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NCI Drug Dictionary

  

Kadcyla  
(Other name for: ado-trastuzumab emtansine)

Kadian  
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)

kanglaite  
An injectable microemulsion of a purified oil extracted from the seeds of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's tears), with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, kanglaite exhibits an antineoplastic effect, potentially via interfering with the cell cycle and halting tumor cells in the G2/M phase, which may eventually inhibit mitosis and proliferation of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

karenitecin  
A synthetic silicon-containing agent related to camptothecin with antineoplastic properties. Cositecan stabilizes the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks and consequently triggering apoptosis. Because it is lipophilic, karenitecin exhibits enhanced tissue penetration and bio-availability compared to water-soluble camptothecins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Keflex  
(Other name for: cephalexin)

Kefzol  
(Other name for: cefazolin sodium)

Kenalog  
(Other name for: triamcinolone acetonide)

Keoxifene  
(Other name for: raloxifene)

Kepivance  
(Other name for: palifermin)

Keppra  
(Other name for: levetiracetam)

Ketalar  
(Other name for: ketamine hydrochloride)

ketamine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a synthetic derivative of cyclohexanone with analgesic and anesthetic activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ketamine appears to non-competitively block N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and may interact with opiod mu receptors and sigma receptors, thereby reducing pain perception, inducing sedation, and producing dissociative anesthesia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ketamine/amitriptyline NP-H cream  
A topical preparation containing the antidepressant amitriptyline and the excitatory amino acid antagonist ketamine with potential topical analgesic activity. In addition to activating adenosine A1 receptors and inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, amitriptyline produces antinociceptive effects, which appear to be mediated through the modulation of multiple subtypes of glutamate receptors including the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Ketamine inhibits biogenic amine uptake, agonistically binds to mu-opioid receptors, and inhibits NMDA receptors. NDMA receptor antagonists such as amitriptyline and ketamine interfere with the role of NMDA receptors in the process of central sensitization in which NMDA receptors on spinal dorsal horn neurons are activated, resulting in an increase in synaptic efficacy and so an amplification of the response to sensory input. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ketoconazole  
A synthetic derivative of phenylpiperazine with broad antifungal properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Ketoconazole inhibits sterol 14-a-dimethylase, a microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme, thereby disrupting synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ketoprofen  
A propionic acid derivate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. Ketoprofen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis, by prostaglandin synthase, is responsible for the therapeutic effects of ibuprofen. Ketoprofen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ketorolac  
A synthetic pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Ketorolac non-selective inhibits the enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2. The inhibition of COX-2, up-regulated at sites of inflammation, prevents conversion of arachidonic acid to pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. The inhibition of COX-1 by this agent prevents the normal steady-state production of prostaglandins that play housekeeping roles in the protection of the gastrointestinal tract, the regulation of renal blood flow, and platelet aggregation. As a result, the inhibition of COX-1 may be associated with gastrointestinal toxicity, nephrotoxicity, and the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Kevetrin  
(Other name for: thioureidobutyronitrile)

keyhole limpet hemocyanin  
A natural protein isolated from the marine mollusc keyhole limpet. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin is an immunogenic carrier protein that, in vivo, increases antigenic immune responses to haptens and other weak antigens such as idiotype proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Kiacta  
(Other name for: eprodisate disodium)

Kineret  
(Other name for: anakinra)

KLH-FITC  
A conjugate consisting of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with potential immunostimulating activity. Vaccination with KLH-FITC may elicit an immune response against fluorescein and the production of anti-fluorescein IgG antibodies. KLH, a natural protein isolated from the marine mollusk keyhole limpet, is an immunostimulant carrier protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Komed HC  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

KOS-953  
(Other name for: tanespimycin)

KRN5500  
A semisynthetic derivative of the nucleoside-like antineoplastic antibiotic spicamycin, originally isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces alanosinicus. KRN 5500 inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus functions. This agent also induces cell differentiation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

KSP inhibitor ARRY-520  
A synthetic, small molecule targeting the kinesin spindle protein (KSP) with potential antineoplastic activity. KSP inhibitor ARRY-520 specifically inhibits KSP (kinesin-5 or Eg5), resulting in activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase, and consequently cell death in tumor cells that are actively dividing. Because KSP is not involved in postmitotic processes, such as neuronal transport, this agent does not cause the peripheral neuropathy that is often associated with tubulin-targeting agents. KSP is an ATP-dependent microtubule motor protein that is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and the proper segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

KSP inhibitor AZD4877  
A synthetic kinesin spindle protein (KSP) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. KSP inhibitor AZD4877 selectively inhibits microtubule motor protein KSP (also called kinesin-5 or Eg5), which may result in the inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly; activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint; induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase; and cell death in tumor cells that are actively dividing. Because KSP is not involved in postmitotic processes, such as neuronal transport, this agent may be less likely to cause the peripheral neuropathy often associated with the tubulin-targeting agents. Eg5 is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and the proper segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

KSP/VEGF siRNAs ALN-VSP02  
A lipid nanoparticle formulation containing two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for kinesin spindle protein (KSP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, the siRNAs in KSP/VEGF siRNAs ALN-VSP02ALN bind to both KSP and VEGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs), preventing translation of KSP and VEGF proteins; this may result in growth inhibition of tumor cells that overexpress KSP and VEGF. VEGF and KSP are upregulated in many tumor cells and play an important role in tumor proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

kunecatechins ointment  
A topical ointment containing a green tea polyphenol mixture (kunecatechins) with potential antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, and chemopreventive activities. Kunecatechins is a partially purified fraction of the aqueous extract of green tea leaves from Camellia sinensis and contains catechins and other green tea components. Catechins, polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites or flavonoids, comprise most of the drug substance in kunecatechins with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) present as the primary catechin. Catechins may inhibit basic functions of human papillomavirus (HPV), counteract specific changes in tumor cells, affect cell signaling, and stimulate the immune system. Topical application of kunecatechins ointment has been reported to reduce HPV-induced genital and anal warts through a not yet fully understood mechanism, which may involve anti-oxidative activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

KW-2149  
A semisynthetic water-soluble disulfide derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C. Activated by serum and glutathione, KW-2149 causes interstrand DNA cross-links and DNA-protein cross-links, resulting in single-strand DNA breaks and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Kynacyte  
(Other name for: safingol)

Kyprolis  
(Other name for: carfilzomib)

Kytril  
(Other name for: granisetron hydrochloride)

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