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NCI Drug Dictionary

  

m-azidopyrimethamine  
An antifolate derived from diaminopyrimidine with cytotoxic properties. With a mechanism of action similar to that of methotrexate (MTX), m-azidopyrimethamine blocks tetrahydrofolate synthesis, resulting in depletion of nucleotide precursors and inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is more lipophilic but less potent than MTX. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

M87o-transduced CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells  
Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) transduced with the retroviral vector M87o encoding for the HIV-1-entry inhibitor peptide membrane-anchored antiviral peptide C46 (maC46). Expression of C46 by M87o-transduced CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells may prevent the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 entry. C46 is a membrane-anchored peptide encoding amino acids 628 to 673 of the HIV-1 entry inhibitory transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Maalox suspension  
(Other name for: magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide/simethicone suspension)

macimorelin  
An orally available synthetic mimetic of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue ghrelin with potential anti-cachexia activity. Upon oral administration, macimorelin mimics endogenous ghrelin by stimulating appetite and binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor GHSR in the central nervous system, thereby mimicking the GH-releasing effects of ghrelin from the pituitary gland. Stimulation of GH secretion increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels which may further stimulate protein synthesis. In addition, ghrelin reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may play a direct role in cancer-related loss of appetite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

macitentan  
An orally available dual endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist with potential antihypertensive and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, macitentan and its metabolites block the binding of endothelin isoform 1 (ET-1) to type-A and type-B ETR on both the tumor cells and the endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. This prevents ET-1 mediated signaling transduction which may decrease tumor cell proliferation, progression, and angiogenesis in tumor tissue. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that plays an important role in inflammation and tissue repair, is, together with its receptors, overexpressed varyingly in many tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

macrogol 3350-based oral osmotic laxative  
An isotonic solution containing macrogol 3350 and electrolytes with laxative activity. Macrogol 3350-based oral osmotic laxative promotes the retention of water in the bowel, thereby increasing the water content of stool, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and stool transit time and evacuation of colonic contents. Macrogol 3350 is also known as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mafosfamide  
A synthetic oxazaphosphorine derivative with antineoplastic properties. Mafosfamide alkylates DNA, forming DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis. Although closely related to cyclophosphamide, mafosfamide, unlike cyclophosphamide, does not require hepatic activation to generate its active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide; accordingly, mafosfamide is potentially useful in the intrathecal treatment of neoplastic meningitis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-10.A2  
A synthetic nonapeptide derived from a melanoma-associated antigen. Vaccination with MAGE-10.A2 may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells that express the melanoma-associated antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-3.A1 peptide vaccine  
A synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A1-restricted peptide derived from human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-3.A1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, FBP peptides ovarian cancer vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing multiple synthetic antigen peptides derived from MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, and folate binding protein (FBP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic properties. MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, FBP peptides cancer vaccine includes the antigen peptides MAGE-A1:161-169, FBP:191-199, Her-2/neu:369-377, MAGE-A1:96-104, and Her-2/neu:754-762. Upon administration, this cancer vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these antigen peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-A1, Her-2/neu, and FBP proteins may be over-expressed in various cancer cell types, such as epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1 peptides vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of synthetic peptides derived from human melanoma antigen A1 (MAGE-A1), human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-A1/MAGE-A3/NY-ESO-1 peptides vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and NY-ESO-1 tumor-associated antigens (TAAS) are overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine  
A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MAGE-A3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3 reactive T cell receptor-transduced autologous T cells  
Human autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the MAGE-A3 reactive TCR-transduced autologous T cells bind to tumor cells expressing MAGE-A3, which may halt the growth of MAGE-A3-expressing cancer cells; the TCR is specific for MAGE-A3:168-176. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MAGE-A3/HPV 16 peptide vaccine  
A multi-epitope "Trojan antigen" ("TA") construct vaccine consisting of human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 peptide epitopes linked by the furin-sensitive linker peptide RVKR (arginine-serine-lysine-arginine) with immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. The TA construct enters the cytoplasm of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and is processed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where the endopeptidase furin releases the epitopes from the RVKR linker peptide and, together with various exopeptidases, generates MHC class I-binding peptides. Expressed on the cell surfaces of APC, these MHC class I-binding peptides stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that display the same peptide epitopes on their cell surfaces. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium citrate  
The citrate salt of the element magnesium with cathartic activity. The cathartic action of magnesium cations appears to result, in part, from osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may also stimulate the activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and increase the biosynthesis of the phospholipid proinflammatory mediator platelet activating factor (PAF) in the gut. NO may stimulate intestinal secretion via prostglandin- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms while PAF produces significant stimulation of colonic secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium hydroxide  
A solution of magnesium hydroxide with antacid and laxative properties. Milk of magnesium exerts its antacid activity in low doses such that all hydroxide ions that enter the stomach are used to neutralize stomach acid. This agent exerts its laxative effect in higher doses so that hydroxide ions are able to move from the stomach to the intestines where they attract and retain water, thereby increasing intestinal movement (peristalsis) and inducing the urge to defecate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide/simethicone suspension  
An oral suspension containing magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide and simethicone with antacid activity. Both magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide react with excess acid in the stomach thereby neutralizing gastric acid. Simethicone, a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane and silica gel, reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles, promoting gas bubble coalescence and so intestinal gas transit and evacuation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate  
The magnesium salt form of the saponin, isoglycyrrhizinate, a derivative of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra, with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may prevent or reduce hepatotoxicity through the scavenging of free radicals. This agent also modulates the activity of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium oxide  
The oxide salt of magnesium with antacid, laxative and vascular smooth muscle relaxant activities. Magnesium combines with water to form magnesium hydroxide which reacts chemically to neutralize or buffer existing quantities of stomach acid; stomach-content and intra-esophageal pH rise, resulting in a decrease in pepsin activity. This agent's laxative effect is the result, in part, of osmotically mediated water retention, which subsequently stimulates peristalsis. In addition, magnesium ions may behave as calcium antagonists in vascular smooth muscle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

magnesium valproate  
The magnesium salt of valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid) with antiepileptic and potential antineoplastic activities. Magnesium valproate dissociates in the gastrointestinal tract and is absorbed into the circulation as magnesium ions and valproic acid ions; valproic acid may inhibit histone deacetylases, inducing tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, and growth arrest. In addition, valproic acid exerts an antiepileptic effect, likely by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) catabolism and so increasing concentrations of GABA in the central nervous system (CNS). The presence of the magnesium in this agent may contribute to its anticonvulsant activity and sedative properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Magnevist  
(Other name for: gadopentetate dimeglumine)

Maitake mushroom extract  
An extract of the edible mushroom Maitaki, Grifola frondosa, rich in glucan polysaccharides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon oral ingestion, Maitaki mushroom extract may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, thereby amplifying both innate and T cell-mediated immune responses against cancer cells. In addition, this extract may stimulate the production of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and promote hematopoiesis, and may improve the neutrophil count. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Makarol  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Maldex  
(Other name for: maltodextrin)

Maldrin  
(Other name for: maltodextrin)

malignant glioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysates from malignant glioma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, malignant glioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine exposes the immune system to undefined malignant glioma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which may result in anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against glioma cells and glioma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

maltodextrin  
An oligosaccharide derived from starch that is used as a food additive and as a carbohydrate supplement. As a supplement, maltodextrin is used to provide and sustain energy levels during endurance-oriented workouts or sports, to help build muscle mass and support weight gain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

maltose  
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units linked through an alpha-1,4 glycosidic bond. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mammaglobin-A DNA vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing a plasmid encoding the mammaglobin-A gene with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, mammaglobin-A DNA vaccine may induce both humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells that express mammaglobin-A, which may result in decreased tumor growth. The 10 kiloDalton (kD) glycoprotein mammglobin-A is expressed in over 80% of human breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mangafodipir trisodium  
The trisodium salt of mangafodipir with potential antioxidant and chemoprotective activities. Consisting of manganese (II) ions chelated to fodipir (dipyridoxyl diphosphate or DPDP), mangafodipir scavenges oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, potentially preventing oxygen free radical damage to macromolecules such as DNA and minimizing oxygen free radical-related chemotoxicity in normal tissues. However, this agent may potentiate the chemotherapy-induced generation of oxygen free radicals in tumor cells, resulting in the potentiation of chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity; tumor cells, with higher levels of reactive oxygen species than normal cells, possess a lower threshold for oxygen free radical-mediated cytotoxicity. Mangafodipir is traditionally used as an imaging agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mannitol  
A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Manuka honey  
A monofloral honey with potential wound repair and antibacterial activities. Manuka honey is produced by bees fed on the flowers of the New Zealand Manuka bush (Leptospermum scoparium). Manuka honey contains a significant higher concentration of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal, which may account for its antibacterial activity; this agent may release small amounts of hydrogen peroxide which may also contribute to its antibacterial activity. Manuka honey has been reported to stimulate the formation of new blood capillaries and the growth of fibroblasts and epithelial cells when applied topically to wounds. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mapatumumab  
A fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 (TRAIL-R1) with apoptosis promoting and potential antitumor activities. TRAIL-R1 is a cell surface receptor expressed on many malignant cell types. Mapatumumab selectively binds to and activates the TRAIL cell receptor, thereby inducing apoptosis and reducing tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

marcellomycin  
An antineoplastic oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Actinosporangium bohemicum. Marcellomycin intercalates into DNA and induces DNA crosslinks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also induces differentiation in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by interfering with glycoprotein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

marijuana  
Any part of, or extract from, the female hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana contains cannabinoids, substances with hallucinogenic, psychoactive, and addictive properties. This agent has potential use for treating cancer pain and cachexia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

marimastat  
An orally-active synthetic hydroxamate with potential antineoplastic activity. Marimastat covalently binds to the zinc(II) ion in the active site of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby inhibiting the action of MMPs, inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. This agent may also inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), an enzyme involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production that may play a role in some malignancies as well as in the development of arthritis and sepsis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Marinol  
(Other name for: dronabinol)

marizomib  
A naturally-occurring salinosporamide, isolated from the marine actinomycete Salinospora tropica, with potential antineoplastic activity. Marizomib irreversibly binds to and inhibits the 20S catalytic core subunit of the proteasome by covalently modifying its active site threonine residues; inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome mediated proteolysis results in an accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which may result in the disruption of cellular processes, cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. This agent more may more potent and selective than the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Marqibo  
(Other name for: liposomal vincristine sulfate)

MART-1 antigen  
A tumor-associated melanocytic differentiation antigen. Vaccination with MART-1 antigen may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing the melanocytic differentiation antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MART-1 reactive CD8+ lymphocytes  
Human CD8-positive T-lymphocytes that are engineered to recognize melanoma tumor-associated antigen MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells, also called Melan-A) in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted manner, with potential antineoplastic activity. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are isolated from a melanoma patient, exposed to the MART-1:27-35(27L) peptide and MART-1 specific T-lymphocytes are isolated and expanded. Upon infusion, these lymphocytes recognize and exert a cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response against MART-1-expressing melanoma cells. The synthetic MART-1:27-35 HLA-A2-restricted peptide has an amino acid substitution, leucine to alanine at position 27, to increase its immunogenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MART-1/gp100/Tyrosinase/MAGE-A3 peptides-loaded irradiated allogeneic plasmacytoid dendritic cells  
Irradiated allogeneic, HLA-A*0201 positive, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) loaded with 4 melanoma peptides derived from the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) MelA/MART-1, gp100/pmel17, tyrosinase, and MAGE-A3, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, the irradiated allogeneic pDCs may trigger functional multi-specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against HLA-A*0201-positive melanoma cancer cells expressing the TAAs MelA/MART-1, gp100/pmel17, tyrosinase, and MAGE-A3. These TAAs are upregulated in a variety of tumor cells. The pDCs are derived from a distinct subset of dendritic cells (DCs) with a plasma cell-like morphology and express a characteristic set of surface markers and may increase the anti-tumor immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MART-1:26-35(27L) peptide vaccine  
A peptide-based cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 26 through 35 of MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells-1) with a leucine substitution at amino acid position 27 to improve immunogenicity. Upon administration, MART-1:26-35(27L) peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against MART-1-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor growth. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) MART-1 may be overexpressed on melanoma cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MART-1:27-35 peptide vaccine  
A natural or synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 27 through 35 of the melanoma-associated antigen MART-1 with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with MART-1:27-35 peptide may induce cytotoxic host immune responses against melanoma cells that express this peptide. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

masitinib mesylate  
The orally bioavailable mesylate salt of masatinib, a multi-targeted protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Masitinib selectively binds to and inhibits both the wild-type and mutated forms of the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit; SCFR); platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR); fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3); and, to a lesser extent, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). As a consequence, tumor cell proliferation may be inhibited in cancer cell types that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

masoprocol  
A naturally occurring antioxidant dicatechol originally derived from the creosote bush Larrea divaricatta with antipromoter, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. Masoprocol directly inhibits activation of two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and the c-erbB2/HER2/neu receptor, resulting in decreased proliferation of susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent may induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations as a result of disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in association with the activation of stress activated protein kinases (SAPKs). In addition, NDGA inhibits arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX), resulting in diminished synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrines; it may prevent leukocyte infiltration into tissues and the release of reactive oxygen species and, at higher concentrations, may also inhibit cyclooxygenase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mast cell stabilizer TF002  
A small molecule with mast cell stabilizing activity. Mast cell stabilizer TF002 inhibits the formation of lipid rafts of mast cell membranes that contain the signaling machinery which triggers the release of mast cell allergic and inflammatory mediators. Inhibition of lipid raft assembly by this agent results in mast cell stabilization, preventing mast cell degranulation and the release of the inflammatory mediators involved in type I allergic reactions (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and cytokines). The assembly of the signaling machinery in mast cell lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, is initiated by IgE binding to its receptor on the mast cell surface; subsequently, allergens crosslink with the IgE/receptor complex and other proteins and lipids are recruited into the signaling machinery. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Matulane  
(Other name for: procarbazine hydrochloride)

matuzumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody with antineoplastic activity. Matuzumab binds the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with high affinity, competitively blocking natural ligand binding and blocking receptor-mediated downstream signalling, resulting in impaired tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Maxidex  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

Maxipime  
(Other name for: cefepime hydrochloride)

maytansine  
An ansamycin antibiotic originally isolated from the Ethiopian shrub Maytenus serrata. Maytansine binds to tubulin at the rhizoxin binding site, thereby inhibiting microtubule assembly, inducing microtubule disassembly, and disrupting mitosis. Maytansine exhibits cytotoxicity against many tumor cell lines and may inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MC-Glucan  
(Other name for: sizofiran)

MCPyV TAg-specific polyclonal autologous CD8-positive T cell vaccine  
A preparation of polyclonal autologous CD8 positive T-lymphocytes specific for the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) T antigen (TAg) with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patient were obtained and antigen-specific CD8+ T cells targeting a specific MCPyV TAg epitope were derived and expanded ex vivo. Upon infusion of the MCPyV TAg-specific polyclonal autologous CD8-positive T cell vaccine, the T cells recognize the MCPyV antigen and exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against the MCPyV TAg-expressing MCC cells. MCPyV is expressed in about 80% of MCC and is not expressed in normal, human tissue; the MCPyVTag oncoprotein plays a key role in MCC survival and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MCT/LCT lipid emulsion  
A nutritional lipid emulsion consisting of both coconut oil-derived medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) and soybean oil-derived long chain triglycerides (LCTs). The LCTs in the MCT/LCT lipid emulsion supply the body with essential omega-6 fatty acids, which are needed as components of phospholipids in cell membranes and as precursors of eicosanoids. The MCTs mainly provide calories for energy. In addition to LCTs and MCTs, this lipid emulsion contains egg yolk lecithin, glycerol, and the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MCT/LCT/fish oil omega-3 fatty triglyceride lipid emulsion  
A nutritional lipid emulsion consisting of coconut oil-derived medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), soybean oil-derived long chain triglycerides (LCT), and the fish oil-derived polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. This lipid emulsion supplies essential fatty acids and calories for energy. Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the production of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), Il-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The MCTs mainly provide calories for energy. In addition to LCTs, MCTs, and omega-3 fatty acids, this lipid emulsion contains egg yolk lecithin, glycerol, and the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MDM2 antagonist RO5045337  
An MDM2 (human homolog of double minutes-2; HDM2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. RO5045337 binds to MDM2, thereby preventing the binding of the MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and thus the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger protein, is a negative regulator of the p53 pathway; often overexpressed in cancer cells, it has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MDM2 antagonist RO5503781  
An orally available, small molecule, antagonist of MDM2 (mouse double minute 2; Mdm2 p53 binding protein homolog), with potential antineoplastic activity. RO5503781 binds to MDM2 blocking the interaction between the MDM2 protein and the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing the MDM2-p53 interaction, p53 is not enzymatically degraded and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This may lead to p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger nuclear phosphoprotein and negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is often overexpressed in cancer cells and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032b  
An orally available MDM2 (murine double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032b binds to, and prevents the binding of MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This results in the restoration of p53 signaling and leads to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. MDM2, a zinc finger protein and a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is overexpressed in cancer cells; it has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MDR modulator CBT-1  
A naturally-occurring, orally bioavailable bisbenzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid with potential chemosensitization activity. MDR modulator CBT-1 binds to and inhibits the MDR efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may inhibit the efflux of various chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and reverse P-gp-mediated tumor cell MDR. P-gp is a transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is overexpressed by some multidrug resistant tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

measles/mumps/rubella vaccine  
A trivalent vaccine containing live attenuated viruses that can cause measles, mumps and rubella. It is an injection administered subcutaneously in two separate doses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Measurin  
(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)

mebendazole  
A synthetic benzimidazole derivate and anthelmintic agent. Mebendazole interferes with the reproduction and survival of helminths by inhibiting the formation of their cytoplasmic microtubules, thereby selectively and irreversibly blocking glucose uptake. This results in a depletion of glycogen stores and leads to reduced formation of ATP required for survival and reproduction of the helminth. This eventually causes the helminths death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mechlorethamine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of mechlorethamine, a nitrogen mustard and an analogue of sulfur mustard, with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. Mechlorethamine is metabolized to an unstable, highly reactive ethyleniminium intemediate that alkylates DNA, particularly the 7 nitrogen of guanine residues, resulting in DNA base pair mismatching, DNA interstrand crosslinking, the inhibition of DNA repair and synthesis, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. This agent also exhibits lympholytic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Meclan  
(Other name for: meclocycline sulfosalicylate)

meclocycline sulfosalicylate  
The sulfosalicylate salt form of meclocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity. Meclocycline sulfosalicylate is bacteriostatic and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing the addition of amino acids to the growing peptide chain. This tetracycline is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Medlone 21  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

Medrol  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

medroxyprogesterone  
A synthetic derivative of progesterone administered as an acetate salt (medroxyprogesterone acetate) with antiestrogenic activity. As a do all progestins, medroxyprogesterone binds to and activates nuclear receptors which subsequently bind to and activate target genes for transcription. As an antiestrogen, this agent may inhibit the growth-stimulating effects of estrogen on estrogen-sensitive tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mefloquine  
A quinolinemethanol derivative with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, mefloquine, a weak base, preferentially accumulates in lysosomes and disrupts lysosomal function and integrity, thereby leading to host cell death. Similar to chloroquine, the chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities of this agent may be related to its inhibition of autophagocytosis, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Compared to chloroquine, mefloquine has better blood-brain-barrier (BBB) penetration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Megace  
(Other name for: megestrol acetate)

megestrol acetate  
The acetate salt of megestrol, a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring female sex hormone progesterone, with progestogenic, antiestrogenic, and antineoplastic activities. Mimicking the action of progesterone, megestrol binds to and activates nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in the reproductive system and pituitary; ligand-receptor complexes are translocated to the nucleus where they bind to progesterone response elements (PREs) located on target genes. Megestrol’s antineoplastic activity against estrogen-responsive tumors may be due, in part, to the suppression of pituitary gonadotrophin production and the resultant decrease in ovarian estrogen secretion; interference with the estrogen receptor complex in its interaction with genes and; as part of the progesterone receptor complex, direct interaction with the genome and downregulation of specific estrogen-responsive genes. This agent may also directly kill tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK 1/2 inhibitor AS703988/MSC2015103B  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP2K, MAPK/ERK kinase, or MEK) 1 and 2 with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK 1/2 inhibitor AS703988/MSC2015103B selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2, preventing the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1 and MEK2 are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway that regulates cell growth and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK inhibitor ARRY-438162  
An orally active small-molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor ARRY-438162, noncompetitive with ATP, binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK 1 and 2 (MEK1/2). Inhibition of MEK1/2 prevents the activation of MEK1/2 dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1/2 (MAP2K1/K2) are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK inhibitor AZD8330  
An orally active, selective MEK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor AZD8330 specifically inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK or MAP/ERK kinase1), resulting in inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK inhibitor GDC-0623  
An orally active, selective MEK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor GDC-0623 specifically inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK or MAP/ERK kinase), resulting in inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK inhibitor MEK162  
An orally available inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor MEK162, noncompetitive with ATP, binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2. Inhibition of MEK1/2 prevents the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling. This may eventually lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and an inhibition in production of various inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1, -6 and tumor necrosis factor. MEK1 and MEK2 are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

MEK inhibitor RO4987655  
An orally active small molecule, targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 or MEK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor RO4987655 binds to and inhibits MEK, which may result in the inhibition of MEK-dependent cell signaling and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. MEK, a dual specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase, is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK inhibitor TAK-733  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor TAK-733 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2, preventing the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1/2 (MAP2K1/K2) are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK inhibitor WX-554  
An orally available small molecule mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP2K, MAPK/ERK kinase, or MEK) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor WX-554 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK, thereby preventing the activation of MEK-dependent effector proteins including some transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK, a dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, is frequently upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK-1/MEKK-1 inhibitor E6201  
A synthetic, fungal metabolite analogue inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK-1) with potential antipsoriatic and antineoplastic activities. MEK-1/MEKK-1 inhibitor E6201 specifically binds to and inhibits the activities of MEK-1 and MEKK-1, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. MEK-1 and MEKK-1 are key components in the RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK signaling pathway, which regulates cell proliferation and is frequently activated in human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MEK/Aurora kinase dual inhibitor BI 847325  
An orally available dual inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Aurora kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, MEK/Aurora kinase inhibitor BI 847325 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK, which both prevents the activation of MEK-dependent effector proteins and inhibits growth factor-mediated cell signaling. BI 847325 also binds to and inhibits the activity of the Aurora kinases A, B and C which may disrupt the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, prevent chromosome segregation, and inhibit both cellular division and proliferation in Aurora kinase-overexpressing tumor cells. Altogether, this leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor growth as well as the induction of tumor regression. MEK, a dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, is frequently upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mekinist  
(Other name for: trametinib)

Melan-A VLP vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of the melanocyte differentiation antigen Melan A (also called MART-1) encapsulated in noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, Melan-A VLP vaccine may stimulate the immune system to exert a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the Melan A antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Melan A is upregulated in most melanomas. VLPs stimulate the immune system and promotes the CTL response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Melan-A/MAGE-3.DP4 peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a peptide derived from the melanocyte differentiation antigen Melan-A (or MART-1) and the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DP4-restricted human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3.DP4), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, Melan-A/MAGE-3.DP4 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing Melan-A and MAGE-3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor associated antigens Melan-A and MAGE-3 are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

melanoma helper peptide vaccine  
A multivalent vaccine consisting of peptides derived from melanoma-associated antigens and an adjuvant peptide derived from tetanus toxoid. Vaccination with this agent may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing melanoma-associated antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

melanoma TRP2 CTL epitope vaccine SCIB1  
A proprietary DNA-based cancer vaccine that encodes a melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and a modified monoclonal antibody, a chimera of human IgG1/murine IgG2a with T cell mimotopes expressed within the complementarity-determining regions (CDR) of the antibodies, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular injection and electroporation, melanoma TRP2 CTL epitope vaccine SCIB1 expresses the modified antibody. Subsequently, the Fc component of the engineered antibody targets and binds to the CD64 receptor on the dendritic cells (DCs); upon processing by DCs, the cellular immune system may be activated to induce helper T-cell and CTL immune responses against tumor cells expressing the TRP2 antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MELITAC 12.1 peptide vaccine  
A peptide cancer vaccine consisting of an emulsion of a mixture of 12 class I MHC-restricted melanoma peptides and a class II MHC-restricted tetanus toxoid helper peptide, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the MELITAC 12.1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing the melanoma peptide antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The melanoma peptides contained in the vaccine are upregulated in melanoma cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MELK inhibitor OTS167  
An orally available inhibitor of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, OTS167 binds to MELK, which prevents both MELK phosphorylation and activation; thus inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream MELK substrates. This may lead to an inhibition of both cell proliferation and survival in MELK-expressing tumor cells. MELK, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in cancer cell survival, invasiveness and cancer-stem cell formation and maintenance; it is highly upregulated in various types of cancer cells and absent in normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mellaril  
(Other name for: thioridazine hydrochloride)

meloxicam  
An oxicam derivative and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Unlike traditional nonselective NSAIDs, meloxicam preferentially inhibits the activity of cyclo-oxygenase II (COX-II), resulting in a decreased conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin precursors. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis is responsible for the therapeutic effects of meloxicam. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

melphalan  
A phenylalanine derivative of nitrogen mustard with antineoplastic activity. Melphalan alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine and induces DNA inter-strand cross-linkages, resulting in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and cytotoxicity against both dividing and non-dividing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

melphalan hydrochloride/sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin complex  
A propylene glycol-free intravenous formulation containing the hydrochloride salt of the nitrogen mustard phenylalanine derivative melphalan complexed with polyanionic sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-CD) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, melphalan is converted into highly reactive ethylenimmonium intermediates that induce covalent guanine N7-N7 intra- and inter-crosslinks and alkylation of adenine N3 of DNA; RNA and proteins may also be alkylated. Subsequently, RNA transcription and protein synthesis are inhibited, resulting in cell growth arrest. The addition of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin to the formulation improves the solubility, stability and ease of use of melphalan; cyclodextrins are cyclic dextrins derived from starch. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

melphalan-flufenamide prodrug  
A melphalan prodrug in which the alkylating agent melphalan is bound to flufenamide, with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. Upon administration, the dipeptide bond in the melphalan-flufenamide compound is hydrolyzed by peptidases, which are overexpressed by certain cancer cells. This results in the specific release and accumulation of the active metabolite melphalan in cancer cells. Melphalan alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine residues and induces DNA intra- and inter-strand cross-linkages. This results in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and the induction of apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. The administration of the melphalan-flufenamide prodrug allows for enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to melphalan alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

memantine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of memantine, a low-affinity, voltage-dependent, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Memantine binds to and inhibits cation channels of glutamanergic NMDA receptors located in the central nervous system (CNS), preventing the prolonged influx of calcium ions and the associated neuronal excitotoxicity, and thereby potentially enhancing cognitive function. Memantine is also a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5HT3) receptor and nicotinic receptor antagonist. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

membrane-disrupting peptide EP-100  
A water-soluble, positively charged fusion protein consisting of a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor-targeting ligand conjugated to the membrane-disrupting peptide CLIP 71 with membrane-disrupting and potential antineoplastic activities. The LHRH ligand moiety of membrane-disrupting peptide EP-100 specifically binds to LHRH receptors, which are upregulated on a variety of human cancer cell types. Subsequently, the positively charged CLIP 71 moiety of this agent interacts with the negatively charged membrane on the cancer cell surface, which may result in cell membrane disruption and cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

menadione topical lotion  
A topical lotion containing the small organic molecule protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor menadione (vitamin K3) with potential EGFR- and ErbB2/HER2-activating activities. Upon topical administration, menadione binds to and inhibits the activity of PTPs that dephosphorylate and inactivate EGFR and ErbB2 in human keratinocytes; local reversal of EGFR and ErbB2 inhibition associated with the systemic administration of EGFR inhibitors may help alleviate EGFR inhibitor-mediated skin toxicity. EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and ErbB2/HER2 (erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) are cell surface receptors that are upregulated in a number of cancer cells types and play important roles in the growth and maintenance of normal epithelial tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

menatetrenone  
A menaquinone compound and form of vitamin K2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Menatetrenone may act by modulating the signalling of certain tyrosine kinases, thereby affecting several transcription factors including c-myc and c-fos. This agent inhibits tumor cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

menogaril  
A semisynthetic derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic nogalamycin. Menogaril intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Menogarol  
(Other name for: menogaril)

meperidine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a synthetic piperidine ester with opioid analgesic activity. Meperidine mimics the actions of endogenous neuropeptides via opioid receptors such as the mu-opiiod receptor, thereby producing characteristic morphine-like effects including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia and physical dependence. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mepivacaine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of mepivacaine, an amide-type local anesthetic agent. At the injection site, mepivacaine binds to specific voltage-gated sodium ion channels in neuronal cell membranes, which inhibits both sodium influx and membrane depolarization. This leads to a blockage of nerve impulse initiation and conduction and results in a reversible loss of sensation. Compared to other local anesthetics, this agent has a more rapid onset and moderate duration of action. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Meprolone  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

mercaptopurine oral suspension  
An oral suspension containing the thiopurine-derivative antimetabolite 6-mercaptopurine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, mercaptopurine is metabolized by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) to its active metabolite 6-thioinosine monophosphate (TIMP); TIMP inhibits nucleotide interconversions and de novo purine ribonucleotide synthesis, which both blocks the formation of purine nucleotides and inhibits DNA synthesis. This agent is also incorporated into DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine, which results in the disruption of DNA replication. By blocking DNA synthesis and replication, cancer cells are unable to proliferate. Compared to the tablet formulation, the liquid is easier to swallow and offers more flexibility and accuracy in dosing, which is beneficial for use in pediatric patients. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mercaptopurine tablet  
A thiopurine-derivative antimetabolite with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. Produced through the metabolism of mercaptopurine by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), mercaptopurine metabolites 6-thioguanosine-5'-phosphate (6-thioGMP) and 6-thioinosine (T-IMP) inhibit nucleotide interconversions and de novo purine synthesis, thereby blocking the formation of purine nucleotides and inhibiting DNA synthesis. This agent is also incorporated into DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine, which results in the disruption of DNA replication. In addition, mercaptopurine is converted to 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (MMPR) by 6-thiopurine methyltransferase; MMPRs are also potent inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

meropenem  
A broad-spectrum carbapenem with antibacterial properties, synthetic Meropenem inhibits cell wall synthesis in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It penetrates cell walls and binds to penicillin-binding protein targets. Meropenem acts against aerobes and anaerobes including Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium sp.. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Merrem I.V.  
(Other name for: meropenem)

mesalamine  
An agent derived from sulfasalazine, an antiinflammatory agent. Mesalamine may reduce inflammation through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin production. Following rectal or oral administration, only a small amount of mesalamine is absorbed; the remainder, acting topically, reduces bowel inflammation, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and stomach pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

mesna  
A sulfhydryl compound that is used to reduce the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with certain chemotherapeutic agents. Mesna is converted to a free thiol compound in the kidney, where it binds to and inactivates acrolein and other urotoxic metabolites of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, thereby reducing their toxic effects on the urinary tract during urinary excretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mesnex  
(Other name for: mesna)

mesothelin-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes  
A preparation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for mesothelin with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. After transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, the mesothelin-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered PBLs bind to tumor cells expressing mesothelin. This may stimulate the secretion of cytokines and result in cell lysis of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in many epithelial-derived cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mesothelioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mesothelioma tumor lysate with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, mesothelioma tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against mesothelioma tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SGX523  
An orally bioavailable small molecule, belonging to the class of c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, with potential antineoplastic activity. MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SGX523 specifically binds to c-Met protein, or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), preventing binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and disrupting the MET signaling pathway; this agent may induce cell death in tumor cells expressing c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-777607  
An inhibitor of MET tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-777607 binds to c-Met protein, or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), preventing binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and disrupting the MET signaling pathway; this agent may induce cell death in tumor cells expressing c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor EMD 1204831  
An inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) with potential antineoplastic activity. MET inhibitor EMD 1204831 selectively binds to MET tyrosine kinase, thereby disrupting MET-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing this kinase. MET is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor EMD 1214063  
An inhibitor of MET tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor EMD 1214063 selectively binds to MET tyrosine kinase and disrupts MET signal transduction pathways, which may induce apoptosis in tumor cells overexpressing this kinase. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor or HGFR), is the product of the proto-oncogene c-Met and is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types; this protein plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor PF-04217903  
An orally bioavailabe, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor PF-04217903 selectively binds to and inhibits c-Met, disrupting the c-Met signaling pathway, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth, migration and invasion of tumor cells, and the induction of death in tumor cells expressing c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor SAR125844  
An inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, c-Met inhibitor SAR125844 binds to c-Met, thereby disrupting c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress c-Met. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in a variety of cancers, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Metastat  
(Other name for: incyclinide)

Metastron  
(Other name for: strontium chloride Sr 89)

metatinib tromethamine  
An orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, metatinib tromethamine may inhibit the BCL-ABL protein, which may lead to decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in tumor cells. BCR-ABL oncoprotein is generated by a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 specifically t(9;22)(q34;q11). The resulting fusion gene produces proteins with constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, which stimulate both abnormal cell division and increased cellular proliferation. This fusion is associated with both chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

metformin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the biguanide metformin with antihyperglycemic and potential antineoplastic activities. Metformin inhibits complex I (NADPH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby increasing the cellular AMP to ATP ratio and leading to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and regulating AMPK-mediated transcription of target genes. This eventually prevents hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhances insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation and ultimately leads to a decrease in glucose levels. Metformin may exert antineoplastic effects through AMPK-mediated or AMPK-independent inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is up-regulated in many cancer tissues. Furthermore, this agent also inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression which is mediated through the suppression of transcription activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methadone hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of methadone, a synthetic opioid with analgesic activity. Similar to morphine and other morphine-like agents, methadone mimics the actions of endogenous peptides at CNS opioid receptors, primarily the mu-receptor, resulting in characteristic morphine-like effects including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia and physical dependence. Because of the prolonged half-life of merthadone compared to other morphine-like agents such as heroin, the onset of opiate withdrawal symptoms is slower, the duration of opiate withdrawal is prolonged, and opiate wihdrawal symptoms are less severe. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Methadose  
(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)

methanol extraction residue of BCG  
A cell wall fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) obtained by menthol extraction with immunomodulating properties and potential use in cancer immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methazolamide  
A sulfonamide derivate and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Methazolamide inhibits tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), which may result in increased cell death in hypoxic tumors. As a hypoxia-inducible transmembrane glycoprotein, CAIX catalyzes the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions, helping to maintain acidification of the tumor microenvironment and enhance resistance to cytotoxic therapy in some hypoxic tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Methazolastone  
(Other name for: temozolomide)

methionine C 11  
A synthetic amino acid radiolabeled with carbon-11. Acting as a methyl donor, methionine C 11 is incorporated into macromolecules, where it serves as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for detecting tumors with high rates of protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Methosarb  
(Other name for: calusterone)

methotrexate  
An antimetabolite and antifolate agent with antineoplastic and immunosuppressant activities. Methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Methotrexate also exhibits potent immunosuppressant activity although the mechanism(s) of actions is unclear. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Methotrexate LPF  
(Other name for: methotrexate)

methotrexate-e therapeutic implant  
An injectable collagen matrix gel containing the antimetabolite methotrexate and the sympathicomimetic agent epinephrine with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection, methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Epinephrine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is added to the gel to enhance penetration of methotrexate into the tumor tissue and reduce dispersion to the surrounding tissues thereby enhancing the local concentration of methotrexate and increasing its anti-tumor activity. Intratumoral injection of methotrexate combined with epinephrine may potentially increase chemotherapeutic efficacy compared to systemic administration and reduce systemic toxicity and side effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methoxsalen  
A naturally occurring substance isolated from the seeds of the plant Ammi majus with photoactivating properties. As a member of the family of compounds known as psoralens or furocoumarins, methoxsalen's exact mechanism of action is unknown; upon photoactivation, methoxsalen has been observed to bind covalently to and crosslink DNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin beta  
A pegylated form of recombinant human erythropoietin, a glycosylated protein naturally produced in the kidney that stimulates erythrocyte production in the bone marrow. Methoxypolyethylene glycol epoetin beta may reverse anemias induced by cancer therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methoxyamine  
An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor with potential adjuvant activity. Methoxyamine covalently binds to apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) DNA damage sites and inhibits base excision repair (BER), which may result in an increase in DNA strand breaks and apoptosis. This agent may potentiate the anti-tumor activity of alkylating agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methyl-5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride cream  
A topical cream formulation containing the hydrochloride salt of methyl-5-aminolevulinate, a lipophilic methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid, with photosensitizer prodrug activity. Upon topical administration, methyl-5-aminolevulinate in the cream is selectively absorbed by tumor cells where it is converted to the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Upon photoirradiation, PpIX is activated and transfers energy to oxygen, generating singlet oxygen and superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may result in free-radical-mediated DNA damage and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methylene blue  
A synthetic basic dye. Methylene blue stains to negatively charged cell components like nucleic acids; when administered in the lymphatic bed of a tumor during oncologic surgery, methylene blue may stain lymph nodes draining from the tumor, thereby aiding in the visual localization of tumor sentinel lymph nodes. When administered intravenously in low doses, this agent may convert methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methylene dimethane sulfonate  
A member of the homologous series of dimethane sulphonic acid esters with alkylating properties. Methylene dimethane sulfonate alkylates DNA, resulting in interstrand DNA crosslinking, inhibition of DNA replication, disruption of the cell cycle, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methylmercaptopurine riboside  
A purine derivative with antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic properties. 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6-MMPR) inhibits amidophosphoribosyltransferase, the first committed step in de novo purine synthesis, and inhibits fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-induced cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methylnaltrexone  
A methyl derivative of noroxymorphone with selective, opioid-receptor antagonistic activity. Methylnaltrexone displaces opioids from peripheral opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the skin, resulting in decreases in opioid-related constipation, urinary retention, and pruritis, respectively. Methylnaltrexone does not cross the blood-brain barrier and does not affect the centrally-mediated analgesic effect of opioids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methylphenidate hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the synthetic central nervous system stimulant methylphenidate. Methylphenidate appears to activate the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect and, in some clinical settings, may improve cognitive function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

methylprednisolone  
A synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. Methylprednisolone binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. This agent also decreases the number of circulating lymphocytes, induces cell differentiation, and stimulates apoptosis in sensitive tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Meti-derm  
(Other name for: prednisolone)

metoclopramide hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the substituted benzamide metoclopramide, a para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) derivative that is structurally related to procainamide, with gastroprokinetic and antiemetic activities. Metoclopramide binds to dopamine 2 (D2) receptors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), antagonizing dopamine-mediated relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and promoting gastroprokinesis; the pyloric sphincter and the duodenal bulb are relaxed, peristalsis of the duodenum and jejunum increase, and gastric emptying and intestinal transit accelerate. This agent may also increase the resting tone of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES), preventing acid reflux. In the central nervous system (CNS), metoclopramide antagonizes D2 dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptive trigger zone (CTZ) of the medulla, thereby preventing nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

metoprine  
A diaminopyrimidine folate antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Metoprine inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in decreased cellular folate metabolism and cell growth; it also inhibits histamine-N-methyltransferase, resulting in decreased histamine catabolism. Lipid-soluble metoprine is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

metoprolol  
A cardioselective competitive beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist with antihypertensive properties and devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Metoprolol antagonizes beta 1-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium, thereby reducing the rate and force of myocardial contraction leading to a reduction in cardiac output. This agent may also reduce the secretion of renin with subsequent reduction in levels of angiotensin II thereby preventing vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Metro I.V.  
(Other name for: metronidazole hydrochloride)

Metrocort  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

metronidazole hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a synthetic nitroimidazole derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities. Although its mechanism of action is not fully elucidated, un-ionized metronidazole is readily taken up by obligate anaerobic organisms and is subsequently reduced by low-redox potential electron-transport proteins to an active, intermediate product. Reduced metronidazole causes DNA strand breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis and bacterial cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Metvixia cream  
(Other name for: methyl-5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride cream)

Metypred  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

metyrosine  
A methylated tyrosine, a catecholamine synthesis antagonist with antihypertensive property. Metyrosine competitively inhibits tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, an enzyme that activates molecular oxygen to catalyze the hydroxylation of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), an intermediate to catecholamine (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) production. This agent reduces the elevated levels of catecholamines associated with pheochromocytoma, thereby preventing hypertension. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mevacor  
(Other name for: lovastatin)

Mexate  
(Other name for: methotrexate)

Mexate-AQ  
(Other name for: methotrexate)

MG 98  
A second-generation, mixed-backbone, phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) with potential antitumor activity. MG 98 is a highly specific inhibitor of translation of the mRNA for human DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), hybridizing to the 3' un-translated region of DNMT1 mRNA. The silencing of DNMT1 translation by MG 98 may result in the prevention or reversal of abnormal methylation of tumor suppressor genes and ultimately in tumor growth inhibition or tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Micafungin  
A semi-synthetic echinocandin derived from a natural product of the fungus Coleophama empedri with potent antifungal activity. Micafungin, like other cyclic lipopeptides, noncompetitively inhibits the fungal specific enzyme 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase, an enzyme essential for fungal cell wall synthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme weakens of the cell wall, thereby leading to osmotic lysis and eventually, fungal cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

micellar nanoparticle-encapsulated cisplatin NC-6004  
A nanoparticle-based prodrug formulation consisting of polymeric micelles incorporating the inorganic platinum agent cisplatin with potential antineoplastic activity. In micellar nanoparticle-encapsulated cisplatin NC-6004, cisplatin forms a polymer-metal complex with hydrophilic polyethylene glycol poly(glutamic acid) block copolymers by attaching to the micelle inner core consisting of the hydrophobic polymer polyamino acid. Upon cell entry and release from the polymer-metal complex, cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged platinum complexes that bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-linking, DNA-protein cross-linking and, subsequently, tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. Due to the hydrophilic nature of polyethylene glycol, this formulation increases the water-solubility of cisplatin and decreases the nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity associated with the administration of cisplatin alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

micronutrient-fortified probiotic yogurt  
An micronutrient-fortified fermented dairy product with potential positive immunomodulatory activity. Micronutrient-fortified probiotic yogurt contains various micronutrients in addition to beneficial microorganisms, such as strains of Lactobacillus. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains have been shown to protect against gastrointestinal and urogenital infections, to moderate diarrheal episodes, and to increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. In immunocompromised subjects, micronutrient supplementation may also increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

microtubule-targeted agent BAL101553  
An orally available, highly water-soluble lysine prodrug of the synthetic small molecule BAL27862 with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration of BAL101553 and conversion into the active form BAL27862, this agent binds to tubulin at a site distinct from the vinca-alkaloid-binding site, and prevents tubulin polymerization and destabilizes microtubules, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest, blockage of cell division and an induction of cell death in cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

midazolam hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a short-acting benzodiazepine derivative with an imidazole structure and anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and sedative properties. Midazolam binds to the benzodiazepine receptor at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride ionophore complex in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in increases in the opening of chloride channels, membrane hyperpolarization, and the inhibitory effect of GABA. This agent may also interfere with the reuptake of GABA, thereby causing accumulation of GABA in the synaptic cleft. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

midazolam-containing buccal liquid  
An oromucosal solution containing the maleate salt form of midazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine derivative, with anxiolytic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and sedative activities. Upon administration of the solution into the buccal cavity, midazolam exerts its effect by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride ionophore complex in the central nervous system (CNS). This leads to an increase in the permeability of chloride channels, membrane hyperpolarization and enhances the inhibitory effect of GABA in the CNS. Midazolam may also interfere with the reuptake of GABA, thereby causing accumulation of GABA in the synaptic cleft. The oromucosal formulation facilitates administration to patients that are unable to swallow. The ethanol in this formulation improves the buccal absorption of midazolam. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

midostaurin  
A synthetic indolocarbazole multikinase inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Midostaurin inhibits protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) tyrosine kinases, which may result in disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of proliferation, apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis in susceptible tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mifamurtide  
A liposomal formulation containing a muramyl dipeptide (MDP) analogue with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities.. Muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE), a derivative of the mycobacterial cell wall component MDP, activates both monocytes and macrophages. Activated macrophages secrete cytokines and induce the recruitment and activation of other immune cells, which may result in indirect tumoricidal effects. Liposomal encapsulation of MTP-PE prolongs its half-life and enhances tissue targeting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mifeprex  
(Other name for: mifepristone)

mifepristone  
A derivative of the synthetic progestin norethindrone with antiprogesterone activity. Mifepristone competitively binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in inhibition of the effects of endogenous or exogenous progesterone. This agent also exhibits antiglucocorticoid and weak antiandrogenic activities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

milatuzumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human CD74 with potential antineoplastic activity. Milatuzumab specifically binds to CD74 on CD74-positive cells. Although the exact mechanism through which this agent induces apoptosis is unknown, it may involve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). Alternatively, as CD74 is the cellular receptor for the cytokine migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), the cytotoxicity of this agent may be related to inhibition of CD74 activation by MIF. CD74, an integral membrane protein that functions as an MHC class II chaperone, may also be an accessory-signaling molecule; activation of CD74 may initiate cell survival mechanisms involving induction of a signaling cascade resulting in NFkB activation, entry of stimulated cells into the S phase of the cell cycle, elevation of DNA synthesis, cell division, and augmented expression of Bcl-xL. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

milatuzumab-doxorubicin antibody-drug conjugate  
An immunoconjugate consisting of milatuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD74, conjugated to the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. The milatuzumab moiety of this antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) selectively binds to CD74 on tumor cell surfaces; upon internalization, the doxorubicin moiety is released, where it intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix and inhibits topoisomerase II, thereby preventing DNA replication and increasing double-strand breakage. As a result, this agent may inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that overexpress CD74. CD74, an integral membrane protein and tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in certain cancer cells and promotes survival in rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Milestrol  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Milk of Magnesia  
(Other name for: magnesium hydroxide)

milk protein-based energy drink  
An oral milk protein-based nutritional supplement. Milk protein-based energy drink is a flavored liquid that consists of milk protein, rapeseed and sunflower oils, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace-elements, providing 1.5kcal and 10 mg of protein per ml. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

milk thistle  
A substance derived from any of several Old World coarse prickly-leaved shrubs and subshrubs including the plant Silybum marianum. Milk thistle's active chemical component is silymarin, which is a combination of flavonoids such as silibinin, dehydrosilibinin, silychristin and silydianin. These compounds are antioxidants and may alter the membrane structure of the liver cell, thereby blocking the absorption of toxins; they may also stimulate the production of new liver cells. In addition, milk thistle may increase cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, exhibiting dose-dependent cardiac myocyte cytoprotection against doxorubicin. The silibinin component of milk thistle has been shown to inhibit growth factor receptor-mediated mitogenic and cell survival signaling, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. (NCI04) Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

milodistim  
A recombinant fusion protein derived from the coding sequences of two growth factors, interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Milodistim exhibits greater receptor binding affinity and colony stimulating activity than its parent cytokines. This agent stimulates proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells and allows the stimulation and expansion of multi-lineage hematopoiesis from immature bone marrow progenitor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

miltefosine  
An orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (INF-gamma). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Minnelide  
(Other name for: triptolide analogue)

Minocin  
(Other name for: minocycline hydrochloride)

minocycline hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of minocycline, a broad spectrum long-acting derivative of the antibiotic tetracycline, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Minocycline binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and interferes with the binding of tRNA to the ribosomal complex, thereby inhibiting protein translation in bacteria. In addition, minocycline inhibits the inflammatory enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX) and may impede T cell-microglia interactions; both activities may contribute to minocycline's neuroprotective effects. 5LOX catalyzes the synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

minocycline-EDTA  
A combination preparation containing the broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic minocycline and the chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. Minocycline exhibits bacteriostatic activity by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and preventing binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex during protein translation; this results in an inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis and, consequently, an inhibition of bacterial cell growth. EDTA may cause the dispersal and killing of biofilms by chelating metal ions important to the stabilization of biofilm structure. The two agents in this combination may act synergistically to eradicate bacteria embedded in biofilms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mintezol  
(Other name for: thiabendazole)

Miraluma  
(Other name for: Tc 99m sestamibi)

Mircera  
(Other name for: methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin beta)

Mirena  
(Other name for: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system)

mirtazapine  
A synthetic tetracyclic derivative of the piperazino-azepines with antidepressant activity. Although its mechanism of action is unknown, mirtazapine enhances central adrenergic and serotonergic transmission, possibly by acting as an antagonist at central presynaptic alpha 2 adrenergic inhibitory autoreceptors and heteroreceptors. This agent is a potent antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2 (5-HT2), 5-HT3, and histamine 1 (H1) receptors, and a moderate anatgonist of peripheral alpha 1 adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

misonidazole  
A nitroimidazole with radiosensitizing and antineoplastic properties. Exhibiting high electron affinity, misonidazole induces the formation of free radicals and depletes radioprotective thiols, thereby sensitizing hypoxic cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. This single-strand breaks in DNA induced by this agent result in the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mistletoe extract  
An extract of the whole plant Viscum album (mistletoe) with potential biological response modifier (BRM) activity. Mistletoe extract may both stimulate the antitumoral functions of the immune system and have a direct toxic effect on tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mithracin  
(Other name for: plicamycin)

mitoguazone  
A guanylhydrazone with potential antineoplastic activity. Mitoguazone competitively inhibits S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMD), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of polyamines, resulting in decreased proliferation of tumor cells, antimitochondrial effects, and p53-independent apoptosis. Polyamines, specifically spermine and spermidine, are essential for thymidine kinase production, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mitolactol  
A synthetic derivative of hexitol with antineoplastic and radiosensitizing properties. Mitolactol alkylates DNA via actual or derived epoxide groups, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mitomycin C  
A methylazirinopyrroloindoledione antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells, mitomycin C also inhibits RNA and protein synthesis at high concentrations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mitosis-angiogenesis inhibitor R1530  
A pyrazolobenzodiazepine small molecule with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. Mitosis-angiogenesis inhibitor (MAI) R1530 inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases involved in angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, -2, -3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) beta‚ FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) -1, -2. In addition, this agents exhibits anti-proliferative activity by initiating mitotic arrest and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mitotane  
A synthetic derivative of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) with anti-adrenocorticoid properties. Following its metabolism in the adrenal cortex to a reactive acyl chloride intermediate, mitotane covalently binds to adrenal proteins, specifically inhibiting adrenal cortical hormone production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mitoxantrone hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of an anthracenedione antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Mitoxantrone intercalates into and crosslinks DNA, thereby disrupting DNA and RNA replication. This agent also binds to topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA repair. Mitoxantrone is less cardiotoxic compared to doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mitozytrex  
(Other name for: mitomycin C)

mivobulin isethionate  
The isethionate salt of mivobulin, a synthetic colchicine analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Mivobulin isethionate binds to tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule polymerization and mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

mixed bacteria vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing a mixture of killed bacteria with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Mixed bacteria vaccine (MBV or Coley’s toxins) consists of a pyrogenic bacterial lysate derived from Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus pyogenes; the active components in the lysate may be lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall of Serratia, and streptokinase, an enzyme produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. LPS has been shown to stimulate the host humoral immune response and induce the release of various antitumor cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MK0731  
A synthetic small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. MK0731 selectively inhibits kinesin spindle protein (KSP), which may result in the inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly, induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase, and apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress KSP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MKC-1  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, bisindolylmaleimide cell cycle inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. MKC-1 and its metabolites inhibit tubulin polymerization, blocking the formation of the mitotic spindle, which may result in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis. In addition, this agent has been shown to inhibit the activities of the oncogenic kinase Akt, the mTOR pathway, and importin-beta, a protein essential to the transport of other proteins from the cytosol into the nucleus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MLN2704  
An immunoconjugate that consists of a humanized monoclonal antibody (MLN591), directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen linked to a maytansinoid (DM1). The monoclonal antibody moiety of MLN2704 binds to tumor cells expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen; MLN274 is then internalized into the tumor cell where the DM1 maytansinoid moiety binds to tubulin and inhibits tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly, resulting in a disruption of microtubule activity and cell division, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

MnSOD-plasmid liposomes  
A plasmid DNA encoding human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and liposomally encapsulated with potential chemoprotective activity. When administered orally and localizing in the esophagus, MnSOD-plasmid liposomes express MnSOD, which scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS); MnSOD scavenging of ROS may result in a reduction in ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and micro-ulceration in the epithelial lining of the esophagus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Mobec  
(Other name for: meloxicam)

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