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NCI Drug Dictionary

  

I 131 monoclonal antibody CC49  
A radioimmunoconjugate of the humanized monoclonal antibody CC49 labeled with iodine I 131. Iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody CC49 delivers beta and gamma radiation-emitting I 131 radionuclide specifically to tumor cells that express tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72, allowing localization of TAG-72-expressing tumor cells with radioimaging devices in diagnostic applications or resulting in specific TAG-72-expressing tumor cell radiocytotoxicity in therapeutic applications. Monoclonal antibody CC49 binds to TAG-72, a pancarcinoma antigen, with high affinity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IAP inhibitor AT-406  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of IAP (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein) family of proteins with potential apoptotic inducing and antineoplastic activity. IAP inhibitor AT-406 selectively inhibits the biological activity of IAP proteins, including X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), the cellular IAPs 1 (c-IAP1) and 2 (c-IAP2) and melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP). This may restore and promote the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways. AT-406 may work synergistically with cytotoxic drugs to overcome tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types, suppressing apoptosis by binding and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9 via their BIR (baculoviral lAP repeat) domains. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IAP inhibitor HGS1029  
The hydrochloride salt of a small-molecule inhibitor of IAP (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein) family proteins with potential antineoplastic activity. IAP inhibitor HGS1029 selectively inhibits the biological activity of IAP proteins, which may restore apoptotic signaling pathways; this agent may work synergistically with cytotoxic drugs to overcome tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types, suppressing apoptosis by binding and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9 via their BIR (baculoviral lAP repeat) domains. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ibandronate sodium  
The sodium salt of ibadronic acid, a synthetic nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate. Ibandronic acid inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, resulting in a reduction in geranylgeranyl GTPase signaling proteins and apoptosis of osteoclasts. This agent increases bone mineral density, decreases bone remodeling, inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and reduces metastases-related and corticosteroid-related bone pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ibritumomab tiuxetan  
An immunoconjugate of the monoclonal antibody ibritumomab conjugated with the linker-chelator tiuxetan, a high affinity, conformationally restricted chelation site for radioisotopes. When bound to indium In 111 or yttrium Y 90, ibritumomab tiuxetan, targeting the CD20 antigen on B cell surfaces, specifically delivers a potentially cytotoxic dose of radiation to B lymphocytes. Ibritumomab is a murine IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, which is found on the surface of normal and malignant B lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ibrutinib  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ibrutinib binds to and irreversibly inhibits BTK activity, thereby preventing both B-cell activation and B-cell-mediated signaling. This leads to an inhibition of the growth of malignant B cells that overexpress BTK. BTK, a member of the src-related BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, is required for B cell receptor signaling, plays a key role in B-cell maturation, and is overexpressed in a number of B-cell malignancies. The expression of BTK in tumor cells is also associated with increased proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ibuprofen  
A propionic acid derivate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. Ibuprofen inhibits the activity of cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. This leads to decreased prostaglandin synthesis, by prostaglandin synthase, the main physiologic effect of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IC-GREEN  
(Other name for: indocyanine green solution)

iC9-GD2-CD28-OX40-expressing T lymphocytes  
Modified T-lymphocytes expressing a 3rd generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the disialoganglioside GD2, which contains the CD3zeta chain, the signaling domains of the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD134 (OX-40) and the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, iC9-GD2-CD28-OX40-expressing T lymphocytes target the GD2 antigen on tumor cells, thereby providing selective toxicity towards GD2-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered, which binds to the drug binding FKBP12-F36V domain and activates caspase 9, resulting in the apoptosis of the administered T-cells. The tumor-associated antigen GD2 is overexpressed on the surface of almost all tumors of neuroectodermal origin. OX40 and CD28, both T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ICE regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide used in the treatment of relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)

Iclusig  
(Other name for: ponatinib hydrochloride)

icotinib hydrochloride  
An orally available quinazoline-based inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Icotinib selectively inhibits the wild-type and several mutated forms of EGFR tyrosine kinase. This may lead to an inhibition of EGFR-mediated signal transduction and may inhibit cancer cell proliferation. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

icrucumab  
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1/FLT-1) with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. Icrucumab specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of VEGFR-1, which may prevent the activation of downstream signaling pathways and so inhibit tumor angiogenesis; the subsequent reduction in tumor nutrient supply may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Tumor cell overexpression of VEGFR-1 may be associated with tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation and invasion; VEGFR-1 may modulate VEGFR-2 signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Idamycin  
(Other name for: idarubicin)

idarubicin  
A semisynthetic 4-demethoxy analogue of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

idarubicin-eluting beads  
A sustained-release drug delivery embolization system containing small polymeric beads impregnated with the anthracycline antibiotic idarubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. The beads consist of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres modified with sulfonic acid groups and loaded with idarubicin. During transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the hepatic artery, idarubicin-eluting beads embolize to the tumor vasculature, occlude tumor blood vessels and induce ischemic necrosis of tumor tissue due to mechanical blockage of the tumor vasculature. Simultaneously, idarubicin-eluting beads release cytotoxic idarubicin locally and in a sustained manner. This may result in idarubicin-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

idelalisib  
An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of the delta isoform of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class I phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Idelalisib inhibits the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), preventing the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway and inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, motility, and survival. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IDH1 inhibitor AG-120  
An orally available inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, AG-120 specifically inhibits a mutated form of IDH1 in the cytoplasm, which inhibits the formation of the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). This may lead to both an induction of cellular differentiation and an inhibition of cellular proliferation in IDH1-expressing tumor cells. IDH1, an enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is mutated in a variety of cancers; it initiates and drives cancer growth by both blocking cell differentiation and catalyzing the formation of 2HG. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

IDH2 inhibitor AG-221  
An orally available inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 2 (IDH2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, AG-221 specifically inhibits IDH2 in the mitochondria, which inhibits the formation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). This may lead to both an induction of cellular differentiation and an inhibition of cellular proliferation in IDH2-expressing tumor cells. IDH2, an enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is mutated in a variety of cancers; It initiates and drives cancer growth by blocking differentiation and the production of the oncometabolite 2HG. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

idiotype-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine APC8020  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor-derived clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, idiotype-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine APC8020, containing idiotype (Id) protein structures that can be recognized by antibodies and by CD41 T lymphocytes and CD81 T lymphocytes, may stimulate antitumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against Id-expressing tumor cells. The Id represents the unique antigenic determinants in the variable regions of the clonal Ig. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IDO inhibitor NLG919  
An orally available inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, NLG919 targets and binds to IDO1, a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the oxidation of the essential amino acid tryptophan into kynurenine. By inhibiting IDO1 and decreasing kynurenine in tumor cells, this agent increases tryptophan levels, restores the proliferation and activation of various immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T-lymphocytes, and causes a reduction in tumor-associated regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Activation of the immune system, which is suppressed in many cancers, may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the IDO1-expressing tumor cells. IDO1 is overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and plays an important role in immunosuppression. Tryptophan depletion is associated with immunosuppression caused by T-cell suppression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

IDO1 inhibitor INCB024360  
An orally available hydroxyamidine and inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. INCB024360 targets and binds to IDO1, an enzyme responsible for the oxidation of tryptophan into kynurenine. By inhibiting IDO1 and decreasing kynurenine in tumor cells, INCB024360 increases and restores the proliferation and activation of various immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), NK cells, and T-lymphocytes, as well as interferon (IFN) production, and a reduction in tumor-associated regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of the immune system, which is suppressed in many cancers, may inhibit the growth of IDO1-expressing tumor cells. IDO1 is overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and DCs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

idoxuridine  
An iodinated analogue of deoxyuridine. Idoxuridine incorporates into DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle, sensitizing cells to ionizing radiation by increasing DNA strand breaks. When this agent contains a radioactive isomer of iodine, the radioactive idoxuridine kills cancer cells directly after preferential incorporation into the DNA of rapidly dividing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

idronoxil  
A synthetic flavonoid derivative. Idronoxil activates the mitochondrial caspase system, inhibits X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), and disrupts FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP) expression, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. This agent also inhibits DNA topoisomerase II by stabilizing the cleavable complex, thereby preventing DNA replication and resulting in tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ifex  
(Other name for: ifosfamide)

ifosfamide  
A synthetic analogue of the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide with antineoplastic activity. Ifosfamide alkylates and forms DNA crosslinks, thereby preventing DNA strand separation and DNA replication. This agent is a prodrug that must be activated through hydroxylation by hepatic microsomal enzymes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ifosfamidum  
(Other name for: ifosfamide)

IGF ligand neutralizing antibody BI 836845  
A humanized IgG1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) monoclonal antibody targeting the IGF ligands 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, IGF ligand neutralizing antibody BI 836845 binds to both IGF-1 and IGF-2 and inhibits the binding of these ligands to their receptor, IGF-1R. This blocks the insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, which is upregulated in a number of cancer cell types and plays a key role in cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance. In addition, BI 836845 prevents the binding of IGF-2 to insulin receptor variant A (IR-A), preventing its activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IGF-1R antagonist BMS-754807  
An oral small molecule inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (InsR) tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Dual IGF-IR/InsR inhibitor BMS-754807 binds reversibly to and inhibits the activities of IGF-1R and InsR, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF-1R and InsR tyrosine kinases, overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, play significant roles in mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-treated autologous glioma cells  
Autologous glioma cells treated ex vivo with an 18-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R/AS ODN), with potential antineoplastic activity. IGF-1R/AS ODN pre-treated glioma cells encapsulated in small Lucite diffusion chambers are implanted into a subcutaneous pocket in the patient’s abdominal rectus sheath. Within the diffusion chambers, IGF-1R/AS ODN binds to IGF-1R mRNA, and shuts down the translation of IGF-1R in the glioma cells. Downregulation of IGF-1R induces apoptosis and causes the release of exosomes, which contain tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The diffusion of exosomes and IGF-1R/AS ODN from the Lucite chambers may active the patient’s immune system and mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells expressing these TAAs. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is essential for tumor cell growth, transformation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IGF-1R inhibitor PL225B  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. IGF-1R inhibitor PL225B selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of IGF-1R, which may result in both the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis in IGF-1R-overexpressing tumor cells. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a significant role in the stimulation of cellular proliferation, oncogenic transformation, and suppression of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IGF-1R/IR inhibitor KW-2450  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. IGF-1R/IR inhibitor KW-2450 selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of IGF-1R and IR, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF-R1 and IR tyrosine kinases, overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, play significant roles in the stimulation of cellular proliferation, oncogenic transformation, and suppression of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IGF-methotrexate conjugate  
A conjugate containing the antimetabolite and antifolate agent methotrexate conjugated to insulin-like growth factor (IGF), with potential antineoplastic activity. After intravenous administration, the IGF moiety of the IGF-methotrexate conjugate binds to and is internalized by IGF receptors (IGFR) on the surface of tumor cells. Following cell entry, the methotrexate then binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which catalyzes the conversion of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. This results in both the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and the induction of death in rapidly dividing cells. Binding to IGFR can localize the cytotoxic effect of methotrexate in tumor cells. This may increase its efficacy while decreasing its toxicity to normal, healthy cells. IGFR is overexpressed on many types of cancer cells and has been implicated in metastasis and resistance to apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  
An oligomeric proanthocyanidin extracted from grape seeds. IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract exhibits dose-dependent free-radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-12-expressing mesenchymal stem cell vaccine GX-051  
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a modified form of the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, IL-12-expressing MSC vaccine GX-051 secretes IL-12. IL-12 activates the immune system by both promoting the secretion of interferon-gamma, which activates natural killer cells (NKs), and inducing cytotoxic T-cell responses, which may result in both decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

IL-2 plasmid DNA/lipid complex  
An immunotherapeutic agent consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding human Interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a cationic lipid, 1,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxyethyl ammonium bromide/dioleyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DMRIE/DOPE), in a 5:1 ratio. Due to the lipophilic nature of this cation liposome complex, this gene transfer system may improve the efficiency of introducing the IL-2 gene into the cells, thereby increasing the production of IL-2 and inducing an immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-2 recombinant fusion protein ALT-801  
A recombinant protein consisting of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) fused to a humanized soluble T-cell receptor (TCR) directed against a tumor suppressor p53-derived antigen with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. The TCR moiety of IL-2 recombinant fusion protein ALT-801 binds to tumor cells displaying p53 epitope/MHC complexes; subsequently, the tumor cell-localized IL-2 moiety may stimulate natural killer (NK) cell and T cell cytotoxic immune responses against p53-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-2/Lptn gene-modified allogeneic neuroblastoma tumor cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of allogeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells have been genetically modified to secrete the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the human chemokine lymphotactin (Lptn) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, IL-2 and Lptn are secreted by the IL-2/Lptn gene-modified allogeneic neuroblastoma tumor cell vaccine, potentially enhancing the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response elicited by vaccine neuroblastoma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) against host neuroblastoma tumor cells. Produced by activated progenitor T cells, Lptn belongs to the C chemokine subfamily and is a potent chemotactic factor for lymphocytes; IL-2 stimulates natural killer (NK) cells and may enhance a vaccine-elicited CTL immune response against tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL4-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein PRX321  
A fusion protein consisting of the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) linked to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon specific, high-affinity binding to IL-4 receptors (IL-4Rs) located on the tumor cell surface., IL4-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein PRX321 is internalized; the exotoxin moiety then binds to translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2), which may result in ADP ribosylation, deactivation of EF-2, inhibition of protein synthesis, and tumor cell apoptosis. The Pseudomonas exotoxin moiety of this agent has been engineered to reduce non-specific binding to cells expressing its receptor, the multiligand cell surface receptor alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha 2MR/LRP). IL-4R is a type I transmembrane protein that binds IL-4 and IL-13 and may be overexpressed by cancers such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and glioma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ilopan  
(Other name for: dexpanthenol cream)

iloprost  
A prostacyclin analogue with potential chemopreventive activity. Iloprost binds to the prostacyclin receptor in various target cells, thereby causing vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and decreased tumor cell adhesion to endothelium among other effects. Prostacyclin is a naturally occurring eicosanoid with anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and anti-metastatic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ilotycin  
(Other name for: erythromycin)

Imagent  
(Other name for: perflubron)

imatinib mesylate  
The mesylate salt of imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Imatinib binds to an intracellular pocket located within tyrosine kinases (TK), thereby inhibiting ATP binding and preventing phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of growth receptors and their downstream signal transduction pathways. This agent inhibits TK encoded by the bcr-abl oncogene as well as receptor TKs encoded by the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) oncogenes. Inhibition of the bcr-abl TK results in decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in malignant cells of Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) hematological malignancies such as CML and ALL; effects on c-kit TK activity inhibit mast-cell and cellular proliferation in those diseases overexpressing c-kit, such as mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Imbruvica  
(Other name for: ibrutinib)

imetelstat sodium  
The sodium salt of imetelstat, a synthetic lipid-conjugated, 13-mer oligonucleotide N3' P5'-thio-phosphoramidate with potential antineoplastic activity. Complementary to the template region of telomerase RNA (hTR), imetelstat acts as a competitive enzyme inhibitor that binds and blocks the active site of the enzyme (a "telomerase template antagonist"), a mechanism of action which differs from that for the antisense oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of telomerase activity through telomerase mRNA binding. Inhibition of telomerase activity in tumor cells by imetelstat results in telomere shortening, which leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imexon  
A 2-cyanoaziridine derivative with antitumor activity in multiple myeloma. Although its mechanism of action is not clearly known, imexon may induce apoptosis via a pathway involving cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and/or caspase-8. Other cytotoxic mechanisms of action of this agent may involve thiol depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imidazole mustard  
A synthetic derivative of imidazole with potent antineoplastic properties. Imidazole mustard alkylates DNA, preferentially at guanine residues, resulting in DNA interstrand crosslinks and inhibition of DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imipenem  
A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic beta-lactam carbapenem derived from thienamycin, produced by Streptomyces cattleya. Imipenem binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes that are involved in the last stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. This inactivation results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and eventually causes cell lysis. Imipenem has the greatest affinity for PBP 1A, 1B, and 2, and its lethal effect is related to binding to PBP 2 and 1B. This antibiotic is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and is stable in the presence of beta-lactamases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imiquimod  
A synthetic agent with immune response modifying activity. As an immune response modifier (IRM), imiquimod stimulates cytokine production, especially interferon production, and exhibits antitumor activity, particularly against cutaneous cancers. Imiquimod's proapoptotic activity appears to be related to Bcl-2 overexpression in susceptible tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imisopasem manganese  
A manganese-based non-peptidyl mimetic of the human mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), with potential antioxidant and chemo/radioprotective activities. Upon administration, imisopasem manganese mimics the activity of MnSOD and scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion, which prevents oxygen free radical damage to macromolecules such as DNA. This reduces ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, prevents apoptosis and protects against oxygen free radical-induced toxicity in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immediate-release afuresertib  
An immediate-release (IR) tablet formulation containing afuresertib, an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of the IR formulation, afuresertib binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, decreased tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis in Akt-expressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immediate-release onapristone  
An immediate-release (IR) formulation of onapristone, an orally bioavailable progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist, with antineoplastic activity. Onapristone binds to the PR and inhibits both PR activation and the associated expression of PR-responsive genes. This may inhibit PR-mediated proliferative effects in cancer cells overexpressing PR. PR is expressed in certain cancer cell types and plays a key role in proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ImmTher  
(Other name for: disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl)

Immucell WGP  
(Other name for: beta-glucan)

Immun-Aid  
(Other name for: arginine/omega-3 fatty acids/nucleotides oral supplement)

immunoadjuvant QS-DG  
A synthetic saponin, chemically identical to the natural saponin QS-21, with immunoadjuvant activity. When co-administered with vaccine antigens, immunoadjuvant QS-DG may increase total antitumoral vaccine-specific antibody responses and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Immunocal  
(Other name for: whey protein isolate)

immunoconjugate RO5479599  
An immunoconjugate containing a glycoengineered, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, RO5479599 binds to the extracellular domain of HER3 and inhibits HER3 dimerization; thereby, preventing EGFR-dependent signaling. In addition, RO5479599 stimulates the immune system to exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This may decrease proliferation of HER3-overexpressing tumor cells. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors; it has no active kinase domain but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family, such as HER2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

immunocytokine NHS-IL12  
A fusion protein consisting of the heavy-chains of the human antibody NHS76, raised against DNA released by necrotic tumor cells, and fused to two molecules of a genetically modified human interleukin-12 (IL-12) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of immunocytokine NHS-IL12 binds to DNA released from necrotic tumor cells located primarily at the core of necrotic solid tumors, thereby delivering the IL-12 moiety. In turn, the IL-12 moiety of this agent stimulates the host immune system to mount an immune response against tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. IL-12 is a proinflammatory cytokine with numerous immunoregulatory functions and may augment host immune responses to tumor cells. By targeting tumor cells, NHS-IL-12 may reduce the toxicity associated with systemic administration of recombinant human IL-12. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunocytokine NHS-IL2-LT  
A fusion protein consisting of a mouse-human chimeric antibody directed against DNA released by necrotic tumor cells fused to two molecules of a genetically modified human interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of immunocytokine NHS-IL2-LT binds to DNA released by necrotic tumor cells located primarily at the core of necrotic solid tumors, delivering the IL-2 moiety. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of this agent activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against nearby tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunological adjuvant OPT-821  
A purified, natural saponin isolated from the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria Molina with potential immunoadjuvant activity. When co-administered with vaccine peptides, OPT-821 may increase the antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses against the targeted antigen(s). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunomodulator OHR/AVR118  
A peptide-nucleic acid immunomodulator with proinflammatory, broad-spectrum antiviral, and potential antineoplastic activities. Immunomodulator OHR/AVR118 stimulates the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-y, IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a. This agent may reduce HIV-1 p24 antigen; viral reverse transcriptase activity; syncitial cell formation; and viral mRNA in infected PBMCs and human CD4+ lymphocyte H9 cells, and may decrease viral loads and increase CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV patients. In vitro, immunomodulator OHR/AVR118 has been shown to induce the maturation of HL60 leukemic cells and to inhibit the invasive and metastatic properties of a highly malignant breast cancer cell line. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunomodulatory agent CC-11006  
A proprietary, orally available, small molecule and thalidomide analog, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. CC-11006 appears to have a similar mechanism to thalidomide and may modulate the expression of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

immunotherapeutic GSK1572932A  
An immunotherapeutic containing a proprietary adjuvant system combined with a melanoma-associated antigen peptide MAGE-A3 epitope with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Intramuscular administration with GSK1572932A may stimulate the immune system to exert both humoral and cellular immune responses against MAGE-A3-expressing tumor cells. MAGE-A3, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, head and neck cancer, and bladder cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunotherapy regimen MKC-1106-MT  
An immunotherapy regimen containing three components: a plasmid encoding portions of the two melanoma-associated antigens Melan A (also called MART-1) and tyrosinase and two synthetic analogs of Melan-A and tyrosinase antigen epitopes with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. First, the plasmid is injected directly into lymph nodes in order to sensitize or prime antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and central memory T cells in lymph nodes to plasmid-expressed Melan A and tyrosinase. After several priming injections with plasmids, the Melan A and tyrosinase synthetic epitope analogs are injected directly into lymph nodes; upon binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on APC cell surfaces, these synthetic epitope analogs may stimulate a "primed" cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against melanoma tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Melan-A and tyrosinase are overexpressed by melanoma tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunotoxin CMD-193  
A humanized immunotoxin directed against the Lewis Y antigen conjugated with calicheamicin, a hydrophobic enediyne antibiotic, with potential antineoplastic activity. CMD193 binds to the Lewis Y antigen, a tetrasaccharide expressed on the cell surfaces of many tumor cell types. Upon binding, CMD-193 is internalized, thereby delivering the attached calicheamicin to Lewis Y antigen-expressing tumor cells. Calicheamicin binds non-covalently to the minor groove of DNA and prompts conformational changes and DNA oxidation, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Immunox  
(Other name for: thymopentin)

Imodium A-D  
(Other name for: loperamide hydrochloride)

IMP321  
A T-cell immunostimulatory factor derived from the soluble form of lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, alone or in combination with tumor antigens, IMP321 binds, with high affinity, to MHC class II molecules expressed by dendritic cells (DC), which may result in DC maturation, DC migration to lymph nodes, enhanced DC cross-presentation of antigens to T cells, and antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Impact  
(Other name for: arginine/omega-3 fatty acids/nucleotides oral supplement)

Imprime PGG  
(Other name for: PGG beta-glucan)

IMT-1012 immunotherapeutic vaccine  
A multi-peptide cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. IMT-1012 immunotherapeutic vaccine contains twelve different synthetic peptides or tumor associated antigens (TAAs), including cyclin I (CCNI), cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2, EDDRI and TACE/ADAM17, each of which is involved in a different pathway associated with tumor growth, survival, and metastasis. Each antigen in the vaccine elicits a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against tumor cells expressing that antigen. This multi-antigen/multi-pathway targeting strategy provides broad immunotherapeutic coverage with respect to tumor complexity and heterogeneity and may result in enhanced vaccine efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Imuran  
(Other name for: azathioprine sodium)

inactivated poliovirus vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of inactivated poliovirus (IPV) types 1,2 and 3, with active immunizing activity against poliomyelitis. Upon intramuscular vaccination, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) activates the immune system to develop antibodies against polioviruses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

inalimarev  
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant vaccinia viral vector encoding the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC-1 (mucin-1), a transmembrane glycoprotein secreted by glandular tissues, and TRICOM, comprised of the three co-stimulatory molecule transgenes B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Upon administration, inalimarev may enhance CEA and MUC-1 presentation to antigen presenting cells (APC) and may activate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA- and MUC-1-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Inapsine  
(Other name for: droperidol)

Incel  
(Other name for: biricodar dicitrate)

Incivek  
(Other name for: telaprevir)

incomplete Freund's adjuvant  
A water-in-oil emulsion that stimulates the T-cell immune response to antigens and may be used in various types of cancer vaccines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

incyclinide  
A chemically-modified tetracycline with potential antineoplastic activity. Incyclinide inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. This agent also causes mitochondrial depolarization in tumor cells and induces both cellular apoptosis and tissue necrosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Inderal  
(Other name for: propranolol hydrochloride)

indibulin  
A synthetic small molecule with antimitotic and potential antineoplastic activities. Indibulin binds to a site on tubulin that is different from taxane- or Vinca alkaloid-binding sites, destabilizing tubulin polymerization and inducing tumor cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This agent has been shown to be active against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and taxane- resistant tumor cell lines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indicine-N-oxide  
A natural pyrrolizidine alkaloid with antineoplastic properties. Indicine-N-oxide alkylates and crosslinks DNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indinavir sulfate  
A synthetic antiviral agent. Indinavir selectively binds to the active site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease and inhibits its activity, preventing the protease-mediated cleavage of gag-pol viral polyproteins; as a result immature, noninfectious virions are produced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Indium 111 ProstaScint  
(Other name for: indium In 111 capromab pendetide)

indium In 111 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8  
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the murine IgG1 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) BC8 labeled with the gamma-emitting isotope indium 111 (In 111), with potential radioimaging application. Upon administration, indium In 111 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8 binds to CD45 antigen, a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the surface of most of the normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. After binding and internalization by CD45-expressing tumor cells, radioactive In 111 allows for the detection of BC8 distribution and tumor localization using gamma scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ABT-806  
A radioimmunoconjugate composed of a humanized monoclonal antibody IgG1 directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and labeled with the radioisotope indium In 111, with potential radioimaging activity. Indium In 111 anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ABT-806 binds to a specific epitope of either wild-type or EGFR variant III mutant on tumor cells, thereby allowing imaging of EGFR-expressing tumor cells using gamma scintigraphy. ABT-806 is the humanized version derived from the predecessor chimeric monoclonal antibody 806. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed on the cell surfaces of many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 bevacizumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab conjugated with the gamma-emitting radioisotope indium In 111. Indium I 111 bevacizumab binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), allowing the detection of VEGF distribution using gamma scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 capromab pendetide  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the murine IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody capromab (7E11-C5.3), conjugated to the linker-chelator glycyl-tyrosyl-(N,-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-lysine hydrochloride (GYK-DTPA-HCl) and labeled with radioisotope indium In 111, with ligand-binding and gamma-emitting activities. Upon intravenous administration, indium In 111-capromab pendetide binds to a cytoplasmic epitope of human prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expressed on prostate tumor cell surfaces via its capromab moiety and, upon internalization, allows radioimmunolocalization with gamma scintigraphy. PSMA is a cell surface glycoprotein abundantly expressed by prostate epithelium and is typically overexpressed by prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 chimeric monoclonal antibody 806  
A recombinant chimeric, mouse-human monoclonal antibody IgG1, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and labeled with the radioisotope indium-111, with potential radioimaging activity. Indium 111 chimeric monoclonal antibody 806 binds to a specific epitope on EGFR-expressing tumor cells, allowing imaging of EGFR-expressing tumor cells using gamma scintigraphy. EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell growth and is found to be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of many tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 chimeric monoclonal antibody G250  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 conjugated with the gamma-emitting radioisotope indium In 111. Indium I 111 chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 binds to G250, allowing the localization of G250-expressing tumor cells using gamma scintigraphy. Found in the majority of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), G250 or carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) is a cell surface tumor-associated antigen (TAA). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 CHX-A DTPA trastuzumab  
An indium I 111-labeled trastuzumab with potential use as an imaging agent. Indium In 111 CHX-A DTPA trastuzumab is chemically conjugated via a bifunctional metal chelator molecule, 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-cyclohexyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CHX-A DTPA), a backbone-substituted derivative of DTPA. This agent may allow radioimmunolocalization of HER2-positive cells. Trastuzumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), may elicit an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells that overexpress HER2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan  
A targeted radioimmunoconjugate composed of a murine monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (ibritumomab) linked by a chelator (tiuxetan) to the imaging radioisotope indium-111. This radioimmunoconjugate binds to CD20-positive cells, permitting radioimmuno-localization of CD20-positive cell biodistribution. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 monoclonal antibody BrE-3  
A humanized monoclonal antibody conjugated to the imaging radioisotope (indium-111). This radioimmunoconjugate binds to the breast epithelial mucin antigen, which is found primarily on breast cancer cells, permitting radioimmmuno-localization of mucin-positive tumor cells and an estimate of radiation dosimetry prior to administration of cytotoxic radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 monoclonal antibody huPAM4  
The humanized monoclonal antibody huPAM4, directed against the pancreatic cancer antigen MUC-1 and radiolabled with the gamma-emitting radioisotope indium I 111, with radioisotopic and antibody activities. Upon administration, indium In 111 monoclonal antibody huPAM4 may bind to MUC-1-positive tumor cells, allowing radioimmunolocalization with gamma scintigraphy. Overexpressed by many tumor cell types, MUC-1 antigen, a mammary-type apomucin, is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 pentetate  
A sterile, non-pyrogenic, isotonic solution of radioactive indium In 111 diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA). When administered intrathecally, indium In 111 pentetate percolates up the spinal canal with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the basal cisterns of the posterior and middle cranial fossas. This agent is used in radionuclide cisternography to image the flow of CSF, for the identification of abnormalities in CSF circulation, for location of sites of CSF leakage, and for evaluation of CSF shunt patency. Normally, this agent does not penetrate into the brain ventricles. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 pentetreotide  
An indium 111 radioconjugate of pentetreotide, the diethylenetriaminopentaacetic (DTPA) conjugate of the human hormone somatostatin peptide analogue (octreotide), used for radioimaging neuroendocrine tumor cells. The pentetreotide moiety of indium In 111 pentetreotide binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), especially type 2 receptors, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate allows for specific imaging of neuroendocrine tumors that overexpress somatostatin using scintigraphic imaging techniques. In addition, high dose indium In 111 pentetreotide may specifically deliver a cytotoxic dose of gamma radiation to SSTR-positive cells thereby killing SSTR-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111 pertuzumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate composed of a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular dimerization domain of the tyrosine kinase receptor human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) and linked to the gamma-emitting radioisotope indium In 111, with potential use in radioimaging. Upon administration, indium In 111 pertuzumab binds to HER-2. After binding and internalization into HER-2-expressing tumor cells, radioactive In 111 facilitates the detection of HER-2-expressing tumor cells using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This may predict or evaluate the tumor's response to certain HER-2-targeting chemotherapeutics. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111-CMD-193  
A radiolabeled antibody-targeted antineoplastic antibiotic consisting of the enediyne antibiotic calicheamicin conjugated with anti-Lewis Y antibody and labeled with indium In 111. In 111 CMD-193 binds to Lewis Y antigen-expressing tumor cells via its antibody moiety and is internalized; subsequently, the calicheamicin moiety binds to the minor groove of tumor cell DNA, causing double-strand DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA synthesis, and apoptosis. The indium In 111 radiolabel allows the detection of CMD-193 distribution and tumor localization using gamma scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111-DOTA-biotin  
A radioimmunoconjugate of biotin conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with indium 111 (In-111). Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, present in minute amounts in every living cell, while its level in cancerous tissue is higher than that of normal tissue. In 111-DOTA-Biotin could be used in 3-step pre-targeting radioimmunotherapy that employs tumor targeting antibody conjugated with streptavidin, the natural ligand of biotin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111-labeled autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells  
A preparation of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) radiolabeled with indium In 111 with radioisoptoic activity. Autologous PBMCs are isolated, expanded ex vivo, radiolabeled with indium In 111, and then infused back into the patient. Gamma scintigraphy may then be used to image gamma ray-emitting indium In 111 PBMCs localized in lymhoma tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In 111-labeled autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes  
A preparation of autologous peripheral polymorphonuclear (PMNLs) radiolabeled with indium In 111 with radioisoptic activity. Autologous PMNLs are isolated, expanded ex vivo, radiolabeled with indium In 111, and then infused back into the patient. Gamma scintigraphy may then be used to image gamma ray-emitting indium In 111 PMNLs localized in lymphoma tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indium In-111-DOTA-di-HSG peptide IMP-288  
A radiolabeled divalent histamine-succinyl-glycine (HSG) hapten-peptide linked with the macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to the radionuclide indium (In) 111. After pretargeting with a bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiMoAB) directed against both a tumor associated antigen (TAA) and the HSG hapten-peptide, the HSG portion of administered indium-In-labeled di-HSG-DOTA peptide IMP-288 binds the anti-HSG portion of the BiMoAB; In-111 radioisotopic activity localized to tumor cells bearing the TAA can then be visualized scintigraphically. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Indocin  
(Other name for: indomethacin)

indocyanine green solution  
A sterile solution of a nontoxic tricarbocyanine dye with a peak spectral absorption at 790 nm, used for determining cardiac output, hepatic function, and liver blood flow, as well as for ophthalmic angiography. Designed to be administered intravenously, indocyanine green solution (ICG) contains less than 5% sodium iodide. Upon intravenous injection, ICG rapidly binds to its principle carrier, plasma protein, and is thereby confined to the vascular space. This agent, with a half-life of 150 to 180 seconds, is removed exclusively by the liver from circulation to bile juice. Furthermore, due to poor uptake, ICG is not suitable for angiography or functional output analysis of kidney, lung, cerebro-spinal, or peripheral tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indole-3-carbinol  
A naturally occurring, orally available cleavage product of the glucosinolate glucobrassicanin, a natural compound present in a wide variety of plant food substances including members of the family Cruciferae with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive properties. Indole-3-carbinol scavenges free radicals and induces various hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Specifically, this agent induces the hepatic monooxygenase cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), resulting in increased 2-hydroxylation of estrogens and increased production of the chemoprotective estrogen 2-hydroxyestrone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indole-3-carbinol/calcium/Schizandra/vitamin D3/milk thistle/stinging nettle/lignan-based nutritional capsule  
An orally available capsule-based nutritional supplement containing indole-3-carbinol, calcium-D-glucarate, Schizandra, vitamin D3, milk thistle, stinging nettle and hydroxymatairesinol (HMR) lignans, with potential estrogen modulating, antiproliferative and antioxidant activity. Indole-3-carbinol, found in vegetables of the Cruciferae family, may inhibit mammary cell growth and exerts antiestrogenic activity; Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and Schizandra chinensis may enhance some of the phase II detoxification enzymes; calcium-D-glucarate and vitamin D3 may inhibit mammary cell growth; stinging nettle may exert its effect through its aromatase inhibiting activity; HMR lignans may have a beneficial effect on estrogen balance and levels. Therefore, ingredients in indole-3-carbinol/calcium/Schizandra/vitamin D3/milk thistle/stinging nettle/lignan-based nutritional capsule may alter estrogen balance and may protect against mammary carcinogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase peptide vaccine  
A peptide vaccine against the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase peptide vaccine may activate the immune system to induce an immune response against IDO-expressing cells. This may increase and restore the proliferation and activation of various immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T-lymphocytes, and may eradicate IDO-expressing tumor cells. IDO, a cytosolic enzyme responsible for tryptophan catabolism and conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine, is overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and antigen presenting cells (APCs) and plays an important role in immunosuppression; tryptophan depletion inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation and activation, and suppresses the immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

indomethacin  
A synthetic nonsteroidal indole derivative with anti-inflammatory activity and chemopreventive properties. As a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, thereby preventing cyclooxygenase-mediated DNA adduct formation by heterocyclic aromatic amines. This agent also may inhibit the expression of multidrug-resistant protein type 1, resulting in increased efficacies of some antineoplastic agents in treating multi-drug resistant tumors. In addition, indomethacin activates phosphatases that inhibit the migration and proliferation of cancer cells and downregulates survivin, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

inducible CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells  
Inducible regulatory T-lymphocytes that express CD4, CD25 (the alpha chain of the interleukin 2 receptor) and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), with potential immunomodulating activity. Inducible CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (iTregs) are a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes that are induced from CD25- precursors in peripheral lymphoid organs with interleukin-2 and transforming growth factor-beta. These regulatory T cells are essential in maintaining immunologic homeostasis. They may also prevent autoimmunity by suppressing self-reactive T cells, and may induce tolerance to allogeneic organ transplants such as in hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Infasurf Intratracheal Suspension  
(Other name for: calfactant)

Infergen  
(Other name for: interferon alfacon-1)

infliximab  
A recombinant chimeric, mouse-human monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a protein involved in inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Infliximab may be pro- apoptotic or anti-apoptotic, depending on cell type. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Infumorph  
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)

ingenol 3-angelate  
A selective small-molecule activator of protein kinase C (PKC) isolated from the plant Euphorbia peplus with potential antineoplastic activity. Ingenol 3-angelate (I3A) activates various protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, thereby inducing apoptosis in some tumor cells, including myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, and basal cell carcinoma cells. The PKC family consists of signaling isoenzymes that regulate many cell processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iniparib  
A small molecule iodobenzamide with potential cytotoxic and antineoplastic activities. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, iniparib appears to be cytotoxic in cells with DNA alterations or DNA damage, like that found in tumor cells with mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. ATM encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase and mutations of the gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia and contribute to certain cancers such as T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

injectable Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide  
An injectable form of a polysaccharide isolated from the radix of Astragalus membranaceus (PG2), used in traditional Chinese medicine, with potential hematopoiesis inducing and immunomodulating activities. Upon injection, APS may be able to relieve certain chemotherapy-induced side effects, including myelosuppression, fatigue, mucositis, pain, nausea and vomiting, as well as loss of appetite and body weight. Also, APS may exert immunostimulatory activities by stimulating B-lymphocytes, activating T-lymphocytes, inducing cytokine production, and activating macrophages and natural killer cells through as of yet unidentified mechanism(s). APS may improve compliance of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

injectable liposomal vinorelbine  
An injectable, sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposome-encapsulated formulation of the semisynthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine with antineoplastic activity. Vinorelbine binds to tubulin and prevents formation of the mitotic spindle, resulting in cell cycle arrest in metaphase. Like other vinca alkaloids, vinorelbine may also interfere with the metabolism of nucleic acids, lipids, amino acids, cAMP, and glutathione, as well as other biological processes including calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-transport, ATPase activity, or cellular respiration. Liposomal delivery of vinorelbine may improve drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, increasing the duration of therapeutic effects while lowering the toxicity profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Inlyta  
(Other name for: axitinib)

innate defense regulator SGX942  
A synthetic, 5-amino acid peptide and innate defense regulator (IDR), with immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-mucositis activities. Upon intravenous administration, SGX942 binds to the ZZ domain of sequestosome-1, also called p62, and activates regulatory signaling transduction pathways involved in the modulation of the innate immune system, such as those mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein. This agent promotes monocyte and macrophage recruitment to, and accelerates healing in damaged and infected tissue; it suppresses inflammation through the regulation of the expression of multiple cytokines. This agent may prevent or decrease chemo- or radiotherapy-induced mucositis as well as other types of infection. p62, an intracellular adaptor protein that functions downstream of certain signaling receptors, plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

innate immunostimulator rBBX-01  
A recombinant 19 kDa protein derived from the Apicomplexa protozoan Eimeria with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, innate immunostimulator rBBX-01 activates dendritic cells (DCs), stimulates the Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR-11)-mediated release of interleukin-12 (Il-12) from DCs, and induces a T-helper 1 (Th1) type immune response, which may induce an immune response against tumor cells. Infection with Eimeria, a coccidian commonly infecting the intestine, may be negatively correlated with tumorigenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Innohep  
(Other name for: tinzaparin sodium)

INO-1001  
A isoindolinone derivative and potent inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with chemosensitization and radiosensitization properties. INO-1001 inhibits PARP, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell DNA repair mechanisms and, so, tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. PARP enzymes are activated by DNA breaks and have been implicated in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

inolitazone dihydrochloride  
The orally bioavailable dihydrochloride salt of the thiazolidinedione inolitazone with potential antineoplastic activity. Inolitazone binds to and activates peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), which may result in the induction of tumor cell differentiation and apoptosis, and so a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. PPAR-gamma is a nuclear hormone receptor and ligand-activated transcription factor controlling gene expression involved in such cellular processes as differentiation, apoptosis, cell-cycle control, carcinogenesis, and inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

inosine dialdehyde  
A toxic purine analogue. Inosine dialdehyde inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, resulting in decreased synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. This agent also forms stable covalent crosslinks in proteins, thereby inhibiting the activity of enzymes involved in nucleic acid synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

inositol  
A natural sugar found in cell membrane phospholipids, plasma lipoproteins, and (as the phosphate form) in the nucleus with potential chemopreventive properties. As one of a number of intracellular phosphate compounds, inositol is involved in cell signaling and may stimulate tumor cell differentiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

inotuzumab ozogamicin  
A CD22-targeted cytotoxic immunoconjugate composed of a humanized IgG4 anti-CD22 antibody covalently linked to N-acetyl-gamma-calicheamicin dimethyl hydrazide (CalichDMH) with potential antineoplastic activity. Inotuzumab ozogamicin is rapidly internalized upon binding of the antibody moiety to B cell-specific CD22 receptors, delivering the conjugated CalichDMH intracellularly; the CalichDMH moiety binds to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in double-strand DNA breaks and apoptosis. CalichDMH is a derivative of gamma calicheamicin, a cytotoxic antibiotic produced by the bacterium Micromonospora echinospora. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Inspra  
(Other name for: eplerenone)

insulin lispro  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human insulin. In lispro insulin, the amino acid proline at B-28 and the amino acid lysine at B-29 are reversed, resulting in the rapid dissolution of this insulin to a monomer that is absorbed rapidly after subcutaneous administration. Lispro insulin is equipotent to human insulin on a molar basis but its effects are faster and of shorter duration. Endogenous insulin, a pancreatic hormone composed of two polypeptide chains, is important in the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, promoting glucose utilization and protein synthesis; it has anabolic effects on many types of tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

insulin, NPH  
An intermediate-acting insulin used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Administered once or twice daily, NPH (neutral protamine hagedorn) insulin lowers blood glucose within 1 to 2 hours after administration and exerts a peak effect at 6 to 10 hours. Endogenous insulin, a pancreatic hormone composed of two polypeptide chains, is important in the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, promoting glucose utilization and protein synthesis; it has anabolic effects on many types of tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

integrin receptor antagonist GLPG0187  
A small molecule integrin receptor antagonist (IRA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GLPG0187 binds to and blocks the activity of 5 RGD-integrin receptor subtypes, including alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alphavbeta6 and alpha5beta1. This may result in the inhibition of endothelial cell-cell interactions and endothelial cell-matrix interactions, and the prevention of angiogenesis and metastasis in tumor cells expressing these integrin receptors. Integrin receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the surface of tumor vessel endothelial cells and some types of cancer cells, and play a crucial role in endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Intercoat  
(Other name for: absorbable adhesion barrier gel)

interferon alfacon-1  
An analogue of consensus interferon which contains an additional methionyl amino acid residue. Consensus interferon (also known as interferon alfacon-1, rCon-IFN, and CIFN) is a genetically engineered synthetic interferon created from the most common amino acid sequences from the naturally occurring alpha interferons. Alpha interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products have antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

interleukin-12 gene  
The DNA sequence that encodes the protein cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12). When introduced as the complementary DNA (cDNA) form into tumor cells by, for example, a genetically engineered adenovirus vector, the transfected IL-12 cDNA expresses IL-12 which activates antitumoral natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T-cells and stimulates the secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), potentially inhibiting tumor cell metastasis. This gene therapy may also result in IL-12-mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and enhancement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

interleukin-2 gene  
The DNA sequence that encodes the protein cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). When introduced as the complementary DNA (cDNA) form into tumor cells by, for example, a genetically engineered adenovirus vector, the transfected IL-2 cDNA expresses IL-2 which may activate antitumoral natural killer cells and elicit an antitumoral cytotoxic T-cell response, resulting in an inhibition of tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

intetumumab  
A pan alpha-v human monoclonal antibody that recognizes alpha-v beta-1, alpha-v beta-3, alpha-v beta-5, and alpha-v beta-6 integrins with antiangiogenic and antitumor activities. Intetumumab competitively binds to and blocks both alpha-v beta-3 and alpha-v beta-5 integrins, resulting in inhibition of integrin-mediated tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Integrins facilitate the adhesion of stimulated endothelial cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM); trigger the secretion of ECM-rearranging proteases; and propagate signaling events that promote the survival and differentiation of cells in newly formed vasculature. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IntraDose  
(Other name for: cisplatin-e therapeutic implant)

Intralipid  
(Other name for: fat emulsion)

intranasal ketamine  
An intranasal formualtion of the synthetic cyclohexanone ketamine with analgesic and anesthetic activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ketamine appears to non-competitively block N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and agonistically bind to and activate opiod mu and sigma receptors, thereby reducing pain perception, inducing sedation, and producing dissociative anesthesia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Intron A  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon alfa)

Intron A  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon alfa-2b)

inulin  
A naturally occurring, indigestible and non-absorbable oligosaccharide produced by certain plants with prebiotic and potential anticancer activity. Inulin stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon, including Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, thereby modulating the composition of microflora. This creates an environment that protects against pathogens, toxins and carcinogens, which can cause inflammation and cancer. In addition, fermentation of inulin leads to an increase in short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid production, thereby reducing colonic pH, which may further control pathogenic bacteria growth and may contribute to inulin's cancer protective properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Invanz  
(Other name for: ertapenem sodium)

Invirase  
(Other name for: saquinavir mesylate)

INxin  
(Other name for: IL4-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein PRX321)

iobenguane I 131  
An I 131 radioiodinated synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Iobenguane localizes to adrenergic tissue and, in radioiodinated forms, may be used to image or eradicate tumor cells that take up and metabolize norepinephrine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iobitridol  
A water-soluble, tri-iodinated, non-ionic monomeric benzoate derivative and contrast medium used in diagnostic radiography. Upon administration, iobitridol is distributed through the vascular system and interstitial space. Like other organic iodine compounds, this agent blocks x-rays and appears opaque on x-ray film thus, enhancing the visibility of body parts containing this agent. Iobitridol is rapidly removed by the kidneys in an unchanged form, and in cases of renal failure, heterotropic excretion occurs via the biliary route. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

iodinated contrast dye  
A contrast agent containing an iodine-based dye used in many diagnostic imaging examinations, including computed tomography, angiography, and myelography. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine 131-6-beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol  
A radioiodine-labeled cholesterol analogue with radioisotopic activity. Iodine 131-l-6-beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol accumulates in tissues where steroid hormones are produced, including the adrenal cortex and, to a lesser extent, the ovaries and the testes. After binding to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in the adrenal cortex, this agent is internalized, permitting scintigraphic localization of areas of adrenocortical glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgen secretion, and the scintigraphic assessment of adrenocortical function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 123  
A radioactive isotope of iodine, a nonmetallic element of the halogen group with an atomic mass of 123 and a half-life of 13.2 hours with radioisotopic activity. Selectively accumulating in the thyroid tissue, iodine I 123 emits gamma rays that can be detected with gamma scintigraphy, allowing localization of thyroid tissue. This agent may be used as a tracer in whole body scintigraphy (WBS) to localize thyroid carcinoma metastases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 123 ADAM  
A radiopharmaceutical containing the serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand ADAM [2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine] labeled with the radioisotope iodine I 123, with SERT-binding and radioisotope activities. Upon administration, iodine I 123 ADAM selectively binds to SERT-expressing cells; subsequently, SERT-expressing tissues may be visualized using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SERT is a monamine transporter protein found in the membranes of neurons and platelets; in neurons it transports the neurotransmitter serotonin from synaptic spaces into presynaptic neurons, terminating serotonin's function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 123 anti-CEA recombinant diabody T84.66  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of a recombinant scFv dimer diabody of a monoclonal antibody against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) labeled with iodine I 123 (I-123) with potential radioimmunolocalization applications. The antibody moiety of iodine I 123 anti-CEA recombinant diabody T84.66 binds to cells expressing CEA, selectively delivering I-123 upon cellular internalization and allowing the scintigraphic imaging of CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in many cancer types, including gastrointestinal, breast, non-small cell lung, and thyroid cancers. Compared to whole monoclonal antibodies, diabody fragments offer the advantages of rapid tumor targeting, rapid blood clearance, more uniform tumor distribution, and a lower potential for eliciting an immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 123 iodobenzamide  
A radiopharmaceutical containing the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist iodobenzamide (IBZM) labeled with the radionuclide iodine I 123 with dopamine receptor-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration, iodine I 123 iodobenzamide binds to dopamine D2/D3 receptors; subsequently, tissues expressing these receptors can be visualized using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors found in the central nervous system (CNS) and neuroendocrine tumors such as pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 123 iodometomidate  
An iodine I-123 conjugate of metomidate (MTO) with potential application in adrenal imaging. Metomidate is a potent and selective inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes, especially CYP11B1 (11 beta-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase). Because both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are expressed exclusively in the adrenal cortex, I-123 iodometomidate can be used as a radiotracer for adrenal scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124  
A radioactive isotope of iodine, a nonmetallic element of the halogen group, with an atomic mass of 124 and a half-life of 4.18 days with radioisotopic activity. Selectively accumulating in thyroid tissue, iodine I 124 emits positrons that can be detected by positron emission tomography (PET), allowing localization of thyroid tissue. This radiosiotope also emits gamma rays. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124 FIAU  
A radioconjugate containing the nucleoside analog 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (FIAU) labeled with the radioisotope iodine I 124 with positron-emitting activity. Chemotherapeutic agents such as bortezomib may induce viral thymidine kinase expression in EBV- and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated tumors. Subsequent to chemotherapy induction of viral TK in these tumors, administered iodine I 124 FIAU is phosphorylated by expressed viral TK, becoming selectively trapped within TK-expressing tumor cells; these cells can then be visualized with positron emission tomography (PET). Viral TK is either not expressed or is expressed at very low levels in EBV- and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated tumors and may be activated by certain chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124 iobenguane  
A radioconjugate composed of the positron-emitting radioisotope iodine I 124 labeled to iobenguane, the synthetic aralkylguanidine analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE), with potential diagnostic imaging applications upon positron emitting tomography (PET) or computed tomography (CT). Upon administration, iodine I 124 iobenguane is taken up and accumulates in the granules of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and in the pre-synaptic granules of adrenergic neurons in a manner almost identical with that of NE. In turn, tumor cells can be imaged upon PET or CT. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124 iodo-azomycin galactopyranoside  
A diagnostic radiopharmaceutical comprised of iodo-azomycin galactopyranoside (IAZGP) labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope iodine I 124 and used as an imaging agent. Iodine I 124 iodo-azomycin galactopyranoside (I-124 IAZGP) is reduced under hypoxic conditions, covalently binding to macromolecules in hypoxic cells. After incorporation into hypoxic tumor cell DNA, I-124 IAZGP can be localized and quantified using positron emission tomography (PET), allowing a quantitative assessment of hypoxic tumor burden. IAZGP appears to have a higher water solubility and faster clearance from normal tissue than traditional imidazole tracers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124 iododeoxyuridine  
A radiopharmaceutical comprised of the thymidine analog, 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (idoxuridine), labeled with the positron emitter iodine I 124. After incorporation into tumor cell DNA, positron emission tomography (PET) is used to image iodine I 124 localized to tumor cells for determining and monitoring tumor burden. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124 monoclonal antibody 8H9  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the iodine I 124-radiolabeled murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 8H9 directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD276 (4Ig-B7-H3) with potential for radioimaging using positron emission tomography (PET). Through convection enhanced delivery, iodine I 124 monoclonal antibody 8H9 binds to the 4Ig domain of CD276, in turn CD276 expressing tumor cells may be visualized upon PET imaging of the iodine I 124 moiety. CD276, a tumor associated antigen and member of the B7 family of co-stimulatory proteins, suppresses natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T-lymhocyte activation; it is expressed on the cell membranes of a wide variety of tumors of neuroectodermal, mesenchymal and epithelial origin and its expression is associated with increased aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

iodine I 124 monoclonal antibody A33  
A radioimmunoconjugate of a humanized monoclonal antibody (MoAb) A33 labelled with iodine 124 (I-124). MoAb A33 recognizes A33 antigen, a 43 KDa transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, highly and homogenously expressed in 95% of colorectal cancer metastases, with only restricted expression in normal colonic mucosa. I-124 MoAb A33 delivers beta particle emitting I-124 nuclide directly to metastatic colorectal tissues, thereby this agent could be used in kinetics studies or radioimmunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124 NM404  
A phospholipid ether analog labeled with iodine I 124, with a potential imaging property upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, iodine I 124 NM404 selectively accumulates in and is retained within tumor cells for a prolonged period of time due to the decreased activity of a phospholipase D (PLD), most likely isoform 1 of PLD, in tumor cells compared to normal cells. As tumor cells are unable to metabolize and eliminate MN404, tumor cells can be visualized upon PET imaging. In addition, iodine I 124 NM404 may provide a more accurate image of the tumor than imaging with the current standard. PLD is an enzyme found in the cell membrane of normal cells that degrades phospholipids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

iodine I 124 phospholipid ether analogue CLR1404  
A small molecule radiopharmaceutical composed of the radioisotope iodine I 124 covalently attached to a proprietary alkylphospholipid ether (PLE) analogue, with potential imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). Iodine I 124 phospholipid ether analogue CLR1404 is selectively taken up by tumor cells via membrane lipid rafts and accumulates in tumor cells. The accummulation of this agent is due to a decreased ability of tumor cells to metabolize PLEs because certain tumor cells have lower levels of the enzyme phospholipase-D, in comparison to normal cells. This facilitates imaging of cancer cells by PET. Lipid rafts, specialized microdomains of plasma membrane, are overexpressed in cancer cells compared to normal cells. In addition, the radioiodine moiety of this agent is resistant to de-iodination. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124-labeled anti-phosphatidylserine monoclonal antibody PGN650  
A radioimmunoconjugate composed of the F(ab')2 fragment of human monoclonal antibody PGN650 against phosphatidylserine (PS) labeled with the radioisotope iodine I 124, with potential imaging activity upon positron-emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, the MoAb moiety of PGN650 binds to exposed PS on tumor cells, thereby allowing for the visualization of tumors upon PET. This may facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of antitumor agents. The phospholipid PS is normally located on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of healthy cells but is flipped to the outer leaflet in the endothelial lining of the tumor vasculature and other tumor cells in response to chemo- or radio- treatments in addition to oxidative stress. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 124-labeled anti-PSCA A11 minibody  
A radioconjugate composed of an affinity-matured antibody fragment, the A11 minibody, directed against human prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and conjugated with the radioisotope iodine I 124, that can potentially be used as an imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The minibody moiety of iodine I 124-labeled anti-PSCA A11 minibody selectively targets and binds to PSCA. The PSCA-expressing tumor cells can then be visualized using PET/CT. PSCA, a cell surface antigen expressed in normal human prostate and bladder, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including bladder, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The A11 minibody is formed by the fusion of a single chain Fv fragment with the immunoglobulin G1 CH3 domain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

iodine I 124-labeled HSP90 inhibitor PUH71  
A radioconjugate containing the purine scaffold heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor PUH71 labeled with the radioisotope iodine I 124, with positron emitting activity. Hsp90 inhibitor PUH71 is thought to bind to cytosolic Hsp90 and the endoplasmic reticulum paralogue gp96 (HSP90B1), thereby inhibiting its molecular chaperone function and promoting the degradation of the oncogenic signaling proteins. This induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. The iodine I 124 moiety can be visualized using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, thereby allowing an assessment of the accumulation of PUH71 in vivo, particularly in tumors. Hsp90, a chaperone protein upregulated in a variety of tumor cells, regulates the folding, stability and degradation of many oncogenic signaling proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 125  
A radioactive isotope of iodine, a nonmetallic element of the halogen group. With a half-life of 60 days, iodine 125 occurs naturally and can be produced artificially. This agent has both therapeutic and diagnostic uses, particularly in thyroid disease. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 125 anti-EGFR-425 monoclonal antibody  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of a murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) labeled with iodine I 125 with potential antineoplastic activity. Iodine I 125 anti-EGFR-425 monoclonal antibody binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon binding to EGFR-expressing tumor cells, this agent is internalized, selectively delivering a potentially cytotoxic dose of gamma radiation. EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131  
A radioactive isotope of iodine with an atomic mass of 131, a half life of eight days, and potential antineoplastic activity. Selectively accumulating in the thyroid gland, iodine I 131 emits beta and gamma particles, thereby killing thyroid cells and decreasing thyroid hormone production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 anti-fibronectin antibody fragment L19-SIP  
An iodine 131 radioimmunoconjugate of a small immunoprotein (SIP), derived from the variable region fragment of human monoclonal antibody L19, that is directed against the extra-domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, with potential radioimmunotherapeutic activity. The SIP moiety of iodine I 131 anti-fibronectin antibody fragment L19-SIP binds to the ED-B domain of fibronectin on tumor cells in the tumor neovasculature. Upon internalization, the I 131 radionuclide may selectively detect or deliver cytotoxic radiation to fibronectin-expressing tumor cells. ED-B of fibronectin, a naturally occurring marker of tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, is expressed in the majority of aggressive solid human tumors, whereas it is not detectable in normal vessels and tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 chimeric monoclonal antibody G-250  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the chimeric monoclonal antibody G-250 conjugated with iodine I 131 with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of iodine I 131 chimeric monoclonal antibody G-250 binds to G-250, a renal-cell carcinoma-associated antigen, delivering cytotoxic iodine I 131 specifically to renal cell carcinoma cells that express G-250. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 ethiodized oil  
A cytotoxic radioconjugate consisting of ethiodized oil, an iodinated ethyl ester derived from poppy seed oil, labeled with iodine 131 (I-131). Iodine I 131 ethiodized oil accumulates in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma tumor cells, resulting in targeted cytotoxicity to tumor cells while sparing surrounding normal cells and tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Iodine I 131 Lipiodol  
(Other name for: iodine I 131 ethiodized oil)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody 3F8  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of 3F8, a murine anti-GD2 ganglioside monoclonal antibody labeled with iodine 131 (I-131), with radioimaging and radioimmunotherapeutic properties. Using monoclonal antibody 3F8 as a carrier for I-131 results in the targeted imaging and/or destruction of cells expressing GD2. GD2 is a ganglioside which is overexpressed in malignant melanoma, neuroblastoma, and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody 81C6  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of 81C6, a murine IgG2 anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody labeled with iodine 131 (I-131), with radioimaging and radioimmunotherapeutic activities. Using monoclonal antibody 81C6 as a carrier for I-131 results in the targeted imaging and/or destruction of cells expressing tenascin. Tenascin is an extracellular matrix protein which is overexpressed in gliomas and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody 8H9  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the iodine 131-radiolabeled murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody 8H9 directed against the surface immunomodulatory glycoprotein 4Ig-B7-H3 with potential radioimaging and radioimmunotherapeutic uses. Iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody 8H9 binds to 4Ig-B7-H3 (human B7-H3 with 4 Ig-like domains) and may be used to radioimage and/or destroy tumor cells that express tenascin. 4Ig-B7-H3 inhibits T-cell activation and the production of effector cytokines such as interferon-gamma and interleukin-4; it is expressed on the cell membranes of a wide variety of tumors of neuroectodermal, mesenchymal and epithelial origin and is highly expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). In vitro, it has been shown that monoclonal antibody-mediated masking of 4Ig-B7-H3 on neuroblastoma cells resulted in the enhancement of natural killer (NK)-mediated lysis of target cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody BC8  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of BC8, a murine IgG1 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody labeled with iodine 131 (I-131), with radioimmunotherapeutic properties. Using monoclonal antibody BC8 as a carrier for I-131 results in the targeted destruction of cells expressing CD45. CD45 is tyrosine phosphatase expressed on virtually all leukocytes, including myeloid and lymphoid precursors in bone marrow and mature lymphocytes in lymph nodes; it is also expressed on most myeloid and lymphoid leukemic cells, but not on mature erythrocytes or platelets. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody CC49-deltaCH2  
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the humanized CH2 domain-deleted monoclonal antibody CC49 and iodine I 131 with antineoplastic activity. Monoclonal antibody CC49-deltaCH2 targets the tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) that is expressed by a wide range of human neoplasms including colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, ovarian, endometrial, breast, non-small cell lung, and prostate cancers. Iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody CC49-deltaCH2 binds to tumor cells expressing TAG-72, selectively delivering a cytotoxic dose of beta and gamma radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody F16SIP  
A fully human monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against human A1 domain of tenascin-C, in small immunoprotein (SIP) format conjugated with iodine 131 with potential antineoplastic activity. Iodine I 131 MoAb F16SIP binds to tenascin-C on the vascular tissues and delivers cytotoxic radiation to the tumors, thereby minimizing systemic radiotoxicity. Tenascin-C is a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, and the large isoform of this matrix protein is expressed and restricted around vascular structures in the tumor stroma of a variety of different tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody TNT-1/B  
An iodine 131 labeled radioimmunoconjugate of monoclonal antibody (MOAB) TNT-1/B with radioimaging and antineoplastic properties. MOAB TNT-1/B was developed for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors, designated as Tumor Necrosis Treatment (TNT). TNT exploits the presence of degenerating and necrotic cells within tumors by utilizing MOAbs directed against universal, intracellular nucleosomal determinants consisting of histone H1 and DNA. This MOAB was conjugated with biotin (B) molecules, which increase pharmacokinetic performance of the monoclonal antibody. MOAB TNT-1/B delivers I 131 to tumor cells and results in the targeted imaging and/or destruction of cells with exposed necrotic antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 NM404  
A phospholipid ether analog labeled with iodine I 131, with potential radiotherapeutic and radioimaging potential upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, iodine I 131 NM404 selectively accumulates in and is retained within tumor cells for a prolonged period of time due to the decreased activity of a phospholipase D (PLD), most likely isoform 1 of PLD, in tumor cells compared to normal cells. As tumor cells are unable to metabolize and eliminate MN404, tumor cells can be visualized upon PET imaging. In addition, iodine I 131 NM404 selectively delivers a cytotoxic dose of iodine I 131 to the tumor cells. PLD is an enzyme found in the cell membrane of normal cells that degrades phospholipids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 phospholipid ether analogue CLR1404  
A small-molecule radiopharmaceutical consisting of the beta-emitting radioisotope iodine I 131 attached to a phospholipid ether (PLE) analogue, comprised of a linear 18 carbon backbone, with potential antineoplastic activity. Iodine I 131 phospholipid ether analogue CLR1404 selectively accumulates in tumor cells, thereby delivering a cytotoxic dose of radiation to cancer cells. Compared to normal cells, tumor cells are unable to metabolize and eliminate PLEs possibly due to deficiency of the enzyme phospholipase-D. In addition, the radioiodine moiety of this agent is resistant to de-iodination. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 rituximab  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of rituximab, a recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, and labeled with iodine I 131 with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of iodine I 131 rituximab binds to the CD20 antigen thereby delivering cytotoxic iodine I 131 specifically to cancer cells expressing CD20. The CD20 antigen, a hydrophobic transmembrane protein, is expressed on normal pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131 tositumomab  
A monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 protein expressed on the surface of B-lymphocytes and radiolabeled with the radioisotope iodine I 131 with potential antineoplastic activity. Iodine I 131 tositumomab binds to and selectively delivers cyctotoxic radiation to CD20-expressing B-lymphocytes, thereby minimizing systemic radiotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I 131-labeled anti-CEA/anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody TF2  
A tri-Fab bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiMoAb) divalent for the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and monovalent for histamine-succinyl-glycine (HSG) peptide-hapten radiolabeled with iodine I 131 (I131) with antigen-binding and radioisotopic activities. Iodine I 131-labeled anti-CEA/anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody TF2 binds to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CEA on CEA-expressing tumor cells; these cells may then be radioimaged scintigraphically. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine I-124 girentuximab  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 conjugated with the positron emitter iodine I 124. The antibody moiety of iodine I 124 girentuximab may bind to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells that express the RCC-associated antigen G250, allowing detection of tumor-localized iodine I 124 with positron emission tomography (PET). G250 is a cell surface tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that is found in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine  
The neurotransmitter analogue 3-nitrobenzylguanidine conjugated to iodine I 123 and used as a gamma-emitting imaging agent. The adrenergic tissue uptake and storage of I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123 MIBG) mimics that of norepinephrine (NE). The distribution of this agent enables the scintigraphic imaging of neural crest tumors, such as neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Iodotope  
(Other name for: iodine I 131)

ioflubenzamide I-131  
An iodine 131-radiolabeled small-molecule benzamide compound with potential antineoplastic activity. The benzamide moiety of ioflubenzamide I-131 binds to melanin, selectively delivering a cyotoxic dose of gamma and beta radiation to melanin-expressing tumor cells. Melanin pigments, polymer derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine, are over-expressed in approximately 40% of melanomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iofolastat I123  
An iodine 123-radiolabled small molecule that exhibits high affinity for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential use in molecular imaging. Iofolastat I123, a radiolabeled glutamate-urea-lysine analogue, selectively binds PSMA, which allows imaging of PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells with gamma scintigraph. PSMA is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of various solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iohexol  
An X-ray contrast medium containing iohexol in various concentrations, from 140 to 350 milligrams of iodine per milliliter. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ionic silver-impregnated sodium carboxymethyl cellulose antimicrobial dressing  
A textile fiber dressing composed of ionic silver-impregnated sodium carboxymethylcellulose with potential wound-healing and antimicrobial activities. Ionic silver-impregnated sodium carboxymethylcellulose antimicrobial dressing inhibits microbial growth and promotes wound healing while protecting the wound site from external factors that may cause pain, promote infection, or slow the natural wound healing process. Ionic silver has a high affinity for negatively charged side groups on microbial cell proteins. Upon binding, ionic silver alters the molecular structure of proteins with a role in normal microbial cell functions thereby interfering with cell wall synthesis, transcription, translation, electron transport across membranes and protein folding, resulting in microbial cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iopromide  
A contrast medium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ipamorelin  
A pentapeptide (Aib-His-D-2-Nal-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) and a ghrelin mimetic with growth hormone (GH) releasing activity. Ipamorelin mimics ghrelin and binds to the ghrelin receptor (or GH secretagogue receptor, GHSR) in the brain, thereby selectively stimulating the release of GH from the pituitary gland. This results in increased plasma GH levels, which would affect many biological processes. Besides its presence in the brain, GHSR can also be found in the gastrointestinal tract, heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, adipose tissue and immune cells. Unlike other GH releasing peptides, ipamorelin only stimulates GH release in a manner very similar to that of growth hormone releasing hormone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ipilimumab  
A monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4), an antigen that is expressed on activated T-cells and exhibits affinity for B7 co-stimulatory molecules. By binding CTLA4, ipilimumab enhances T-cell activation and blocks B7-1 and B7-2 T-cell co-stimulatory pathways. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IPOL  
(Other name for: inactivated poliovirus vaccine)

ipomeanol  
A natural toxic furan isolated from a fungus-infected sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ipomeanol is activated by mixed function oxidases in vivo to its epoxide form, an alkylating agent that covalently binds cell macromolecules. This agent causes cell death by a p53-independent mechanism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iproplatin  
A synthetic second-generation platinum-containing compound related to cisplatin. Iproplatin binds to and forms DNA crosslinks and platinum-DNA adducts, resulting in DNA replication failure and cell death. Although less prone to glutathione inactivation compared to cisplatin, resistance to this agent has been observed in vitro due to repair of platination damage by tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

iratumumab  
A monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Iratumumab is a fully humanized antibody that targets CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on activated lymphocytes. CD30 is over-expressed in various lymphoproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and other lymphomas, and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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