycosylation profile that may enhance its ADCC response against HER2-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycopeptide antibiotic  
One of a class of antibiotics originally isolated from plant and soil bacteria with structures containing either a glycosylated cyclic or polycyclic nonribosomal peptide. These antibiotics inhibit the cell wall structure of susceptible organisms (principally Gram-positive cocci) by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. First-generation glycopeptide antibiotics include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and ramoplanin; second-generation semi-synthetic glycopeptide antibiotics include oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycopyrrolate  
A synthetic quaternary ammonium that is an anticholinergic agent with antispasmodic activity. Glycopyrrolate competitively binds to peripheral muscarinic receptors in the autonomic effector cells of, and inhibits cholinergic transmission in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial (SA) node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, exocrine glands and in the autonomic ganglia. Blockage of cholinergic transmission, in smooth muscle cells located in the gastrointestinal tract and the bladder, causes smooth muscle relaxation and prevents the occurrence of painful spasms. In addition, glycopyrrolate inhibits the release of gastric, pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycosylated recombinant human G-CSF AVI-014  
A glycosylated form of a recombinant agent that is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and is produced using transgenic biotechnology. Transgenic hens carrying recombinant human G-CSF cDNA express the naturally glycosylated recombinant human protein in egg albumen from which glycosylated recombinant human G-CSF AVI-014 is isolated. Produced endogenously by monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, G-CSF binds to and activates specific cell surface receptors, stimulating neutrophil progenitor proliferation and differentiation and selected neutrophil functions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

glycosylated recombinant human interleukin-7  
A glycosylated recombinant protein which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human interleukin-7 (IL-7) with hematopoietic and immunopotentiating activities. Naturally produced by bone marrow, thymic stromal, and spleen cells, the cytokine interleukin-7 is a hematopoietic growth factor for progenitor B cells and T cells, stimulating proliferation and differentiation of mature T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells. As with glycosylated endogenous proteins, glycosylation of recombinant proteins may fundamentally affect their biological activity, function, clearance from circulation, and antigenicity; glycosylation of recombinant proteins that are chemically identical to similar to endogenous proteins may render protein structures and biological activities that are more similar to those of glycosylated endogenous proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GM-CSF-encoding oncolytic adenovirus CGTG-102  
A recombinant, oncolytic serotype 5/3 capsid-modified adenovirus encoding the immunostimulatory cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the oncolytic adenovirus selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. Synergistically, GM-CSF (sargramostim) expressed by the oncolytic adenovirus enhances antigen presentation, promotes natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing and causes a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response against tumor cells harboring the oncolytic adenovirus, resulting in an immune-mediated tumor cell death. CGTG-102 is designed to replicate only in cells with defects in the p16/Rb/E2F pathway, attributed to a mutation common in many solid tumors. Replacement of the Ad5 capsid protein knob with a knob domain from serotype 3 causes higher transduction in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GM-K562 cell vaccine  
A cell-based vaccine comprised of K562 cells transfected with the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene with potential immunopotentiating properties. Vaccination with GM-K562 cells may stimulate the host immune system to produce an antitumoral T-lymphocyte response, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. K562 cells are derived from the human erythroleukemia cell line K562. GM-CSF (also known as sagramostim) expressed by vaccine cells binds to specific cell surface receptors, modulating the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production. GM-CSF also promotes antigen presentation, up-regulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function; it may also augment host antitumoral immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GM.CD40L cell vaccine  
A cell-based vaccine composed of irradiated tumor cells transduced with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and CD40-ligand (CD40L) genes. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate an anti-tumoral dendritic cell-mediated host immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GM2-KLH vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of GM2 ganglioside, a melanoma-specific antigen, conjugated with the immunostimulant keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Vaccination with GM2-KLH vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against GM2 ganglioside-expressing melanoma cells, resulting in tumor growth inhibition. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GM2/GD2/GD3 lactone-KLH conjugate trivalent vaccine  
A trivalent cancer vaccine containing the ganglioside lactones GM2, GD2 and GD3 conjugated with the immunostimulant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with GM2 lactone/GD2 lactone/GD3 lactone-KLH conjugate trivalent vaccine may elicit antibodies against tumor cells expressing any of these epitopes, resulting in an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells expressing these gangliosides. GM2, GD2 and GD3 are tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell membranes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GnRH antagonist TAK-385  
An orally available, non-peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)) antagonist, with potential antineoplastic activity. GnRH antagonist TAK-385 competitively binds to and blocks the GnRH receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, which both prevents GnRH binding to the GnRH receptor and inhibits the secretion and release of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone from Leydig cells in the testes. Since testosterone is required to sustain prostate growth, reducing testosterone levels may inhibit hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gold sodium thiomalate  
The sodium salt of gold thiomalic acid, an organogold compound with antirheumatic and potential antineoplastic activities. Gold sodium thiomalate (GST) appears to inhibit the activity of atypical protein kinase C iota (PKCiota) by forming a cysteinyl-aurothiomalate adduct with the cysteine residue Cys-69 within the PB1 binding domain of PKCiota. This prevents the binding of Par6 (Partitioning defective protein 6) to PKCiota, thereby inhibiting PKCiota-mediated oncogenic signaling, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, the promotion of tumor cell differentiation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Atypical PKCiota, a serine/threonine kinase overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types, plays an important role in cancer proliferation, invasion, and survival; Par6 is a scaffold protein that facilitates atypical PKC-mediated phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins involved in epithelial and neuronal cell polarization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

goldenrod  
A group of North American weedy herbs belonging to the genus Solidago (family Asteraceae) with potential chemopreventive activities. Goldenrod may also possess anti-inflammatory, antiseptic properties, diuretic and antifungal properties, and may relieve chemotherapy-induced side-effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

golnerminogene pradenovec  
A recombinant agent consisting of a genetically-modified adenovirus 5 vector encoding the protein cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. TNF exhibits potent anti-tumor cytolytic properties; the adenovirus 5 vector efficiently infects tumor cells, delivering tumor-specific TNF. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

golotimod  
An orally bioavailable synthetic peptide containing the amino acids D-glutamine and L-tryptophan connected by a gamma-glutamyl linkage with potential immunostimulating, antimicrobial and antineoplastic activities. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, golotimod appears to inhibit the expression of STAT-3, reversing immunosuppression and stimulating an anti-tumor immune response. This agent may stimulate the production of T-lymphocytes (in particular the helper T [Th1] cells), activate macrophages, and increase levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma. STAT-3, a transcription factor upregulated in many cancer cell types, is involved in tumor cell growth and survival and immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

golvatinib  
An orally bioavailable dual kinase inhibitor of c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Golvatinib binds to and inhibits the activities of both c-Met and VEGFR-2, which may inhibit tumor cell growth and survival of tumor cells that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases. c-Met and VEGFR-2 are upregulated in a variety of various tumor cell types and play important roles in tumor cell growth, migration and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue  
A synthetic analog of the endogenous hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GnRH analog mimics endogenous GnRH and strongly binds to and activates pituitary GnRH receptors, which stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropic hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Continuous, prolonged activation by the GnRH analog results in pituitary GnRH receptor desensitization and receptor downregulation. This causes inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion of LH and FSH. In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the production and release of testosterone from Leydig cells in the testes and causes a significant decline in testosterone production that is near the levels seen after castration. This may inhibit androgen receptor-positive tumor progression. In females, this results in a decrease in estradiol production. GnRH, also called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), is normally synthesized in and secreted by the hypothalamus. Synthetic analogs of GnRH have a stronger receptor binding affinity than the endogenous form. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Goodbelly Probiotic  
(Other name for: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v/Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic supplement)

goserelin acetate  
The acetate salt of a synthetic decapeptide analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Continuous, prolonged administration of goserelin in males results in inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion, leading to a significant decline in testosterone production; in females, prolonged administration results in a decrease in estradiol production. (NCI04) Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gossypol  
An orally-active polyphenolic aldehyde with potential antineoplastic activity. Derived primarily from unrefined cottonseed oil, gossypol induces cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. This agent also inhibits cell-signaling enzymes, resulting in inhibition of cell growth, and may act as a male contraceptive. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp100 antigen  
A melanoma-associated antigen. When administered in a vaccine formulation, gp100 antigen may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell HLA-A2.1-restricted immune response against tumors that express this antigen, which may result in a reduction in tumor size. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp100-fowlpox vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding the melanoma antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp 100) with potential antineoplastic activity. The expression of gp100 may generate a cellular immune response to melanoma cells; this effect is enhanced by the co-administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp100:154-162 peptide vaccine  
A peptide consisting of amino acid residues 154 through 162 of the melanoma-melanocyte antigen gp100. Vaccination with gp100:154-162 peptide may enhance tumor-specific T-cell immunity. gp100 antigen is a self-antigen expressed by melanocytes, pigmented retinal cells, and most melanoma lesions and is recognized via class I and II HLA-restricted mechanisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine  
A synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 209 through 217 of the glycoprotein 100 (gp100) melanoma antigen, with a methionine substitution at position 210 designed to improve immunogenicity. Vaccination with gp100:209-217(210M) peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing gp100. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp100:280-288(288V) peptide vaccine  
A peptide vaccine consisting of the amino acids 280 through 288 of the melanoma antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp100) with potential antineoplastic activity. gp100:280-288(288V) peptide has a valine substitution at amino acid position 288 to improve immunogenicity. Vaccination with gp100:280-288(288V) peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells positive for the gp100 antigen, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GP2 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine  
A vaccine containing a HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 654-662) (GP2), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activity. Upon vaccination, GP2 may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate a tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp96-Ig-secreting allogeneic tumor-cell vaccine HS110  
A proprietary, allogeneic tumor cell vaccine expressing a recombinant secretory form of the heat shock protein gp96 fusion (gp96-Ig) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of gp96-Ig-secreting allogeneic tumor cell vaccine HS110, the irradiated live tumor cells continuously secrete gp96-Ig along with its chaperoned tumor associated antigens (TAAs) into the blood stream, thereby activating antigen presenting cells, natural killer cells and priming potent cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to respond against TAAs on the endogenous tumor cells. Furthermore, this vaccine may induce long-lived memory T cells that could fight recurring cancer cells. gp96-Ig is constructed by replacing the KDEL retention sequence of gp96, normally an endoplasmatic reticulum-resident chaperone peptide, with the Fc portion of mouse and human IgG1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gp96-secreting allogeneic bladder cancer cell vaccine HS-410  
An allogeneic urothelial bladder cancer cell vaccine expressing a recombinant secretory form of the immunoadjuvant heat shock protein gp96 fused with an immunoglobulin Fc domain (gp96-Ig) protein, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the gp96-Ig-secreting allogeneic bladder cancer cell vaccine HS-410, the live, irradiated tumor cells continuously secrete gp96-Ig along with its chaperoned tumor associated antigens (TAAs). This enhances antigen cross presentation to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and, upon expansion, leads to the induction of a potent CTL response against the TAAs on the endogenous bladder cancer cells. This vaccine also induces a memory T cell response that could fight recurring cancer cells. gp96-Ig is constructed by replacing the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence of gp96 with the Fc portion of the IgG1 protein. This allows for gp96, normally an ER-resident chaperone peptide, to be released from cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GPI-0100  
A semi-synthetic triterpene glycoside, derived from the naturally occurring saponins. GPI-0100 functions as an adjuvant when given as part of a vaccine preparation to improve the immunogenicity of antigens such as proteins, carbohydrates. GPI-0100 containing vaccines have been used with both viral and tumor antigens to elicit a Type 1 helper T cell response for those diseases in which a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is desired. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GPX-100  
An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. GPX-100 intercalates DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. GPX-100 was designed to be a non-cardiotoxic anthracycline antibiotic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

granisetron hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of an indazole derivative with antiemetic properties. As a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, granisetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptors, resulting in the suppression of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

granisetron transdermal system  
A transdermal system containing the selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonist granisetron with antinauseant and antiemetic activities. Upon application of the transdermal system (patch) to the skin and the subsequent sustained release of granisetron into the bloodstream, granisetron selectively binds to and inhibits 5-HT subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptors located peripherally on vagus nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the area postrema, which may result in suppression of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Granocyte  
(Other name for: lenograstim)

green tea  
Tea derived from the dried leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis with potential antioxidant, chemopreventive, and lipid-lowering activities. Green tea contains polyphenols that may be responsible for its chemopreventive effect. The polyphenol fraction contains mainly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG). Green tea polyphenols act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers and may affect enzymes involved in cellular replication and tumor angiogenesis by modulating angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

green tea extract  
A defined, decaffeinated green tea polyphenol mixture isolated from Camellia sinensis, a plant native to Asia, with antiviral and antioxidant activities and potential chemopreventive activity. Green tea extract contains antioxidant compounds, including flavonoids, vitamins and polyphenols such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which may have antineoplastic properties. Consumption of green tea extract may confer chemopreventive protection against various cancers including those of the prostate, stomach, and esophagus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

green tea extract-based antioxidant supplement  
A dietary supplement containing a green tea extract including the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and other vitamins and antioxidants, with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. The polyphenols in green tea act as antioxidants and scavenge free radicals which may inhibit cellular oxidation and prevent free radical damage to cells. In addition, polyphenols may affect enzymes involved in cellular reproduction and tumor angiogenesis by modulating angiogenic factors. Other ingredients in green tea extract-based antioxidant supplement include dry cinnamon extract, germanium, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, arginine, cysteine, malic acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin c), glycyrrhizinic acid, glycine, glucosamine, pyridoxal (vitamin B6), calcium pantothenate (vitamin B5), folic acid, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

green tea lozenge  
A lozenge formulation of green tea, derived from the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Green tea lozenge contains polyphenols that may be responsible for its chemopreventive effect. The polyphenol fraction contains mainly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG). Green tea polyphenols act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers, protecting cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GTI-2040  
A 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a coding region in the mRNA of the R2 small subunit component of human ribonucleotide reductase. GTI-2040 decreases mRNA and protein levels of R2 in vitro and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in human tumors in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GTN transdermal patch  
(Other name for: nitroglycerin transdermal patch)

guanazole  
A cytostatic triazole derivative antimetabolite. Guanazole scavenges tyrosine free radicals, thereby inhibiting mammalian ribonucleotide reductase activity and DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

guarana supplement  
An herbal supplement containing an extract from guarana (Paullinia cupana), a climbing plant of the Sapindaceae family which is native to the Amazon basin, with stimulant, antioxidant and potential chemoprotective activities. Guarana supplement contains various phytochemicals, including caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, tannins, saponins, catechins, epicatechins, proanthocyanidols and other compounds in minor concentrations. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and may reduce chemotherapy-related fatigue. Tannins and other polyphenols may have chemopreventive activity. Intake of the guarana supplement may prevent cancer-related anorexia. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of guarana resulted in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

gusperimus  
A derivative of the antitumor antibiotic spergualin with immunosuppressant activity. Gusperimus inhibits the interleukin-2-stimulated maturation of T cells to the S and G2/M phases and the polarization of the T cells into IFN-gamma-secreting Th1 effector T cells, resulting in the inhibition of growth of activated naive CD4 T cells; this agent may suppress growth of certain T-cell leukemia cell lines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GVAX lung cancer vaccine  
An autologous lung cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific lung cancer cells genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an immunostimulatory cytokine. GM-CSF modulates the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production and may reverse treatment-induced neutropenias. This agent also promotes antigen presentation, up-regulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function and may augment host antitumoral immunity. For safety, cells are irradiated prior to vaccination. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

GVAX pancreatic cancer vaccine  
A whole cell vaccine expressing human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Tumor cells from prostate cancer patients are harvested and then genetically modified to secrete GM-CSF, an immune stimulatory growth factor that plays a key role in stimulating the body's immune responses against tumor cells. Because the vaccine is derived from allogeneic cells, it has demonstrated a favorable side effect profile than other approaches of delivering long-lasting GM-CSF. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Gyne-Lotrimin  
(Other name for: clotrimazole)

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